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Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 4
Symbols KIR2DL4; 103AS; 15.212; CD158D; KIR103; KIR103AS
External IDs OMIM604945 GeneCards: KIR2DL4 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE KIR2DL4 208426 x at tn.png
PBB GE KIR2DL4 211242 x at tn.png
PBB GE KIR2DL4 211245 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3805 n/a
Ensembl ENSG00000189013 n/a
UniProt Q99706 n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001080770 n/a
RefSeq (protein) NP_001074239 n/a
Location (UCSC) Chr 19:
60.01 - 60.02 Mb
PubMed search [1] n/a

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIR2DL4 gene.[1][2]

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells. The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several "framework" genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they have a long (L) or short (S) cytoplasmic domain. KIR proteins with the long cytoplasmic domain transduce inhibitory signals upon ligand binding via an immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), while KIR proteins with the short cytoplasmic domain lack the ITIM motif and instead associate with the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein to transduce activating signals. The ligands for several KIR proteins are subsets of HLA class I molecules; thus, KIR proteins are thought to play an important role in regulation of the immune response. This gene is one of the "framework" loci that is present on all haplotypes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[2]

See also


  1. ^ Selvakumar A, Steffens U, Dupont B (May 1997). "NK cell receptor gene of the KIR family with two IG domains but highest homology to KIR receptors with three IG domains". Tissue Antigens 48 (4 Pt 1): 285-94. PMID 8946682.  
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: KIR2DL4 killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 4".  

Further reading

  • Selvakumar A, Steffens U, Dupont B (1997). "Polymorphism and domain variability of human killer cell inhibitory receptors.". Immunol. Rev. 155: 183–96. doi:10.1111/j.1600-065X.1997.tb00951.x. PMID 9059894.  
  • Selvakumar A, Steffens U, Palanisamy N, et al. (1997). "Genomic organization and allelic polymorphism of the human killer cell inhibitory receptor gene KIR103.". Tissue Antigens 49 (6): 564–73. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02803.x. PMID 9234477.  
  • Valiante NM, Uhrberg M, Shilling HG, et al. (1998). "Functionally and structurally distinct NK cell receptor repertoires in the peripheral blood of two human donors.". Immunity 7 (6): 739–51. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80393-3. PMID 9430220.  
  • Uhrberg M, Valiante NM, Shum BP, et al. (1998). "Human diversity in killer cell inhibitory receptor genes.". Immunity 7 (6): 753–63. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80394-5. PMID 9430221.  
  • Rajagopalan S, Long EO (1999). "A human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G-specific receptor expressed on all natural killer cells.". J. Exp. Med. 189 (7): 1093–100. doi:10.1084/jem.189.7.1093. PMID 10190900.  
  • Rajalingam R, Gardiner CM, Canavez F, et al. (2001). "Identification of seventeen novel KIR variants: fourteen of them from two non-Caucasian donors.". Tissue Antigens 57 (1): 22–31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057001022.x. PMID 11169255.  
  • Rajagopalan S, Fu J, Long EO (2001). "Cutting edge: induction of IFN-gamma production but not cytotoxicity by the killer cell Ig-like receptor KIR2DL4 (CD158d) in resting NK cells.". J. Immunol. 167 (4): 1877–81. PMID 11489965.  
  • Witt CS, Whiteway JM, Warren HS, et al. (2002). "Alleles of the KIR2DL4 receptor and their lack of association with pre-eclampsia.". Eur. J. Immunol. 32 (1): 18–29. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200201)32:1<18::AID-IMMU18>3.0.CO;2-7. PMID 11754000.  
  • Yusa S, Catina TL, Campbell KS (2002). "SHP-1- and phosphotyrosine-independent inhibitory signaling by a killer cell Ig-like receptor cytoplasmic domain in human NK cells.". J. Immunol. 168 (10): 5047–57. PMID 11994457.  
  • Faure M, Long EO (2002). "KIR2DL4 (CD158d), an NK cell-activating receptor with inhibitory potential.". J. Immunol. 168 (12): 6208–14. PMID 12055234.  
  • Santourlidis S, Trompeter HI, Weinhold S, et al. (2002). "Crucial role of DNA methylation in determination of clonally distributed killer cell Ig-like receptor expression patterns in NK cells.". J. Immunol. 169 (8): 4253–61. PMID 12370356.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Chan HW, Kurago ZB, Stewart CA, et al. (2003). "DNA methylation maintains allele-specific KIR gene expression in human natural killer cells.". J. Exp. Med. 197 (2): 245–55. doi:10.1084/jem.20021127. PMID 12538663.  
  • Becker S, Tonn T, Füssel T, et al. (2003). "Assessment of killer cell immunoglobulinlike receptor expression and corresponding HLA class I phenotypes demonstrates heterogenous KIR expression independent of anticipated HLA class I ligands.". Hum. Immunol. 64 (2): 183–93. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(02)00802-9. PMID 12559621.  
  • Gómez-Lozano N, de Pablo R, Puente S, Vilches C (2003). "Recognition of HLA-G by the NK cell receptor KIR2DL4 is not essential for human reproduction.". Eur. J. Immunol. 33 (3): 639–44. doi:10.1002/eji.200323741. PMID 12616484.  
  • Stewart CA, Van Bergen J, Trowsdale J (2003). "Different and divergent regulation of the KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL1 promoters.". J. Immunol. 170 (12): 6073–81. PMID 12794136.  
  • Williams F, Maxwell LD, Halfpenny IA, et al. (2004). "Multiple copies of KIR 3DL/S1 and KIR 2DL4 genes identified in a number of individuals.". Hum. Immunol. 64 (7): 729–32. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(03)00089-2. PMID 12826375.  
  • Goodridge JP, Witt CS, Christiansen FT, Warren HS (2003). "KIR2DL4 (CD158d) genotype influences expression and function in NK cells.". J. Immunol. 171 (4): 1768–74. PMID 12902476.  

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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