Kaizen: Wikis

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Kaizen (Japanese for "improvement" or "change for the better") refers to a philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, supporting business processes, and management. It has been applied in healthcare, government, banking, and many other industries. When used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions, and involves all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics, that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain.[1] By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste (see lean manufacturing). Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses after the Second World War, influenced in part by American business and quality management teachers who visited the country. It has since spread throughout the world.[2]

Contents

Introduction

Kaizen is a daily activity, the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. It is also a process that, when done correctly, humanizes the workplace, eliminates overly hard work ("muri"), and teaches people how to perform experiments on their work using the scientific method and how to learn to spot and eliminate waste in business processes. In all, the process suggests a humanized approach to workers and to increasing productivity: "The idea is to nurture the company's human resources as much as it is to praise and encourage participation in kaizen activities."[3] Successful implementation requires "the participation of workers in the improvement."[4]

People at all levels of an organization can participate in kaizen, from the CEO down, as well as external stakeholders when applicable. The format for kaizen can be individual, suggestion system, small group, or large group. At Toyota, it is usually a local improvement within a workstation or local area and involves a small group in improving their own work environment and productivity. This group is often guided through the kaizen process by a line supervisor; sometimes this is the line supervisor's key role. Kaizen on a broad, cross-departmental scale in companies, generates total quality management, and frees human efforts through improving productivity using machines and computing power.[citation needed]

While kaizen (at Toyota) usually delivers small improvements, the culture of continual aligned small improvements and standardization yields large results in the form of compound productivity improvement. This philosophy differs from the "command and control" improvement programs of the mid-twentieth century. Kaizen methodology includes making changes and monitoring results, then adjusting. Large-scale pre-planning and extensive project scheduling are replaced by smaller experiments, which can be rapidly adapted as new improvements are suggested.[citation needed]


In modern usage, a focused kaizen that is designed to address a particular issue over the course of a week is referred to as a "kaizen blitz" or "kaizen event". These are limited in scope, and issues that arise from them are typically used in later blitzes.[citation needed]

History

After World War II, to help restore the nation of Japan, American occupation forces brought in American experts of statistical control methods who were familiar with the War Department's Training Within Industry (TWI) training programs. TWI programs included Job Instruction (standard work) and Job Methods (process improvement). In conjunction with the Shewhart cycle taught by W. Edwards Deming, and other statistics-based methods taught by Joseph M. Juran, these became the basis of the kaizen revolution in Japan that took place in the 1950s.[5]

Implementation

The Toyota Production System is known for kaizen, where all line personnel are expected to stop their moving production line in case of any abnormality and, along with their supervisor, suggest an improvement to resolve the abnormality which may initiate a kaizen.

The PDCA cycles

The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as:

  • Standardize an operation
  • Measure the standardized operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory)
  • Gauge measurements against requirements
  • Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity
  • Standardize the new, improved operations
  • Continue cycle ad infinitum

This is also known as the Shewhart cycle, Deming cycle, or PDCA.

Masaaki Imai made the term famous in his book Kaizen: The Key to Japan's Competitive Success.

Apart from business applications of the method, both Anthony Robbins and Robert Maurer have popularized the kaizen principles into personal development principles.

In their book The Toyota Way Fieldbook, Brijesh Rawat, Jeffrey Liker, and David Meier discuss the kaizen blitz and kaizen burst (or kaizen event) approaches to continuous improvement. A kaizen blitz, or rapid improvement, is a focused activity on a particular process or activity. The basic concept is to identify and quickly remove waste. Another approach is that of the kaizen burst, a specific kaizen activity on a particular process in the value stream.[6]

Key elements of kaizen are quality, effort, involvement of all employees, willingness to change, and communication.

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The five main elements of kaizen

  • Teamwork
  • Personal discipline
  • Improved morale
  • Quality circles
  • Suggestions for improvement

See also

References

  1. ^ Imai, Masaaki (1986). Kaizen: The Key to Japan's Competitive Success. New York, NY, USA: Random House. 
  2. ^ Europe Japan Centre, Kaizen Strategies for Improving Team Performance, Ed. Michael Colenso, London: Pearson Education Limited, 2000
  3. ^ Tozawa, Bunji; Japan Human Relations Association (1995). The improvement engine: creativity & innovation through employee involvement: the Kaizen teian system. Productivity Press. pp. 34. ISBN 9781563270109. http://books.google.com/books?id=1vqyBirIQLkC&pg=PA34. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  4. ^ Laraia, Anthony C.; Patricia E. Moody, Robert W. Hall (1999). The Kaizen Blitz: accelerating breakthroughs in productivity and performance. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 26. ISBN 9780471246480. http://books.google.com/books?id=mZgEBdQhjAAC. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  5. ^ Huntzinger, Jim (First Quarter 2002). "The Roots of Lean: Training within Industry—the origin of Kaizen". AME Target 18 (1): 13. http://www.leaninstituut.nl/publications/Roots_of_Lean_TWI.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  6. ^ Liker, J. (2006). The Toyota Way Fieldbook. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill. 

Further reading

  • Cooper, Mary Pat (2008). Kaizen Sketchbook: The Comprehensive Illustrated Field Guide to Kaizen. Moffitt Associates. ISBN 978-0-615-19011-2. 
  • Dinero, Donald (2005). Training Within Industry: The Foundation of Lean. Productivity Press. ISBN 1-56327-307-1. 
  • Emiliani, B.; D. Stec; L. Grasso; J. Stodder (2007). Better Thinking, Better Results: Case Study and Analysis of an Enterprise-Wide Lean Transformation (2e. ed.). Kensington, CT, USA: The CLBM, LLC. ISBN 978-0-9722591-2-5. 
  • Imai, Masaaki (1986). Kaizen: The Key to Japan's Competitive Success. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. ISBN 0. 
  • Imai, Masaaki (1997-03-01). Gemba Kaizen: A Commonsense, Low-Cost Approach to Management (1e. ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-031446-2. 
  • Scotchmer, Andrew (2008). 5S Kaizen in 90 Minutes. Management Books 2000 Ltd. ISBN 978-1-8525254-7-7. 

External links


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