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Jyotiṣa (Sanskrit jyotiṣa (Devanagari ज्योतिष), from jyótis- "light, heavenly body": also anglicized Jyotish and Jyotisha) is the Hindu system of astrology (also known as Indian astrology, Hindu astrology, and of late, Vedic astrology). Traditionally, it has three branches:[1]

  • Siddhanta: traditional Indian astronomy.
  • Samhita: also known as Medini Jyotisha (mundane astrology), predicting important events based on analysis of astrological dynamics in a country's horoscope or general transit events such as war, earthquakes, political events, financial positions, electional astrology; house and construction related matters (Vāstu Shāstra), animals, portents, omens etc.
  • Hora: Predictive astrology based on analysis of natal horoscopes and the moment a query is made.

The latter two are part of predictive astrology (Phalita). Conceptually, therefore, Indian astrology has two branches, Ganita (Siddhanta) and Phalita (Samhita plus Hora).

The foundation of Jyotisha is the notion of bandhu of the Vedas or scriptures, which is the connection between the microcosm and the macrocosm. The practice of Jyotisha primarily relies on the sidereal zodiac, which is different from the tropical zodiac used in Western astrology in that an ayanamsa adjustment is made for the gradual precession of the vernal equinox. Jyotisha includes several nuanced sub-systems of interpretation and prediction with elements not found in Hellenistic astrology, such as its system of lunar mansions (nakshatras).

Astrology remains an important facet in the lives of many Hindus. In Hindu culture, newborns are traditionally named based on their jyotish charts, and jyotish concepts are pervasive in the organization of the calendar and holidays as well as in many areas of life, such as in making decisions made about marriage, opening a new business, and moving into a new home. To some extent, astrology even retains a position among the sciences of modern India.[2] Following a controversial judgement of the Andhra Pradesh High Court in 2001, some Indian universities even offer advanced degrees in astrology.[3]

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Contents

History

The term jyotiṣa in the sense of one of the Vedanga, the six auxiliary disciplines of Vedic religion, is used in the Mundaka Upanishad and thus likely dates to Mauryan times. The Vedanga Jyotisha redacted by Lagadha dates to the Mauryan period, with rules for tracking the motions of the Sun and the Moon.

The documented history of Jyotisha begins with the interaction of Indian and Hellenistic cultures in the Indo-Greek period. The oldest surviving treatises, such as the Yavanajataka or the Brihat-Samhita, date to the early centuries CE. The oldest astrological treatise in Sanskrit is the Yavanajataka ("Sayings of the Greeks"), a versification by Sphujidhvaja in 269/270 CE of a now lost translation of a Greek treatise by Yavanesvara during the 2nd century CE under the patronage of the Western Satrap Saka king Rudradaman I.[4]

The first named authors writing treatises on astronomy are from the 5th century CE, the date when the classical period of Indian astronomy can be said to begin. Besides the theories of Aryabhata in the Aryabhatiya and the lost Arya-siddhānta, there is the Pancha-Siddhāntika of Varahamihira.

The main texts upon which classical Indian astrology is based are early medieval compilations, notably the Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra, and Sārāvalī by Kalyāṇavarman. The Horashastra is a composite work of 71 chapters, of which the first part (chapters 1-51) dates to the 7th to early 8th centuries and the second part (chapters 52-71) to the later 8th century. The Sārāvalī likewise dates to around 800 CE.[5] English translations of these texts were published by N.N. Krishna Rau and V.B. Choudhari in 1963 and 1961, respectively.

Historically, the study of astrology in India was an important factor in the development of astronomy in the Early Middle Ages.

Elements

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Vargas - the divisional charts

Varga (Sanskrit: varga, 'part, division'.) There are sixteen varga, or divisional, charts used in Jyotisha:[6]

Varga Divisor Chart Purpose
Rasi 1 D-1 natal chart
Hora 2 D-2 natal chart second house issues
Drekkana 3 D-3 Siblings
Chaturtamsha 4 D-4 Properties
Trimshamsha 5 D-5 Morals, ethics, spiritual values
Saptamsha 7 D-7 Children
Navamsha 9 D-9 Spouse, etc.
Dashamsha 10 D-10 Earning Career
Dwadashamsha 12 D-12 Parents, Grandparents
Shodhashamsha 16 D-16 Vehicles
Vimshamsha 20 D-20 Upasana-s, Sadhana-s
Chaturvimsha 24 D-24 Education (higher)
Saptavimshamsha 27 D-27 Vitality
Khavedamsha 40 D-40 quality of life
Akshavedamsha 45 D-45 effects of planetary placements
Shastiamsha 60 D-60 used to differentiate between twins, etc, etc.

Chart styles

There are two chart styles used in Jyotisha:

North Indian
South Indian

Grahas – the planets

Graha (Devanagari: ग्रह, Sanskrit: gráha, 'seizing, laying hold of, holding'.)[7]

Nine grahas, or navagrahas, are used in Jyotisha:[8]

Sanskrit Name English Name Abbreviation Gender Guna
Surya (सूर्य) Sun Sy or Su M Sattva
Chandra (चंद्र) Moon Ch or Mo F Sattva
Mangala (मंगल) Mars Ma M Tamas
Budha (बुध) Mercury Bu or Me N Rajas
Brihaspati (बृहस्पति) Jupiter Gu or Ju M Sattva
Shukra (शुक्र) Venus Sk or Ve F Rajas
Shani (शनि) Saturn Sa M Tamas
Rahu (राहु) North Lunar Node Ra M Tamas
Ketu (केतु) South Lunar Node Ke M Tamas

Planets in maximum exaltation, mooltrikona (own sign), and debilitation, are:[9]

Graha Exaltation Mooltrikona Debilitation Sign Rulership
Sun 10° Aries 4°-20° Leo 10° Libra Leo
Moon 3° Taurus 4°-20° Taurus 3° Scorpio Cancer
Mars 28° Capricorn 0°-12° Aries 28° Cancer Aries, Scorpio
Mercury 15° Virgo 16°-20° Virgo 15° Pisces Gemini, Virgo
Jupiter 5° Cancer 0°-10° Sagittarius 5° Capricorn Sagittarius, Pisces
Venus 27° Pisces 0°-15° Libra 27° Virgo Taurus, Libra
Saturn 20° Libra 0°-20° Aquarius 20° Aries Capricorn, Aquarius

Rahu and Ketu are exalted in Taurus/Scorpio and debilitated in Scorpio/Taurus respectively. They are also exalted in Gemini and Virgo.

The natural planetary relationships are:[10]

Graha Friends Neutral Enemies
Sun Moon, Mars, Jupiter Mercury Venus, Saturn
Moon Sun, Mercury Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn Mercury, Venus, Saturn
Mars Sun, Moon, Jupiter Venus, Saturn Mercury
Mercury Sun, Venus Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Moon
Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars Saturn Mercury, Venus
Venus Mercury, Saturn Mars, Jupiter Sun, Moon
Saturn Venus, Mercury Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars
Rahu, Ketu Mercury, Venus, Saturn Mars Sun, Moon, Jupiter

Rāshis – the zodiac signs

Rāshi (Sanskrit: rāshi, 'part'.) In Jyotisha, the zodiac is called kalpurusha, the eternal time that has no beginning or end. In the Vedas, the ecliptic is referred to as the Sudarshan Chakra, the wheel in the hand of Lord Vishnu, the creator of the universe. The entire chakra is 360°, and is divided into 12 rāshis of 30° each, representing 12 constellations that are the zodiac signs. The progression through the zodiac signs represents the cosmic evolution of the soul. Jyotisha uses the sidereal zodiac.[11]

Number Sanskrit Name Western/Greek Name Tattva (Element) Quality Ruling Planet
1 Meṣa "ram" Aries (Κριός "ram") Tejas (Fire) Cara (Movable) Mars
2 Vṛṣabha "bull" Taurus (Ταῦρος "bull") Prithivi (Earth) Sthira (Fixed) Venus
3 Mithuna "twins" Gemini (Δίδυμοι "twins") Vayu (Air) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Mercury
4 Karka "crab" Cancer (Καρκίνος "crab") Jala (Water) Cara (Movable) Moon
5 Siṃha "lion" Leo (Λέων "lion") Tejas (Fire) Sthira (Fixed) Sun
6 Kanyā "girl" Virgo (Παρθένος "virgin") Prithivi (Earth) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Mercury
7 Tula "balance" Libra (Ζυγός "balance") Vayu (Air) Cara (Movable) Venus
8 Vṛścika "scorpion" Scorpio (Σκoρπιός "scorpion") Jala (Water) Sthira (Fixed) Mars
9 Dhanus "bow" Sagittarius (Τοξότης "archer") Tejas (Fire) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Jupiter
10 Makara "sea-monster" Capricorn (Αἰγόκερως "goat-horned") Prithivi (Earth) Cara (Movable) Saturn
11 Kumbha "pitcher" Aquarius (Ὑδροχόος "water-pourer") Vayu (Air) Sthira (Fixed) Saturn
12 Mīna "fish" Pisces (Ἰχθεῖς "fish") Jala (Water) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Jupiter

The zodiac signs in Jyotisha correspond to parts of the body:[12]

Sign Part of Body
Mesha (Aries) head
Vrisha (Taurus) mouth
Mithuna (Gemini) arms
Karka (Cancer) two sides
Simha (Leo) heart
Kanya (Virgo) digestive system
Tula (Libra) umbilical area
Vrikchika (Scorpio) generative organs
Dhanu (Sagittarius) thighs
Makara (Capricorn) knees
Kumbha (Aquarius) Lower part of legs
Meena (Pisces) feet

Bhāvas – the houses

Bhāva (Sanskrit: bhāva, 'division'.) In Jyotisha, the natal chart is the bhava chakra (Sanskrit: chakra, 'wheel'.) The bhava chakra is the complete 360° circle of life, divided into houses, and represents our way of enacting the influences in the wheel. Each house has associated karaka (Sanskrit: karaka, 'significator') planets that can alter the interpretation of a particular house.[13]

House Name Karakas Meanings
1 Lagna Sun destiny, physique, skeleton, hair, appearance, head, brains
2 Dhana Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Moon wealth, family relationships, speech, eyesight, death
3 Sahaja Mars mind, communication, environment, siblings, short journeys
4 Sukha Moon inner life, emotions, home, past life karma, mother
5 Putra Jupiter, Mercury creativity, children, spiritual practices
6 Ari Mars, Saturn illness, injury, enemies, litigation, daily work, foreigners, service
7 Yuvati Venus, Jupiter business and personal relationships, marriage, spouse
8 Randhara Saturn length of life, physical death, serious illness, spiritual quest
9 Dharma Jupiter, Sun luck, fortune, spirituality, dharma, guru, father, soul
10 Karma Mercury, Jupiter, Sun, Saturn dream fulfillment, current karmas, career, past lives
11 Labha Jupiter gains, profits from work, ability to earn money
12 Vyaya Saturn, Ketu, Rahu loss, intuition, sorrow, imprisonment, foreign travel, moksha

Nakshatras – the lunar mansions

Nakshatra (Devanagari: नक्षत्र, Sanskrit: nakshatra, 'star', from naksha, 'approach', and tra, 'guard') or lunar mansion is one of the 27 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, used in Jyotisha.[14]

The 27 nakshatras cover 13°20’ of the ecliptic each. Each nakshatra is divided into quarters or padas of 3°20’:

# Name Location Ruler Pada 1 Pada 2 Pada 3 Pada 4
1 Ashvinī (अश्विनि) 0 - 13°20' Aries Ketu चु Chu चे Che चो Cho ला La
2 Bharanī (भरणी) 13°20' - 26°40' Aries Venus ली Li लू Lu ले Le पो Lo
3 Krittikā (कृत्तिका) 26°40' Aries - 10°00' Taurus Sun अ A ई I उ U ए E
4 Rohini (रोहिणी) 10°00' - 23°20' Taurus Moon ओ O वा Va/Ba वी Vi/Bi वु Vu/Bu
5 Mrigashīrsha (म्रृगशीर्षा) 23°20' Taurus - 6°40' Gemini Mars वे Ve/Be वो Vo/Bo का Ka की Ke
6 Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) 6°40' - 20°00' Gemini Rahu कु Ku घ Gha ङ Ng/Na छ Chha
7 Punarvasu (पुनर्वसु) 20°00' Gemini - 3°20' Cancer Jupiter के Ke को Ko हा Ha ही Hi
8 Pushya (पुष्य) 3°20' - 16°20' Cancer Saturn हु Hu हे He हो Ho ड Da
9 Āshleshā (आश्लेषा) 16°40' Cancer - 0°00' Leo Mercury डी Di डू Du डे De डो Do
10 Maghā (मघा) 0°00' - 13°20' Leo Ketu मा Ma मी Mi मू Mu मे Me
11 Pūrva or Pūrva Phalgunī (पूर्व फाल्गुनी) 13°20' - 26°40' Leo Venus नो Mo टा Ta टी Ti टू Tu
12 Uttara or Uttara Phalgunī (उत्तर फाल्गुनी) 26°40' Leo - 10°00' Virgo Sun टे Te टो To पा Pa पी Pi
13 Hasta (हस्त) 10°00' - 23°20' Virgo Moon पू Pu ष Sha ण Na ठ Tha
14 Chitrā (चित्रा) 23°20' Virgo - 6°40' Libra Mars पे Pe पो Po रा Ra री Ri
15 Svātī (स्वाति) 6°40' - 20°00 Libra Rahu रू Ru रे Re रो Ro ता Ta
16 Vishākhā (विशाखा) 20°00' Libra - 3°20' Scorpio Jupiter ती Ti तू Tu ते Te तो To
17 Anurādhā (अनुराधा) 3°20' - 16°40' Scorpio Saturn ना Na नी Ni नू Nu ने Ne
18 Jyeshtha (ज्येष्ठा) 16°40' Scorpio - 0°00' Sagittarius Mercury नो No या Ya यी Yi यू Yu
19 Mūla (मूल) 0°00' - 13°20' Sagittarius Ketu ये Ye यो Yo भा Bha भी Bhi
20 Pūrva Ashādhā (पूर्वाषाढ़ा) 13°20' - 26°40' Sagittarius Venus भू Bhu धा Dha फा Bha/Pha ढा Dha
21 Uttara Ashādhā (उत्तराषाढ़ा) 26°40' Sagittarius - 10°00' Capricorn Sun भे Bhe भो Bho जा Ja जी Ji
22 Shravana (श्रवण) 10°00' - 23°20' Capricorn Moon खी Ju/Khi खू Je/Khu खे Jo/Khe खो Gha/Kho
23 Shravishthā (श्रविष्ठा) or Dhanistā 23°20' Capricorn - 6°40' Aquarius Mars गा Ga गी Gi गु Gu गे Ge
24 Shatabhishā (शतभिषा)or Shatataraka 6°40' - 20°00' Aquarius Rahu गो Go सा Sa सी Si सू Su
25 Pūrva Bhādrapadā (पूर्वभाद्रपदा) 20°00' Aquarius - 3°20' Pisces Jupiter से Se सो So दा Da दी Di
26 Uttara Bhādrapadā (उत्तरभाद्रपदा) 3°20' - 16°40' Pisces Saturn दू Du थ Tha झ Jha ञ Da/Tra
27 Revatī (रेवती) 16°40' - 30°00' Pisces Mercury दे De दो Do च Cha ची Chi

Dashas - the planetary periods

Dasha (Devanagari: दशा, Sanskrit,daśā, 'planetary period'.) The dasha system shows which planets will be ruling at particular times in Jyotisha. There are several dasha systems; however, the primary system used by astrologers is the Vimshottari dasha system. The first maha dasha is determined by the position of the natal Moon. Each maha dasha is divided into subperiods called bhuktis. Vimshottari dasha lengths are:[15]

Maha Dasha Length Bhuktis
Ketu 7 Years Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury
Venus 20 Years Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu
Sun 6 Years Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus
Moon 10 Years Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun
Mars 7 Years Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon
Rahu 18 Years Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars
Jupiter 16 Years Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu
Saturn 19 Years Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter
Mercury 17 Years Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn

Drishtis - the planetary aspects

Drishti (Sanskrit: drishti, 'sight'.) In Jyotisha, the aspect is to an entire sign, and grahas only cast forward aspects:[16]

Graha Houses
Sun 7th
Moon 7th
Mercury 7th
Venus 7th
Mars 4th, 7th, 8th
Jupiter 5th, 7th, 9th
Saturn 3rd, 7th, 10th
Rahu and Ketu 5th, 7th, 9th

Gocharas - the transits

Gochara (Sanskrit: gochara, 'transit'.) In Jyotisha, a natal chart shows the actual positions of the grahas at the moment of birth. Since that moment, the grahas have continued to move around the zodiac, interacting with the natal chart grahas. This period of interaction is called gochara.[17]

Yogas - the planetary combinations

Yoga (Sanskrit: yoga, 'union'.) In Jyotisha, yogas are planetary combinations placed in specific relationships to each other.[18]

Dik bala - the directional strength

Dik bala (Sanskrit: dik bala, 'directional strength'.) Grahas gain strength when they are placed in specific cardinal houses:[19]

House Grahas Direction
1st Jupiter, Mercury East
4th Venus, Moon North
7th Saturn West
10th Sun, Mars South

Horoscopy

Lagna – the ascendant

Lagna (Sanskrit: lagna, 'ascendant'.) Lagna is the first moment of contact between the soul and its new life on earth in Jyotisha.[20]

Atmakaraka - the soul significator

Atmakaraka (Sanskrit: atmakaraka, from atma, 'soul', and karaka, 'significator' .) Atmakaraka is the significator of the soul's desire in Jyotisha.[21]

Gandanta - the karmic knot

Gandanta (Sanskrit: gandanta, from gand, 'knot', and anta, 'end'.) Gandanta is a spiritual or karmic knot in Jyotisha. Gandanta describes the junction points in the natal chart where the solar and lunar zodiacs meet, and are directly associated with times of soul growth.[22]

Ayanamsa - the zodiac conversion

Ayanamsa (Sanskrit: ayanāṃsa , from ayana, 'movement', and aṃsa, 'component') is the longitudinal difference between the Tropical (Sayana) and Sidereal (Nirayana) zodiacs.[23]

Moudhya - the combustion

Moudhya (Sanskrit: moudhya, 'combustion') is a planet that is in conjunction with the Sun. The degrees the planets are considered combust are:[24]

Graha Degree
Moon 12
Mercury 13
Venus 9
Mars 17
Jupiter 11
Saturn 15

Sade sati - the critical transit

Sadi sati, the transit of Saturn over the natal Moon, is the most important transit in a birth chart and takes approximately 7.5 years to complete. The transit begins when Saturn enters the house before the Moon, and ends when Saturn departs the house after the Moon. The most intense phase is when Saturn is 2-3° on either side of the Moon. The beginning of the transit will give an indication of the issues to be addressed. Sade sati results in a complete transformation, usually with a change in career or life direction.[25]

Panchangam

Panchangam (Sanskrit: pañcāṅgam, from panch, 'five' and anga, 'limbs'.) The panchangam is a Hindu astrological almanac that follows traditional Indian cosmology, and presents important astronomical data in tabulated form. Panchangam means five limbs, or five lights that influence every day.[26]

In modern India

David Pingree notes that astrology and traditional medicine are the two traditional sciences that have survived best in modern India, although both have been much transformed by their western counterparts.[27]

There are a great number of contemporary publications, reflecting the persisting importance of astrology in Hindu culture, and the corresponding economical attractivity of the market in India. Notable modern authors include Sri Yukteswar Giri (1855-1936), Bangalore Venkata Raman (1912-1998), Bejan Daruwalla (b. 1931), V. K. Choudhry (b. 1951), Sanjay Rath (b. 1963) & Prash Trivedi (b. 1975).

Innovations

New approaches developed by Hindu astrologers in the modern epoch include the following:

  • New Techniques of Predictions by the late Mr. H.R.S. Iyer. In the 1960s, H.R. Seshadri Iyer, introduced a system including the yoga point, which became popular in the West.
  • Systems' Approach for Interpreting Horoscopes by Mr. V.K. Choudhry. In the early 1990s, Indian Vedic Astrologer and Author, V.K. Choudhry introduced the Systems' Approach for Interpreting Horoscopes a simplified system of Jyotish (predictive astrology). The system, also known as "SA", helps those who are trying to learn Jyotisha.
  • Krishnamurti Paddhati by the late Mr. K. S. Krishnamurti. The system developed by Shri Krishnamurti is mainly based on the analysis of the stars (nakshatras), by sub-dividing the stars in the ratio of the dasha of the concerned planets. The system is also known as "KP" and "sub theory".

Controversy

In the early 2000s, under the Bharatiya Janata Party led government, astrology became a topic of political contention between the religious right and academic establishment, comparable to the "Creation science" debate in US education. The University Grants Commission and the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government decided to introduce "Jyotir Vigyan" (i.e. jyotir vijñāna) or "Vedic astrology" as a discipline of study in Indian universities, backed up by a decision by the Andhra Pradesh High Court, despite widespread protests from the scientific community in India and Indian scientists working abroad.[28] In September of the same year, the Supreme Court of India issued a notice to the Ministry of Human Resource Development in reaction to a petition, stating that the introduction of astrology to university curricula is "a giant leap backwards, undermining whatever scientific credibility the country has achieved so far".[29] In 2004, the Supreme Court dismissed a further petition, judging that the teaching of astrology does not qualify as promotion of religion.[30]

A number of Indian universities currently offer advanced degrees in Jyotisha, including Benaras Hindu University.[31]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ What is Jyotisha Astrology
  2. ^ "In countries such as India, where only a small intellectual elite has been trained in Western physics, astrology manages to retain here and there its position among the sciences." David Pingree and Robert Gilbert, "Astrology; Astrology In India; Astrology in modern times" Encyclopedia Britannica 2008
  3. ^ Mohan Rao, Female foeticide: where do we go? Indian Journal of Medical Ethics Oct-Dec2001-9(4) [1]; T. Jayaraman, A judicial blow, Frontline Volume 18 - Issue 12, Jun. 09 - 22, 2001[2]
  4. ^ Mc Evilley "The shape of ancient thought", p385 ("The Yavanajataka is the earliest surviving Sanskrit text in horoscopy, and constitute the basis of all later Indian developments in horoscopy", himself quoting David Pingree "The Yavanajataka of Sphujidhvaja" p5)
  5. ^ David Pingree, Jyotiḥśāstra (J. Gonda (Ed.) A History of Indian Literature, Vol VI Fasc 4), p.81
  6. ^ Sutton pp.61-64.
  7. ^ Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Monier-Williams, (c) 1899
  8. ^ Sutton pp.38-51.
  9. ^ Sutton p.21.
  10. ^ Sutton p.21.
  11. ^ Sutton p.74.
  12. ^ Charak, Dr. K.S. (1996). Essentials of Medical Astrology, Uma Publications, pp.5-6.
  13. ^ Sutton pp.93-167.
  14. ^ Sutton p.168.
  15. ^ Sutton p.211.
  16. ^ Sutton pp.26-27.
  17. ^ Sutton p.227.
  18. ^ Sutton p.265.
  19. ^ Sutton pp.25-26.
  20. ^ Sutton p.96.
  21. ^ Sutton p.326.
  22. ^ Sutton pp.61-64.
  23. ^ Sutton p.11.
  24. ^ Sutton p.33.
  25. ^ Sutton p.231-232.
  26. ^ Sutton, Komilla (2007). Personal Panchanga and the Five Sources of Light, The Wessex Astrologer Ltd, England, p.1.
  27. ^ David Pingree, review of G. Prakash, Science and the Imagination of Modern India, Journal of the American Oriental Society (2002), p. 154 f.
  28. ^ T. Jayaraman, A judicial blow, Frontline Volume 18 - Issue 12, Jun. 09 - 22, 2001[3]
  29. ^ Supreme Court questions 'Jyotir Vigyan', Times of India, 3 September 2001 [4]
  30. ^ Supreme Court: Teaching of astrology no promotion of religion; Introduction of Vedic astrology courses in universities upheld
  31. ^ Department of Jyotish, Faculty of Sanskrit Vidya Dharma Vijnan Sankaya.[5]

References

  • Sutton, Komilla (1999). The Essentials of Vedic Astrology, The Wessex Astrologer Ltd, England

Bibliography

Encyclopedic treatments
Academic literature
  • David Pingree, "Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran", Isis - Journal of The History of Science Society (1963), 229-246.
  • David Pingree, Jyotiḥśāstra in J. Gonda (ed.) A History of Indian Literature, Vol VI, Fasc 4, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden (1981).
  • Ebenezer Burgess, "On the Origin of the Lunar Division of the Zodiac represented in the Nakshatra System of the Hindus", Journal of the American Oriental Society (1866).
  • William D. Whitney, "On the Views of Biot and Weber Respecting the Relations of the Hindu and Chinese Systems of Asterisms"", Journal of the American Oriental Society (1866).
  • Satish Chandra, "Religion and State in India and Search for Rationality", Social Scientist (2002).

External links


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