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Map showing the administrative subdivisions of Mansehra District. Kala Dhaka is located in the west of the district.

Kala Dhaka historically known as the Black Mountain of Hazara & in Pashto it is known as "Tor Ghar" is a mountain range and a tribal area of Mansehra District on the north-western Hazara border of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan.

Contents

Topography

It lies between 34º32' and 34º50' N. and 72º48' and 72º58' E. It is bounded on the east by Agror and on the south by Tanawal, toward east it is bounded by Buner, On North East this area border with Batagram the range has a length of 25 to 30 miles from north to south and an elevation of 8,000 feet above sea level. This area has also been called as Chagharzai , because of adjoining Chagharzai Areas Of Buner District. Opposite to Kala Dhaka, across River Indus is District Shangla, mainly the area belonging to Tehsil Martung. The Indus washes its northern extremity and thence turns due south. Between the river and the crest of the range the western slopes are occupied by Yusufzai Pakhtoons. The rest of the range is held by Swatis tribal group of Pakhtoons. The Black Mountain forms a long, narrow ridge, with higher peaks at intervals and occasional deep passes. Highest peak is known as "Machay Sar" which is visible from Agror & other adjoining areas. Numerous spurs project from its sides, forming narrow gorges in which lie the villages of the tribes. The upper parts of the ridge and spurs are covered with thick forests of pine, oak, sycamore, horse-chestnut, and wild cherry; but the slopes are stony and barren[1].

Picture showing the Indus River.

RVDO (Rose valley Development Organization) DWF (Dost Welfare Foundation Joint approach In Kala Dhaka five Tribs about Drugs addict patients .RVDO/DWF established a dara ul Falah Center in Darband area .Those patients are refres from kala dhaka to Darband Dara ul falah center .

Administration

Kala Dhaka is a Provincially Administered Tribal Area (PATA) of Mansehra district. It cover an area of 497km2 (25,8125 acres) and is divided into 11 Union Councils.

History

‘The Black Mountain massif was a series of spur running up to a central, dominating ridge line, which as its highest, the peak of Machai Sar reached 9817 feet. Along this ridge ran the line beyond which the British writ did not run, though the local tribes lived on both sides regardless. The area was not on road to anywhere and the british had been happy to let it be; unfortunately the inhabitants were not inclined to let them do so. These were unusually mixed group of tribes, not aprticularly large or powerfull, although combined the could put up between six to seven thousand men in the field, but warlike, and in some cases, religiously inspired against the infidel British. Politically, they were nominally under the influence of two independent princelings, the Nawab of Amb and the Wali of Swat, but these exercise little real power in the hills. On the eastern mountain, nearest British territory, lived the Swatis who pretended to be Pathans but fooled neither their neighbours nor the British, and were so little regarded that they were described by a contemporary as 'cowardly, deceptive, cruel, grasping, lazy. Replacing the bold frank manner of the Pathan by the hand-dog look of the wipped cur. On the Western flanks of the Black Mounatins, and on either sides of the indus riverwhich ran around it, lived men the british regarded as of better stock, isazai pathans of the yousafzai tribe.[2]

The British sent more than four expeditions to subdue the Black Mountain Tribes between 1852 to 1892 because Ata Mohammad Khan Swati, the Khan of Agror and Arsala Khan of Allai, and his sons intrigued against the British Government.

In 1851 two officers of the British Customs (Salt) department within the borders of Tanawal were killed, allegedly by the Hasanzai sect of the Yusufzai. The British then sent an expedition under Colonel Mackeson which destroyed a number of tribal strongholds. In 1868 the Yusufzai, instigated by the Khan of Agror, who resented the establishment of the police post at Oghi in the Agror valley, attacked that post in force, but were repulsed. Further attacks on the troops of the Khan of Tanawal, who remained loyal, followed. This culminated in a general advance of the Black Mountain tribes against the British position. It was repulsed, but not until 21 British villages had been burnt, and a second expedition under General Wilde had overrun the Black Mountain and secured the full submission of the tribes.

"The Black Mountain adjoins the territory of the Wali of Swat. It is so called from the dark forests of that cover its slopes. The eastern sides are held by the original people of swat. They are not Pathans at all. The western ridge is the homeland of Yousafzai tribes. The Black Mountain tribes are less warlike and weak in number. There is constant struggle among small tribal chiefs. The most important of these is the Nawab of Amb. He enjoys the unique distinction of being an independent chief across the Indus. The Nawab of Amb has an arms factory. He manufactures rifled cannon. This cannon can throw a solid ball 3000 yards. It is a useful weapon for pounding to pieces a tribal fortress."[3]

In 1888 the British blockaded the area due to the raids by the Hasanzai and Akazai aided by the Madda Khel into the Agror valley. While more stringent measures were being organized, Major Battye and Captain Urmston and some sepoys of the Fifth Gurkhas were surprised and killed by Gujar dependents of the Akazai. Hashim Ali, the head of the Hasanzai and Akazai, was suspected of having instigated the attack. An expedition was sent in the same year, with the result that the tribes paid the fines imposed upon them, and agreed to the removal of Hashim Ali from Kala Dhaka and the appointment in his place of his near relative and enemy Ibrahim Khan ( Hasanzai Tribe Elder). In 1890 the tribe opposed the march of troops along the crest of the Black Mountain, and an expedition was sent against them in the spring of 1891. Immediately after the withdrawal of the troops, the Hindustanis and Madda Khel broke their agreement with the British Government by permitting the return of Hashim Ali Hasanzai. A second expedition was dispatched in 1892 which resulted in the complete pacification of the Black Mountain border.[1]

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Earthquake 2005

Kala Dhaka was badly affected by the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, according to a report in Time magazine:

Entire villages were devastated; in an instant, stone houses turned into burial mounds. The Indus river, flowing at the bottom of the valleys, recalls one tribal elder, Mohammed Said, "looked like water boiling inside a tea kettle. [4]"

Regions that remain inaccessible have one thing in common: fear of the unknown can create legends and stereotypes that spread. Kala Dhaka has not been immune to this. For example, the highway was diverted around this region because engineers were unwilling to be put in rifle range of these tribesmen. A British journalist who went to the region reported its recent history:

Here are the impressions of an " outsider " about Kala Dhaka who happened to Visit the area as a member of relief organisation after October 8, 2005 earthquake.

Kala Dhaka has a poor reputation among the military and the country in general of being a violent, "backwards" place, and there may be ample evidence for that theory of which I am ignorant, but our brief exploration of the area leads me to believe that to some extent it's a typical case of a little bit of truth and a lot of exaggerated fears[5].
The Indus river dominates the topography of the area, following along the northern edge, turning to follow the western border, and finally bisecting the province in the south before flowing into the reservoir of Tarbela dam.[5].

Some Images depicting daily life in Kala Dhaka can be seen on here: and here.

Geography

The Black Mountain itself has a total length of 20 to 25 miles, and an average height of 8,000 ft. It rises from the Indus basin near the village of Kiara up to its watershed by Bruddur, thence it runs north west by north to the point on the crest known as Chittabut. From Chittabut the range runs due north, finally descending by two large spurs to the Indus again.

The only road that traverses Kala Dhaka from Darband to Thakot is 84 Kilometres Long. This Road connects the area with the Outer world.

Thakot is on the Karakoram Highway and thus coming out of Kaladhaka Via Thakot is a much better route as compared to choosing the Darband Route. The Karakoram Highway is in a much better shape from Thakot down to Abbottabad. The Road that traverses through Kala Dhaka keeps in touch with the Left bank of River Indus almost throughout its course.

Kala Dhaka is called F.R Mansehra as well. F.R denotes Frontier Region. This tribal area is administered by Administrator Kala Dhaka on the behalf of Provincial Govt. who is based at Mansehra. There is also a Political agent/Political Havaldar who is usually based at Oghi Town (Ogai ) in the Map.

Roads

1. Darband To Thakot Road.
2. Khanano Dheri (Buner District) to Manjakot (not completed yet) 3. Petao Amazai (Distt: Shangla) To Mada Khel.(not completed yet) 4. Shugli Bandi Oghi To Tilli Saydan Hasanzai.
5. Choor Kalam Oghi To Machai Sar.
6. Gijborri (Batagram District) To Mangri & Kamasir.
7. Kotgala (Batagram District) to Bartooni.
8. Topi(district swabi)to teetay madakhail(the best way to travel to kala dhaka)

Tribes

On the western slopes most people in Kala Dhaka are Pukhtoons of the Yousuf Zai, Priari Syyads and Tanolis clan , while eastern slopes dominated by the Swati clans, some Hindko speaking people can be found at the fringes of the region.

The Black Mountain's (Kala Dhaka) tribe have a more certain origin among the people of Mansehra district. They belong to Isazai and Malizai clans of the Yousafzai Tribe. These are divided into five sections or "Khels" which are Nusrat Khel, Basi Khel, Hasanzai, Akazai, Madakhel. The first two belong to the Chagharzai segment of Malizai clan while the other three are the descendant of Isazai. Basikhel is the largest group consisting of 37% of the population Kala Dhaka while Nusrat khel and Akazai constitute 12% each and the population of Hasanzai & Mada khel is 18.5% and 20% respectively. Basi Khel, Nusrat Khel and Akazai are inhabitants of the left bank of Indus while the Mada khel tribe resides on the right side and Hasanzai area is situated on both the sides of river Indus.


Major Tribes:

1. Akazai .
2. Basi khel.
3. Nusrat khel.
4. Mada khel.
5. Hssanzai or hasanzai.

Population

The population of the Kala Dhaka (Approximately) : See table below.

Kala Dhaka's Tribes:
Tribes Population(Thousands)
Mada Khel 24,000 Approx
Hassanzai 35,000 Approx
Akazai 29,000 Approx
NusratKhel 12,000 Approx
Basikhel 85,000 Approx

tanoli


Total Population Of 5 Major Tribes= 185,000

Tribe: Yousaf Zai
Sub- Clans: Isazai, Malizai

Miscellaneous

There are growing concerns about the presence of militants in this area. A large number of fugitives are hiding in the area after the recent military operation against them in the adjacent Swat valley by the Pakistan army. In this regard, a warning has been issued to the elders of the tribes to locate their hideouts to be targeted by the military. Some influential people of the area are blamed for assisting their safe arrival and stay in the area. NGO access is significantly restricted, however Médecins Sans Frontières has been operating the ER, IPD and female outpatient departments of a hospital in nearby Darband since late 2008. This hospital receives patients from throughout Kala Dhaka, including cases of malnutrition and cutaneous Leishmaniasis. MSF has also recently commenced mobile clinics in one village after invitation by the elders, however general access to health care remains poor for the region.

References

  1. ^ a b Black Mountain - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 8, p. 251
  2. ^ Nigel Collett in 'The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer' on pg 53.
  3. ^ page. 66 Title Frontier and Its Gandhi - India and the Himalayan Problems Author J. S. Bright Publisher READ BOOKS, 2006 ISBN 184664836X, 9781846648366 Length 152 pages
  4. ^ After the Earthquake - Time.com
  5. ^ a b Casey Connor - Gallery 8: Kala Dhaka

Simple English


Kala Dhaka which also used to known as the Black Mountain of Hazara is a mountain range and a tribal area of Mansehra District on the north-western Hazara border of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan.

Contents

Land

Kala Dhaka lies next to Agror to the east by Tanawal to the south, the range has a length of 25 to 30 miles from north to south and a height of 8,000 feet above sea-level. The river Indus goes through the most northern but and then moves to the south. Between the river and the top of the range the western areas are occupied by the Yusufzai Pathans tribe. The rest of the range is held by another tribe - the Swatis. The Black Mountain has long narrow ridges with higher peaks every now and again. It also has valleys in which there are villages where the tribes live. The upper parts of the ridge are covered with thick forests of pine, oak, sycamore, horse-chestnut, and wild cherry; but the slopes are stony and barren[1].

History

The British sent armies more than four times to try and control the Black Mountain Tribes from 1852 to 1892, because some leaders of the tribes opposed the British Government.

In 1851 two officers of the British Customs department in a place called Tanawal were killed. The British believed they were killed by the Hasanzai part of the Yusufzai tribe, so the British then sent an army led by Colonel Mackeson, which destroyed a number of tribal strongholds. In 1868 the Yusufzai helped by the Khan of Agror, who was upset that the British had set up a police post at Oghi in the Agror valley, attacked that post with many men. But he was forced to move back.

The Khan of Tandwal, who remained loyal to British, faced attacks by tribes who didn't like the British. Then a large number of the tribes began marching against the British, the British managed to stop them and force them back - however during the fighting twenty-one British villages had been burnt. The British then organised an army under General Wilde - he and his men managed to take over all of the Black Mountain and forced the tribes to accept British rule.

In 1888 the British blocked the area due to the raids by the Hasanzai and Akazai tribes who were being helped by the Madda Khel tribe into the Agror valley. While the British were planning tougher attacks - Major Battye and Captain Urmston and some soldiers of the 5th Gurkhas were surprised and killed by the Gujar tribe (who were allies of the Akazai tribe).

Hashim Ali, who was the chief of the Hasanzai and Akazai, was blamed for starting the attack. The British then sent an armies against the tribes in the same year (1881), the tribes had to pay a lot money to the British and also had to agree that Hashim Ali was not allowed to live there any more. The British then made Ibrahim Khan, a relative and enemy of Hashim Ali, ruler.

In 1890 the tribe stopped the march of British troops along the crest of the Black Mountain, and so an army was sent against them in the spring of 1891. As soon as the troops left, the Hindustanis and Madda Khel broke their agreement with the British Government by letting Hashim Ali return. In 1892 the British sent their armies again to fight the tribes - this ended with the tribes being defeated by British.[1]

Earthquake 2005

Kala Dhaka was badly affected by the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, according to a report in Time magazine:

Entire villages were devastated; in an instant, stone houses turned into burial mounds. The Indus river, flowing at the bottom of the valleys, recalls one tribal elder, Mohammed Said, "looked like water boiling inside a tea kettle. [2]"

References


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