type = city
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
• 138 m (453 ft)
Kadapa (Telugu: కడప), formerly Cuddapah, is a city in the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India and is the headquarters of Kadapa District). The city's name originated from the Telugu word "Gadapa" meaning threshold or gate. It was spelled "Cuddapah" but was changed to "Kadapa" on 19 August, 2005 to reflect the local pronunciation of the name.
Kadapa is famous for great personalities in medieval times e.g., Vemana, Pothuluri Veera Bramham, Annamacharya, Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu and patronised Telugu lovers such as C P Brown, Bishop Caldwell etc.,
Kadapa is one of the important cities in Rayalaseema, Andhra Pradesh, and is situated in the south-central part of the Andhra Pradesh State. Located 8 km south of the Penna River, the city is surrounded on three sides by the Nallamala and Palakonda hills. The city is named "Threshold" because it is the gateway from the north to the sacred hill-'Pagoda' of Shri Venkateshvara (also spelt as Venkateswara) of Tirupati.
Kishkindakanda, one of the 7 kandas of the Ramayanam, is believed to have happened in Vontimitta, Kadapa. Vontimitta is 20 kilometres from the city. The Anjaneya Swamy Gandi may also be part of the Ramayanam; it is believed that the Statue of Anjaneya Swamy in Gandi is made by Sri Rama on a hill stone with his arrow's point to acknowledge Anjaneya's help in finding Sri Sita Devi.
Kadapa city was a part of the Chola Empire from the 11th to 14th century. It became part of Vijayanagar Empire in the latter part of 14th century. The region was under the control of Gandikota Nayaks, governors of Vijayanagar for two centuries. The most illustrious ruler was Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu (1422 CE) (Pemmasani Nayaks) who developed the region and constructed many tanks and temples. Muslims of Golkonda conquered the region in 1565 CE when Mir Jumla raided Gandikota fort and defeated Chinna Thimma Nayudu by treachery. Later the British took control of Kadapa in 1800 CE. Although the town is an ancient one, it was probably extended by Neknam Khan, the Qutb Shahi commander, who called the extension "Neknamabad". The name "Neknamabad" was used for the town for some time but slowly fell into disuse and the records of the 18th century refer to the rulers not as Nawabs of Nekanamabad but nawabs of Kadapa. Except for some years in the beginning, Kadapa was the seat of the Mayana Nawabs in the 18th century. With the British occupation of the tract in 1800 CE it became the headquarters of one of the four subordinate collectors under the principal collector by name Major Munro. Relics of the rule of the Kadapa Nawabs are found in the town. Most prominent among these are two towers and the dargahs. The city has plenty of temples in and around the city and also has three churches. It has got lots of historical places to visit. Ontimitta is one of the famous place in Kadapa. Ontimitta is called as Yeka Shila Nagaram.
Cuddapah is located at  It has an average elevation of 138 metres (452 feet). The District of Cuddapah has an area of 8723 sq. m. It is in shape an irregular parallelogram, divided into two nearly equal parts by the range of the Eastern Ghats, which intersects it throughout its entire length. The two tracts thus formed possess totally different features. The first, which constitutes the north, east and south-east of the district, is a low-lying plain; while the other, which comprises the southern and southwestern portion, forms a high table-land from 1500 to 2,500 ft (760 m) above sea-level. The chief river is the Penna, which enters the district from Bellary on the west, and flows eastwards into Nellore. Though a large and broad river, and in the rains containing a great volume of water, in the hot weather months it dwindles down to an inconsiderable stream. Its principal tributaries are the Kundaur, Saglair, Cheyair and Papagni rivers..
Kadapa is in the shape of an irregular parallelogram, divided in half by the range of the Eastern ghats. The city lies in the "Bugga" or "Ralla Vanka" in a hollow bordered on the south by the main Palakondas, part of the eastern ghats, and on the east by a strip of the same hills projecting north towards the Lankamalas on the other side of the Penneru. The two tracts thus formed possess different features. The first, a low-lying plain about 400 ft (120 m) to 450 ft (137 m) above sea level constitutes the north, east and south-east of the city, while the other, which comprises the southern and south-western portion, forms a high table-land from 1500 to 2,500 ft (760 m) above sea-level.
The population of the district in 1901 was 1,291,267. As of 2001 India census, Kadapa had a population of 3,25,725. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Cuddapah has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 76% and, female literacy is 64%. In Kadapa, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age.
The primary languages spoken in the city are Telugu and Urdu. English is used as a medium of education in many of its educational institutions. The city and the district of Kadapa was notorious for factional inter and intra political rivalries. However, things seem to have improved recently. The city has a large non resident citizens spread across the nation and globe. The less educated from the city and district often go to Persian gulf countries such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia for employment.
The neighbourhood of Kadapa was the birthplace of several ancient and contemporary poets. The great Annamacharya well known as Annamayya was from Rajampet which is an hour and half away from Kadapa. He wrote over 30,000 songs and slokas on Venkateswara in the 15th century. Nachana Somana (tudimela dinne near Khajipet) "molla Ramayanam" Famekavaitri Molla (gopavaram near badvel), Tallapaka Thimmakka, (Tallapaka) Kavi Choudappa (hailed in pullur near Khajipet), Janamanchi Seshadri Sarma, Durbhaka Rajasekhra Sathavadhani, Puttaparty Narayana Charyulu and Gadiyaram Venkata Sesha Sastry Proddatur which is 50 km distant from Kadapa were the poets of the olden days. The late Rachamallu Ramachandra Reddy, the late Y.C.V. Reddy, the late Sodum Jayaram, Dr. Kethu Viswanadha Reddy, Dadahayat, Tavva Obul Reddy , Sannapu Reddy and Viswa prasad are the well known writers of the district. A collection of 47 short stories each one by the writers of kadapa district by name "kadapa katha" released by the chief minister Dr. Y.S. Raja Sekhar Reddy in the sabhabhavan of Kadapa collectorate. "Kadapa Katha" edited by Tavva Obul Reddy and published by A. Rajendra Prasad of Nandalur Kathaanilayam. The stories represents the life of Kadapa people. The stories were published earlier in various Telugu magazines and daily news papers, in the span of 50 years from 1956 to 2006.
Kadapa has been the hub of Urdu literature from hundreds of years. It has produced several Urdu poets and writers in the past. Urdu language has flourished a lot in Kadapa due to the efforts of these Urdu patriots. Dr.Rahi Fidayee, Dr. Saagar Jayyadi, Aqeel Jamid, Iqbal Qusro, Mahmood Shahid, Prof Anwarulla Anwar are recognized as Prominent Poets in the Urdu world. Yousuf Safi has done work on the Urdu Stage and Drama. His prominent works include Kal Ki Dhup, Majnu Shah and 1857-Inquilab. Rahi Fidayee along with Aqeel Jamid and others stand tall in the race of great poets of the city. Aqeel Jamid has written many poems and books and is a very practical and interesting poet. He also served as a Deputy Tahsidar. Barq Kadapavi an eminent poet, who represented Kadapa internationally for the first time in International Poets Meet. Munshi Hazrath who was the fluent Urdu munshi in Boys High School. Ifteqar Jamal, Taabish Rabbaani and Shakeel Ahmed Shakeel are carrying the flag of Urdu poetry in Kadapa.
Schools and colleges in the Kadapa and the surrounding area include:
The state government of Andhra Pradesh has completed a multi crore (about Rs.125 crores) health project Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) at Kadapa comprising of a 750-bed super specialty hospital, a medical college (intake of 150 students) and a nursing college for 100 students to cater for the needs and improve the health of the backward, drought-prone area of Rayalaseema Region. The project is located in near the Palakonda hills in a site of 182.25 acres. The hospital is planned with a permanent helipad to airlift patients in emergency to Hyderabad or any other large city.
Black corson soil lands are 24%, black soil 25%, sandy soil lands 4%, red soil lands 25%. The first variety lands are very fertile. Sand soil lands are not so fertile. ‘Korra’, orange, lime and betel leaf are the special crops. They are cultivated near river beds. Starting at Sunkesula Dam on Tungabadra river Cuddapah-Kurnool (K.C) Canal flows through Cuddapah and Kurnool districts providing water to 40 km² of cultivable land. The main source of drinking water to this district is Galer-Nagari-Sujalasravanthi Canal. The principal crops are millet, rice other food grains, pulse, oilseeds, cotton and indigo. The two last are largely exported. There are several steam factories for pressing cotton, and indigo vats. The district is served by lines of the Madras and the South Indian railways.
This district is the repository of mineral wealth. As per the 1983 survey of geological survey of India 30lakh tons of lead, 740lakh tons of barrettes, 27000tons asbestos deposits are there. It is estimated that 700lakh tons of barites deposits might be there in Mangampet. There are clay deposits in Rajampet. This is used to make stone implements. Limestone is available in Yerraguntla, M/s. Coramandal Fertilizers established a cement factory in Chilamkur with an annual yield of 10lakh tons. Bharat cement corporation increases its capacity to 10lakh tons. National mineral development corporation is extracting asbestos in Brahman palli and barieties in Mangampet. Kadapa is also famous for its stone called as "cuddapah stone" used in building construction and for slabs especially in the south India. Brahmani Steels will establish a steel factory in Jammalamadugu constituency with an investment of Rs. 25,000 crores and an installed capacity of 10 million tonnes by 2017.
The steel factory would be the biggest in the country and would generate direct employment to 25,000 persons and indirect employment to two lakh persons in the area.
The forest area is 5,050 km². It is 32.87% of the district area. It is learnt that elephants required for Golconda army were supplied from here. In the northeast part of the district rainfall is high. Red sandalwood is available in plenty. This is the only area in India where red sandalwood is available. A National park is set up in Seshachalam hills for prospecting wild animals. 181 are employed in the only one paper industry in the district and its capital investment is Rs.227lakhs. There are mineral related industries and electrical instruments industries. Zuari Cements, India Cement Ltd, Corus India Ltd are the other industries.
The mining industry begin to take flight when Krishna Penukonda, at the time he was a young man interested in geology, discovered massive amounts of precious stones/metals in the hills and bought the rights to the land from the government after India gained its independence from the British. The Penukonda family still to this day have many shares in the mines, yet the government is slowly starting to re-collectivize for the good of the country. The Penukonda family, has noticeable names in south Indian history and are still revered as one of the greatest pioneers in Indian History that brought industrialization to the south.