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Kabbalah
10 Sephirot
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Chronological history
The Zohar
Early: Sefer Yetzirah · Tannaim · Heichalot Medieval: Bahir · Toledano tradition · Chassidei Ashkenaz · Prophetic Kabbalah · Zohar · Kabbalistic commentaries on the Bible · Mainstream replacement of Philosophy with Kabbalah Rennaisance: Selective influence on Western thought · Mysticism after Spanish expulsion · Mystics of 16th century Safed · Cordoveran Kabbalah · Lurianic Kabbalah · Philosophy of the Maharal · Shnei Luchos HaBris Early Modern: Baal Shem-Nistarim · Sabbatean mystical heresies · Emden-Eybeschutz Controversy · Immigration to the Land of Israel · Traditional Oriental Kabbalists · Beit El Synagogue · Eastern European Judaism · Hasidic Judaism · Hasidic philosophy · Lithuanian Jews · Hasidic-Mitnagdic schism Modern: Hasidic dynasties · HaSulam · Academic interest in Jewish mysticism · Non-Orthodox interest in Jewish mysticism
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Visiting grave of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai
Torah study · Mitzvot · Minhag · Customery immersion in Mikveh · Jewish meditation · Deveikut · Jewish prayer · Nusach · Kavanot · Names of God in Judaism · Tikkun Chatzot · Tikkun Leil Shavuot · Teshuvah · Asceticism in Judaism · Pilgrimage to Tzadik · Pilgrimage to holy grave · Lag BaOmer at Meron · Practical Kabbalah
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Torah · Tanakh · Prophecy · Ruach HaKodesh · Pardes exegesis · Talmudical hermeneutics · Midrash · Jewish commentaries on the Bible · Oral Torah · Eras of Rabbinic Judaism · Generational descent in Halacha · Generational ascent in Kabbalah · Rabbinic literature · Talmudic theology · Halakha · Aggadah · Hakira (Medieval Jewish Philosophy) · Classic Mussar literature · Ashkenazi Judaism · Sephardi Judaism · Modern Jewish Philosophies · Jewish studies
Topics:
God in Judaism · Divine transcendence · Divine immanence · Free Will in Judaism · Divine Providence in Judaism · Kabbalistic reasons for the 613 Mitzvot · Jewish principles of faith · Jewish eschatology

Kabbalah (Hebrew: קַבָּלָה‎, lit. "receiving") is a discipline and school of thought concerned with the mystical aspect of Judaism. .It is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an eternal/mysterious Creator and the mortal/finite universe (His creation).^ The theory of the concentration of God, by which the Cabala tries to explain the creation of the finite out of the infinite, is found in mystical form in Gabirol also (see Munk, "Mélanges," pp.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a correct understanding of the relationship between Joseph Smith and Freemasonry, it is vital first to clearly distinguish between the various types of Freemasonry, especially between the esoteric and nonesoteric forms.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It should at least have been consulted by someone studying the relationship between Mormonism and the esoteric traditions.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kabbalah seeks to define the nature of the universe and the human being, the nature and purpose of existence, and various other ontological questions.^ Like Brooke, Owens also makes no effort to define hermeticism, despite the fact that serious questions have been raised about its nature and scope.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It also presents methods to aid understanding of these concepts and to thereby attain spiritual realization. .Kabbalah originally developed entirely within the realm of Jewish thought and constantly uses classical Jewish sources to explain and demonstrate its esoteric teachings.^ As with Jewish people, there was also a reaction among some Christians against sterile belief, and it was thought that Kabbalah was a valid corrective.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kabbalah influenced Jewish messianic movements, principally Hasidism, which developed a joyful religious expression that avoided sterile legalism.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The passage from the Zohar cited by Owens before the ellipses is, in fact, a digression within a digression, referring back to the original theme of the entire section of the commentary, Genesis 1:26.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These teachings are thus held by kabbalists to define the inner meaning of both the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and traditional rabbinic literature, as well as to explain the significance of Jewish religious observances.^ Furthermore, according to traditional kabbalistic practice, initiates into the mysteries of Kabbalah were to be at least thirty years old and well versed in rabbinic literature.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Owens's approach thus obscures significant differences between the Mormon understanding of revelation and that of the kabbalists.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus Joseph could not have been influenced by any "hermetic" ideas from reading Jewish kabbalistic texts.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]

Contents

Overview

.According to the Zohar, a foundational text for kabbalistic thought, Torah study can proceed along four levels of interpretation (exegesis).^ This is very odd, since the Zohar —the kabbalistic text Owens claims Joseph quoted "almost word for word" (p.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Kabbalistic lore, the commentary of the Zohar represented the oldest biblical interpretation, the secret interpretation imparted by God to Adam and all worthy prophets after him.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are three options: Neibaur had read kabbalistic texts and simply told Joseph about some of the ideas found therein; Neibaur read kabbalistic texts to or with Joseph; Neibaur introduced Joseph to the texts, which Joseph read and interpreted on his own.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][3] These four levels are called Pardes because their initial letters spell "PaRDeS" ("Orchard"):
  • Peshat (lit. "simple"): the direct interpretations of meaning.
  • Remez (lit. "hint[s]"): the allegoric meanings (through allusion).
  • Derash (from Heb. darash: "inquire" or "seek"): midrashic (Rabbinic) meanings, often with imaginative comparisons with similar words or verses.
  • Sod (lit. "secret" or "mystery"): the inner, esoteric (metaphysical) meanings, expressed in kabbalah.
.Kabbalah is considered, by its followers, as a necessary part of the study of Torah – the study of Torah (the "Teachings" of God, in the Tanach and Rabbinic literature) being an inherent duty of observant Jews.^ Furthermore, according to traditional kabbalistic practice, initiates into the mysteries of Kabbalah were to be at least thirty years old and well versed in rabbinic literature.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While study of the Law was to the Talmudists the very acme of piety, the mystics accorded the first place to prayer, which was considered as a mystical progress toward God, demanding a state of ecstasy.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jews believe that the Hebrew Moseretic Version of the Torah was written by God [Tetragrammaton] himself, prior to the creation.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Kabbalah teaches doctrines that are accepted by some Jews as the true meaning of Judaism while other Jews have rejected these doctrines as heretical and antithetical to Judaism.^ Of course, the revealed doctrine must be taken in its true sense; i.e., the hidden meaning of Scripture must be sought out (see Jew.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As these men were the actual representatives of true Talmudic Judaism, there must have been something in the Cabala that attracted them.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the Medieval Kabbalah, and especially after its 16th Century development and synthesis, Kabbalah replaced "Hakira" (Jewish philosophy) as the mainstream traditional Jewish theology, both in scholarly circles and in the popular imagination.^ General Information Kabbalah, the Hebrew word for tradition, originally designated the legal tradition of Judaism, but it was later applied to the Jewish mystical tradition, especially the system of esoteric mystical speculation and practice that developed during the 12th and 13th centuries.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, as noted above, the study of the Zohar was decreasing in both Christian and Jewish circles in the late eighteenth century, at which time "students of the Zohar declined in number, and the Kabbalah became once more, particularly in the East, a secret doctrine confined to restricted circles."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kabbalah influenced Jewish messianic movements, principally Hasidism, which developed a joyful religious expression that avoided sterile legalism.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the arrival of modernity, through the influence of Haskalah, this has changed among non-Orthodox Jewish denominations, though its 20th Century academic study and cross-denominational spiritual applications (especially through Neo-Hasidism), has reawakened a following beyond Orthodoxy.^ Despite the fact that serious academic study of the esoteric tradition is a relatively recent phenomenon, many of Owens's secondary sources are over a quarter of a century old—some over a century old.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The origins of the actual term Kabbalah are unknown and disputed to belong either to Jewish philosopher Solomon ibn Gabirol (1021–1058) or else to the 13th century CE Spanish Kabbalist Bahya ben Asher.^ Book Rad Hakemah (Neibaur 234a): Kad ha-Kemah , by Bahya ben Asher, a thirteenth-century philosopher (see 3.1 above under R. Baccay).
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although some Christian kabbalists did indeed merge hermeticism with Kabbalah in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, traditional Jewish kabbalists were not greatly influenced by Christian hermeticism.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Owens frequently implicitly redefines kabbalistic and hermetic terms in a way that would have been foreign to both the original esoteric believers and to early Latter-day Saints.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While other terms have been used in many religious documents from the 2nd century CE up to the present day, the term "Kabbalah" has become the main descriptive of Jewish esoteric knowledge and practices.^ Its application has greatly varied in the course of time, and it is only since the eleventh or twelfth century that the term Kabbala has become the exclusive appellation for the system of Jewish religious philosophy which claims to have been uninterruptedly transmitted by the mouths of the patriarchs, prophets, elders, etc., ever since the creation of the first man.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Are we really to believe that Joseph selected only these items from the Zohar for which he himself provided biblical support, ignoring these and many other ideas that are unique to that document?
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Owens frequently implicitly redefines kabbalistic and hermetic terms in a way that would have been foreign to both the original esoteric believers and to early Latter-day Saints.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Kabbalistic literature, which served as the basis for the development of Kabbalistic thought, developed through a theological tradition from Antiquity, as part of wider Rabbinic literature.^ Furthermore, according to traditional kabbalistic practice, initiates into the mysteries of Kabbalah were to be at least thirty years old and well versed in rabbinic literature.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study of Aramaic was part of a traditional rabbinic education because much of the Talmud is in Aramaic.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its theoretical development can be characterised in alternative schools and successive stages. .These especially include the early works of the 1st-2nd centuries CE (such as the Heichalot texts and the earliest existent book on Jewish esotericism Sefer Yetzirah); the Medieval flowering of the 12th-13th century CE (of which the main book is the Zohar); and early-modern developments, including the mystical revivals of 16th century Safed (especially of Isaac Luria), and 18th century Eastern Europe (new Hasidic popularisations of Kabbalah).^ Bereshith Rabba (Neibaur 222a): Owens (193) cites R. Moses ben Isaac ha-Darshan's Bereshith Rabbati , a Midrashic text on the book of Genesis written in the eleventh century.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, the frontier regions of the New World (as opposed to Europe) were the least likely to have books or materials on esoteric subjects.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This text is part of a group of esoteric and alchemical works associated with Jabir ibn Hayyan (Latin: Geber) dating to the ninth—not the first—century.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Kabbalistic tradition, knowledge was transmitted orally by the Patriarchs, prophets, and sages (Hakhamim in Hebrew), eventually to be "interwoven" into Jewish religious writings and culture.^ Furthermore, according to traditional kabbalistic practice, initiates into the mysteries of Kabbalah were to be at least thirty years old and well versed in rabbinic literature.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With his initiation into Masonry, he entered a tradition born of the Hermetic-Kabbalistic tradition.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These possibilities are eventually turned into actualities when Owens speaks unequivocally of the kabbalistic "books Neibaur possessed" (p.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to this tradition, Kabbalah was, in around the 10th century B.C., an open knowledge practiced by over a million people in ancient Israel,[5] although there is little objective historical evidence to support this thesis.^ Furthermore, according to traditional kabbalistic practice, initiates into the mysteries of Kabbalah were to be at least thirty years old and well versed in rabbinic literature.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of lack of evidence to support his thesis, he frequently resorts to unrestrained assertion and speculation.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, as Scholem notes, there was a "fervent assault on the Kabbalah by the Haskalah movement in the 19th century."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Foreign conquests drove the Jewish spiritual leadership of the time (the Sanhedrin) to hide the knowledge and make it secret, fearing that it might be misused if it fell into the wrong hands.[6] .The Sanhedrin leaders were also concerned that the practice of Kabbalah by Jews deported on conquest to other countries (the Diaspora), unsupervised and unguided by the masters, might lead them into wrong practice and forbidden ways.^ Furthermore, according to traditional kabbalistic practice, initiates into the mysteries of Kabbalah were to be at least thirty years old and well versed in rabbinic literature.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a result, the Kabbalah became secretive, forbidden and esoteric to Judaism (“Torat Ha’SodHebrew: תורת הסוד‎) for two and a half millennia.
It is hard to clarify with any degree of certainty the exact concepts within Kabbalah. .There are several different schools of thought with very different outlooks; however, all are accepted as correct.^ He repeatedly conflates ideas from several different traditions and periods by simply asserting that they are all part of one metatradition.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Scholem notes, there are several different forms of "filling."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Modern Halakhic authorities have tried to narrow the scope and diversity within Kabbalah, by restricting study to certain texts, notably Zohar and the teachings of Isaac Luria as passed down through Chaim (Hayyim) Vital.^ The action of the screen , which separates the Partzuf that passes through the screen on its way down, so that it would not draw sustenance from above the screen.
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

[8] .However even this qualification does little to limit the scope of understanding and expression, as included in those works are commentaries on Abulafian writings, Sepher Yetzirah, Albotonian writings, and the Berit Menuhah,[9] which is known to the kabbalisic elect and which, as described more recently by Scholem, combined ecstatic with theosophical myticism.^ Owens's failure to use the broad range of recent studies on the esoteric tradition is compounded by an occasional uncritical evaluation of the limited secondary sources he does use.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the ecstatic mystical experiences of the kabbalists, even though sometimes called prophecy, bear little resemblance to the experiences of Joseph Smith.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is therefore important to bear in mind when discussing things such as the Sephirot and their interactions that one is dealing with highly abstract concepts that at best can only be understood intuitively.[10]

Concepts

Kabbalistic understanding of God

In Kabbalah all Creation unfolds from Divine reality. This view is found also in Rationalist Medieval Jewish philosophy (Hakira-"Investigation"), which offered a preceding, different approach to Jewish theology. .However, the descriptions of Divinity in the two schools of thought differ, with Kabbalah elaborating a metaphysical structure of emanations from God, while Hakira investigates the ability to describe God beyond only negative descriptions.^ "The Torah can be seen as a great storehouse of the names of God in different combinations, all of which designate specific forces of emanation."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the kabbalist, these names of God, including elohim , do not represent ontologically separate divine beings—as in Joseph Smith's understanding—but different powers or emanations of the single divine reality.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, according to Scholem, "historically, Christian Kabbalah sprang from two sources.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Kabbalistic path, therefore, offers manifestations of Divinity that can be perceived in metaphorical anthropomorphic language, giving mystical dveikus (fervour) to the student.^ Although kabbalistic literature uses anthropomorphic language extensively, the kabbalists were insistent that such language was strictly metaphorical and did not literally describe the nature of God.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another significant difference between the kabbalistic and Joseph's understanding of God is divine anthropomorphism.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two alternative approaches become united in intellectual articulations of Hasidic thought, from an inner perspective in Jewish mysticism.^ Hamblin, "Temple Motifs in Jewish Mysticism," for further discussion from a Latter-day Saint perspective, with additional sources and bibliography.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] The most important Medieval Jewish philosopher, Maimonides, famously summarised the Divine relation to Creation:
.The foundation of all foundations, and the pillar of all wisdom is to know that there is God who brought into being all existence.^ The model to which I refer, rooted in ancient Near Eastern and Mesopotamian mythology rather than Neoplatonic ontology and epistemology, is that of the ascension to heaven and transformation into an angelic being who occupies a throne alongside the throne of glory [of God].
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no creature that can know or understand the nature of the thing called "hand" or "foot" or "ear" [of God] and the like.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Knowledge of the final results from all the details that there are in all of existence.
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

All the beings of the heavens, and the earth, and what is between them came into existence only from the truth of God's being.[12]
.There has been traditional debate about whether Maimonides studied Kabbalah.^ It is also clear from his work that Owens does not read Latin, Aramaic, or Hebrew, sine qua non for the study of Kabbalah and the Western esoteric traditions.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Historical Kabbalistic commentaries were written on his Guide for the Perplexed, revealing deeper mystical layers beyond the regular Rationalist school.[13] Jewish philosophy questioned the limits and meaning of Divine understanding from man's thought, in harmony with exoteric Scriptural exegesis. .In Kabbalah ("Received") understanding derives from Oral Torah traditions of esoteric Scriptural exegesis.^ It is also clear from his work that Owens does not read Latin, Aramaic, or Hebrew, sine qua non for the study of Kabbalah and the Western esoteric traditions.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As an metaphysical alternative to Halachic exegesis in Talmudical hermeneutics, Kabbalah similarly demonstrates its concepts from interpretation of Biblical and Rabbinic texts. These then become systemised and investigated philosophically. .With the end of the scholarly culture of Muslim Spain, and the later Jewish expulsion, Kabbalah replaced Hakirah as Judaism's mainstream theology.^ The first was the christological speculations of a number of Jewish converts who are known to us from the end of the 13th century until the period of the Spanish expulsion [of the Jews]."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the Kabbalistic scheme, God is neither matter nor spirit, but is the creator of both. .The question of the Divine nature prompted Kabbalists to envision two aspects of God: (a) God Himself, who is ultimately unknowable, and (b) the revealed aspect of God that created the universe, preserves the universe, and interacts with mankind.^ Although kabbalistic literature uses anthropomorphic language extensively, the kabbalists were insistent that such language was strictly metaphorical and did not literally describe the nature of God.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Owens it seems a prophet is one who has a transcendent psychological experience with God, and revelations are the intuitions about life and the universe one derives from such experiences.
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^ For the kabbalists, when God revealed himself, you would "imagine" the "image" of God in your "imagination."
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.Kabbalists speak of the first aspect of God as Ein Sof (אין סוף); this is translated as "the infinite", "endless", or "that which has no limits". In this view, nothing can be said about the essence of God.^ For the Zohar the "Head God" would be the first sefira, Keter/En Sof, not the second sefira , Wisdom/Beginning.
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^ In light of all this, how Brigham Young's ideas about Adam-God can be seen as based on kabbalistic thought is a bit mind-boggling.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adam Kadmon is nothing but a first configuration of the divine light which flows from the essence of En Sof."
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.This aspect of God is impersonal.^ This aspect of God is impersonal.
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  • Kabbalah, Judaica, Christian, Engravable Jewelry From The Holyland 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.2holyland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The second aspect of Divine emanations, however, is at least partially accessible to human thought. .Kabbalists believe that these two aspects are not contradictory but, through the mechanism of progressive emanation, complement one another (See Divine simplicity).^ Another significant difference between the kabbalistic and Joseph's understanding of God is divine anthropomorphism.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the kabbalist, these names of God, including elohim , do not represent ontologically separate divine beings—as in Joseph Smith's understanding—but different powers or emanations of the single divine reality.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two different aspects which equated their forms one to the other.
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

The structure of these emanations have been characterized in various ways: Sefirot (Divine attributes) and Partzufim (Divine "faces"); Four Worlds of Creation in a Seder hishtalshelus (Descending Chain of realms), Azilut, Beriyah, Yitzirah, and Asiyah; the Biblical vision by Ezekiel of the Merkabah (Divine angelic "Chariot"). These alternatives are harmonized in subsequent Kabbalistic systemisation. .The central metaphor of Ohr ("Light") is used to describe Divine emanations.^ Although kabbalistic literature uses anthropomorphic language extensively, the kabbalists were insistent that such language was strictly metaphorical and did not literally describe the nature of God.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes described as a powder the color of sulfur, the philosopher's stone was used for the transmutation of matter and had little or nothing to do with divination.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kabbalists frequently described the relationship between God and the sefirot metaphorically as the relationship between a coal and its flame or a lamp and its light.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Medieval Kabbalists believed that all things are linked to God through these emanations, making all levels in Creation part of one great, gradually descending chain of being.^ G"E of the lower one , which were attached to ACHA"P of the upper one in a single level, ACHA"P of the Upper being declined in them to a state of Katnut .
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In Kabbalistic lore, the commentary of the Zohar represented the oldest biblical interpretation, the secret interpretation imparted by God to Adam and all worthy prophets after him.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As noted above, on occasions these heavenly messengers were seen and heard by several people simultaneously, who all reported seeing the same thing.
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Through this any lower creation reflects its particular characteristics in Supernal Divinity. .These descriptions reached their synthesis in 16th century Cordoveran Kabbalah.^ Owens's description of the "blossoming [of Kabbalah] in twelfth-century Spain" is misleading.
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.This metaphysical explanation gave cosmic significance to the deeds of man, as the downward flow of the Divine "Light" that creates our reality, is opened or restricted according to the merits of each individual.^ Adam Kadmon is nothing but a first configuration of the divine light which flows from the essence of En Sof."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Divine substenance in Creation is dependent on the traditional mitzvah observances of Judaism. Subsequent Kabbalah of Isaac Luria describes a radical origin to this depiction, where Creation unfolds from transcendent imbalance in Godliness, and the purpose of life is the Messianic rectification of Divinity by man. Once each person has completed their part of the rectification, the Messianic Era begins. In this, the mitzvot redeem the supernal Divine Sparks in existence. .Later interpretations in Hasidism, such as by Schneur Zalman of Liadi, extend this radicalism by holding that God is all that really exists, all else is completely undifferentiated from God's perspective.^ In Kabbalistic lore, the commentary of the Zohar represented the oldest biblical interpretation, the secret interpretation imparted by God to Adam and all worthy prophets after him.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All this is radically different from Joseph Smith's understanding of the nature of God and human deification.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is such a proposition at all helpful in explaining the origin of the idea of plurality of gods in Latter-day Saint theology?
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This view can be defined as monistic panentheism. .According to this philosophy, God's existence is higher than anything that this world can express, yet He includes all things of this world within His Divine reality in perfect unity, so that the Creation effected no change in Him at all.^ In Kabbalistic lore, the commentary of the Zohar represented the oldest biblical interpretation, the secret interpretation imparted by God to Adam and all worthy prophets after him.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike Joseph's seer stone, it was not really a literal "stone" at all, but primordial matter ( materia prima )—"this stone therefore is no stone," as notes a famous alchemical text.
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^ Hence, we infer that God Himself had materials to organize the world out of chaos—chaotic matter—which is element and in which dwells all the glory.
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This paradox is dealt with at length in Habad texts.[14]

Sefirot and the Divine Feminine

Schematic tree of descending Sefirot in 3 columns
.The Sefirot (סְפִירוֹת — singular Sefirah סְפִירָה) are the ten emanations and attributes of God with which He continually substains the universe in existence.^ The sefirot were not separate gods, but were emanations or instruments of God.
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.The word "sefirah" literally means "counting", but early Kabbalists presented a number of other etymological possibilities including: sefer (book), sippur (story), sappir (sapphire, brilliance, luminary), separ (boundary), and safra (scribe).^ These possibilities are eventually turned into actualities when Owens speaks unequivocally of the kabbalistic "books Neibaur possessed" (p.
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The term sefirah thus has complex connotations within Kabbalah.[15] .The central metaphor of Man's soul is used to describe the Sephirot.^ Although kabbalistic literature uses anthropomorphic language extensively, the kabbalists were insistent that such language was strictly metaphorical and did not literally describe the nature of God.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This incorporates masculine and feminine aspects, after Genesis 1:27 ("God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him, male and female He created them").^ Adam is the earthly reflection, on the material plane, of the supernal Adam Kadmon—this is how kabbalists interpret man being in the image of God.
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^ Nor need we be surprised at the use of the word "created" [ bara ] in this connection, seeing that we read further on, "And God created [ bara ] man in his image" (Gen.
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^ For when the Shekhinah said to God "Let us make man', they [Uzza and Azael] said, "What is man that thou shouldst know him?
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Corresponding to the last Sephirah in Creation is the indwelling Shechina (Feminine Divine Presence). In the Sephirot, performance of Mitzvot (traditional Jewish observances) unites the masculine and feminine aspects of supernal Divinity, and brings harmony to Creation. .The description of Divine manifestation through the 10 Sephirot is a defining feature of Medieval Kabbalah, alongside their male and female aspects, and the concept of downward flow of Divine Light through the chain of Creation.^ Who is the darkness to his light, light being male and darkness female?'"
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adam Kadmon is nothing but a first configuration of the divine light which flows from the essence of En Sof."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Sephirot correspond to the Four Worlds of this spiritual descent, Atziluth, Beri'ah, Yetzirah and Assiah.

Ten Sephirot as process of Creation

According to Lurianic cosmology, the Sephirot correspond to various levels of creation (ten sephirot in each of the Four Worlds, and four worlds within each of the larger four worlds, each containing ten sephirot, which themselves contain ten sephirot, to an infinite number of possibilities,[16]) and are emanated from the Creator for the purpose of creating the universe. .The Sephirot are considered revelations of the Creator's will (ratzon),[17] and they should not be understood as ten different "gods" but as ten different ways the one God reveals his will through the Emanations.^ "The Torah can be seen as a great storehouse of the names of God in different combinations, all of which designate specific forces of emanation."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Owens it seems a prophet is one who has a transcendent psychological experience with God, and revelations are the intuitions about life and the universe one derives from such experiences.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He repeatedly conflates ideas from several different traditions and periods by simply asserting that they are all part of one metatradition.
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.It is not God who changes but the ability to perceive God that changes.^ It is not God who changes but the ability to perceive God that changes.
  • Kabbalah.eu 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC kabbalah.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Altogether 11 sephirot are named. However Keter and Daat are unconscious and conscious dimensions of one principle, conserving 10 forces. The names of the Sephirot in descending order are:
  • Keter (supernal crown, representing above-conscious will)
  • Chochmah (The highest potential of thought)
  • Binah (the understanding of the potential)
  • Daat (intellect of knowledge)
  • Chesed (sometimes referred to as Gedolah-greatness) (loving-kindness)
  • Gevurah (sometimes referred to as Din-justice or Pachad-fear) (severity/strength)
  • Rachamim also known as Tiphereth (Mercy)
  • Netzach (victory/eternity)
  • Hod (glory/splendour)
  • Yesod (foundation)
  • Malkuth (kingdom)

Ten Sephirot as process of ethics

.Divine creation by means of the Ten Sefirot is an ethical process.^ Ten Sefirot as process of Creation .
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^ Ten Sefirot as process of ethics .
  • Kabbalah.eu 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC kabbalah.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Divine creation by means of the Ten Sefirot is an ethical process.
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They Represent the different aspects of Morality. Loving-Kindness is a possible moral justification found in Chessed, and Gevurah is the Moral Justification of Justice and both are mediated by Mercy which is Rachamim. However, these pillars of morality become immoral once they become extremes. When Loving-Kindness become extreme it can lead to sexual depravity and lack of Justice to the wicked. When Justice becomes extreme, it can lead to torture and the Murder of innocents and unfair punishment.
."Righteous" humans (Tzadikim) ascend these ethical qualities of the Ten Sefirot by doing righteous actions.^ "Righteous" humans (Tzadikim) ascend these ethical qualities of the Ten Sefirot by doing righteous actions.
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^ While the Sefirot are based on these ten creative potentialities, it is especially the personification of wisdom ( ) which, in Philo, represents the totality of these primal ideas; and the Targ.

^ While the Sefirot are based on these ten creative "potentialities", it is especially the personification of wisdom which, in Philo , represents the totality of these primal ideas; and the Targ.
  • Kabbalah.eu 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC kabbalah.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If there were no "Righteous" humans, the blessings of God would become completely hidden, and creation would cease to exist.^ If there were no "Righteous" humans, the blessings of God would become completely hidden, and creation would cease to exist.
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^ There is no creature that can know or understand the nature of the thing called "hand" or "foot" or "ear" [of God] and the like.
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^ God creates and destroys worlds"), to become, finally, foundations of the philosophy of the "Sefer Yeẓirah."
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

While real human actions are the "Foundation" (Yesod) of this universe (Malchut), these actions must accompany the conscious intention of compassion. .Compassionate actions are often impossible without "Faith" (Emunah), meaning to trust that God always supports compassionate actions even when God seems hidden.^ Compassionate actions are often impossible without "Faith" (Emunah), meaning to trust that God always supports compassionate actions even when God seems hidden.
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^ That the faithful shall be even as Christ and the Father certainly implies human deification, and thereby plurality of gods.
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^ As we have seen, for Derrida, such self-presence is an impossibility even for God.
  • Derrida and the Lurianic Kabbalah by S. Drob 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.newkabbalah.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ultimately, it is necessary to show compassion toward oneself too in order to share compassion toward others.^ Ultimately, it is necessary to show compassion toward oneself too in order to share compassion toward others.
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^ Compassion inseparable from shuunyataa In shuunyataa there is no separate or independent I or self and therefore no real difference between I and other, who is none other than oneself.
  • Correspondence Indian Religion-Philosophy and Jewish Mysticism 17 September 2009 9:42 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This "selfish" enjoyment of God's blessings but only if in order to empower oneself to assist others, is an important aspect of "Restriction", and is considered a kind of golden mean in Kabbalah, corresponding to the Sefirah of "Adornment" (Tiferet) being part of the "Middle Column".
.Moses ben Jacob Cordovero, wrote a book, Tomer Devorah (Palm Tree of Deborah), in which he presents an ethical teaching of Judaism in the kabbalistic context of the Ten Sefirot.^ The more likely possibility is Bahya ben Asher ben Hlava, a thirteenth-century kabbalist who wrote Kad ha-Kemah , a widely circulated book on the foundations of faith ( EJ 4:104-5).
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Tomer Devorah, as a consequence, has become also a foundational text of Mussar.[18]

Human soul in Kabbalah

The Kabbalah posits that the human soul has three elements, the nefesh, ru'ach, and neshamah. .The nefesh is found in all humans, and enters the physical body at birth.^ The nefesh is found in all humans, and enters the physical body at birth.
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^ Deification means to abandon the physical body and for the mind to ascend and again become part of God's Mind; 36 both God and the divine part of humans are incorporeal.
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^ Charles's note.-K.] and of its close relation to God before it enters the human body-a doctrine taught by the Hellenistic sages (Wisdom viii.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is the source of one's physical and psychological nature.^ It is the source of one's physical and psychological nature.
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.The next two parts of the soul are not implanted at birth, but can be developed over time; their development depends on the actions and beliefs of the individual.^ The next two parts of the soul are not implanted at birth, but can be developed over time; their development depends on the actions and beliefs of the individual.
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^ This part of the soul is provided at birth and allows one to have some awareness of the existence and presence of God.
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^ The belief that such actions would hasten the Messianic time grew until it took concrete form in the appearance of Shabbethai Ẓebi, about 1665.

.They are said to only fully exist in people awakened spiritually.^ They are said to only fully exist in people awakened spiritually.
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^ I am surrounded by foolish people who nag me for imaginary blessings, who tell me problems only they themselves can correct.
  • The Last Temptation of a Kabbalist 9 October 2009 8:46 UTC www.hasidicstories.com [Source type: Original source]

A common way of explaining the three parts of the soul is as follows:
  • Nefesh (נפש): the lower part, or "animal part", of the soul. .It is linked to instincts and bodily cravings.
  • Ruach (רוח): the middle soul, the "spirit". It contains the moral virtues and the ability to distinguish between good and evil.
  • Neshamah (נשמה): the higher soul, or "super-soul". This separates man from all other life-forms.^ Early Man) Point of conclusion of Olam Hazeh , which is where the conclusion of the Kav of the Einsof is, which is where is the middle point of all the worlds .
    • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

    It is related to the intellect, and allows man to enjoy and benefit from the afterlife. This part of the soul is provided at birth and allows one to have some awareness of the existence and presence of God.
.The Raaya Meheimna, a section of related teachings spread throughout the Zohar, discusses fourth and fifth parts of the human soul, the chayyah and yehidah (first mentioned in the Midrash Rabbah).^ Medrash Neelam (Neibaur 221b, Owens 192): Midrash ha-Nelam is a principal section of the Zohar , the kabbalistic collection of esoteric teachings in the Torah written in the fourteenth century ( EJ 16:1196).
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^ This unfamiliarity with both the primary and secondary sources may in part explain the numerous errors that occur throughout his article (discussed below).
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^ This is witnessed throughout the Zohar and appears clearly in the following paragraph from the opening sections of the work, 151 where the phrase "Let us make man" (Gen.
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.Gershom Scholem writes that these "were considered to represent the sublimest levels of intuitive cognition, and to be within the grasp of only a few chosen individuals". The Chayyah and the Yechidah do not enter into the body like the other three—thus they received less attention in other sections of the Zohar.^ The passage from the Zohar cited by Owens before the ellipses is, in fact, a digression within a digression, referring back to the original theme of the entire section of the commentary, Genesis 1:26.
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^ Are we really to believe that Joseph selected only these items from the Zohar for which he himself provided biblical support, ignoring these and many other ideas that are unique to that document?
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^ Why is it that not a single one of these appears in the writings of Joseph Smith or other early Latter-day Saints?
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  • Chayyah (חיה): The part of the soul that allows one to have an awareness of the divine life force itself.
  • Yehidah (יחידה): the highest plane of the soul, in which one can achieve as full a union with God as is possible.
.Both rabbinic and kabbalistic works posit that there are a few additional, non-permanent states of the soul that people can develop on certain occasions.^ Elsewhere Owens asserts that "there must have been more than a few" people in frontier New York who had been influenced by the hermetic, kabbalistic, and alchemical traditions (p.
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^ Neibaur "probably both possessed the [kabbalistic] texts and had a general knowledge of their contents" and "had access to the works he quoted" (p.
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^ Occasional non-Neoplatonic forms of mysticism are found among kabbalists—see Moshe Idel, The Mystical Experience in Abraham Abulafia (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988).
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These extra souls, or extra states of the soul, play no part in any afterlife scheme, but are mentioned for completeness:
  • Ruach HaKodesh (רוח הקודש) ("spirit of holiness"): a state of the soul that makes prophecy possible. .Since the age of classical prophecy passed, no one (outside of Israel) receives the soul of prophesy any longer.^ Since the age of classical prophecy passed, no one (outside of Israel) receives the soul of prophesy any longer.
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    ^ Prophet Joseph, since "empirical psychological realities" include events that have no ontological basis outside human brain chemistry.
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    ^ But as these last two elements no longer form part of the spiritual nature of man, they are not included in the divisions of the soul.

    See the teachings of Abraham Abulafia for differing views of this matter.
  • Neshamah Yeseira: The "supplemental soul" that a Jew can experience on Shabbat. .It makes possible an enhanced spiritual enjoyment of the day.^ It makes possible an enhanced spiritual enjoyment of the day.
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    This exists only when one is observing Shabbat; it can be lost and gained depending on one's observance.
  • Neshamah Kedosha: Provided to Jews at the age of maturity (13 for boys, 12 for girls), and is related to the study and fulfillment of the Torah commandments. It exists only when one studies and follows Torah; it can be lost and gained depending on one's study and observance.

Tzimtzum

Metaphorical representation of Divine emanation of successively constricted Olamot (spiritual Worlds) within the surrounding Ein Sof (Divine Infinity)
Tzimtzum is the primordial cosmic act whereby God "contracted" his infinite light, leaving a "void" into which the light of existence was poured. .This new doctrine of Isaac Luria in the 16th century gave a new organisation of the previous Second-Temple and Medieval Kabbalistic concepts of Angelic hierarchies and descending Worlds.^ Owens claims that "the Adam-God doctrine may have been a misreading (or restatement) by Brigham Young of a Kabbalistic and Hermetic concept relayed to him by the prophet [Joseph Smith]" (p.
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The primal emanation after the Tzimtzum in Lurianic Kabbalah led to an initial catastrophy called "Tohu" (Chaos). This was reformed into "Tikkun" (Rectification) of our spiritual realms, described in previous Kabbalah, becoming Atzilut (the World of Emanation), from which the three lower Worlds, Beriah, Yetzirah and Asiyah, descended. This corresponds to the reorganisation of the Sephirot into the Partsufim described in previous Kabbalah. The Tzimtzum reconciles the infinite simplicity of the Ein Sof with the finite plurality of Creation. From the subsequent catastrophe stems the possibility of self-aware Creation, and also the Kelipot (impure "shells" in Medieval Kabbalah).

Mystical forms of Scriptural and Rabbinic exegesis

.Kabbalah teaches that every Hebrew letter, word, number, even the accent on words of the Hebrew Bible contains a hidden sense; and it teaches the methods of interpretation for ascertaining these meanings.^ The word is indeed in a plural Hebrew form, but by the orthodox interpretative conventions Joseph was taught in his Kirtland Hebrew class .
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^ I will go to the very first Hebrew word—BERESHITH—in the Bible and make a comment on the first sentence of the history of creation: "In the beginning.
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^ Note also the existence of a large number of Aramaic Targums, translations of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic; see Stephan A. Kaufman, "Aramaic," in The Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed.
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One such method is as follows:
.As early as the 1st Century B.C. Jews believed that the Torah (first five books of the Hebrew Bible) and wider canonical texts contained encoded messages and hidden meanings.^ Early Man) The first world which emerged after the 1st restriction and is receiving from the Einsof and extending from it up to Olam Hazeh .
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The first was the christological speculations of a number of Jewish converts who are known to us from the end of the 13th century until the period of the Spanish expulsion [of the Jews]."
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^ Traditional Jewish education in Europe at the turn of the nineteenth century began with the Heder (primary school), for students from about age five to thirteen, in which Hebrew, the Torah, and introductory Mishnah were taught.
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Gematria is one method for discovering its hidden meanings. .Each letter in Hebrew also represents a number; Hebrew, unlike many other languages, never developed a separate numerical alphabet.^ Tet 9 (the numerical value of the Hebrew letter Tet ).
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^ Zayin 7 (the numerical value of the Hebrew letter Zayin ).
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Vav 6 (the numerical value of the Hebrew letter Vav ).
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

By converting letters to numbers, Kabbalists were able to find a hidden meaning in each word. .This method of interpretation was used extensively by various schools.^ This method of interpretation was used extensively by various schools.
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Primary texts

Title page of first printed edition of the Zohar, main sourcebook of Kabbalah, from Mantua Italy in 1558
.Like the rest of the Rabbinic literature, the texts of Kabbalah were once part of an ongoing oral tradition, though, over the centuries, much of the oral tradition has been written down.^ Furthermore, according to traditional kabbalistic practice, initiates into the mysteries of Kabbalah were to be at least thirty years old and well versed in rabbinic literature.
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^ This text is part of a group of esoteric and alchemical works associated with Jabir ibn Hayyan (Latin: Geber) dating to the ninth—not the first—century.
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^ Although some Christian kabbalists did indeed merge hermeticism with Kabbalah in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, traditional Jewish kabbalists were not greatly influenced by Christian hermeticism.
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Jewish forms of esotericism existed over 2,000 years ago. Ben Sira(born c. .170 B.C.) warns against it, saying: "You shall have no business with secret things".[19] Nonetheless, mystical studies were undertaken and resulted in mystical literature, the first being the Apocalyptic literature of the second and first pre-Christian centuries and which contained elements that carried over to later Kabbalah.^ There is another model of mystical experience [besides the unio mystica and henosis typical of Neoplatonism and Kabbalah] that is germane to [early] Jewish and later Christian apocalyptic as well as to the Hekhalot sources, a model that from its own vantage point involves the narrowing of the gap between human and divine.
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^ Indeed, as noted above, the study of the Zohar was decreasing in both Christian and Jewish circles in the late eighteenth century, at which time "students of the Zohar declined in number, and the Kabbalah became once more, particularly in the East, a secret doctrine confined to restricted circles."
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^ Although some Christian kabbalists did indeed merge hermeticism with Kabbalah in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, traditional Jewish kabbalists were not greatly influenced by Christian hermeticism.
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.Throughout the centuries since, many texts have been produced, among them the ancient descriptions of Sefer Yetzirah, the Heichalot mystical ascent literature, the Bahir, Sefer Raziel HaMalakh and the Zohar, the main text of Kabbalistic exegesis.^ Living in the 21st century and basing one's worldview on ancient and outmoded texts of dubious authorship is a threat to the entire planet.
  • Kabbalist Blames Bird Flu on Gay Marriage - Towleroad, More than gay news. More gay men 9 October 2009 8:46 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: General]

^ This is very odd, since the Zohar —the kabbalistic text Owens claims Joseph quoted "almost word for word" (p.
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^ For the kabbalistic understanding of emanation, see The Wisdom of the Zohar: An Anthology of Texts , ed.
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Classic mystical Bible commentaries are included in fuller versions of the Mikraot Gedolot (Main Commentators). Cordoveran systemisation is presented in Pardes Rimonim, philosophical articulation in the works of the Maharal, and Lurianic rectification in Etz Chayim. Subsequent interpretation of Lurianic Kabbalah was made in the writings of Shalom Sharabi, in Nefesh HaChaim and the 20th century Sulam. Hasidism interpreted Kabbalistic structures to their correspondence in inward perception.[20] .The Hasidic development of Kabbalah incorporates a successive stage of Jewish mysticism from historical Kabbalistic metaphysics.^ Although some Christian kabbalists did indeed merge hermeticism with Kabbalah in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, traditional Jewish kabbalists were not greatly influenced by Christian hermeticism.
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^ Kabbalah, the "mystical shape of the Godhead' contained in the image of the [Tree of the] Sefiroth as redrawn by a principal and influential seventeenth-century Christian kabbalist, [Robert] Fludd" (p.
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[21]

Scholarship

.Because it is by definition esoteric, no popular account (including an encyclopedia) can provide a complete, precise, and accurate explanation of the Kabbalah.^ He provides no solid primary evidence to demonstrate that Joseph Smith had a profound knowledge of the esoteric traditions.
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.However, a number of scholars from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, including Gershom Scholem, Joseph Dan, Yehuda Liebes, Rachel Elior, and Moshe Idel,[22] as well as some from other locations, such as Arthur Green and Daniel Matt,[23] have made Kabbalist texts objects of modern scholarly scrutiny.^ If Owens wishes to argue that such esoteric texts were accessible on the frontier of the United States it is his responsibility to provide some evidence.
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^ This is very odd, since the Zohar —the kabbalistic text Owens claims Joseph quoted "almost word for word" (p.
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^ On the Sabbatean movement, the standard study is Gershom G. Scholem, Sabbetai Sevi: The Mystical Messiah, 1626-1676 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973).
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.Some scholars, notably Gershom Scholem and Martin Buber, have argued that modern Hassidic Judaism represents a popularization of the Kabbalah.^ Gershom G. Scholem, Origins of Kabbalah (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987).
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^ Gershom G. Scholem, Kabbalah (New York: Quadrangle, 1974), 197.
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^ Gershom Scholem, On the Kabbalah and Its Symbolism (New York: Schocken, 1996), 115.
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[24] .According to its adherents, intimate understanding and mastery of the Kabbalah brings one spiritually closer to God and enriches one's experience of Jewish sacred texts and law.^ For Owens it seems a prophet is one who has a transcendent psychological experience with God, and revelations are the intuitions about life and the universe one derives from such experiences.
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Claims for authority

Historians have noted that most claims for the authority of Kabbalah involve an argument of the antiquity of authority (see, e.g., Joseph Dan's discussion in his Circle of the Unique Cherub). .As a result, virtually all works pseudepigraphically claim, or are ascribed, ancient authorship.^ But nearly all other alchemical works ascribed to Albertus are pseudepigraphic.
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For example, Sefer Raziel HaMalach, an astro-magical text partly based on a magical manual of late antiquity, Sefer ha-Razim, was, according to the kabbalists, transmitted to Adam by the angel Raziel after he was evicted from Eden.
Another famous work, the Sefer Yetzirah, supposedly dates back to the patriarch Abraham. .This tendency toward pseudepigraphy has its roots in Apocalyptic literature, which claims that esoteric knowledge such as magic, divination and astrology was transmitted to humans in the mythic past by the two angels, Aza and Azaz'el (in other places, Azaz'el and Uzaz'el) who 'fell' from heaven (see Genesis 6:4).^ Nay more, Uzza and Azael [two angels, who eventually fell] actually opposed it [the creation of Adam].
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^ Owens is completely uncritical in his assertions about the potential of Freemasonry to transmit esoteric knowledge to Joseph.
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Criticism

Dualism

Although Kabbalah propounds the Unity of God, one of the most serious and sustained criticisms is that it may lead away from monotheism, and instead promote dualism, the belief that there is a supernatural counterpart to God. .The dualistic system holds that there is a good power versus an evil power.^ The dualistic system holds that there is a good power versus an evil power.
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^ The whole dualistic system of good and of evil powers, which goes back to Zoroastrianism and ultimately to old Chaldea, can be traced through Gnosticism; having influenced the cosmology of the ancient Cabala before it reached the medieval one.
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^ When Noga receives the light in its good part, there is a bestowal of the light on its evil part as well.
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

.There are two primary models of Gnostic-dualistic cosmology: the first, which goes back to Zoroastrianism, believes creation is ontologically divided between good and evil forces; the second, found largely in Greco-Roman ideologies like Neo-Platonism, believes the universe knew a primordial harmony, but that a cosmic disruption yielded a second, evil, dimension to reality.^ When Noga receives the light in its good part, there is a bestowal of the light on its evil part as well.
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Two levels between which there is no equivalence of form , from no side whatsoever.
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.This second model influenced the cosmology of the Kabbalah.^ This second model influenced the cosmology of the Kabbalah.
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.According to Kabbalistic cosmology, the Ten Sefirot correspond to ten levels of creation.^ Ten Sefirot as process of Creation .
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^ According to Kabbalistic cosmology, Ten Sefirot (literally, Ten Numerations) correspond to ten levels of creation.
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^ According to Kabbalistic cosmology, the Ten Sefirot correspond to ten levels of creation.
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.These levels of creation must not be understood as ten different "gods" but as ten different ways of revealing God, one per level.^ These levels of creation must not be understood as ten different "gods" but as ten different ways of revealing God, one per level.
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^ But if God is so different from his creation, how can there be any interaction between the Creator and the created?
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^ I also happen to think that in order to know what Creator wants one doesn't need humans The Torah's teachings differ.
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.It is not God who changes but the ability to perceive God that changes.^ It is not God who changes but the ability to perceive God that changes.
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.While God may seem to exhibit dual natures (masculine-feminine, compassionate-judgmental, creator-creation), all adherents of Kabbalah have consistently stressed the ultimate unity of God.^ While God may seem to exhibit dual natures (masculine-feminine, compassionate-judgmental, creator-creation), all adherents of Kabbalah have consistently stressed the ultimate unity of God.
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^ The last-named trinity of the Sefirot represents dynamic nature, namely, the masculine Neẓaḥ ( = "triumph"); and the feminine Hod ( = "glory"); the former standing for increase, and the latter for the force from which proceed all the forces produced in the universe.
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^ But only God is "creator ex nihilo": all intermediary beings create by means of the graduated emanation of what is contained in them potentially.
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.For example, in all discussions of Male and Female, the hidden nature of God exists above it all without limit, being called the Infinite or the "No End" (Ein Sof)—neither one nor the other, transcending any definition.^ There is no creature that can know or understand the nature of the thing called "hand" or "foot" or "ear" [of God] and the like.
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^ Therefore it [Crown = Keter = En Sof] says: "See now that I, I am he, and Elohim isnot with me', of which it should take counsel, since it has no colleague and no partner, nor even number, for there is a "one' which connotes combination, such as male and female, of whom it is written, "for I have called him one' (Is.
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^ Therefore the light of Chochma is called the light of life, Orh of Chaya , since the Kli has no Chayut other than with the light of Chochma .
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

The ability of God to become hidden from perception is called "Restriction" (Tzimtzum). .Hiddenness makes creation possible because God can become "revealed" in a diversity of limited ways, which then form the building blocks of creation.^ Hiddenness makes creation possible because God can become "revealed" in a diversity of limited ways, which then form the building blocks of creation.
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^ Hiddenness makes creation possible because God can then become "revealed" in a diversity of limited ways, which then form the building blocks of creation.
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^ God creates and destroys worlds"), to become, finally, foundations of the philosophy of the "Sefer Yeẓirah."
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later Kabbalistic works, including the Zohar, appear to more strongly affirm dualism, as they ascribe all evil to a supernatural force known as the Sitra Achra[25] ("the other side") that emanates from God.^ Partzufim) 10 Sefirot, one beneath the other, which appear by means of the ascent of Malchut to the Emanator.
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

The "left side" of divine emanation is a negative mirror image of the "side of holiness" with which it was locked in combat. [Encyclopaedia Judaica, Volume 6, "Dualism", p. 244]. While this evil aspect exists within the divine structure of the Sefirot, the Zohar indicates that the Sitra Ahra has no power over Ein Sof, and only exists as a necessary aspect of the creation of God to give man free choice, and that evil is the consequence of this choice. .It is not a supernatural force opposed to God, but a reflection of the inner moral combat within mankind between the dictates of morality and the surrender to one's basic instincts.^ When two spiritual entities are completely equal in form , with no difference whatsoever between them, they return to be one, and the small one is cancelled out within the large one.
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Rabbi Dr. David Gottlieb notes that many Kabbalists hold that the concepts of, e.g., a Heavenly Court or the Sitra Ahra are only given to humanity by God as a working model to understand His ways within our own epistemological limits. They reject the notion that a Satan or angels actually exist. Others hold that non-divine spiritual entities were indeed created by God as a means for exacting his will.
According to Kabbalists, humans cannot yet understand the infinity of God. Rather, there is God as revealed to humans (corresponding to Zeir Anpin), and the rest of the infinity of God as remaining hidden from human experience (corresponding to Arich Anpin[26]). One reading of this theology is monotheistic, similar to panentheism; another a reading of the same theology is that it is dualistic. Gershom Scholem writes:
It is clear that with this postulate of an impersonal basic reality in God, which becomes a person—or appears as a person—only in the process of Creation and Revelation, Kabbalism abandons the personalistic basis of the Biblical conception of God....It will not surprise us to find that speculation has run the whole gamut—from attempts to re-transform the impersonal En-Sof into the personal God of the Bible to the downright heretical doctrine of a genuine dualism between the hidden Ein Sof and the personal Demiurge of Scripture.
 — Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism Shocken Books (p.11–12)

Perception of non-Jews

Theologically framed hostility may have been a response to some medieval demonization of Jews which developed in some parts of Western and Christian society and thought, starting with the Patristic writings.[27] According to Isaac Luria and other commentators on the Zohar, righteous Gentiles don't have this demonic aspect and are in many ways similar to Jewish souls. A number of prominent Kabbalists, e.g. Rabbi Pinchas Eliyahu of Vilna, the author of Sefer ha-Brit, held that only some marginal elements in the humanity represent these demonic forces. On the other hand, the souls of Jewish heretics have much more satanic energy, than the worst of idol worshippers; this view is popular in some Hasidic circles, especially Satmar Hasidim.
Some later Kabbalistic works build and elaborate on these ideas. One point of view is represented by the Hasidic work Tanya, which stresses the uniqueness of the Jewish soul,[citation needed] in order to argue that Jews have an additional level of soul. While a non-Jew, according to Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, can achieve a high level of spiritually, similar to an angel, his soul is still fundamentally different in character, but not value, from a Jewish one.[28] A similar view is found in Yehuda Halevi's medieval philosophical book Kuzari.
On the other hand, many prominent Kabbalists rejected this idea and believed in essential equality of all human souls. Menahem Azariah da Fano, in his book Reincarnations of souls, provides many examples of non-Jewish Biblical figures being reincarnated into Jews, and visa versa; the contemporary Habad Rabbi and mystic Dov Ber Pinson teaches that seemingly discriminatory statements in the Tanya and other Kabbalistic works are not to be understood literally.[29]
Another prominent Habad Rabbi, Abraham Yehudah Khein, believed that spiritually elevated Gentiles have essentially Jewish souls, "who just lack the formal conversion to Judaism", and that unspiritual Jews are "Jewish merely by their birth documents".[30] The great 20th century Kabbalist Yehuda Ashlag viewed the terms "Jews" and "Gentile" as different levels of perception, available to every human soul.
David Halperin[31] argues that the collapse of Kabbalah's influence among Western European Jews over the course of the 17th and 18th Century was a result of the cognitive dissonance they experienced between the negative perception of gentiles found in some exponents of Kabbalah, and their own positive dealings with non-Jews, which were rapidly expanding and improving during this period due to the influence of the Enlightenment.
For a different perspective, see Wolfson.[32] He provides extensive documentation to illustrate the prevalence of the distinction between the souls of Jews and non-Jews in kabbalistic literature. He provides numerous examples from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries, which would challenge the view of Halperin cited above as well as the notion that "modern Judaism" has rejected or dismissed this "outdated aspect" of the religion. There are still kabbalists today, and many influenced by them, who harbor this view. It is accurate to say that many Jews do and would find this distinction offensive, but it is inaccurate to say that the idea has been totally rejected. As Wolfson has argued, it is an ethical demand on the part of scholars to be vigilant with regard to this matter and in this way the tradition can be refined from within.
.However, as explained above, many well known Kabbalists rejected the literal interpretation of these seemingly discriminatory views.^ Literal interpretations of religious texts always lead to insane comments like these.
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They argued that the term "Jew" was to be interpreted metaphorically, as referring to the spiritual development of the soul, rather than the superficial denomination of the individual, and they added a chain of intermediary states between "Jews" and idol worshippers, or spiritualized the very definition of "Jews" and "non-Jews" and argued that a soul can be re-incarnated in different communities as much as within a single one.[33]

Orthodox Judaism

.The idea that there are ten divine sefirot could evolve over time into the idea that "God is One being, yet in that One being there are Ten" which opens up a debate about what the "correct beliefs" in God should be, according to Judaism.^ The idea that there are ten divine sefirot could evolve over time into the idea that "God is One being, yet in that One being there are Ten" which opens up a debate about what the "correct beliefs" in God should be, according to Judaism.
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^ There this Aviut is clarified and corrected by means of attaining the screen from the Upper One .
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^ There are three options: Neibaur had read kabbalistic texts and simply told Joseph about some of the ideas found therein; Neibaur read kabbalistic texts to or with Joseph; Neibaur introduced Joseph to the texts, which Joseph read and interpreted on his own.
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Rabbi Saadia Gaon teaches in his book Emunot v'Deot that Jews who believe in reincarnation have adopted a non-Jewish belief.
Nachmanides (12th Century) provides background to many Kabbalistic ideas. His works, especially those in the Five books of Moses (Pentateuch) offer in-depth of various concepts.
Maimonides (12th Century) rejected many of the texts of the Hekalot, particularly Shi'ur Qomah whose starkly anthropomorphic vision of God he considered heretical.
Rabbi Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, in the spirit of his father Maimonides, Rabbi Saadiah Gaon, and other predecessors, explains at length in his book Milhhamot HaShem that the Almighty is in no way literally within time or space nor physically outside time or space, since time and space simply do not apply to His Being whatsoever. This is in contrast to certain popular understandings of modern Kabbalah which teach a form of panentheism, that His 'essence' is within everything.
Around the 1230s, Rabbi Meir ben Simon of Narbonne wrote an epistle (included in his Milhhemet Mitzvah) against his contemporaries, the early Kabbalists, characterizing them as blasphemers who even approach heresy. He particularly singled out the Sefer Bahir, rejecting the attribution of its authorship to the tanna R. Nehhunya ben ha-Kanah and describing some of its content as truly heretical.
Rabbi Yitzchak ben Sheshet Perfet, (The Rivash), 1326–1408. Although as is evident from his responsa on the topic (157) the Rivash was skeptical of certain interpretations of Kabbalah popular in his time, it is equally evident that overall he did accept Kabbalah as received Jewish wisdom, and attempted to defend it from attackers. To this end he cited and rejected a certain philosopher who claimed that Kabbalah was "worse than Christianity", as it made God into 10, not just into three. Most followers of Kabbalah have never followed this interpretation of Kabbalah, on the grounds that the concept of the Christian Trinity posits that there are three persons existing within the Godhead, one of whom became a human being.[citation needed] In contrast, the mainstream understanding of the Kabbalistic Sefirot holds that they have no mind or intelligence; further, they are not addressed in prayer and they cannot become a human being. They are conduits for interaction, not persons or beings. Nonetheless, many important poskim, such as Maimonidies in his work Mishneh Torah, prohibit any use of mediators between oneself and the Creator as a form of idolatry.
Rabbi Leone di Modena, a 17th century Venetian critic of Kabbalah, wrote that if we were to accept the Kabbalah, then the Christian trinity would indeed be compatible with Judaism, as the Trinity closely resembles the Kabbalistic doctrine of the Sefirot. This critique was in response to the knowledge that some European Jews of the period addressed individual Sefirot in some of their prayers, although the practise was apparently uncommon. Apologists explain that Jews may have been praying for and not necessarily to the aspects of Godliness represented by the Sefirot.
Rabbi Yaakov Emden, 1697–1776, wrote the book Mitpahhath Sfarim (Veil of the Books), a detailed critique of the Zohar in which he concludes that certain parts of the Zohar contain heretical teaching and therefore could not have been written by Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai. Opponents of his work claim[citation needed] that he wrote the book in a drunken stupor. Emden's rationalistic approach to this work, however, makes neither intoxication nor stupor seem plausible.
Rabbi Yihhyah Qafahh, an early 20th century Yemenite Jewish leader and grandfather of Rabbi Yosef Qafih, also wrote a book entitled Milhhamoth HaShem, (Wars of the L-RD) against what he perceived as the false teachings of the Zohar and the false Kabbalah of Isaac Luria. He is credited with spearheading the Dor Daim who continue in R. Yihhyah Qafahh's view of Kabbalah into modern times.
Yeshayahu Leibowitz 1903–1994, brother of Nechama Leibowitz, though Modern Orthodox in his world view, publicly shared the views expressed in R. Yihhyah Qafahh's book Milhhamoth HaShem and elaborated upon these views in his many writings.
There is dispute among modern Haredim as to the status of Isaac Luria's, the Arizal's kabbalistic teachings. While a portion of Modern Orthodox Rabbis, Dor Daim and many students of the Rambam, completely reject Arizal's Kabbalistic teachings, as well as deny that the Zohar is authoritative, or from Shimon bar Yohai, all three of these groups completely accept the existence and validity of Ma'aseh Merkavah and Ma'aseh B'resheet mysticism. Their only disagreement concerns whether the Kabbalistic teachings promulgated today are accurate representations of those esoteric teachings to which the Talmud refers. Within the Haredi Jewish community one can find both rabbis who sympathize with such a view,[citation needed] while not necessarily agreeing with it, as well as rabbis who consider such a view absolute heresy.

Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism

Since all forms of reform or liberal Judaism are rooted in the Enlightenment and tied to the assumptions of European modernity, Kabbalah tended to be rejected by most Jews in the Conservative and Reform movements, though its influences were not completely eliminated. .While it was generally not studied as a discipline, the Kabbalistic Kabbalat Shabbat service remained part of liberal liturgy, as did the Yedid Nefesh prayer.^ While it was generally not studied as a discipline, the Kabbalistic Kabbalat Shabbat service remained part of liberal liturgy, as did the Yedid Nefesh prayer.
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^ He developed a study method that he considered most fitting for the future generations of Kabbalists.
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Nevertheless, in the 1960s, Rabbi Saul Lieberman of the Jewish Theological Seminary, is reputed to have introduced a lecture by Scholem on Kabbalah with a statement that Kabbalah itself was "nonsense", but the academic study of Kabbalah was "scholarship". This view became popular among many Jews, who viewed the subject as worthy of study, but who did not accept Kabbalah as teaching literal truths.
According to Rabbi Bradley Shavit Artson (Dean of the Conservative Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies in the American Jewish University)
Many western Jews insisted that their future and their freedom required shedding what they perceived as parochial orientalism. They fashioned a Judaism that was decorous and strictly rational (according to 19th-century European standards), denigrating Kabbalah as backward, superstitious, and marginal.[34]
.However, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries there has been a revival in interest in Kabbalah in all branches of liberal Judaism.^ And, as Scholem notes, there was a "fervent assault on the Kabbalah by the Haskalah movement in the 19th century."
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^ Thus Joseph Smith was alive precisely during the period of the least influence of Kabbalah, hermeticism, and Rosicrucianism, all of which had seriously declined by the late eighteenth century—before Joseph's birth—and would revive only in the late nineteenth century, after Joseph's death.
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^ Was there an incipient heterodox hermetic religion in the United States in the early nineteenth century?
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The Kabbalistic 12th century prayer Anim Zemirot was restored to the new Conservative Sim Shalom siddur, as was the B'rikh Shmeh passage from the Zohar, and the mystical Ushpizin service welcoming to the Sukkah the spirits of Jewish forbearers. Anim Zemirot and the 16th Century mystical poem Lekhah Dodi reappeared in the Reform Siddur Gates of Prayer in 1975. All Rabbinical seminaries now teach several courses in Kabbalah—in Conservative Judaism, both the Jewish Theological Seminary and the Ziegler School of Rabbinical Studies of the University of Judaism in Los Angeles have fulltime instructors in Kabbalah and Hasidut, Eitan Fishbane and Pinchas Geller, respectively. In the Reform movement Sharon Koren teaches at the Hebrew Union College. Reform Rabbis like Herbert Weiner and Lawrence Kushner have renewed interest in Kabbalah among Reform Jews. At the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, the only accredited seminary that has curricular requirements in kabbalah, Joel Hecker is the fulltime instructor teaching courses in kabbalah and hasidut.
According to Artson:
Ours is an age hungry for meaning, for a sense of belonging, for holiness. In that search, we have returned to the very Kabbalah our predecessors scorned. The stone that the builders rejected has become the head cornerstone (Psalm 118:22)... Kabbalah was the last universal theology adopted by the entire Jewish people, hence faithfulness to our commitment to positive-historical Judaism mandates a reverent receptivity to Kabbalah.[35]
The Reconstructionist movement, under the leadership of Arthur Green in the 1980s and 1990s, and with the influence of Zalman Schachter Shalomi brought a strong openness to kabbalah and hasidic elements that then came to play prominent roles in the Kol ha-Neshamah siddur series.

History

Origins of Judaic mysticism

According to the traditional understanding, Kabbalah dates from Eden.[36] It came down from a remote past as a revelation to elect Tzadikim (righteous people), and, for the most part, was preserved only by a privileged few. Talmudic Judaism records its view of the proper protocol for teaching this wisdom, as well as many of its concepts, in the Talmud, Tractate Hagigah, Ch.2.
Contemporary scholarship suggests that various schools of Jewish esotericism arose at different periods of Jewish history, each reflecting not only prior forms of mysticism, but also the intellectual and cultural milieu of that historical period. Answers to questions of transmission, lineage, influence, and innovation vary greatly and cannot be easily summarized.

Origins of terms

Originally, Kabbalistic knowledge was believed to be an integral part of the Judaism's oral law (see also, Aggadah), given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai around 13th century BCE, though there is a view that Kabbalah began with Adam.
When the Israelites arrived at their destination and settled in Canaan, for a few centuries the esoteric knowledge was referred to by its aspect practice—meditation Hitbonenut (Hebrew: התבוננות‎),[37] Rebbe Nachman of Breslov's Hitbodedut (Hebrew: התבודדות‎), translated as “being alone” or “isolating oneself”, or by a different term describing the actual, desired goal of the practice—prophecy (“NeVu’aHebrew: נבואה‎).
During the 5th century BCE, when the works of the Tanakh were edited and canonized and the secret knowledge encrypted within the various writings and scrolls (“Megilot”), the knowledge was referred to as Ma'aseh Merkavah (Hebrew: מעשה מרכבה‎)[38] and Ma'aseh B'reshit (Hebrew: מעשה בראשית‎),[39] respectively "the act of the Chariot" and "the act of Creation". Merkavah mysticism alluded to the encrypted knowledge within the book of the prophet Ezekiel describing his vision of the "Divine Chariot". B'reshit mysticism referred to the first chapter of Genesis (Hebrew: בראשית‎) in the Torah that is believed to contain secrets of the creation of the universe and forces of nature. These terms are also mentioned in the second chapter of the Talmudic tractate Haggigah.

Mystic elements of the Torah

Ezekiel and Isaiah had prophetic visions of the angelic Chariot and Divine Throne. Later Kabbalah relates their narratives to the Four Worlds. In Judaism the only permitted images of angels was on the Ark of the Covenant
According to adherents of Kabbalah, its origin begins with secrets that God revealed to Adam. According to a rabbinic midrash[citation needed] God created the universe through the ten sefirot. When read by later generations of Kabbalists, the Torah's description of the creation in the Book of Genesis reveals mysteries about the godhead itself, the true nature of Adam and Eve, the Garden of Eden, the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and the Tree of Life, as well as the interaction of these supernal entities with the Serpent which leads to disaster when they eat the forbidden fruit, as recorded in Genesis 2.[35]
.The Bible provides ample additional material for mythic and mystical speculation.^ The Bible provides ample additional material for mythic and mystical speculation.
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^ Merkavah mysticism, theosophic-mythic speculation preserved in texts like Sefer ha-Bahir , and Neoplatonism."
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The prophet Ezekiel's visions in particular attracted much mystical speculation, as did Isaiah's Temple vision—Isaiah, Ch.6. Jacob's vision of the ladder to heaven provided another example of esoteric experience. Moses' encounters with the Burning bush and God on Mount Sinai are evidence of mystical events in the Tanakh that form the origin of Jewish mystical beliefs.
The 72 letter name of God which is used in Jewish mysticism for meditation purposes is derived from the Hebrew verbal utterance Moses spoke in the presence of an angel, while the Sea of Reeds parted, allowing the Hebrews to escape their approaching attackers. The miracle of the Exodus, which led to Moses receiving the Ten Commandments and the Jewish Orthodox view of the acceptance of the Torah at Mount Sinai, preceded the creation of the first Jewish nation approximately three hundred years before King Saul.

Mystical doctrines in the Talmudic era

Grave of Rabbi Akiva in Tiberias. He features in Hekhalot mystical literature, and as one of the four who entered the Pardes
The grave of Shimon bar Yochai in Meron before 1899. A Talmudic Tanna, he is the mystical teacher in the central Kabbalistic work, the Zohar
In early rabbinic Judaism (the early centuries of the first millennium CE), the terms Ma'aseh Bereshit ("Works of Creation") and Ma'aseh Merkabah ("Works of the Divine Throne/Chariot") clearly indicate the Midrashic nature of these speculations; they are really based upon Genesis 1 and Book of Ezekiel 1:4–28; while the names Sitrei Torah (Hidden aspects of the Torah) (Talmud Hag. 13a) and Razei Torah (Torah secrets) (Ab. vi. 1) indicate their character as secret lore. An additional term also expanded Jewish esoteric knowledge, namely Chochmah Nistara (Hidden wisdom).
Talmudic doctrine forbade the public teaching of esoteric doctrines and warned of their dangers. In the Mishnah (Hagigah 2:1), rabbis were warned to teach the mystical creation doctrines only to one student at a time.[40] To highlight the danger, in one Jewish aggadic ("legendary") anecdote, four prominent rabbis of the Mishnaic period (first century CE) are said to have visited the Orchard (that is, Paradise, pardes, Hebrew: פרדס lit., orchard):
Four men entered pardesBen Azzai, Ben Zoma, Acher (Elisha ben Abuyah),[41] and Akiba. Ben Azzai looked and died; Ben Zoma looked and went mad; Acher destroyed the plants; Akiba entered in peace and departed in peace.[42]
In notable readings of this legend, only Rabbi Akiba was fit to handle the study of mystical doctrines. The Tosafot, medieval commentaries on the Talmud, say that the four sages "did not go up literally, but it appeared to them as if they went up."[43] On the other hand, Rabbi Louis Ginzberg, writes in the Jewish Encyclopedia (1901–1906) that the journey to paradise "is to be taken literally and not allegorically".[44] For further analysis, see The Four Who Entered Paradise.

Middle Ages

The Medieval era began esoteric circles of Kabbalistic dissemination in French Provence, Andalusian Spain and Germany-Ashkenaz
The 13th century Nachmanides, a classic figure in Rabbinic theology, was an early exponent of Kabbalah
From the 8th–11th Century Sefer Yetzirah and Hekalot texts made their way into European Jewish circles. .Modern scholars have identified several mystical brotherhoods that functioned in Europe starting in the 12th Century.^ Modern scholars have identified several mystical brotherhoods that functioned in Europe starting in the 12th Century.
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^ Scholars generally date the beginning of this written literature to the 12th century, with additional "waves" in the 16th and early 19th centuries.
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^ Kabbalah -- which can be spelled with a K, C or Q -- is an ancient form of Jewish mysticism, which was formalized at the end of the 12th Century.
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Some, such as the "Iyyun Circle" and the "Unique Cherub Circle", were truly esoteric, remaining largely anonymous.
One well-known group was the "Hasidei Ashkenaz", (חסידי אשכנז) or German Pietists. This 13th Century movement arose mostly among a single scholarly family, the Kalonymus family of the French and German Rhineland.
There were certain rishonim ("Elder Sages") of exoteric Judaism who are known to have been experts in Kabbalah. One of the best known is Nahmanides (the Ramban) (1194–1270) whose commentary on the Torah is considered to be based on Kabbalistic knowledge. Bahya ben Asher (the Rabbeinu Behaye) (d. 1340) also combined Torah commentary and Kabbalah. Another was Isaac the Blind (1160–1235), the teacher of Nahmanides, who is widely argued to have written the first work of classic Kabbalah, the Bahir.
Sefer Bahir and another work, the "Treatise of the Left Emanation", probably composed in Spain by Isaac ben Isaac ha-Kohen, laid the groundwork for the composition of Sefer Zohar, written by Moses de Leon and his mystical circle at the end of the 13th Century, but credited to the Talmudic sage Shimon bar Yochai, cf. Zohar. .The Zohar proved to be the first truly "popular" work of Kabbalah, and the most influential.^ The Zohar proved to be the first truly "popular" work of Kabbalah, and the most influential.
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^ The Zohar, illustrious light, is a work of Kabbalah.
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^ Sort by: Popularity: Most popular first .

From the thirteenth century onward, Kabbalah began to be widely disseminated and it branched out into an extensive literature. Historians in the nineteenth century, for example, Heinrich Graetz, argued that the emergence into public view of Jewish esotericism at this time coincides with, and represents a response to, the rising influence of the rationalist philosophy of Maimonides and his followers. Gershom Scholem sought to undermine this view as part of his resistance to seeing kabbalah as merely a response to medieval Jewish rationalism. Arguing for a gnostic influence has to be seen as part of this strategy. More recently, Moshe Idel and Elliot Wolfson have independently argued that the impact of Maimonides can be seen in the change from orality to writing in the thirteenth century. That is, kabbalists committed to writing many of their oral traditions in part as a response to the attempt of Maimonides to explain the older esoteric subjects philosophically.
Most Orthodox Jews reject the idea that Kabbalah underwent significant historical development or change such as has been proposed above. After the composition known as the Zohar was presented to the public in the 13th century, the term "Kabbalah" began to refer more specifically to teachings derived from, or related, to the Zohar. At an even later time, the term began to generally be applied to Zoharic teachings as elaborated upon by Isaac Luria Arizal. Historians generally date the start of Kabbalah as a major influence in Jewish thought and practice with the publication of the Zohar and climaxing with the spread of the Arizal's teachings. The majority of Haredi Jews accept the Zohar as the representative of the Ma'aseh Merkavah and Ma'aseh B'reshit that are referred to in Talmudic texts.[45]

Early Modern era: Lurianic Kabbalah

The mystical community in 16th century Safed invigorated wider Judaism with its Cordoveran synthesis and Lurianic reorganisation
Following the upheavals and dislocations in the Jewish world as a result of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, and the trauma of Anti-Semitism during the Middle Ages, Jews began to search for signs of when the long-awaited Jewish Messiah would come to comfort them in their painful exiles. Moses Cordovero and his immediate circle popularized the teachings of the Zohar which had until then been only a modestly influential work. The author of the Shulkhan Arukh (the Jewish "Code of Law"), Rabbi Yosef Karo (1488–1575), was also a great scholar of Kabbalah and spread its teachings during this era.
As part of that "search for meaning" in their lives, Kabbalah received its biggest boost in the Jewish world with the explication of the Kabbalistic teachings of Rabbi Isaac Luria (1534–1572) by his disciples Rabbi Hayim Vital and Rabbi Israel Sarug, both of whom published Luria's teachings (in variant forms) gaining them widespread popularity. Luria's teachings came to rival the influence of the Zohar and Luria stands, alongside Moses de Leon, as the most influential mystic in Jewish history.

Ban against studying Kabbalah

The ban against studying Kabbalah was lifted by the efforts of the sixteenth century Kabbalist Rabbi Avraham Azulai (1570–1643).
I have found it written that all that has been decreed Above forbidding open involvement in the Wisdom of Truth [Kabbalah] was [only meant for] the limited time period until the year 5,250 (1490 C.E.). .From then on after is called the "Last Generation", and what was forbidden is [now] allowed.^ We know now that the Rebbe stated that we are the last generation of Galus and the first generation of Geulah.
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^ From then on after is called the "Last Generation", and what was forbidden is [now] allowed.
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.And permission is granted to occupy ourselves in the [study of] Zohar.^ And permission is granted to occupy ourselves in the [study of] Zohar.
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.And from the year 5,300 (1540 C.E.) it is most desirable that the masses both those great and small [in Torah], should occupy themselves [in the study of Kabbalah], as it says in the Raya M'hemna [a section of the Zohar].^ With the advent of the Zohar , the study of Kabbalah spread among the masses of the people.
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^ And from the year 5,300 (1540 C.E.) it is most desirable that the masses both those great and small [in Torah], should occupy themselves [in the study of Kabbalah], as it says in the Raya M'hemna [a section of the Zohar].
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^ Tthe Gemorrah section of the Talmud- Rabbinical is one part of the Tanakh) The Zohar is actually just one of many books in the Kabbalah and is just 1)The Torah is the most important- but the Torah is in two parts- the Written Torah (the Five books of Moses) and the Oral...
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And because in this merit King Mashiach will come in the future—and not in any other merit—it is not proper to be discouraged [from the study of Kabbalah]. (Rabbi Avraham Azulai)[46]
The question however is whether the ban ever existed in the first place. Concerning the above quote by Avraham Azulai, it has found many versions in English, another is this
From the year 1540 and onward, the basic levels of Kabbalah must be taught publicly to everyone, young and old. Only through Kabbalah will we forever eliminate war, destruction, and man's inhumanity to his fellow man.[47]
The lines concerning 1490 are also missing from the Hebrew edition of Hesed L'Avraham, the source work that both of these quote from. Furthermore by Azulai's view the ban was lifted thirty years before his birth. A time that would have corresponded with Rabbi Haim Vital's publication of the teaching of Isaac Luria. Furthermore Rabbi Moshe Isserles only understood there to be a minor restriction, in his words "One's belly must be full of meat and wine, discerning between the prohibited and the permitted."[48] He is supported by the Bier Hetiv, the Pithei Teshuva as well as the Vilna Gaon. The Vilna Gaon says,
There was never any ban or enactment restricting the study of the wisdom of Kabbalah. Any who says there is has never studied Kabblah, has never seen PaRDeS, and speaks as an ignoramous.[49]
Thus leaving the existence of a ban to be highly debated.

Sefardi and Mizrahi

The Kabbalah of the Sefardi (Portuguese or Spanish) and Mizrahi (African/Asian) Torah scholars has a long history. .Kabbalah in various forms was widely studied, commented upon, and expanded by North African, Turkish, Yemenite, and Asian scholars from the 16th Century onward.^ Kabbalah in various forms was widely studied, commented upon, and expanded by North African, Turkish, Yemenite, and Asian scholars from the 16th Century onward.
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^ Century C.E., but there is a suspicion that the Biblical phenomenon of prophecy may have been grounded in a much older oral tradition which was a precursor to the earliest recognisable forms of Kabbalah.
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^ Scholars generally date the beginning of this written literature to the 12th century, with additional "waves" in the 16th and early 19th centuries.
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It flourished among Sefardic Jews in Tzfat (Safed), Israel even before the arrival of Isaac Luria, its most famous resident. The great Yosef Karo, author of the Shulchan Arukh was part of the Tzfat school of Kabbalah. Shlomo Alkabetz, author of the famous hymn Lekhah Dodi, taught there.
His disciple Moses ben Jacob Cordovero authored Sefer Pardes Rimonim, an organized, exhaustive compilation of kabbalistic teachings on a variety of subjects up to that point. Rabbi Cordovero headed the Academy of Tzfat until his death, when Isaac Luria, also known as the Ari, rose to prominence. .Rabbi Moshe's disciple Eliyahu De Vidas authored the classic work, Reishit Chochma, combining kabbalistic and mussar (moral) teachings.^ Rabbi Moshe's disciple Eliyahu De Vidas authored the classic work, Reishit Chochma , combining kabbalistic and mussar (moral) teachings.
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^ Rabbi Moshe's disciple Eliyahu De Vidas authored the classic work, Reishit Chochma, combining kabbalistic and mussar (moral) teachings.
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^ Rabbi Elijah of Vilna (Vilna Gaon) (1720-1797), based in Lithuania, had his teachings encoded and publicized by his disciples such as by Rabbi Chaim Volozhin who published the mystical-ethical work Nefesh HaChaim.
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Chaim Vital also studied under Rabbi Cordovero, but with the arrival of Rabbi Luria became his main disciple. .Vital claimed to be the only one authorized to transmit the Ari's teachings, though other disciples also published books presenting Luria's teachings.^ Vital claimed to be the only one authorized to transmit the Ari's teachings, though other disciples also published books presenting Luria's teachings.
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^ As part of that "search for meaning" in their lives, Kabbalah received its biggest boost in the Jewish world with the explication of the Kabbalistic teachings of Rabbi Isaac Luria (1534-1572) by his disciples Rabbi Hayim Vital and Rabbi Israel Sarug , both of whom published Luria's teachings (in variant forms) gaining them wide-spread popularity.
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^ As part of that "search for meaning" in their lives, Kabbalah received its biggest boost in the Jewish world when the explication of the Kabbalistic teachings of Rabbi Isaac Luria (1534-1572), by his disciple Rabbi Chaim Vital who published the Luria's teachings, gained wide-spread popularity.

Maharal

The 16th century Maharal of Prague articulated a mystical exegesis in philosophical language
.One of the most important teachers of Kabbalah recognized as an authority by all serious scholars up until the present time, was Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel (1525–1609) known as the Maharal of Prague.^ If you ever want to read one of the most moving religious treatises on homosexuality, do a serach on the writngs of Rabbi Harold Schulweiss.
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.Many of his written works survive and are studied for their deep Kabbalistic insights.^ Many of his written works survive and are studied for their deep Kabbalistic insights.
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^ Frequently leading Rabbinic authorities inveighed against this popular absorption in Kabbalistic studies which fed many superstitions and aberrations.
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^ Since the Zohar was written, most Kabbalistic works assume that Jewish and non-Jewish souls are fundamentally different.
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The Maharal is, perhaps, most famous outside of Jewish mysticism for the legends of the golem of Prague, which he reportedly created. During the twentieth century, Rabbi Isaac Hutner (1906–1980) continued to spread the Maharal's teachings indirectly through his own teachings and scholarly publications within the modern yeshiva world.

Failure of Sabbatian Mysticism

The spiritual and mystical yearnings of many Jews remained frustrated after the death of Rabbi Isaac Luria and his disciples and colleagues. No hope was in sight for many following the devastation and mass killings of the pogroms that followed in the wake the Chmielnicki Uprising (1648–1654), and it was at this time that a controversial scholar of the Kabbalah by the name of Sabbatai Zevi (1626–1676) captured the hearts and minds of the Jewish masses of that time with the promise of a newly-minted "Messianic" Millennialism in the form of his own personage.
.His charisma, mystical teachings that included repeated pronunciations of the holy Tetragrammaton in public, tied to an unstable personality, and with the help of his own "prophet" Nathan of Gaza, convinced the Jewish masses that the "Jewish Messiah" had finally come.^ In the days leading up to the march, some ultraorthodox Jewish leaders condemned the public expression of homosexuality as "ugly" and unsuitable for the holy city.
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It seemed that the esoteric teachings of Kabbalah had found their "champion" and had triumphed, but this era of Jewish history unravelled when Zevi became an apostate to Judaism by converting to Islam after he was arrested by the Ottoman Sultan and threatened with execution for attempting a plan to conquer the world and rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem.
Many of his followers, known as Sabbateans, continued to worship him in secret, explaining his conversion not as an effort to save his life but to recover the sparks of the holy in each religion, and most leading rabbis were always on guard to root them out. The Donmeh movement in modern Turkey is a surviving remnant of the Sabbatian schism.
Due to the chaos caused in the Jewish world, the Rabbinic prohibition against studying Kabbalah was well intact again, and established itself firmly within the Jewish religion. One of the conditions allowing a man to study and engage himself in the Kabbalah, was to be of age forty. This age requirement came about during this period and is not Talmudic in origin but Rabbinic. Many Jews are familiar with this ruling, but are not aware of its origins. Moreover, the prohibition is not halakhic in nature. According to Moses Cordovero, halakhically, one must be of age twenty to engage in the Kabbalah. Many famous Kabbalists, including the ARI, Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag, were younger than twenty when they began.

Frankists

The Sabbatian movement was followed by that of the "Frankists" who were disciples of another pseudo-mystic Jacob Frank (1726–1791) who eventually became an apostate to Judaism by apparently converting to Catholicism. .This era of disappointment did not stem the Jewish masses' yearnings for "mystical" leadership.^ This era of disappointment did not stem the Jewish masses' yearnings for "mystical" leadership.
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^ "The history of Jewish mysticism has taken some dramatic turns, from elite, secretive club to mass movement to object of scorn and back and forth.
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^ In the medieval era Jewish mysticism greatly developed with the appearance of the mystical text, the Sefer Yetzirah.

1700s

Image of the Vilna Gaon. Both Hasidic and Mitnagdic Judaism followed Kabbalistic theology
Synagogue of the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism, in Medzhybizh Ukraine
The eighteenth century saw an explosion of new efforts in the writing and spread of Kabbalah by four well known rabbis working in different areas of Europe:
  • Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov (1698–1760) in the area of Ukraine spread teachings based on Rabbi Isaac Luria's foundations, simplifying the Kabbalah for the common man. From him sprang the vast ongoing schools of Hasidic Judaism, with each successive rebbe viewed by his "Hasidim" as continuing the role of dispenser of mystical divine blessings and guidance.
  • Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (1772–1810), the great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, revitalized and further expanded the latter's teachings, amassing a following of thousands in Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Poland. In a unique amalgam of Hasidic and Mitnagid approaches, Rebbe Nachman emphasized study of both Kabbalah and serious Torah scholarship to his disciples. His teachings also differed from the way other Hasidic groups were developing, as he rejected the idea of hereditary Hasidic dynasties and taught that each Hasid must "search for the tzaddik ('saintly/righteous person')" for himself—and within himself.
  • Rabbi Elijah of Vilna (Vilna Gaon) (1720–1797), based in Lithuania, had his teachings encoded and publicized by his disciples such as by Rabbi Chaim Volozhin who published the mystical-ethical work Nefesh HaChaim. .However, he was staunchly opposed to the new Hasidic movement and warned against their public displays of religious fervour inspired by the mystical teachings of their rabbis.^ However, he was staunchly opposed to the new Hasidic movement and warned against their public displays of religious fervour inspired by the mystical teachings of their rabbis.
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    ^ Rabbi Elijah of Vilna ( Vilna Gaon ) (1720-1797), based in Lithuania , had his teachings encoded and publicized by his disciples such as by Rabbi Chaim Volozhin who published the mystical-ethical work Nefesh HaChaim .
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    ^ He developed a clear understanding of the main Kabbalistic teachings, and he, along with his student Rabbi Isaac Luria (the Ari), composed volumes of writings on their mystical interpretations.

    .Although the Vilna Gaon was not in favor of the Hasidic movement, he did not prohibit the study and engagement in the Kabbalah.^ Although the Vilna Gaon was not in favor of the Hasidic movement, he did not prohibit the study and engagement in the Kabbalah.
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    ^ Kabbalah influenced Jewish messianic movements, principally Hasidism, which developed a joyful religious expression that avoided sterile legalism.
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    ^ Due to the chaos caused in the Jewish world, the Rabbinic prohibition against studying Kabbalah was well intact again, and established itself firmly within the Jewish religion.
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    This is evident from his writings in the Even Shlema. "He that is able to understand secrets of the Torah and does not try to understand them will be judged harshly, may God have mercy". (The Vilna Gaon, Even Shlema, 8:24). "The Redemption will only come about through learning Torah, and the essence of the Redemption depends upon learning Kabbalah" (The Vilna Gaon, Even Shlema, 11:3).
  • Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto (1707–1746), based in Italy, was a precocious Talmudic scholar who arrived at the startling conclusion that there was a need for the public teaching and study of Kabbalah. He established a yeshiva for Kabbalah study and actively recruited outstanding students and, in addition, wrote copious manuscripts in an appealing clear Hebrew style, all of which gained the attention of both admirers and rabbinical critics who feared another "Zevi (false messiah) in the making".He was forced to close his school by his rabbinical opponents, hand over and destroy many of his most precious unpublished kabbalistic writings, and go into exile in the Netherlands. He eventually moved to the Land of Israel. Some of his most important works such as Derekh Hashem survive and are used as a gateway to the world of Jewish mysticism.

Modern era

Orthodox

Beit El Synagogue in Jerusalem. Oriental Judaism has a traditional chain of Kabbalah
One of the most influential sources spreading Kabbalistic teachings have come from the massive growth and spread of Hasidic Judaism, a movement begun by Yisroel ben Eliezer (The Baal Shem Tov), but continued in many branches and streams until today. These groups differ greatly in size, but all emphasize the study of mystical Hasidic texts, which now consists of a vast literature devoted to elaborating upon the long chain of Kabbalistic thought and methodology. No group emphasizes in-depth kabbalistic study, though, to the extent of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement, whose Rebbes delivered tens of thousands of discourses, and whose students study these texts for three hours daily.
Rabbi Shmuel Schneersohn of Lubavitch urged the study of kabbala as prerequisite for one's humanity:
A person who is capable of comprehending the Seder hishtalshelus (kabbalistic secrets concerning the higher spiritual spheres)—and fails to do so—cannot be considered a human being. At every moment and time one must know where his soul stands. It is a mitzvah (commandment) and an obligation to know the seder hishtalshelus.[50]
The writings of Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook (1864–1935) also stress Kabbalistic themes:
Due to the alienation from the "secret of God" [i.e. Kabbalah], the higher qualities of the depths of Godly life are reduced to trivia that do not penetrate the depth of the soul. When this happens, the most mighty force is missing from the soul of nation and individual, and Exile finds favor essentially... We should not negate any conception based on rectitude and awe of Heaven of any form—only the aspect of such an approach that desires to negate the mysteries and their great influence on the spirit of the nation. This is a tragedy that we must combat with counsel and understanding, with holiness and courage.
 — Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook (Orot 2)

Bnei Baruch

Bnei Baruch is a group of Kabbalists, based in Israel. Study materials are available in over 25 languages. Michael Laitman, established Bnei Baruch in 1991, following the passing of his teacher, Baruch Ashlag. Laitman named his group Bnei Baruch (sons of Baruch) to commemorate the memory of his mentor. Baruch Ashlag was the oldest son and successor of the famous Kabbalist, Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag, who was author of a comprehensive commentary on The Book of Zohar called The Sulam Commentary (The Ladder Commentary).

Kabbalah Centre

The Kabbalah Centre was founded in the United States in 1965 as The National Research Institute of Kabbalah by Philip Berg (born Feivel Gruberger) and Rav Yehuda Tzvi Brandwein. After Brandwein's death, and after several years in Israel, Philip Berg and his wife Karen Berg, re-established the U.S. Kabbalah Centre [51] in New York.

Personalities in Kabbalah

Contemporary

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Imbued with Holiness The vast majority of scholars confirm that the Historical Solomon was likely not the founder of this belief and practice.
  2. ^ Shnei Luchot HaBrit, R. Isaiah Horowitz, Toldot Adam, Beit haChokhma, 14
  3. ^ JewishEncyclopedia.com - ZOHAR
  4. ^ The Written Law (The Torah)
  5. ^ Megillah 14a, Shir HaShirim Rabbah 4:22, Ruth Rabbah 1:2, Aryeh Kaplan “Jewish Meditation: A Practical Guide” p.44–p.48
  6. ^ Rabbi Yehuda Leib Ha-Levi Ashlag; Preface to the Wisdom of Truth p.12 section 30 and p.105 bottom section of the left column as preface to the "Talmud Eser HaSfirot"
  7. ^ See Shem Mashmaon by Rabbi Shimon Agasi. It is a commentary on Otzrot Haim by Haim Vital. In the introduction he list five major schools of thought as to how to understand the AriZ"L/Haim Vital's understanding of the concept of Tzitzum.
  8. ^ See Yechveh Daat Vol 3, section 47 by Rabbi Ovadiah Yosef
  9. ^ See Ktavim Hadashim published by Rabbi Yaakov Hillel of Ahavat Shalom for a sampling of works by Haim Vital attributed to Isaac Luria that deal with other works.
  10. ^ Kabbala goes to yeshiva | Jerusalem Post
  11. ^ This applies in Habad intellectual Hasidic philosophy, that incorporates Hakirah into its inner mystical philosophy. Some other Hasidic schools were opposed to Hakirah. In the synthesis, both Hakirah and Kabbalah are seen to unite within a higher Divine source of intellect.
  12. ^ Maimonides, beginning of the Mishneh Torah
  13. ^ "Maimonides: Philosopher and Mystic" from www.Chabad.org Maimonides' Kabbalistic scholarship has been explained especially in Chabad mystical works. Additionally, the source of some laws in his Mishneh Torah are only found in Kabbalah
  14. ^ Wineberg, chs. 20–21
  15. ^ (Scholem, Kabbalah, p. 100)
  16. ^ See Otzrot Haim: Sha'ar TNT"A for a short explanation. The vast majority of the Lurianic system deals only with the complexities found in the world of Atzilut as is explained in the introductions to both Otzrot Haim and Eitz Haim.
  17. ^ The Song of the Soul, Yechiel Bar-Lev, p.73
  18. ^ J.H.Laenen, Jewish Mysticism, p.164
  19. ^ Sirach iii. 22; compare Talmud, Hagigah, 13a; Midrash Genesis Rabbah, viii.
  20. ^ Overview of Hasidut from www.inner.org
  21. ^ The Founder of Hasidism, the Baal Shem Tov, cautioned against the layman learning Kabbalah without its Hasidic explanation. He saw this as the cause of the contemporary mystical heresies of Sabbatai Zevi and Jacob Frank. Cited in The Great Maggid by Jacob Immanuel Schochet, quoting Derech Mitzvosecha by Menachem Mendel Schneersohn
  22. ^ Moshe Idel
  23. ^ Daniel C. Matt
  24. ^ Gerschom Scholem, "Hasidism: The Latest Phase" in Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism and Martin Bubuer, Hasidism and Modern Man and The Origin and Meaning of Hasidism
  25. ^ Sitra Achra
  26. ^ Arich Anpin
  27. ^ Fundamentals of Jewish Mysticism and Kabbalah By Ron H. Feldman. Pg. 59
  28. ^ סידור הרב, שער אכילת מצה
  29. ^ Dov Ber Pinson, Reincarnation and Judaism
  30. ^ ר' אברהם חן, ביהדות התורה
  31. ^ article, The Seductiveness of Jewish Myth
  32. ^ Wolfson, E.R. Venturing Beyond: Law and Morality in Kabbalistic Mysticism, Oxford University Press, 2006, ch.1.
  33. ^ Dov Ber Pinson, Reincarnation and Judaism
  34. ^ Rabbi Bradley Shavit Artson, From the Periphery to the Center: Kabbalah & Conservative Judaism
  35. ^ a b Artson, Bradley Shavit. From the Periphery to the Centre: Kabbalah and the Conservative Movement, United Synagogue Review, Spring 2005, Vol. 57 No. 2
  36. ^ Introduction to Raziel Hamalach
  37. ^ Stern, Schneur Zalman. Active vs. Passive Meditation
  38. ^ SparkNotes: The Kabbalah: Ma’aseh merkavah
  39. ^ SparkNotes: The Kabbalah: Ma’aseh bereshit
  40. ^ Urbach, The Sages, pp.184ff.
  41. ^ Later, Elisha came to be considered heretical by his fellow Tannaim and the rabbis of the Talmud referred to him as Acher (אחר"The Other One").
  42. ^ Babylonian Talmud Hagigah 14b, Jerusalem Talmud Hagigah 2:1. Both available online in Aramaic: Babylonian Talmud, Jerusalem Talmud. This translation based on Braude, Ginzberg, Rodkinson, and Streane.
  43. ^ A. W. Streane, A Translation of the Treatise Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud Cambridge University Press, 1891. p. 83.
  44. ^ Louis Ginzberg, Elisha ben Abuyah", Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901–1906.
  45. ^ The Zohar
  46. ^ Rabbi Avraham Azulai quoted in Erdstein, Baruch Emanuel. The Need to Learn Kabbala
  47. ^ The Kabbalah Centre
  48. ^ Shulhan Arukh YD 246:4
  49. ^ Shulhan Arukh 246:4 S"K 19
  50. ^ Sefer HaToldos Admur Maharash: From The Sichos Of The Rebbe Maharash Nshmoso Eden
  51. ^ [1]

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    • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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  • Scholem, Gershom; Sabbatai Zevi, the Mystical Messiah, 1973.
  • Scholem, Gershom; Kabbalah, Jewish Publication Society, 1974.
  • Wineberg, Yosef; Lessons in Tanya: The Tanya of R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi (5 volume set). Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch, 1998. ISBN 0-8266-0546-X
  • Wirszubski, Chaim; Pico della Mirandola's Encounter with Jewish Mysticism, Harvard University Press, 1989.
  • Wolfson, Elliot; Through a Speculum That Shines: Vision and Imagination in Medieval Jewish Mysticism, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
  • Wolfson, Elliot; Language, Eros Being: Kabbalistic Hermeneutics and Poetic Imagination, New York: Fordham University Press, 2005.
  • Wolfson, Elliot; Venturing Beyond: Law and Morality in Kabbalistic Mysticism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Wolfson, Elliot; Alef, Mem, Tau: Kabbalistic Musings on Time, Truth, and Death, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
  • Wolfson, Elliot; Luminal Darkness: Imaginal Gleanings From Zoharic Literature, London: Onworld Publications, 2007.
  • The Wisdom of The Zohar: An Anthology of Texts, 3 volume set, Ed. Isaiah Tishby, translated from the Hebrew by David Goldstein, The Littman Library.

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.KABBALAH (late Hebrew kabbdlah, gabbalah), the technical name for the system of Jewish theosophy which played an important part in the Christian Church in the middle ages.^ Catholic Information The term is now used as a technical name for the system of esoteric theosophy which for many generations played an important part, chiefly among the Jews, after the beginning of the tenth century of our era.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This vexatious piece of Jewish theosophy, which afforded to Christians as well as to Karaites ( compare Agobard ; Solomon b.

^ Abulafia [1240-91] describes this system [of Kabbalah] with two basic terms: prophetic Kabbalah and the Kabbalah of Names.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term primarily denotes " reception " and then " doctrines received by tradition."^ It primarily signifies reception, and, secondarily, a doctrine received by oral tradition.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each "received" doctrine was claimed as tradition from the Fathers—"masoret me-Abotenu" (Josephus, "Ant."

^ Each "received" doctrine was claimed as tradition from the Fathers-"masoret me-Abotenu" (Josephus, "Ant."
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the older Jewish literature the name is applied to the whole body of received religious doctrine with the exception of the Pentateuch, thus including the Prophets and Hagiographa as well as the oral traditions ultimately embodied in the Mishnah.'^ It primarily signifies reception, and, secondarily, a doctrine received by oral tradition.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, according to traditional kabbalistic practice, initiates into the mysteries of Kabbalah were to be at least thirty years old and well versed in rabbinic literature.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then human nature was darkened and made coarse, and man received a corporeal body; at the same time the whole 'Asiyyatic world, of which man had been the lord and master, was condensed and coarsened.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is only since the 11th or 12th century that Kabbalah has become the exclusive appellation for the renowned system of theosophy which claims to have been transmitted uninterruptedly by the mouths of the patriarchs and prophets ever since the creation of the first man.^ Its application has greatly varied in the course of time, and it is only since the eleventh or twelfth century that the term Kabbala has become the exclusive appellation for the system of Jewish religious philosophy which claims to have been uninterruptedly transmitted by the mouths of the patriarchs, prophets, elders, etc., ever since the creation of the first man.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This conception of God is not only pantheistic, but also highly mystical, since it postulates the union of man with God (compare Creseas, "Or Adonai," i.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to understand the meaning of Rosh HaShana from the perspective of Kabbalah, we must first understand the concept of “change” in creation.
  • Ronnie Rendel's Blog on Kabbalah, Business, and Life 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC ronnierendel.com [Source type: General]

.The cardinal doctrines of the Kabbalah embrace the nature of the Deity, the Divine emanations or Sephiroth, the cosmogony, the creation of angels and man, their destiny, and the import of the revealed law.^ He conceives of the first immediate divine emanation as the "first created" (), a godlike, absolutely simple Being, the all-containing substance and condition of everything that is.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Second, Third and Fourth Worlds Emanating immediately from this first world is the world of creation, the ten Sephiroth of which are of a more limited potency, and the substances of which are of the purest nature.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Man Man was directly created not by En-Soph, but by the Sephiroth, and is the counterpart of the archetypal man.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to this everything, even above being and thinking, is called En Soph (a7retpos); He is the space of the universe containing TO 7rav, but the universe is not his space.^ He conceives of the first immediate divine emanation as the "first created" (), a godlike, absolutely simple Being, the all-containing substance and condition of everything that is.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This first Sefirah contained within itself the plan of the universe in its entire infinity of time and space.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The primal will contains thus within itself the plan of the universe in its entire infinity of space and time, being for that reason eo ipso Providence, and is omniscient concerning all its innumerable details.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In this boundlessness He could not be comprehended by the intellect or described in words, and as such the En Soph was in a certain sense Ayin, nonexistent (Zohar, iii.^ The imagination was where images could be formed in the mind, while the intellect was the site of pristine intellection without the senses or visual imagery.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doctrinal content of the Zohar The First World Considered in Himself, the Supreme Being is the En-Soph (Endless, Infinite) and, in a certain sense, the En (Non-existent) since existence is in human conception a limitation which as such should not be predicated of Him.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

283). 2 To make his existence known and comprehensible, the En Soph had to become active and creative. .As creation involves intention, desire, thought and work, and as these are properties which imply limit and belong to a finite being, and moreover as the imperfect and circumscribed nature of this creation precludes the idea of its being the direct work of the infinite and perfect, the En Soph had to become creative, through the medium of ten Sephiroth or intelligences, which emanated from him like rays proceeding from a luminary.^ They are infinite and perfect when the En-Soph imparts His fullness to them, and finite and imperfect when that fullness is withdrawn from them (Ginsburg).
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Man Man was directly created not by En-Soph, but by the Sephiroth, and is the counterpart of the archetypal man.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These ten Sephiroth are emanations from the En-Soph, forming among themselves and with Him a strict unity, in the same way as the rays which proceed from the light are simply manifestations of one and the same light.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Now the wish to become manifest and known, and hence the idea of creation, is co-eternal with the inscrutable Deity, and the first manifestation of this primordial will is called the first Sephirah or emanation.^ He conceives of the first immediate divine emanation as the "first created" (), a godlike, absolutely simple Being, the all-containing substance and condition of everything that is.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since, however, the intelligent ideas which are manifested in nature proceed from eternal truths that are independent of existing nature, there must necessarily exist the realm of these eternal truths, the Aẓilutic world.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From this Primordial Man ensue further emanations, culminating in "the last reflection of Adam Kadmon, who makes his appearance in the lowest form of "making' (> asiyah ) as Adam, the first man of Genesis."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This first Sephirah, this spiritual substance which existed in the En Soph from all eternity, contained nine other intelligences or Sephiroth. These again emanated one from the other, the second from the first, the third from the second, and so on up to ten.^ The Second, Third and Fourth Worlds Emanating immediately from this first world is the world of creation, the ten Sephiroth of which are of a more limited potency, and the substances of which are of the purest nature.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This explains the origin of evil; for as the one, the positive emanation, produced all that is good and beautiful, so the other, the negative, produced all that is bad, ugly, and unclean.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He conceives of the first immediate divine emanation as the "first created" (), a godlike, absolutely simple Being, the all-containing substance and condition of everything that is.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.The ten Sephiroth, which form among themselves and with the 'En Soph a strict unity, and which simply represent different aspects of one and the same being, are respectively denominated (i) the Crown, (2) Wisdom, (3) Intelligence, (4) Love, (5) Justice, (6) Beauty, (7)iFirmness, (8) Splendour, (9) Foundation, and (io) Kingdom.^ In its turn, beauty beamed forth the seventh Sephira, the masculine potency, firmness, corresponding to Yahweh Sabaoth, and this again produced the feminine potency splendour, represented by Elohe Sabaoth.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus it is possible to conclude, since Joseph was a prophet/mystic and kabbalists are mystics/prophets, that the experiences of Joseph and the kabbalists represent different manifestations of the same phenomenon.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like God, he has a unity and a trinity, the latter being made up of the spirit representing the intellectual world, the soul representing the sensuous world, and the life representing the material world.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Their evolution was as follows: " When the Holy Aged, the concealed of all concealed, assumed a form, he produced everything in the form of male and female, as things could not continue in any other form.^ In this influence, all things exist and are concealed.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He conceives of the first immediate divine emanation as the "first created" (), a godlike, absolutely simple Being, the all-containing substance and condition of everything that is.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The meaning of redemption among other things implies and references G-d’s desire to be revealed with his love from all of his created beings in general and his chosen people specifically.
  • Ronnie Rendel's Blog on Kabbalah, Business, and Life 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC ronnierendel.com [Source type: General]

.Hence Wisdom, the second Sephirah, and the beginning of development, when it proceeded from the Holy Aged (another name of the first Sephirah) emanated in male and female, for Wisdom expanded, and Intelligence, the third Sephirah, proceeded from it, and thus were obtained male and female, viz.^ For the Zohar the "Head God" would be the first sefira, Keter/En Sof, not the second sefira , Wisdom/Beginning.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The catalogue of Oppenheimer's library, Ḳohelet David , Hamburg, 1826 , contains the names of most of the cabalistic works that had appeared up to the first third of the eighteenth century.

^ The catalogue of Oppenheimer's library, Ḳohelet David, Hamburg, 1826, contains the names of most of the cabalistic works that had appeared up to the first third of the eighteenth century.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wisdom the father and Intelligence the mother, from whose union the other 1 C. Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers (1897), pp.^ Taylor, "Early Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," 1899, pp.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

106 sqq., 175 seq.; W. Bacher, Jew. Quart. Rev. xx. 572 sqq. (1908).
.2 On the Zohar, " the Bible of the Kabbalists," see below.^ For the kabbalistic understanding of emanation, see The Wisdom of the Zohar: An Anthology of Texts , ed.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE ZOHAR The Zohar, or second expository work of the Kabbala, has justly been called the "Bible" of the Kabbalists.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Zohar Hadash, Bereshit , 17b, in Tishby, Wisdom of the Zohar, 2:572; see 2:549-55 for a discussion of the complexities of the kabbalistic understanding of creation.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

pairs of Sephiroth successively emanated " (Zohar, iii. 290). .These two opposite potencies, viz.^ These are two totally opposite behaviors, but they are both manifestations of a person’s yeshus, a person’s sense of self.
  • Ronnie Rendel's Blog on Kabbalah, Business, and Life 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC ronnierendel.com [Source type: General]

^ These two opposite potencies are coupled together by the "Crown", and thus yields the first trinity of the Sephiroth.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

the masculine Wisdom or Sephirah No. 2 and the feminine Intelligence or Sephirah No. .3 are joined together by the first potency, the Crown or Sephirah No.^ These two opposite potencies are coupled together by the "Crown", and thus yields the first trinity of the Sephiroth.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

i; they yield the first triad of the Sephiric decade, and constitute the divine head of the archetypal man.
From the junction of Sephiroth Nos. .2 and 3 emanated the masculine potency Love or Mercy (4) and the feminine potency Justice (5), and from the junction of the latter two emanated again the uniting potency Beauty (6).^ From the junction of the foregoing opposite tendencies emanated the masculine potency called love, the fourth Sephira, represented by the Biblical El, and the feminine one justice, the fifth Sephira, represented by the Divine name Elohah.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In its turn, beauty beamed forth the seventh Sephira, the masculine potency, firmness, corresponding to Yahweh Sabaoth, and this again produced the feminine potency splendour, represented by Elohe Sabaoth.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The concepts justice and mercy, however, must not be taken in their literal sense, but as symbolical designations for expansion and contraction of the will; the sum of both, the moral order, appears as beauty.

.Beauty, the sixth Sephirah, constitutes the chest in the archetypal man, and unites Love (4) and Justice (5), which constitute the divine arms, thus yielding the second triad of the Sephiric decade.^ And thus is constituted the second trinity of the Sephiroth.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "In love is found the secret of divine unity: it is love that unites the higher and lower stages,and that lifts everything to that stage where all must be one" (Zohar, wa-Yaḳhel, ii.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Man connects the two worlds by means of his love for God, which, as explained above, unites him with God.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.From this second conjunction emanated again the masculine potency Firmness (7) and the feminine potency Splendour (8), which constitute the divine legs of the archetypal man; and these sent forth Foundation (9), which is the genital organ and medium of union between them, thus yielding the third triad in the Sephiric decade.^ In its turn, beauty beamed forth the seventh Sephira, the masculine potency, firmness, corresponding to Yahweh Sabaoth, and this again produced the feminine potency splendour, represented by Elohe Sabaoth.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The warfare between man and the satanic power will only ceasewhen man is again elevated into the center of divine light, and once more is in actual contact with it.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Patr., Levi, 2; Abraham, Testament of ) as masculine, and the lower waters as feminine, their union fructifying the earth (Gen.

.Kingdom (io), which emanated from the ninth Sephirah, encircles all the other nine, inasmuch as it is the Shechinah, the divine halo, which encompasses the whole by its all-glorious presence.^ This explains the origin of evil; for as the one, the positive emanation, produced all that is good and beautiful, so the other, the negative, produced all that is bad, ugly, and unclean.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The satisfied wife brings the Shechinah, the divine presence of G-d into the home.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And there was given him dominion and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In their totality and unity the ten Sephiroth are not only denominated the World of Sephiroth, or the World of Emanations, but, owing to the above representation, are called the primordial or archetypal man (_7rpwrOyovos) and the heavenly man.^ In their own realm, called ("realm of emanation"; see Aẓilut), or sometimes Adam Ḳadmon, because the figure of man is employed in symbolic representation of the Sefirot, the Sefirot are conceived merely as conditions of the finite that is to be; for their activity only begins in the other so-called three worlds; namely, (1) the world of creative ideas (), (2) the world of creative formations (), and (3) the world of creative matter ().
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gabirol considers God as an absolute unity, in whom form and substance are identical; hence, no attributes can be ascribed to God, and man can comprehend God only by means of the beings emanating from Him.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From this Primordial Man ensue further emanations, culminating in "the last reflection of Adam Kadmon, who makes his appearance in the lowest form of "making' (> asiyah ) as Adam, the first man of Genesis."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is this form which, as we are assured, the prophet Ezekiel saw in the mysterious chariot (Ezek. i. 1-28), and of which the earthly man is a faint copy.
.As the three triads respectively represent intellectual, moral and physical qualities, the first is called the Intellectual, the second the Moral or Sensuous, and the third the Material World.^ The second triad of the Sefirot is moral in character; hence Azriel (l.c.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By this theory the cabalists explain the origin of physical and moral evil in the world.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like God, he has a unity and a trinity, the latter being made up of the spirit representing the intellectual world, the soul representing the sensuous world, and the life representing the material world.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to this theory of the archetypal man the three Sephiroth on the right-hand side are masculine and represent the principle of rigour, the three on the left are feminine and represent the principle of mercy, and the four central or uniting Sephiroth represent the principle of mildness.^ These are the five fingers of the right hand that represent the five positive sefirot of the tzelem of Hashem, namely Keter Hochmah, Hesed, Tiferet, and Netzah.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Evil is the reverse of the divine V03p477001.jpg [the left side, while the good is the right side-a Gnostic idea (see above).-K.].
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In its turn, beauty beamed forth the seventh Sephira, the masculine potency, firmness, corresponding to Yahweh Sabaoth, and this again produced the feminine potency splendour, represented by Elohe Sabaoth.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

Hence the right is called " the Pillar of Judgment," the left " the Pillar of Mercy," and the centre " the Middle Pillar." The middle Sephiroth are synecdochically used to represent the worlds or triads of which they are the uniting potencies. .Hence the Crown, the first Sephirah, which unites Wisdom and Intelligence to constitute the first triad, is by itself denominated the Intellectual World.^ These three trinities of the Sefirot are also designated as follows: The first three Sefirot form the intelligible world ( , or , as Azriel [ l.c.

^ These three trinities of the Sefirot are also designated as follows: The first three Sefirot form the intelligible world (, or , as Azriel [l.c.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, they constitute the first world, or world of emanations, which is perfect and immutable because of its direct procession from the Deity.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.So Beauty is by itself described as the Sensuous World, and in this capacity is called the Sacred King or simply the King, whilst Kingdom, the tenth Sephirah, which unites all the nine Sephiroth, is used to denote the Material World, and as such is denominated the Queen or the Matron.^ In the year 73, all the kings in the world will gather into the great city of Rome.
  • Ronnie Rendel's Blog on Kabbalah, Business, and Life 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC ronnierendel.com [Source type: General]

^ Since all of the world of Atzilut is Chochma, then Malchut of Atzilut is called Gan Eden .
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Like God, he has a unity and a trinity, the latter being made up of the spirit representing the intellectual world, the soul representing the sensuous world, and the life representing the material world.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

Thus a trinity of units, viz. the Crown, Beauty and Kingdom, is obtained within the trinity of triads. But further, each Sephirah is as it were a trinity in itself. It (1) has its own absolute character, (2) receives from above, and (3) communicates to what is below. ." Just as the Sacred Aged is represented by the number three, so are all the other lights (Sephiroth) of a threefold nature " (Zohar, iii.^ In Kabbalistic lore, the commentary of the Zohar represented the oldest biblical interpretation, the secret interpretation imparted by God to Adam and all worthy prophets after him.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lastly, splendour sends forth kingdom, the tenth Sephira, which encircles all the others and is represented by Adonai.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first three preexisted ideally as the prototypes of creation proper, which became possible when infinite space, represented by the six other Sefirot, was produced.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

288). .In this all-important doctrine of the Sephiroth, the Kabbalah insists upon the fact that these potencies are not creations of the En Soph, which would be a diminution of strength; that they form among themselves and with the En Soph a strict unity, and simply represent different aspects of the same being, just as the different rays which proceed from the light, and which appear different things to the eye, are only different manifestations of one and the same light; that for this reason they all alike partake of the perfections of the En Soph; and that as emanations from the Infinite, the Sephiroth are infinite and perfect like the En Soph, and yet constitute the first finite things.^ They are infinite and perfect when the En-Soph imparts His fullness to them, and finite and imperfect when that fullness is withdrawn from them (Ginsburg).
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Man Man was directly created not by En-Soph, but by the Sephiroth, and is the counterpart of the archetypal man.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These ten Sephiroth are emanations from the En-Soph, forming among themselves and with Him a strict unity, in the same way as the rays which proceed from the light are simply manifestations of one and the same light.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.They are infinite and perfect when the En Soph imparts his fullness to them, and finite and imperfect when that fullness is withdrawn from them.^ They are infinite and perfect when the En-Soph imparts His fullness to them, and finite and imperfect when that fullness is withdrawn from them (Ginsburg).
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor can one ascribe to Him any change or alteration; for He is nothing that is finite: He is the negation of all negation, the absolutely infinite, the En-Sof.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

The conjunction of the Sephiroth, or, according to the language of the Kabbalah, the union of the crowned King and Queen, produced the universe in their own image. .Worlds came into existence before the En Soph manifested himself in the human form of emanations, but they could not continue, and necessarily perished because the conditions of development which obtained with the sexual opposites of the Sephiroth did not exist.^ I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like a son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The three primal elements in the "Sefer Yeẓirah," which at first existed only ideally and then became manifest in form, are essentially identical with the worlds of Aẓilut and Beriah of the later Cabala.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are thus expected to believe that Joseph was influenced by a form of Masonry that apparently did not even exist!
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These worlds which perished are compared to sparks which fly out from a red-hot iron beaten by a hammer, and which are extinguished according to the distance esoteric doctrine, God, who is boundless and above they are removed from the burning mass.^ The attempts of the mystics to bridge the gulf between God and the world are especially evident in the doctrine of the preexistence of the soul [compare Slavonic Enoch, xxiii.

^ In his chief work, "De Occulta Philosophia," Paris, 1528, he deals principally with the doctrines of God, the Sefirot (entirely after the fashion of the cabalists), and the three worlds.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The attempts of the mystics to bridge the gulfbetween God and the world are especially evident in the doctrine of the preexistence of the soul [compare Slavonic Enoch, xxiii.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

Creation is not it is simply a further expansion or evolution of the Sephiroth.' The world reveals and makes visible the Boundless and the concealed of the concealed. .And, though it exhibits the Deity in less splendour than its Sephiric parents exhibit the En Soph, because it is farther removed from the primordial source of light than the Sephiroth, still, as it is God manifested, all the multifarious forms in the world point out the unity which they represent.^ These ten Sephiroth are emanations from the En-Soph, forming among themselves and with Him a strict unity, in the same way as the rays which proceed from the light are simply manifestations of one and the same light.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Kabbalistic lore, the commentary of the Zohar represented the oldest biblical interpretation, the secret interpretation imparted by God to Adam and all worthy prophets after him.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Binah is also called Tzeire , because all the Aivarim of Zeir Anpin receive their form by means of the screen of Aviut of Binah.
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

Hence nothing in the whole universe can be annihilated. .Everything, spirit as well as body, must return to the source whence it emanated (Zohar, ii. 218).^ In order that the soul may return to its source, it must previously have reached full development of all its perfections in terrestrial life.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "In love is found the secret of divine unity: it is love that unites the higher and lower stages,and that lifts everything to that stage where all must be one" (Zohar, wa-Yaḳhel, ii.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The soul must rise to these higher planes of knowledge and will, to the contemplation and love of God; and in this way it returns to its source.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The universe consists of four different worlds, each of which forms a separate Sephiric system of a decade of emanations.^ Thus, the universe forms a large unified whole, a living, undivided being, that consists of three parts enveloping one another successively; and over them soars, as the highest archetypal seal, the world of Aẓilut.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Corresponding to the different worlds of the Spanish cabalists, the German cabalists also assume four (sometimes five) worlds; namely: (1) the world of the "glory" () just mentioned; (2) the world of angels; (3) the world of the animal soul; and (4) the world of the intellectual soul.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Corresponding to the different worlds of the Spanish cabalists, the German cabalists also assume four (sometimes five) worlds; namely: (1) the world of the "glory" ( ) just mentioned; (2) the world of angels; (3) the world of the animal soul; and (4) the world of the intellectual soul.

They were evolved in the following order. .(1) The World of Emanations, also called the Image and the Heavenly or Archetypal Man, is, as we have seen, a direct emanation from the En Soph.^ Man Man was directly created not by En-Soph, but by the Sephiroth, and is the counterpart of the archetypal man.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His first manifestation was by way of concentration in a point called the first Sephira -- "the Crown", as it is called -- which is hardly distinguishable from the En-Soph from Whom it emanates, and which is expressed in the Bible by the Ehieyeh (I am).
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their doctrine of creation was built on a theory of emanations and asserted that the world derived from the transcendent and unknowable God (En Soph) through a series of increasingly material manifestations (sephirot).
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hence it is most intimately allied to the Deity, and is perfect and immutable.^ In fact, they constitute the first world, or world of emanations, which is perfect and immutable because of its direct procession from the Deity.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

From the conjunction of the King and Queen (i.e. these ten Sephiroth) is produced (2) the World of Creation, or the Briatic world, also called " the Throne." .Its ten Sephiroth, being farther removed from the En Soph, are of a more limited and circumscribed potency, though the substances they comprise are of the purest nature and without any admixture of matter.^ The Second, Third and Fourth Worlds Emanating immediately from this first world is the world of creation, the ten Sephiroth of which are of a more limited potency, and the substances of which are of the purest nature.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are infinite and perfect when the En-Soph imparts His fullness to them, and finite and imperfect when that fullness is withdrawn from them (Ginsburg).
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Man Man was directly created not by En-Soph, but by the Sephiroth, and is the counterpart of the archetypal man.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.The angel Metatron inhabits this world.^ The Angels Of these worlds, the second, that of creation, is inhabited by the angel Metatron, who governs the visible world, and is the captain of the hosts of good angels who in ten ranks people the third world, that of formation.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.He alone constitutes the world of pure spirit, and is the garment of Shaddai, i.e. the visible manifestation of the Deity.^ In fact, they constitute the first world, or world of emanations, which is perfect and immutable because of its direct procession from the Deity.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

His name is numerically equivalent to that of the Lord (Zohar, iii. 231). He governs the visible world, preserves the harmony and guides the revolutions of all the spheres, and is the captain of all the myriads of angelic beings. This Briatic world again gave rise to (3) the World of Formation, or Yetziratic World. .Its ten Sephiroth, being still farther removed from the Primordial Source, are of a less refined substance.^ The Second, Third and Fourth Worlds Emanating immediately from this first world is the world of creation, the ten Sephiroth of which are of a more limited potency, and the substances of which are of the purest nature.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the world of creation proceeds the world of formation, with its less refined ten Sephiroth, although its substances are still without matter.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Still they are yet without matter.^ From the world of creation proceeds the world of formation, with its less refined ten Sephiroth, although its substances are still without matter.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is the abode of the angels, who are wrapped in luminous garments, and who assume a sensuous form when they appear to men.^ The Yeẓiratic () world is the seat of the ten classes of angels with their chiefs, presided over by Meṭaṭron, who was changed into fire; and there are also the spirits of men.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Yeẓiratic ( ) world is the seat of the ten classes of angels with their chiefs, presided over by Meṭaṭron, who was changed into fire; and there are also the spirits of men.

.The myriads of the angelic hosts who people this world are divided into ten ranks, answering to the ten Sephiroth, and each one of these numerous angels is set over a different part of the universe, and derives his name from the heavenly body or element which he guards (Zohar, i.^ As for Isaiah 53 these passages are not about self-sacrifice, but one who suffered while being taken into captivity for the sins of the whole nation though he was innocent.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Specifically, Zohar III 231a, comments on Job as a living atonement: “ The early pillars of the world were divided.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Yeẓiratic () world is the seat of the ten classes of angels with their chiefs, presided over by Meṭaṭron, who was changed into fire; and there are also the spirits of men.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

42). .From this world finally emanated (4) the World of Action, also called the World of Matter.^ Finally, from this third world proceeds the world of action or of matter, the ten Sephiroth of which are made of the grosser elements of the other works.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The manifestations were repeated, in some versions of Kabbalah, in four interlocking series or "worlds": emanation (atzilut), creation (beriah), formation (yetzirah), and action or making (assiyah).
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its ten Sephiroth are made up of the grosser elements of the former three worlds; they consist of material substance limited by space and perceptible to the senses in a multiplicity of forms.^ Thus, the universe forms a large unified whole, a living, undivided being, that consists of three parts enveloping one another successively; and over them soars, as the highest archetypal seal, the world of Aẓilut.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The three primal elements in the "Sefer Yeẓirah," which at first existed only ideally and then became manifest in form, are essentially identical with the worlds of Aẓilut and Beriah of the later Cabala.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These three trinities of the Sefirot are also designated as follows: The first three Sefirot form the intelligible world ( , or , as Azriel [ l.c.

.This world is subject to constant changes and corruption, and is the dwelling of the evil spirits.^ The Yeẓiratic () world is the seat of the ten classes of angels with their chiefs, presided over by Meṭaṭron, who was changed into fire; and there are also the spirits of men.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Yeẓiratic ( ) world is the seat of the ten classes of angels with their chiefs, presided over by Meṭaṭron, who was changed into fire; and there are also the spirits of men.

.These, the grossest and most deficient of all forms, are also divided into ten degrees, each lower than the other.^ The final form was given to Azriel's Cabala by the work "Ma'areket ha-Elohut" in which Azriel's system is presented more clearly and definitely than in any other cabalistic work.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MiLemala Lemata) From the 1 st phase to the 4 th , since the 4 th phase remains without light and therefore is the lower, and the first phase is above all others, since its desire is the faintest.
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ All that is contained in the lower world is found in higher archetypal form in the next higher world.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first two are nothing more than the absence of all visible form and organization; the third degree is the abode of darkness; whilst the remaining seven are " the seven infernal halls," occupied by the demons, who are the incarnation of all human vices.^ There are lights upon lights, one more clear than another, each one dark by comparison with the one above it from which it receives its light.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The demons or bad angels inhabit the fourth world, that of action, the lowest regions of which constitute the seven infernal halls wherein the demons torture the poor mortals whom they betrayed into sin in this life.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elsewhere Owens asserts that "there must have been more than a few" people in frontier New York who had been influenced by the hermetic, kabbalistic, and alchemical traditions (p.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These seven hells are subdivided into innumerable compartments corresponding to every species of sin, where the demons torture the poor deluded human beings who have suffered themselves to be led astray whilst on earth.^ The demons or bad angels inhabit the fourth world, that of action, the lowest regions of which constitute the seven infernal halls wherein the demons torture the poor mortals whom they betrayed into sin in this life.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As for Isaiah 53 these passages are not about self-sacrifice, but one who suffered while being taken into captivity for the sins of the whole nation though he was innocent.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This explanation cannot apply to Christianity because Christianity’s focus is that Jesus had to die for the sins of humanity while here G-d acquiesces to the sufferer for the sufferer’s sake and not humanity.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

The prince of this region of darkness is Samael, the evil spirit, the serpent who seduced Eve. His wife is the Harlot or the Woman of Whoredom. .The two are treated as one person, and are called " the Beast " (Zohar, ii.^ "In love is found the secret of divine unity: it is love that unites the higher and lower stages,and that lifts everything to that stage where all must be one" (Zohar, wa-Yaḳhel, ii.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One, called the "bread of affliction", (or the "food of faith", by the Zohar), is from the verse (exodus 12:18) enjoining us to eat matza on the first night of Pesach.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The prince of the demons is Samael (the "angel of poison or of death"); he has a wife called the Harlot; but both are treated as one person, and are called "the Beast".
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

255-259, with i. 35).
.The whole universe, however, was incomplete, and did not receive its finishing stroke till man was formed, who is the acme of the creation and the microcosm.^ Why desirest thou to create man, who, as thou knowest, will sin before thee through his wife?
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Marcion, God Himself is beyond bodily measurements and limitations, and as a spirit can not even be conceived; but in order to hold intercourse with man, He created a being with form and dimensions, who ranks above the highest angels.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For thus says the Lord who created the heavens; God himself who formed the earth and made it; he has established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited; I am the Lord; and there is no one else.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

" The of heavenly Adam (i.e. the ten Sephiroth) who emanated from the highest primordial obscurity (i.e. the En Soph) created the earthly Adam " (Zohar, ii. 70). ." Man is both the import and the highest degree of creation, for which reason he was formed on the sixth day.^ According to Marcion, God Himself is beyond bodily measurements and limitations, and as a spirit can not even be conceived; but in order to hold intercourse with man, He created a being with form and dimensions, who ranks above the highest angels.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead they endow the form with an animal and appetitive soul , [645] as our sages said, “Rava created a man and he sent it to R. Zeira” etc.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ God by the figure of marriage, the Jewish mystics described the highest degree of love of man for God in sensuous forms in terms taken from marital life.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.As soon as man was created everything was complete, including the upper and nether worlds, for everything is comprised in man.^ Independently of the creation, the "Baraita de-Middot ha-'Olam" and the "Ma'aseh Bereshit" describe the regions of the world with paradise in the east and the nether world in the west.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Creator) A bestowal of light to the worlds , which includes everything except the desire to receive.
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ God, the world, creation, man, revelation, the Messiah, law, sin, atonement, etc.-such are the varied subjects it discusses and describes.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.He unites in himself all forms " (Zohar, iii.^ "In love is found the secret of divine unity: it is love that unites the higher and lower stages, and that lifts everything to that stage where all must be one" (Zohar, wa-Yaḳhel, ii.

^ "In love is found the secret of divine unity: it is love that unites the higher and lower stages,and that lifts everything to that stage where all must be one" (Zohar, wa-Yaḳhel, ii.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

48). Each member of his body corresponds to a part of the visible universe. ." Just as we see in the firmament above, covering all things, different signs which are formed of the stars and the planets, and which contain secret things and profound mysteries studied by those who are wise and expert in these things; so there are in the skin, which is the cover of the body of the son of man, and which is like the sky that covers all things above, signs and features which are the stars and planets of the skin, indicating secret things and profound mysteries whereby the wise are attracted who understand the reading of 1 The view of a mediate creation, in the place of immediate creation out of nothing, and that the mediate beings were emanations, was much influenced by Solomon ibn Gabirol (1021-1070).^ This is like the phrase ‘son of man’, a phrase of humility.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In this influence, all things exist and are concealed.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Both posit mediate beings in place of immediate creation out of nothing; and these mediate beings were not created, like those posited in the various cosmogonies, but are emanations.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

the mysteries in the human face" (Zohar, ii. 76). .The human form is shaped after the four letters which constitute the Jewish Tetragrammaton (q.v.; see also Jehovah).^ On the other hand, both the mystic Cross ("Staurus" = X = the letter tav of old; see Jewish Encyclopedia, i.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way the four letters of the Tetragrammaton are explained in detail.

^ While the three primal elements constitute the substance of things, the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet constitute the form.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

The head is in the shape of ', the arms and the shoulders are like r ", the breast like 1, and the two legs with the back again resemble' (Zohar, ii. 72). .The souls of the whole human race pre-exist in the World of Emanations, and are all destined to inhabit human bodies.^ Souls are pre-existent destined to dwell in human bodies, and subjected to transmigration till at last they return to God.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of the Supernal worlds, with all of their details of the souls and angels, from the highest of all levels in the higher Garden of Eden, are all renewed from their source of all the worlds on Rosh Hashanah.
  • Ronnie Rendel's Blog on Kabbalah, Business, and Life 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC ronnierendel.com [Source type: General]

^ Then human nature was darkened and made coarse, and man received a corporeal body; at the same time the whole 'Asiyyatic world, of which man had been the lord and master, was condensed and coarsened.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Like the Sephiroth from which it emanates, every soul has ten potencies, consisting of a trinity of triads.^ The Second, Third and Fourth Worlds Emanating immediately from this first world is the world of creation, the ten Sephiroth of which are of a more limited potency, and the substances of which are of the purest nature.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These two opposite potencies are coupled together by the "Crown", and thus yields the first trinity of the Sephiroth.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From splendour emanated the ninth Sephira, foundation, which answers the Divine name El-Hai and closes the third trinity of the Sephiroth.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.(I) The Spirit (neshamah), which is the highest degree of being, corresponds to and is operated upon by the Crown, which is the highest triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Intellectual World; (2) the Soul (rah), which is the seat of the moral qualities, corresponds to and is operated upon by Beauty, which is the second triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Moral World; and (3) the Cruder Soul (nephesh), which is immediately connected with the body, and is the cause of its lower instincts and the animal life, corresponds to and is operated upon by Foundation, the third triad in the Sephiroth, called the Material World.^ Like God, he has a unity and a trinity, the latter being made up of the spirit representing the intellectual world, the soul representing the sensuous world, and the life representing the material world.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second triad of the Sefirot is moral in character; hence Azriel (l.c.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But what connection can there be between absolute spirituality and simplicity on the one side, and the material, composite objects of the world on the other?
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Each soul prior to its entering into this world consists of male and female united into one being.^ Thus, the universe forms a large unified whole, a living, undivided being, that consists of three parts enveloping one another successively; and over them soars, as the highest archetypal seal, the world of Aẓilut.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Though Beriyah is a higher world, one descends into it with meditation) [648] Kabbalah is the study of prophecy as well.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And while the Gnostic classification of souls into pneumatic, psychic, and hylic ones can be traced back to Plato (see Joël, l.c.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

When it descends on this earth the two parts are separated and animate two different bodies. ." At the time of marriage the Holy One, blessed be he, who knows all souls and spirits, unites them again as they were before; and they again constitute one body and one soul, forming as it were the right and the left of the individual..^ All souls are subject to reincarnation; and people do not know the ways of the Holy One, blessed be He!
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like a son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lurianic Cabala added to metempsychosis proper the theory of the impregnation ( ) of souls; that is, if two souls do not feel equal to their tasks God unites both in one body, so that they may support and complete each oṭher, as, for instance, a lame man and a blind one may conjointly do (compare the parable in Sanh.

.. .This union, however, is influenced by the deeds of the man and by the ways in which he walks.^ The knowledge of the law in its ethical as well as religious aspects is also a means toward influencing the higher regions; for the study of the law means the union of man with divine wisdom.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, just as the good deeds of man exert a beneficent influence on all the worlds, so his evil actions injure them.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the man is pure and his conduct is pleasing in the sight of God, he is united with that female part of the soul which was his component part prior to his birth " (Zohar, i. 91).^ Owens next alleges that Joseph's concept of the plurality and hierarchy of the gods derives—at least in part—from his reading the Zohar .
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But as these last two elements no longer form part of the spiritual nature of man, they are not included in the divisions of the soul.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The soul's destiny upon earth is to develop those perfections the germs of which are eternally implanted in it, and it ultimately must return to the infinite source from which it emanated.^ In order that the soul may return to its source, it must previously have reached full development of all its perfections in terrestrial life.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The soul must rise to these higher planes of knowledge and will, to the contemplation and love of God; and in this way it returns to its source.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God, as an infinite, eternal, necessary being, must, of course, be purely spiritual, simple, elemental.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hence, if, after assuming a body and sojourning upon earth, it becomes polluted by sin and fails to acquire the experience for which it descends from heaven, it must three times reinhabit a body, till it is able to ascend in a purified state through repeated trials.^ I have made the earth, and created man upon it; I, my own hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When Malchut ascends to Nikvei Eyeneim and a Zivug is made upon it, light from the Zivug goes out through the Nikvei Eyeneim and not via the Peh .
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pythagorean idea of the creative powers of numbers and letters, upon which the "Sefer Yeẓirah" is founded, and which was known in tannaitic times—compare Rab's saying: "Bezalel knew how to combine [ ] the letters by which heaven and earth were created" (Ber.

.If, after its third residence in a human body, it is still too weak to withstand the contamination of sin, it is united with another soul, in order that by their combined efforts it may resist the pollution which by itself it was unable to conquer.^ Souls are pre-existent destined to dwell in human bodies, and subjected to transmigration till at last they return to God.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order that the soul may return to its source, it must previously have reached full development of all its perfections in terrestrial life.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another said that he was one of the pious of Israel and he suffered in order to atone for the sins of the world.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When the whole pleroma of preexistent souls in the world of the Sephiroth shall have descended and occupied human bodies and have passed their period of probation and have returned purified to the bosom of the infinite Source, then the soul of Messiah will descend from the region of souls; then the great Jubilee will commence.^ The soul must rise to these higher planes of knowledge and will, to the contemplation and love of God; and in this way it returns to its source.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the soul "cannot be deified while in a human body," but must pass through a series of reincarnations into higher and higher forms of being before reaching divinity.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Souls are pre-existent destined to dwell in human bodies, and subjected to transmigration till at last they return to God.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

There shall be no more sin, no more temptation, no more suffering. Universal restoration will take place. Satan himself, " the venomous Beast," will be restored to his angelic nature. Life will be an everlasting feast, a Sabbath without end. .All souls will be united with the Highest Soul, and will supplement each other in the Holy of Holies of the Seven Halls (Zohar, i. 45,168; ii.^ All souls are subject to reincarnation; and people do not know the ways of the Holy One, blessed be He!
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "In love is found the secret of divine unity: it is love that unites the higher and lower stages,and that lifts everything to that stage where all must be one" (Zohar, wa-Yaḳhel, ii.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "In love is found the secret of divine unity: it is love that unites the higher and lower stages, and that lifts everything to that stage where all must be one" (Zohar, wa-Yaḳhel, ii.

97).
.According to the Kabbalah all these esoteric doctrines are contained in the Hebrew Scriptures.^ Hermeneutical content of the Zohar All these esoteric doctrines of the Kabbala are supposed to be contained in the Hebrew Scriptures, in which, however they can be perceived only by those initiated into certain hermeneutical methods.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the doctrines of the "Kerub ha-Meyuḥad," of the mysterious power of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and of the great importance of the angels, are all found in the geonic mystic lore.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is also clear from his work that Owens does not read Latin, Aramaic, or Hebrew, sine qua non for the study of Kabbalah and the Western esoteric traditions.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The uninitiated cannot perceive them; but they are plainly revealed to the A ntiquity spiritually minded, who discern the profound import of this theosophy beneath the surface of the letters and words of Holy Writ. ." If the law simply consists of ordinary expressions and narratives, such as the words of Esau, Hagar, Laban, the ass of Balaam or Balaam himself, why should it be called the law of truth, the perfect law, the true witness of God ?^ God, the world, creation, man, revelation, the Messiah, law, sin, atonement, etc.-such are the varied subjects it discusses and describes.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a classic manifestation of the fallacy of the possible proof, which "consists in an attempt to demonstrate that a factual statement is true or false by establishing the possibility of its truth or falsity," Fischer, Historians' Fallacies , 53.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "God is called 'ha maḳom' [place] because He encloses the universe, but is Himself not enclosed by anything" ("De Somniis," i.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Each word contains a sublime source, each narrative points not only to the single instance in question, but also to generals " (Zohar, iii. 149, cf.^ This palace [Binah] is called Elohim, and this doctrine is contained in the words, "By means of a beginning[Wisdom] (it)[En Sof] created Elohim [Palace = Binah]."The Zohar [brightness] is that from which were created all the creative utterances through the extension of the point of this mysterious brightness.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the First Cause is the sole source of all knowledge, this knowledge is only of the most general and simple nature.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For centuries, and in general even to-day, the doctrines contained in the Zohar are taken to be the Cabala, although this book represents only the union of the two movements mentioned above.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

152).
.To obtain these heavenly mysteries, which alone make the Torah superior to profane codes, definite hermeneutical rules are employed, of which the following are the most important.^ The following are the most important cabalistic works that have appeared: Azriel , Perush 'Eser Sefirot , Berlin, 1850 , in Meïr ibn Gabbai.

^ These associations culminated in Nauvoo, the period of his most important doctrinal and ritual innovations.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following are the most important cabalistic works that have appeared: Azriel, Perush 'Eser Sefirot, Berlin, 1850, in Meïr ibn Gabbai.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.(t) The words of several verses in the Hebrew Scriptures which are regarded as containing a recondite sense are placed over each other, and the letters are formed into new words by reading them vertically.^ Hermeneutical content of the Zohar All these esoteric doctrines of the Kabbala are supposed to be contained in the Hebrew Scriptures, in which, however they can be perceived only by those initiated into certain hermeneutical methods.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elim in Hebrew is Elimah – אילמה , which contains the same letters as the name of G-d, Elohim – אלהים .
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^ These conceptions, originating in the school of Azriel, are herein combined with Eleazar's theories on the meaning of the Hebrew letters according to their forms and numerical values.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

(2) The words of the text are ranged in squares in such a manner as to be read either vertically or boustrophedon. (3) The words are joined together and redivided. .(4) The initials and final letters of several words are formed into separate words.^ By means of this illumination man is enabled to get insight into the contents of the cabalistic doctrine through the symbolic interpretation of the letters, words, and contents of Scripture; hence the Cabala is symbolical theology.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.(5) Every letter of a word is reduced to its numerical value, and the word is explained by another of the same quantity.^ Tet 9 (the numerical value of the Hebrew letter Tet ).
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Zayin 7 (the numerical value of the Hebrew letter Zayin ).
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Vav 6 (the numerical value of the Hebrew letter Vav ).
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

(6) Every letter of a word is taken to be the initial or abbreviation of a word. .(7) The twentytwo letters of the alphabet are divided into two halves; one half is placed above the other; and the two letters which thus become associated are interchanged.^ In other words, in Heikhalot literature the concomitant presence of the samer person in two places seems to be a crucial issue.
  • 5 Kabbalah Texts 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While the three primal elements constitute the substance of things, the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet constitute the form.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Two different aspects which equated their forms one to the other.
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

.By this permutation, Aleph, the first letter of the alphabet, becomes Lamed, the twelfth letter; Beth becomes Mem, and so on.^ Et (preposition of accusative case; spelled Alef - Tav) Malchut is called Et since it includes all the letters from Alef (the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet) to Tav (the last letter in the alphabet).
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Hebrew Alphabet and the selection of the letter aleph for the creation (1:2b-3b = 1:9-13) .
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This cipher alphabet is called Albam, from the first interchangeable pairs.^ Et (preposition of accusative case; spelled Alef - Tav) Malchut is called Et since it includes all the letters from Alef (the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet) to Tav (the last letter in the alphabet).
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

.(8) The commutation of the twenty-two letters is effected by the last letter of the alphabet taking the place of the first, the last but one the place of the second, and so forth.^ The following are the three principal methods of discovering the heavenly mysteries hidden under the letters and words of the Sacred Text: The Temurah (change) by means of which each letter of the Hebrew alphabet is interchanged with another, according to some definite process, as when Aleph, the first letter, becomes Lamed by interchange with the twelfth, the second, Beth, becomes, Mem, the thirteenth, etc.; or as, when the last letter takes place of the first, the last but one takes the place of the second, etc.; the Gematriah (Gr.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Et (preposition of accusative case; spelled Alef - Tav) Malchut is called Et since it includes all the letters from Alef (the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet) to Tav (the last letter in the alphabet).
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ While the three primal elements constitute the substance of things, the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet constitute the form.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.This cipher is called Atbash. These hermeneutical canons are much older than the Kabbalah.^ Isaac the Blind, who was not much older than Azriel (his father Abraham b.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

They obtained in the synagogue from time immemorial, and were used by the Christian fathers in the interpretation of Scripture. .1 Thus Canon V., according to which a word is reduced to its numerical value and interpreted by another word of the same value, is recognized in the New Testament (cf.^ Human language in Scripture is examined not only allegorically and analogically, but also through the interpretation of words and letters according to their numerical equivalents, and by interchanging numerical equivalents new letters and words could be created, thereby allowing for new interpretations.
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^ These conceptions, originating in the school of Azriel, are herein combined with Eleazar's theories on the meaning of the Hebrew letters according to their forms and numerical values.
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Rev. xiii. 18). .Canon VI. is adopted by Irenaeus, who tells us that, according to the learned among the Hebrews, the name Jesus contains two letters and a half, and signifies that Lord who contains heaven and earth [rr' = rim ?^ Rab's saying: ‘Bezalel knew how to combine the letters by which heaven and earth were created’.
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^ Hence, the seed parallels the Name of G-d and the forty-two acts of intercourse are the forty-two composing letters.
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^ Elim in Hebrew is Elimah – אילמה , which contains the same letters as the name of G-d, Elohim – אלהים .
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n ' mm'] (Against Heresies, ii. xxiv., i. 205, ed. Clark). The cipher Atbash (Canon VIII.) is used in Jeremiah xxv. 26, li. 41, where Sheshach is written for Babel. In Jer. li. .I, ^p ?5, Leb-Kamai (" the heart of them that rise up against me "), is written for e' w:, Chaldea, by the same rule.^ Many are they that rise up against me.
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Exegesis of this sort is not the characteristic of any single circle, people or century; unscientific methods of biblical interpretation have prevailed from Philo's treatment of the Pentateuch to modern apologetic interpretations of Genesis, ch. i. .2 The Kabbalah itself is but an extreme and remarkable development of certain forms of thought which had never been absent from Judaism; it is bound up with earlier tendencies to mysticism, with man's inherent striving to enter into communion with the Deity.^ Much that appears Christian is in fact nothing but the logical development of certain ancient esoteric doctrines, which were incorporated into Christianity and contributed much to its development, and which are also found in Talmudic works and in Talmudic Judaism.
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^ With man the object thought of remains abstract, a mere form of the object, which has only a subjective existence in the mind of man, and not an objective existence outside of him.
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^ But the venom of the serpent entered into man, poisoning him and all nature, which then became susceptible to the influence of evil.
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To seek its sources would be futile. .The Pythagorean theory of numbers, Neoplatonic ideas of emanation, the Logos, the personified Wisdom, Gnosticism - these and many other features combine to show the antiquity of tendencies which, clad in other shapes, are already found in the old pre-Christian Oriental religions.^ The whole principle of emanation, with its idea of evil inherent in matter as the dross ( ) is found there (see Von Harless, l.c.

^ He therefore made free use of cabalistic ideas in his philosophy, or, rather, his philosophy consists of Neoplatonic-cabalistic doctrines in Christian garb.
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^ Many obscurities will probably become clear as soon as more is known about Gnosticism in its different forms, and Oriental theosophy.
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.3 In its more mature form the Kabbalah belongs to the period when medieval Christian mysticism was beginning to manifest itself (viz.^ The mystical literature of the geonic period forms the link between the mystic speculations of the Talmud and the system of the Cabala; originating in the one and reaching completion in the other.
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^ Kabbalah, the "mystical shape of the Godhead' contained in the image of the [Tree of the] Sefiroth as redrawn by a principal and influential seventeenth-century Christian kabbalist, [Robert] Fludd" (p.
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in .Eckhart, towards end of 13th century); it is an age which also produced the rationalism of Maimonides.^ The first was the christological speculations of a number of Jewish converts who are known to us from the end of the 13th century until the period of the Spanish expulsion [of the Jews]."
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Although some of its foremost exponents were famous Talmudists, it was a protest against excessive intellectualism and Aristotelian scholasticism. It laid stress, not on external authority, as did the Jewish law, but on individual experience and inward meditation. ." The mystics accorded the first place to prayer, which was considered as a mystical progress towards God, demanding a state of ecstasy."4 As a result, some of the finest specimens of Jewish devotional literature and some of the best types of Jewish individual character have been Kabbalist.^ While study of the Law was to the Talmudists the very acme of piety, the mystics accorded the first place to prayer, which was considered as a mystical progress toward God, demanding a state of ecstasy.
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^ There sprang up that magic literature which showed the name of the Jewish God ( ) and of the Patriarchs placed alongside of pagan deities and demons, and the Hermes books ( , as copyists wrote for —not "Homeros"—see Kohler, "Jew.

^ David Basri's son quoted his father, according to PinkNews: "God punishes depravity first through plagues against animals and then in people.
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.5 On the other hand, the Kabbalah has been condemned, and nowhere more strongly than among the Jews themselves.^ The final form was given to Azriel's Cabala by the work "Ma'areket ha-Elohut" in which Azriel's system is presented more clearly and definitely than in any other cabalistic work.
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^ Yet the young is superior in knowledge than the others around suggesting that sometimes a child knows more.
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Jewish orthodoxy found itself attacked by the more revolutionary aspects of mysticism and its tendencies to alter established customs. While the medieval scholasticism denied the possibility of knowing anything unattainable by reason, the spirit of the Kabbalah held that the Deity could be realized, and it sought to bridge the gulf. Thus it encouraged an unrestrained emotionalism, rank superstition, an unhealthy asceticism, and the employment of artificial means to induce the ecstatic state. That this brought moral laxity was a stronger reason for condemning the Kabbalah, 1 See F. Weber, Jiidische Theologie (1897), pp. 138 sqq.
2 See C. A. Briggs, Study of Holy Scripture (1899), pp. 4 2 7 sqq., 570.
3 Even the " over-Soul " of the mystic Isaac Luria (1534-1572) is a conception known in the 3rd centur y A.D. (Rabbi Resh Lakish). For the early stages of Kabbalistic theories, see K. Kohler, Jew. Ency. iii. 457 seq., and L. Ginzberg, ibid. .459 seq.: and for examples of the relationship between old Oriental (especially Babylonian) and Jewish Kabbalistic teaching (early and late), see especially A. Jeremias, Babylonisches in N. Test. (Leipzig, 1905); E. Bischoff, Bab.^ For a correct understanding of the relationship between Joseph Smith and Freemasonry, it is vital first to clearly distinguish between the various types of Freemasonry, especially between the esoteric and nonesoteric forms.
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^ Alleged Kabbalistic Influences in Early Utah Mormonism Owens provides several examples of what he feels represent kabbalistic influences on post-Nauvoo Mormon thought.
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^ Are we to assume a causal relationship between this Chinese example and those of Freemasonry?
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Astrales im Weltbilde des Thalmud u. Midrasch
(3907).
4 L. Ginzberg, Jew. Ency. iii. 465.
.5 See, especially, on the mystics of Safed in Upper Galilee, S. Schechter, Studies (1908), pp.^ The theory of the concentration of God, by which the Cabala tries to explain the creation of the finite out of the infinite, is found in mystical form in Gabirol also (see Munk, "Mélanges," pp.
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202-285.
and the evil effects of nervous degeneration find a more recent illustration in the mysticism of the Chasidim (Hdsidim, " saints "), a Jewish sect in eastern Europe which started from a movement in the 38th century against the exaggerated casuistry of contemporary rabbis, and combined much that was spiritual and beautiful with extreme emotionalism and degradation. .6 The appearance of the Kabbalah and of other forms of mysticism in Judaism may seem contrary to ordinary and narrow conceptions of orthodox Jewish legalism.^ Even those elements that seem later developments may have been transmitted orally, or may have formed parts of the lost works of the old mystics.

^ While one can not form any conception of the En-Sof, the pure substance, one can yet draw conclusions from the "Or En-Sof" (The Infinite Light), which in part may be cognized by rational thought; that is, from the appearance of the substance one may infer its nature.

^ This book consists almost entirely of mystical names by means of which man may guard himself against sickness, enemies, and other ills, and may subjugate nature.

.Its interest lies, not in its doctrines, which have often been absurdly over-estimated (particularly among Christians), but in its contribution to the study of human thought.^ Much that appears Christian is in fact nothing but the logical development of certain ancient esoteric doctrines, which were incorporated into Christianity and contributed much to its development, and which are also found in Talmudic works and in Talmudic Judaism.
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It supplied a want which has always been felt by certain types, and it became a movement which had mischievous effects upon ill-balanced minds. .As usual, the excessive self-introspection was not checked by a rational criticism; the individual was guided by his own reason, the limitations of which he did not realize; and in becoming a law unto himself he ignored the accumulated experiences of civilized humanity.'^ Are we really to believe that Joseph selected only these items from the Zohar for which he himself provided biblical support, ignoring these and many other ideas that are unique to that document?
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^ In this fashion, they can themselves become individual Christs (their own Messiah) through spiritual "perfection?"
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A feature of greater interest is the extraordinary part which this theosophy played in the Christian Church, especially at the time of the Renaissance. .We have already seen that the Sephiric decade or the archetypal man, like Christ, is considered to be of a double nature, both infinite and finite, perfect and imperfect.^ They are infinite and perfect when the En-Soph imparts His fullness to them, and finite and imperfect when that fullness is withdrawn from them (Ginsburg).
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More distinct, however, is the doctrine of the Trinity. In Deut. vi. 43, where Yahweh occurs first, then Elohenu, and then again Yahweh, we are told " The voice though one, consists of three elements, fire (i.e. warmth), air (i.e. breath), and water (i.e. humidity), yet all three are one in the mystery of the voice and can only be one. .Thus also Yahweh, Elohenu, Yahweh, constitute one - three forms which are one " (Zohar, ii.^ Thus, the universe forms a large unified whole, a living, undivided being, that consists of three parts enveloping one another successively; and over them soars, as the highest archetypal seal, the world of Aẓilut.
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^ While the three primal elements constitute the substance of things, the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet constitute the form.
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^ "In love is found the secret of divine unity: it is love that unites the higher and lower stages,and that lifts everything to that stage where all must be one" (Zohar, wa-Yaḳhel, ii.
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43; compare iii. 65). Discussing the thrice holy in Isaiah vi. .3, one codex of the Zohar had the following remark: " The first holy denotes the Holy Father, the second the Holy Son, and the third the Holy Ghost " (cf.^ In the following citations, the first reference is to the editio princeps of the Zohar , while the second is to the Sperling and Simon translation.
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^ For the Zohar the "Head God" would be the first sefira, Keter/En Sof, not the second sefira , Wisdom/Beginning.
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Galatinus, De arcanis cathol. lib. ii. c. 3, p. 31; Wolf, Bibliotheca hebraica, i. 1136). Still more distinct is the doctrine of the atonement. " The Messiah invokes all the sufferings, pain, and afflictions of Israel to come upon Him. Now if He did not remove them thus and take them upon Himself, no man could endure the sufferings of Israel, due as their punishment for transgressing the law; as it is written (Isa. liii. 4), Surely He bath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows " (Zohar, ii. 12). .These and similar statements favouring the doctrines of the New Testament made many Kabbalists of the highest position in the synagogue embrace the Christian faith and write elaborate books to win their Jewish brethren over to Christ.^ CONCLUSION Of course, the Book of Creation does not go back to Abraham, as has been claimed by many Kabbalists.
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^ He therefore made free use of cabalistic ideas in his philosophy, or, rather, his philosophy consists of Neoplatonic-cabalistic doctrines in Christian garb.
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^ Because of this, he maintained, "the Christian world by their prejudices have driven us away from the Old Bible, so we must now appeal to the New Testament."
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.As early as 1450 a company of Jewish converts in Spain, at the head of which were Paul de Heredia, Vidal de Saragossa de Aragon, and Davila, published compilations of Kabbalistic treatises to prove from them the doctrines of Christianity.'^ In fact Pico took no part in the translation, which was largely the work of "the very learned [Jewish] convert [to Christianity] Samuel ben Nissim Abulfaraj .
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^ Pico, of course, holds that the Cabala contains all the doctrines of Christianity, so that "the Jews can be refuted by their own books" ("De Hom.
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^ The classic document of the Kabbalistic tradition, the Zohar, was compiled by Moses de Leon about 1290.
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They were followed by Paul Rici, professor at Pavia, and physi-' cian to the emperor Maximilian I. .Among the best-known non-Jewish exponents of the Kabbalah were the Italian count Pico di Mirandola (1463-1494), the renowned Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522), Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim (3487- '535), Theophrastus Paracelsus (1493-1541), and, later, the Englishman Robert Fludd (1574-1637).^ Natural philosophy in combination with the Christian Cabala is found in the works of the German Theophrastus Paracelsus (1493-1541), of the Italian Hieronymus Cardanus (1501-76), of the Hollander Johann Baptist von Helmont (1577-1644), and of the Englishman Robert Fludd (1574-1637).
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^ Reuchlin's contemporary, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim (1487-1535), holds the same views, with this difference, that he pays especial attention to the practical side of the Cabala—namely, magic—which he endeavors to develop and explain thoroughly.

^ Reuchlin's contemporary, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim (1487-1535), holds the same views, with this difference, that he pays especial attention to the practical side of the Cabala-namely, magic-which he endeavors to develop and explain thoroughly.
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Prominent among the " nine hundred theses " which Mirandola had placarded in Rome, and which he undertook to defend in the presence of all European scholars, whom he invited to the Eternal City, promising to defray their travelling expenses, was the following: " No science yields greater proof of the divinity of Christ than magic and the Kabbalah." Mirandola so convinced Pope Sixtus of the paramount importance of the Kabbalah as an auxiliary to Christianity that his holiness exerted himself to have Kabbalistic writings translated into Latin for the use of divinity students. .With equal zeal did Reuchlin act as the 6 See the instructive article by S. Schechter, Studies in Judaism (London, 1896), pp.^ Consistently throughout his article, Owens speaks of the importance of the knowledge of Hebrew for a study of the Zohar (pp.
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^ More instructive still for the study of the development of cabalistic lore is the Book of Jubilees written under King John Hyrcanus (see Charles, "The Book of Jubilees," 1902, Introduction, pp.
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^ On the idea of the prisca theologia , see Daniel P. Walker, The Ancient Theology: Studies in Christian Platonism from the Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Century (London: Duckworth, 1972); cf.
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2-55.
See the discriminating estimates by S. A. Hirsch, Jew. Quart. Rev. xx. 50-73; I. Abrahams, Jew. Lit. (1906), ch. xvii.; Judaism (1907), ch. vi.
apostle of the Kabbalah. His treatises exercised an almost magic influence upon the greatest thinkers of the time. Pope Leo X. and the early Reformers were alike captivated by the charms of the Kabbalah as propounded by Reuchlin, and not only divines, but statesmen and warriors, began to study the Oriental languages in order to be able to fathom the mysteries of Jewish theosophy. .The Zohar, that farrago of absurdity and spiritual devotion, was the weapon with which these Christians defended Jewish literature against hostile ecclesiastic bodies (Abrahams, Jew.^ As with Jewish people, there was also a reaction among some Christians against sterile belief, and it was thought that Kabbalah was a valid corrective.
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^ Abraham and in Enoch; and, later on, in the Christian apocalyptic literature-are obviously remnants of ancient Essene cosmology.
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^ Abraham and in Enoch; and, later on, in the Christian apocalyptic literature—are obviously remnants of ancient Essene cosmology.

Lit.
p. 106). .Thus the Kabbalah linked the old scholasticism with the new and independent inquiries in learning and philosophy after the Renaissance, and although it had evolved a remarkably bizarre conception of the universe, it partly anticipated, in its own way, the scientific study of natural philosophy.^ Alot of what Kabbalah teaches is in both the old and new testement.
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^ Joseph Smith, on the other hand, maintained that although man may see God, "it shall be in his [God's] own time, and in his own way, and according to his own will" (D&C 88:68).
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^ Finally, although Neibaur had some early Jewish education in which he learned Hebrew, he stopped Jewish education at the age of seventeen to pursue secular studies at the University of Berlin, converting to Christianity at about twenty (p.
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.1 Jewish theosophy, then, with its good and evil tendencies, and with its varied results, may thus claim to have played no unimportant part in the history of European scholarship and thought.^ In fact Pico took no part in the translation, which was largely the work of "the very learned [Jewish] convert [to Christianity] Samuel ben Nissim Abulfaraj .
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^ Evil is only the negation of good, and in the Jewish setting evil is overcome through the three great emphases, along with strict adherence to the law.
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^ However, beginning in the late eighteenth century, European Jewish education underwent a major transformation as part of the Haskalah —the Jewish Enlightenment (c.
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The main sources to be noticed are: i. .The Sepher Yesirah, or " book of creation," not the old Hilkoth Y. (" rules of creation "), which belongs to the Talmudic period (on which see Kohler, Jew.^ There sprang up that magic literature which showed the name of the Jewish God ( ) and of the Patriarchs placed alongside of pagan deities and demons, and the Hermes books ( , as copyists wrote for —not "Homeros"—see Kohler, "Jew.

^ An old Semitic view (see Ba'al) regards the upper waters compare Slavonic Book of Enoch, iii.; Test.
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^ Abraham, and not a Talmudical hero like Akiba, is introduced in the "Sefer Yeẓirah," at the close, as possessor of the Wisdom of the Alphabet, indicates an old tradition, if not the antiquity of the book itself.
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Ency.
xii. 602 seq.), but a later treatise, a combination of medieval natural philosophy and mysticism. .It has been variously ascribed to the patriarch Abraham and to the illustrious rabbi `Agiba; its essential elements, however, may be of the 3rd or 4th century A.D., and it is apparently earlier than the 9th (see L. Ginzberg, op.^ It is certain, however, that at the beginning of the ninth century the work enjoyed so great a reputation that no less a man than Saadia wrote a commentary on it.
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cit.
603 sqq.). .It has " had a greater influence on the development of the Jewish mind than almost any other book after the completion of the Talmud " (ibid.^ Solomon ibn Gabirol's doctrines influenced the development of the Cabala more than any other philosophical system; and his views on the will of God and on the intermediate beings between God and the creation were especially weighty.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This book was of fundamental importance in more than one way for the development of the speculative Cabala.
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^ The mystical literature of the geonic period forms the link between the mystic speculations of the Talmud and the system of the Cabala; originating in the one and reaching completion in the other.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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).
2. The Bahir (" brilliant," Job. xxxvii. 21), though ascribed to Nehunyah b. .Haqqanah (1st century A.D.), is first quoted by Nahmanides, and is now attributed to his teacher Ezra or Azriel (1160-1238).^ It was Azriel (1160-1238), a Spaniard with philosophical training, who undertook to explain the doctrines of the Cabala to philosophers and to make it acceptable to them.
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.It shows the influence of the Sepher Yesirah, is marked by the teaching of a celestial Trinity, is a rough outline of what the Zohar was destined to be, and gave the first opening to a thorough study of metaphysics among the Jews.^ The work is important because it gave to those scholars who would have nothing to do with the philosophy then current—namely, Aristotelianism—the first incentive to a thorough study of metaphysics.

^ The work is important because it gave to those scholars who would have nothing to do with the philosophy then current-namely, Aristotelianism-the first incentive to a thorough study of metaphysics.
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(See further I. Broyde, Jew. Ency. ii. 442 seq.).
.3. The Zohar (" shining," Dan.^ It is written: And the intelligent shall shine (yazhiru) like the brightness (zohar) of the firmament, and they that turn many to righteousness like the stars forever and ever (Dan.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

xii. .3) is a commentary on the Pentateuch, according to its division into fifty-two hebdomadal lessons.^ It is written in Aramaic, and its main portion is the form of a commentary on the Pentateuch according to the latter's division into fifty-two weekly lessons.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

It begins with the exposition of Gen. i. .4 (" let there be light ") and includes eleven dissertations: (I) " Additions and Supplements "; (2) " The Mansions and Abodes," describing the structure of paradise and hell; (3) "The Mysteries of the Pentateuch," describing the evolution of the Sephiroth, &c.; (4) " The Hidden Interpretation," deducing esoteric doctrine from the narratives in the Pentateuch; (5) " The Faithful Shepherd," recording discussions between Moses the faithful shepherd, the prophet Elijah and R. Simon b.^ It is in the main a commentary on the Pentateuch, and R. Simon ben Yoḥai is introduced as the inspired teacher who expounds the theosophic doctrines to the circle of his saintly hearers.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Etz Chayim) A place from the Chazeh and above, which is the place of hidden Chassadim , and there is light of Achoraim of Binah , where the Klipot have no hold .
  • Kabbalah World Center - "Online Kabbalah Lessons" - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.kabbalah.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Its title Zohar (light, splendour) is derived from the words of Genesis 1:3 ("Let there be light") with the exposition of which it begins.
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.Yobai, the reputed compiler of the Zohar; (6) " The Secret of Secrets," a treatise on physiognomy and psychology; (7) " The Aged," i.e. the prophet Elijah, discoursing with R. Simon on the doctrine of transmigration as evolved from Exod.^ In Kabbalistic lore, the commentary of the Zohar represented the oldest biblical interpretation, the secret interpretation imparted by God to Adam and all worthy prophets after him.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

xxi. i-xxiv. .18; (8) " The Book of Secrets," discourses on cosmogony and demonology; (9) " The Great Assembly," discourses of R. Simon to his numerous assembly of disciples on the form of the Deity and on pneumatology; (10) " The Young Man," discourses by young men of superhuman origin on the mysteries of ablutions; and (I I) " The Small Assembly," containing the discourses on the Sephiroth which R. Simon delivered to the small congregation of six surviving disciples.^ The cosmogony of the Slavonic Enoch, a product of the first pre-Christian century (Charles, "The Book of the Secrets of Enoch," 1896, p.
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^ These conceptions, originating in the school of Azriel, are herein combined with Eleazar's theories on the meaning of the Hebrew letters according to their forms and numerical values.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That many such books containing secret lore were kept hidden away by the "wise" is clearly stated in IV Esdras xiv.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Zohar pretends to be a compilation made by Simon b.^ References to the Zohar will be made to the editio princeps pagination, with the Sperling and Simon pages following an equal sign.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yobai (the second century A.D.) of doctrines which God communicated to Adam in Paradise, and which have been received uninterruptedly from the mouths of the patriarchs and prophets.^ Its application has greatly varied in the course of time, and it is only since the eleventh or twelfth century that the term Kabbala has become the exclusive appellation for the system of Jewish religious philosophy which claims to have been uninterruptedly transmitted by the mouths of the patriarchs, prophets, elders, etc., ever since the creation of the first man.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Kabbalistic lore, the commentary of the Zohar represented the oldest biblical interpretation, the secret interpretation imparted by God to Adam and all worthy prophets after him.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Owens claims that "the Adam-God doctrine may have been a misreading (or restatement) by Brigham Young of a Kabbalistic and Hermetic concept relayed to him by the prophet [Joseph Smith]" (p.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was discovered, so the story went, in a cavern in Galilee where it had been hidden for a thousand years. .Amongst the many facts, however, established by modern criticism which prove the Zohar to be a compilation of the 13th century, are the following: (I) the Zohar itself praises most fulsomely R. Simon, its reputed author, and exalts him above Moses; (2) it mystically explains the Hebrew vowel points, which did not obtain till 570; (3) the compiler borrows two verses from the celebrated hymn called " The Royal Diadem," written by Ibn Gabirol, who was born about 1021; (4) it mentions the capture of Jerusalem by the crusaders and the re-taking of the Holy City by the Saracens; (5) it speaks of the comet which appeared at Rome, 15th July 1264, under the pontificate of Urban IV.; (6) by a slip the Zohar assigns a reason why its contents were not revealed before5060-5066A.M., i.e.1300-1306A.D., (7) the doctrine of the En Soph and the Sephiroth was not known before the 13th century; and (8) the very existence of the Zohar itself was not known prior 1 See, e.g., G. Margoliouth, " The Doctrine of Ether in the Kabbalah," Jew.^ The most prominent book of Kabbalah is the Zohar, which appeared in 1300 under Moses de Leon.
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^ Zohar and of almost all the cabalistic writings, most modern scholars, among whom are Zunz, Grätz, Luzzatto, Jost, Steinschneider, and Munk (see bibliography below), have treated the Cabala with a certain bias and from a rationalistic rather than from a psychologico-historical point of view; applying the name of "Cabala" only to the speculative systems which appeared since the thirteenth century, under pretentious titles and with fictitious claims, but not to the mystic lore of the geonic and Talmudic times.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Doctrinal content of the Zohar The First World Considered in Himself, the Supreme Being is the En-Soph (Endless, Infinite) and, in a certain sense, the En (Non-existent) since existence is in human conception a limitation which as such should not be predicated of Him.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

Quart. Rev.
xx. 828 sqq. .On the influence of the Kabbalah on the Reformation, see Stbckl, Gesch.^ Mayence, 1865 , with an account of the influence of the Cabala on the Reformation; Tennemann , Gesch.

d. Philosophie des Mittelalters, ii.
232-251.
to the 13th century. .Hence it is now believed that Moses de Leon (d.^ Instead it was shown to be the work of "Rabbi Moses de Leon [died 1305], or contemporaries of his."
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the contemporaries of Moses de Leon must be mentioned the Italian Menahem Recanati, whose cabalistic commentary on the Pentateuch is really a commentary on the Zohar.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The classic document of the Kabbalistic tradition, the Zohar, was compiled by Moses de Leon about 1290.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/kabbalah.htm 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.1305), who first circulated and sold the Zohar as the production of R. Simon, was himself the author or compiler.^ In the following citations, the first reference is to the editio princeps of the Zohar , while the second is to the Sperling and Simon translation.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shem-Ṭob de Leon , Sefer Nefesh ha-Ḥakamah , Basel, 1608 ; Zohar , alleged author, Simon b.

.That eminent scholars both in the synagogue and in the church should have been induced to believe in its antiquity is owing to the fact that the Zohar embodies many older opinions and doctrines, and the undoubted antiquity of some of them has served as a lever in the minds of these scholars to raise the late speculations about the En Soph, the Sephiroth, &c., to the same age.^ Despite the fact that serious academic study of the esoteric tradition is a relatively recent phenomenon, many of Owens's secondary sources are over a quarter of a century old—some over a century old.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are we really to believe that Joseph selected only these items from the Zohar for which he himself provided biblical support, ignoring these and many other ideas that are unique to that document?
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paulsen, "The Doctrine of Divine Embodiment," for many further examples.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

LITERATURE

.The study of the whole subject being wrapped up with Gnosticism and Oriental theosophy, the related literature is immense.^ Many obscurities will probably become clear as soon as more is known about Gnosticism in its different forms, and Oriental theosophy.
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  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - CABALA. 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Among the more important works may be mentioned, Baron von Rosenroth's Kabbala Denudata (Sulzbach, 1677-1678; Frankfort, 1684); A. Franck, La Kabbale (Paris, 2nd ed., 1889; German by Jellinek, Leipzig, 1844); C. D. Ginsburg, The Kabbalah, its Doctrines, Development and Literature (London, 1865); I. Meyer, Qabbalah (Philadelphia, 1888); Rubin, Kabbala and Agada (Vienna, 1895), Heideritum and Kabbalah (1893); Karppe, Et.^ Tradition, 4 vols., Frankfort and Münster, 1827-53; Isaac Myer, Qabbalah, Philadelphia, 1888; Steinschneider, Ḳabbalah, in Jewish Literature, xiii.; Rosner, Yad Binyamin, Vienna, 1882; Tedeschi, La Cabbala, Triest, 1900; Zunz, G. V. 2d ed., pp.
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^ Much that appears Christian is in fact nothing but the logical development of certain ancient esoteric doctrines, which were incorporated into Christianity and contributed much to its development, and which are also found in Talmudic works and in Talmudic Judaism.
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^ L Goldberg (Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) Bibliography J Abelson, Jewish Mysticism; D C Ginsburg, "The Kabbalah," in The Essenes; E J, II; A E Waite, Holy Kabbalah; M Waxman, "The Kabbalah," in A History of Jewish Literature, II. .
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sur les origines du .Zohar
(Paris, 1891); A. E. Waite, Doctrine and Literature of the Kabbalah (London, 1902); Fliigel, Philosophy, Kabbala, eec. (Baltimore, 1902); D. Neumark, Gesch.^ L Goldberg (Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) Bibliography J Abelson, Jewish Mysticism; D C Ginsburg, "The Kabbalah," in The Essenes; E J, II; A E Waite, Holy Kabbalah; M Waxman, "The Kabbalah," in A History of Jewish Literature, II. .
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^ Geheimlehre, Kabbala , and Mystik ; Flügel , Philosophie, Qabbala, und Vedanta , Baltimore, 1902 ; Kiesewetter , Der Occultismus der Hebräer , in Der Occultismus des Alterthums , Leipsic, no date; Landauer , in Orient Lit.

^ Geheimlehre, Kabbala, and Mystik; Flügel, Philosophie, Qabbala, und Vedanta, Baltimore, 1902; Kiesewetter, Der Occultismus der Hebräer, in Der Occultismus des Alterthums, Leipsic, no date; Landauer, in Orient Lit.
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d. fad. Philosophie d. .Mittelalters
(Berlin, 1907); also S. A. Binion, in C. D. Warner's World's Best Literature, 8425 sqq.^ A. Binion, The Kabbalah, in Library of the World's Best Literature, ed.
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^ A. Binion , The Kabbalah, in Library of the World's Best Literature , ed.

.See further the very full articles in the Jewish Ency. by K. Kohler and L. Ginzberg (" Cabbala "), I. Broyde (" Bahir," "Zohar "), with the references.^ When read in context and understood correctly, it is very difficult to see how this passage from the Zohar "agrees word for word" (p.
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kaufmann Kohler, Louis Ginzberg Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.
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^ For a semicentennial retrospective analysis of Fawn Brodie, with full references to reviews, see Louis C. Midgley, "F. M. Brodie—'The Fasting Hermit and Very Saint of Ignorance': A Biographer and Her Legend," pages 147-230 in this issue of FARMS Review of Books .
  • Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection - William J. Hamblin - FARMS Review - Volume 8 - Issue 2 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC mi.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(C. D. G.; S. A. C.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Noun

kabbalah
  1. Alternative spelling of Kaballah.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Kabbalah, which are similar to those in the above article.








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