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KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij
IATA
KL
ICAO
KLM
Callsign
KLM
Founded 7 October 1919
Commenced operations 17 May 1920
Hubs Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Frequent flyer program Flying Blue
Member lounge
  • KLM Crown Lounge
  • SkyTeam Lounge
Alliance SkyTeam
Subsidiaries
Fleet size 112 (+19 orders) incl. cargo
excl. subsidiaries
Destinations 125 incl.subsidiaries
Company slogan "Een reis vol inspiratie" (A journey full of inspiration)
Parent company Air France-KLM
Headquarters Amstelveen, Netherlands[1]
Key people Albert Plesman (founder)
P. F. Hartman (CEO)
F. Gagey (CFO)
Website www.klm.com

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (Dutch: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, literally Royal Aviation Company; usual English translation: Royal Dutch Airlines) is the national airline of the Netherlands and is part of Air France-KLM. KLM's headquarters are in Amstelveen near its hub at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol[2].

KLM operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to more than 90 destinations. It is the oldest airline in the world still operating under its original name. It has 33,000 employees (as of March 2007)[3].

The merger of KLM with Air France in May 2004 created Air France-KLM, which is incorporated under French law with headquarters at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. Both Air France and KLM continue to fly under their distinct brand names.

Air France-KLM is part of the SkyTeam alliance with Delta Air Lines, Aeroméxico, Korean Air, Czech Airlines, Alitalia, Aeroflot and China Southern Airlines.

Contents

History

A 1919 advertisement

KLM was founded on 7 October 1919, making it the oldest carrier in the world still operating under its original name, though the company stopped operating during the Second World War - apart from the operations in the Dutch Antilles in the Caribbean. The first KLM flight was on 17 May 1920, from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers. It was flown by an Aircraft Transport and Travel Airco DH.16, callsign G-EALU, piloted by Jerry Shaw. In 1920 KLM carried 440 passengers and 22 tons of freight. In 1921 KLM started scheduled services. By 1926 it was offering flights to Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Brussels, Paris, London, Bremen, Copenhagen Malmö; using primarily Fokker F2 & Fokker F.III.[4] KLM was also the first airline to fly to Manchester Airport, using a DC-2 via Doncaster.

KLM Convair

Intercontinental service to the Netherlands East Indies (today's Republic of Indonesia) started in 1929. This was for several years the world's longest scheduled route. The service used Fokker F.VIIb, although the first non-scheduled KLM flight had been in 1924 by Fokker F7 registration H-NACC piloted by Van der Hoop. In 1930 KLM carried 15,143 passengers. The first transatlantic KLM route was between Amsterdam and Curaçao in December 1934 using the Fokker F-XVIII "Snip." In the 1940s the KLM was the only civilian airline operating the Douglas DC-5.

On 21 May 1946, KLM was the first continental European airline to launch scheduled service to New York. In 1950 KLM carried 356,069 passengers. On 25 July 1957, the airline introduced its first flight simulator for the Douglas DC-7C - the last KLM aircraft with piston engines - which opened the first trans-polar route from Amsterdam via Anchorage to Tokyo on 1 November 1958. Each crew flying the transpolar route over the Arctic was equipped with a winter survival kit, including a 7.62 mm selective-fire AR-10 carbine for use against polar bears in the event the plane was forced down onto the polar ice.[5]

The "Worldwide Reliability" logo with Northwest Airlines, 1993-2002

In March 1960, KLM introduced the first Douglas DC-8 jet into its fleet. In 1966, KLM introduced the Douglas DC-9 on European and Middle East routes. The new terminal buildings at Schiphol Airport opened in April 1967 and in 1968, the Douglas DC-8-63 entered service. With 244 seats it was the largest airliner of the time. KLM was the first airline to put the higher gross-weight Boeing 747-200B into service in February 1971 with Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines, beginning the era of widebody jets.

In 1980, KLM carried 9,715,069 passengers. In 1983, it reached agreement with Boeing to convert some of its Boeing 747-200s to stretched upper deck configuration. The work started in 1984 at the Boeing factory in Everett, Washington and finished in 1986. The converted aircraft were called Boeing 747-200SUD, which the airline operated in addition to Boeing 747-300s. In June 1989, KLM introduced the Boeing 747-400. Later that year, in July, KLM acquired 20 per cent of Northwest Airlines, starting an alliance between the two airlines. In 1990, KLM carried 16,000,000 passengers. In March 1994, KLM and Northwest Airlines introduced World Business Class on intercontinental routes, and, in July 1995, KLM introduced its Boeing 767-300ER.

A Boeing 777-200ER at Singapore (2007)

In March and June 2002, KLM announced it would renew its intercontinental fleets by replacing the Boeing 767s, Boeing 747-400s and eventually the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 with Boeing 777-200ERs and Airbus A330-200s. Some 747s will be first to retire. The MD-11s will remain in service until 2014/2015. The first Boeing 777 was received on 25 October 2003, entering commercial service on the Amsterdam-Toronto route, while the first Airbus A330-200 was introduced on 25 August 2005 and entered commercial service on the Amsterdam-Washington Dulles route.

In March 2007 KLM started using the Amadeus reservation system, along with partner Kenya Airways.

Corporate organisation

PH-BXA, a Boeing 737-800 aircraft painted in a retro livery

KLM is listed on the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, New York and Paris.

Subsidiaries:

Former subsidiaries:

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Merger

Air France-KLM

On 30 September 2003, Air France and KLM announced that they would in future be known as Air France-KLM. This entity was offered on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange on 5 May 2004. The takeover by Air France marked the end of the oldest independent airline in the world. The Royal adjective will remain. Its independent identity is guaranteed to 2008, but its operations may be merged with those of the French company. In the meantime, it does not appear that KLM's longstanding joint venture with Northwest Airlines, now Delta Air Lines, will be affected. Both KLM and Northwest joined the SkyTeam alliance in September 2004.

Presidents - CEOs

KLM Delft Blue houses

Selection of KLM Delft Blue Houses.

Since 1952, KLM has presented its long-haul first-class passengers with small Delftware, blue-and-white porcelain reproductions of old Dutch canal houses.[6] In 1993, amidst the change-over from three to two cabins on its long-haul service, these canal houses (in Dutch, "huisjes") were made available to its "WorldBusiness Class" passengers.

Initially, these houses, ranging in size from 5 to 11 cm. (about 2 to 4 inches) were filled with Rynbende jenever (a Dutch liquor and precursor to gin made from juniper berries); once Rynbende (Simon Rynbende & Sons) was acquired by Henkes, the houses were filled with Henkes Jenever, and, when that company was acquired by Bols, they became filled with Bols jenever.[7]

The impetus for these houses was a rule aimed at curtailing a previously-widespread practice of offering significant incentives to passengers by limiting the value of gifts given by airlines to 75 US cents; however, no limit was placed on the provisions of duty-free liquor, so KLM was able to provide this more-valuable gift, camouflaged as liquor.[8] Prior to giving out these Delft-blue liquor-filled houses, KLM gave Delft-blue tiles as gifts, but these tiles broke the 75 cent limits.

A KLM crew in Suriname, who flew Guinness record-holder Maurizio Giuliano just after he became the youngest person to visit all the world's nations.[9]

There are 90 different houses as of 2009, with an additional house added every year on the 7th of October; this being the anniversary of KLM's founding (KLM, the world's oldest commercial airline, being 90 years old in 2009), each numbered and representing the number of years KLM has been in operation. Each year, a new house receives the next sequential number. All houses are reproductions of historic houses in the Netherlands or its overseas dependencies, although the specific location of every archetype of some of the first ten huisjes was not recorded.

In addition to the 90 standard houses, sealed and filled with jenever (with numerous variations on the wording on the bottom or back of the houses in different manufacturing batches and with different jenever manufacturer names), there are variants that are not filled with gin, which are distributed to passengers on certain long-haul flights to Islamic countries who forbid import or export of liquor. In 2006 when, in response to terrorist activities, liquids were banned or restricted on various flights, KLM's trans-Atlantic flights to the United States briefly also offered the same liquor-free huisjes. Until the early 1980s, the houses distributed on those routes were packaged as "ashtrays" with an open chimney and a semi-circular hole cut into the rear of the house, ostensibly for a cigarette.

Additional, larger, special Delftware have periodically been offered to VIPs and honeymoon couples; for most of the 1980s and 1990s, this was a model of the Royal Palace; since 2003, this was the "Waag". These are particularly prized by collectors and at auctions they are often valued at about $1000.

Destinations and routes

Company headquarters in Amstelveen

KLM is the only carrier on 61 of the routes it operates, representing 45% of its ASKs from the airport. On around 10% of flights (14 routes) it faces competition from two other airlines. Eight of these routes are within Europe - Barcelona, Copenhagen, London-Heathrow, Milan-Malpensa, Oslo-Gardermoen, Prague, Stockholm-Arlanda and Vienna; the other six are Aruba, Bangkok, Curaçao, Taipei, Toronto and Tripoli[10].

Fleet

The KLM fleet consists of the following aircraft (at 14 February 2010):

A Boeing 767-300ER parked at the gate at Schiphol (2005)
A Boeing 737-400 at Berlin's Tegel Airport (2009)
KLM [11][12][13]
Aircraft In Fleet Orders Passengers
(Business/Economy Comfort/Economy)
Airbus A330-200 10 7 243 (30/35/178)
Boeing 737-300 7 0 127 (39/0/88)
Boeing 737-400 9 0 147 (39/0/108)
Boeing 737-700 5 7 129 (45/0/84)
Boeing 737-800 21 0 171 (57/0/114)
Boeing 737-900 5 0 189 (51/0/138)
Boeing 747-400 6 0 415 (42/38/335)
Boeing 747-400M 16 0 275 (42/38/195)
Boeing 777-200ER 15 0 318 (35/34/249)
Boeing 777-300ER 4 4 425 (35/40/350)
McDonnell Douglas MD-11 10 0 285 (24/34/227)
KLM Cargo
Boeing 747-400ERF 4 0 All leased to Martinair
Total 112 19

Fleet History

Over the years, KLM operated the following aircraft types:[14]

KLM fleet (1953-2008)
Aircraft Introduced Retired
Boeing 737-700 2008
Boeing 777-300ER 2008
Airbus A330-200 2005
Boeing 777-200ER 2003
Boeing 737-900 2001
Boeing 737-800 1999
Boeing 767-300 1995 2007
McDonnell Douglas MD-11 1993
Boeing 747-400 1989
Boeing 737-400 1989
Boeing 737-300 1986
Airbus A310 1983 1997
Boeing 747-300 1983 2004
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 1972 1995
Boeing 747-200 1971 2004
Douglas DC-9 1966 1989
Douglas DC-8 1960 1985
Lockheed L-188 Electra 1959 1969
Douglas DC-7 1953 1966
Lockheed Super Constellation L-1049 1953 1966
Convair 340 1953 1964
KLM Fleet (1920-1948)
Aircraft Introduced Retired
Douglas DC-6 1948 1963
Douglas DC-4 1946 1958
Douglas Skymaster C-54 1945 1959
Douglas DC-5 1940 1941
Lockheed Super Electra-14 1938 1948
Douglas DC-3 1936 1964
Fokker F.XXXVI 1935 1939
Fokker F.XXII 1935 1939
Douglas DC-2 1934 1946
Fokker F.XX 1933 1936
Fokker F.XVIII 1932 1946
Fokker F.XII 1931 1936
Fokker F.IX 1930 1936
Fokker F.VIII 1927 1940
Fokker F.VII 1925 1936
Fokker F.III 1921 1930
Fokker F.II 1920 1924
De Havilland DH-16 1920 1924

Cabin

KLM offers Business Class and Economy class on its aircraft. On shorthaul aircraft, Flexible Business Class is called Europe Select, while on longhaul aircraft Business Class is called World Business Class.

World Business Class

Boeing 777-200ER World Business Class

World Business Class offers a 60 inch pitch on all longhaul aircraft. All aircraft offer a 170 degree angled lie-flat seat with a 10.4" TV monitor with AVOD (Audio Video on Demand), email/text messaging, a privacy canopy, a massage function and laptop power ports. KLM's newest addition to the fleet, the Boeing 777-300ER features the same Business Class seat as merger partner Air France.

All WBC seats offer personal reading lamps, leg/foot rests and personal telephones (At the back of the controller)

Pre-departure facilities include a fully flexible reservation (except WBC Holiday Fare which may have restrictions [15]), check-in desks, lounge access, priority boarding and 125% to 175% Flying Blue miles[16]. Onboard, passengers are given a three course meal with menus, pre-departure beverages and snacks, which are available throughout the flight.

Europe Select

Europe Select, KLM's premium product on shorter sectors, is offered on flights operated by Boeing 737 equipment. It offers a 33 inch pitch, a meal service on board (hot or cold meals depend on the length of the flight), priority boarding, extra baggage allowance, double Flying Blue miles and fully flexible booking.

Economy Class

Boeing 777-200ER Economy Class

Economy Class offers a 31" pitch on all long haul aircraft except the Airbus A330-200, which offers a 32" pitch. Except for the 747-400 planes, wide-bodied aircraft offers personal TVs with AVOD and personal telephones (on the back of the controller) and an email/text messaging function. The first 747 plane (PH-BFN) has received the personal TVs onboard the Economy Class in July 2009 and more 747s will be gradually refitted in the next few months. Until then the rest of Boeing 747-400s are limited to personal audio and mainscreen entertainment without PTVs.[17]

Boeing 777-300ER Economy Class

On short haul European flights on KLM and KLM Cityhopper, aircraft have no in flight entertainment and contain a seat 31" (except the Fokker 50 which has a 30.5" pitch [18]. Passengers flying Economy Class long-haul routes outside of Europe receive a hot meal service (often more than one depending on the flight duration), with real metal cutlery. Passengers flying within Europe in KLM Economy Class receive a snack to suit the time of day. Freshly prepared sandwiches made the day of flight are served on most morning flights. Drinks (including alcohol) are free on KLM for all passengers, with the exception of champagne.[19]

KLM's 747-400s and 777-300ERs economy seating are ten-abreast (3-4-3), the 777-200ERs and MD-11s are nine-abreast (3-3-3), while the A330s are eight abreast (2-4-2).

Economy Comfort Class

Economy Comfort Class is offered only on intercontinental flights. It provides a greater seat pitch, up to 35" and greater recline, up to 7", than regular economy seats, but the same luggage allowance and in-flight service applies. There is no priority (dis-)embarking, but since the Economy Comfort zone is located in the front of the aircraft, KLM does advertise quick disembarkation as an advantage of Economy Comfort Class. It can be reserved by any passenger holding any economy class ticket, but a fee may apply. [20]

Codeshare agreements

As of January 2010, KLM has codeshare agreements with the following airlines, besides all SkyTeam members[21]:

KLM - SkyTeam Alliance Logo
KLM codeshare agreements (A-I)[22]
Airline
Republic of Ireland Aer Lingus
Austria Air Alps Aviation
France Aircalin
France Airlinair
United States Alaska Airlines
Bulgaria Bulgaria Air
South Africa Comair Limited (oneworld affiliate member)
Panama Copa Airlines
Cyprus Cyprus Airways
Estonia Estonian Air
Indonesia Garuda Indonesia
Brazil Gol Transportes Aéreos
Bahrain Gulf Air
KLM codeshare agreements (J-Z)[23]
Airline
Japan Japan Airlines (oneworld member)
India Jet Airways
Malaysia Malaysia Airlines
Hungary Malév Hungarian Airlines (oneworld member)
Netherlands Martinair
Italy Meridiana
Portugal Portugalia (Star Alliance affiliate member)
Australia Qantas (oneworld member)
Brazil TAM Airlines (future Star Alliance member)
Romania TAROM (future SkyTeam associate member)
Ukraine Ukraine International Airlines
Belgium VLM Airlines
Canada WestJet

KLM Asia

KLM Asia Boeing 747-400 Combi registration PH-BFC "City of Calgary"

KLM Asia (荷蘭亞洲航空公司 Hanyu Pinyin: Hélán Yàzhōu Hángkōng Gōngsī) was a wholly KLM owned subsidiary, registered in Taiwan, Republic of China. The airline was established in 1995 in order to operate flights to Taipei, without compromising the traffic rights held by KLM for destinations in the People's Republic of China. KLM Asia is no longer in operation but its aircraft still fly in the KLM Asia livery.

The livery of KLM Asia does not feature Dutch national symbols, such as the Flag of the Netherlands, nor does it use KLM's stylised Dutch Crown logo, instead featuring a special KLM Asia logo.

KLM Asia fleet

KLM Asia 747-400 Combi

KLM Asia has 6 Boeing 747-400 Combi aircraft (included in the KLM fleet as 747-400M).

  • PH-BFC - City of Calgary
  • PH-BFD - City of Dubai
  • PH-BFF - City of Freetown
  • PH-BFH - City of Hong Kong (Currently flying in full passenger configuration)
  • PH-BFM - City of Mexico
  • PH-BFP - City of Paramaribo

Incidents and accidents

For sourcing and full list of accidents from 1943 see:Aviation safety database

This list does not include KLM cityhopper, which had a single accident involving fatalities in 1994.

The most notable accident in which a KLM flight has been involved was the 1977 Tenerife disaster. After this accident KLM flights have not lead to fatalities.

Accidents involving fatalities

  • On 20 December 1934, KLM Douglas DC-2, PH-AJU "Uiver" crashed at Rutbah Wells, Iraq, killing all occupants. It participated in the Mac Robertson Air Race in October 1934 and won the handicap division. It had returned to the Netherlands in November and the crew were heroes. It was on its first flight after return from the race and was enroute to the Netherlands Indies carrying the Christmas mail.[24]
  • On 14 July 1935, KLM Fokker F.XXII PH-AJQ "Kwikstaart" crashed and burned just outside Schiphol, killing four crew and two passengers - 14 other occupants survived.[4]
  • On 20 July 1935, KLM Douglas DC-2, PH-AKG "Gaai" crashed in an Alpine pass in the San Bernardino Pass near Pian San Giacomo, killing all three crew and all ten passengers.[4]
  • On 28 December 1941, KNILM Douglas DC-3, PK-ALN (formerly KLM PH-ALN) "Nandoe" was destroyed on the ground by Japanese fighters at Medan, North Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, killing all crew members and passengers.
  • On 1 June 1943, the BOAC Douglas DC-3 (formerly KLM PH-ALI) "Ibis" was shot down by eight German Junkers Ju-88 fighters over the Gulf of Biskay while on the scheduled route Lisbon-Bristol. All thirteen passengers and four KLM crewmembers perished. For more information see: BOAC Flight 777.
  • On 14 November 1946 - A KLM Douglas C-47 crashed at Schiphol Airport, caused by a failed landing in bad weather. All 21 passengers and the 5 crew were killed. One passenger was the Dutch writer Herman de Man.
  • On 26 January 1947, KLM Douglas Dakota PH-TCR crashed after takeoff from Copenhagen, killing all 22 onboard, including Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden.[25]
  • On 20 October 1948, KLM Lockheed Constellation PH-TEN "Nijmegen" crashed near Prestwick, Scotland, killing all 40 aboard.
  • On 23 June 1949, KLM Lockheed Constellation PH-TER "Roermond", piloted by Hans Plesman (the son of CEO Albert Plesman) crashed into the sea off Bari, killing 33 occupants.[26]
  • On 12 July 1949, KLM Lockheed Constellation PH-TDF "Franeker" crashed into a 674 ft Ghatkopar hill near Bombay, India, killing all 45 aboard. Thirteen of the dead were American news correspondents.[27]
  • On 22 March 1952, a KLM Douglas DC-7 PH-TBJ crashed in Frankfurt, killing 42 of 47 occupants [3].
  • On 23 August 1954; a KLM Douglas DC-6B, PH-DFO "Willem Bontekoe", crashed between Shannon and Schiphol in the North Sea, 40 km from IJmuiden - all 21 passengers and crew died.
  • On 5 September 1954, Flight 633, a Lockheed Super Constellation, PH-LKY ditched in the River Shannon after takeoff from Shannon Airport, Ireland. 28 out of 56 people on board (46 passengers and 10 crew) were killed.
  • In 1957 a KLM Super Constellation PH-LKT crashed in the sea near Biak, after takeoff from Mokmer airport at Biak on its way to Manila. The pilot made a low farewell flypass over the island, but the aircraft lost altitude, crashed into the sea and exploded. Nine crew and 49 passengers died. Twenty two passengers were rescued, of whom two died later.
  • On 14 August 1958, KLM Flight 607-E, a Lockheed Super Constellation, PH-LKM en route from Amsterdam to New York, via Shannon Airport, crashed into the ocean 180 km off the coast of Co. Galway, Ireland. 91 passengers and 8 crew members perished.
  • On 27 March 1977, Flight 4805, a Boeing 747-206B, PH-BUF & Pan Am Flight 1736, a Boeing 747-121, N736PA, collided at Tenerife North Airport, Canary Islands, killing 583 people. The incident has the highest number of fatalities (excluding ground fatalities) of any single accident in aviation history.

Notable incidents without fatalities

  • On 17 July 1935, KLM DC-2 PH-AKM "Maraboe" crashed near Bushehr, Iran. All occupants were rescued.[28]
  • On 23 March 1952, a KLM Lockheed Constellation, PH-TFF "Venlo", suffered a propeller failure and subsequent engine fire during landing in Bangkok. All 44 passengers and crew escaped shortly before the fire completely consumed the plane. A Thai ground crewman ran into the burning aircraft and returned with an infant who had been left behind.[29]
  • On 15 December 1989, KLM Flight 867, a Boeing 747-400, PH-BFC flew through a volcanic plume causing nearly US$80 million worth of damage to the then brand-new aircraft. The plane landed in Anchorage, Alaska, with no reported injuries or fatalities.[30]
  • On 28 November 2004, KLM Flight 1673, a Boeing 737-400, PH-BTC had a birdstrike upon rotation from Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. The plane continued onwards to Barcelona International Airport, where the nose gear collapsed. No injuries or casualties; the aircraft was written off.

Corporate responsible issues

Alleged support to Nazi war criminals

KLM has been accused of helping Nazi war criminals to escape from Europe at the end of the Second World War. Suspected war criminals were forbidden by the Allies to leave Germany but historical research done by Dutch journalists show that KLM asked the Swiss authorities to allow some former Nazi to cross the borders without proper documents in order that they could then escape to South America. [31][32] KLM has always denied that it played such a role.[33]

Philanthropy

KLM started KLM AirCares in 1999. KLM AirCares is a programme that aids underpriveleged countries in developing countries that KLM flies to.[34]

References

  1. ^ "Fact Sheet." SkyTeam. Retrieved on 27 December 2008.
  2. ^ "Contact." KLM Corporate. Retrieved on 28 September 2009
  3. ^ "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International: pp. 101–102. 2007-04-03. 
  4. ^ a b c (Dutch) Albert Heijn, ed (1969) KL-50 - logboek van vijftig jaar vliegen. Meijer, Amsterdam.
  5. ^ Pikula, Sam (Major), The ArmaLite AR-10, Regnum Publications (1998), p. 73
  6. ^ "See". A Taste of the House of Bols. Lucas Bols, B.V.. http://www.houseofbols.com/atasteof.asp. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  7. ^ http://www.xs4all.nl/~wiltheo/rynbende.htm
  8. ^ "See". The Ultimate Dutch Status Symbol: House-Shaped Booze Bottles; Jet-Setters Hoard, but Avoid Drinking, KLM's Freebies; The $1,000 Cheese Building. Wall Street Journal. 2008-05-31. http://online.wsj.com/article_email/SB121217604543933443-lMyQjAxMDI4MTAyMjEwNzI2Wj.html. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  9. ^ Maurizio Giuliano, The Stamp Collector, Journalist (British magazine), April 2004
  10. ^ "KLM still growing at Amsterdam; UK and Norwegian markets important; three new routes in 2008". anna.aero. 12 September 2008. http://www.anna.aero/2008/09/12/klm-still-growing-at-amsterdam/. 
  11. ^ Dutch civil aircraft register
  12. ^ CH-Aviation
  13. ^ http://corporate.klm.com/assets/files/about-klm/plane%20facts25092009.pdf KLM corporate Fleet
  14. ^ KLM retired fleet at airfleets.net. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  15. ^ [1] World Business Class Holiday Fare (Dutch language)
  16. ^ [2] Flying Blue miles earned depends on booking class
  17. ^ "Entertainment on Board". KLM. http://www.klm.com/travel/no_en/travel_information/on_board/entertainment/index.htm#2. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  18. ^ [Fokker 50 seat map on seatguru.com http://www.seatguru.com/airlines/KLM/KLM_Fokker_50.php]
  19. ^ http://www.klm.com/travel/gb_en/travel_information/on_board/travel_classes/index.htm#3
  20. ^ Economy Comfort Class on klm.com
  21. ^ KLM Codeshare Agreements
  22. ^ KLM Partners | KLM Corporate
  23. ^ KLM Partners | KLM Corporate
  24. ^ "Uiver verbrand, inzittenden gedood", De Telegraaf 42 (15920): 1, 21 December 1934 
  25. ^ "DC-3 PH-TCR bij start in Copenhagen verongelukt". http://www.aviacrash.nl/paginas/ph-tcr.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  26. ^ De Tijd (Netherlands) 24 June 1949, cited in Heijn (1969)
  27. ^ "Constellation "Franeker" stort neer bij Bombay". 2005-12-15. http://www.aviacrash.nl/paginas/franeker.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  28. ^ De Telegraaf 17 Jul 1935, cited in Heijn (1969)
  29. ^ KLM PH-TFF Bangkok Crash
  30. ^ Aviation Safety Network NTSB
  31. ^ http://www.volkskrant.nl/binnenland/article421290.ece/KLM_hielp_nazis_bij_vlucht_naar_Argentinie
  32. ^ "KLM accused of helping Nazis flee". 2007-05-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6635677.stm. 
  33. ^ "Airline accused of helping Nazis to flee". 2007-05-08. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article1760116.ece. 
  34. ^ "KLM AirCares." KLM. Retrieved on 14 February 2010.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also klm

Contents

English

Etymology

Dutch, abbreviated from Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, Royal Aviation Company

Initialism

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

KLM

  1. KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, a Dutch airline

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of klm
  • MLK

Dutch

Wikipedia-logo.png
Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
KLM

Wikipedia nl

Pronunciation

Initialism

KLM

  1. KLM

See also


Simple English

]]

File:KLM hoofdkantoor
Head office of KLM

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines is an airline that is a part of Air France-KLM. Its based in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It has flights that stay in Netherlands and other flights that go world-wide. KLM goes to 90 different places and its main airport is Amsterdam Schipol Airport. Before KLM combined with Air France, KLM was Netherland's main airline. KLM is the world's oldest airline with its original name. In March 2007, KLM had 30,118 people working for it.

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