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KalYug (Devanāgarī: कलियुग, lit. "age of (the male demon) Kali", or "age of vice") is the last of the four stages that the world goes through as part of the cycle of yugas described in the Indian scriptures. The other ages are Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga. According to the Surya Siddhanta, an astronomical treatise that forms the basis of all Hindu and Buddhist calendars, Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BCE [1] in the proleptic Julian calendar, or 23 January 3102 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. This date is also considered by many Hindus to be the day that Krishna died after being mortally wounded by an arrow. Most interpreters of Hindu scriptures believe that earth is currently in Kali Yuga. Some, such as Swami Sri Yukteswar,[2] David Frawley,[3] and Paramhansa Yogananda[4] believe that it is now near the beginning of Dvapara Yuga. The Kali Yuga is traditionally thought to last 432,000 years.

Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga,[5] which is referred to as the Dark Age because in it people are as far removed as possible from God. Hinduism often symbolically represents morality (dharma) as a bull. In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter. By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, so that the bull of Dharma has only one leg.[6][7]

Kali Yuga is associated with the apocalypse demon Kali, not to be confused with the goddess Kālī (these are unrelated words in the Sanskrit language). The "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife, discord, quarrel, or contention."

Contents

Attributes of Kali Yuga

A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga:

In relation to rulers

Rulers will become unreasonable: they will levy taxes unfairly. Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects: they will become a danger to the world. People will start migrating, seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source.

In human relationships

Avarice and wrath will be common. Humans will openly display animosity towards each other. Ignorance of dharma will occur. People will have thoughts of murder for no justification and they will see nothing wrong with that mind-set. Lust will be viewed as being socially acceptable, and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life, with the result that even 13 to 16-year old girls will get pregnant. Sin will increase exponentially, whilst virtue will fade and cease to flourish. People will take vows only to break them soon after. People will become addicted to intoxicating drinks and drugs. Men will find their jobs stressful and will go to retreats to escape their work. Gurus will no longer be respected and their students will attempt to injure them. Their teachings will be insulted and followers of Kama will wrest control of the mind from all human beings. Brahmins will not be learned and honoured, Kshatriyas will not be brave, Vaishyas will not be just in dealings and shudras will not be honest and humble to their duties and to the other castes.

A special 10,000 year period within Kali Yuga

The Brahma Vaivarta Purana mentions a ten thousand year period during which bhakti yogis will be present.[8] Starting from the traditional dating of the Kali yuga epoch of February 18, 3102 BC/BCE.

The end of Kali Yuga

"When flowers will be begot within flowers, and fruits within fruits, then will the Yuga come to an end. And the clouds will pour rain unseasonably when the end of the Yuga approaches."

Personification

Kali (right) wielding a sword.

Kali (Devanāgari: कलि) is the reigning lord of Kali Yuga and the nemesis of Sri Kalki, who is the tenth and final avatar of Lord Vishnu. According to the Vishnu Purana, Kali is a negative manifestation of Vishnu who perpetually operates in this world as a cause of destruction, along with his evil extended family.[9] Kali also serves as an antagonistic force in the Kalki Purana. It is said that towards the end of this yuga, Kalki will return riding on a white horse to do battle with Kali and his dark forces. The world will suffer a fiery end which will destroy all evil, and a new age, Satya Yuga, will begin.

Other interpretations of Kali Yuga and the Yuga cycle

Other interpreters of the Hindu scriptures take a different view of the Yuga cycle.

In David Frawley's opinion, the cycle of Yugas is much like the four seasons. The planet gradually moves from one yuga to the next and from one cycle to the next, without any sudden jump from Kali into Satya Yuga. According to Frawley, historical evidence shows that Kali Yuga ended around 1700 CE, changing at that time to Dwapara Yuga. He also questions the traditional 432,000 year cycle.[3]

Like Frawley, Sri Yukteswar Giri maintains that we are currently in Dwapara Yuga. According to him, the astronomers and astrologers who calculated the almanacs were guided by the false annotations of certain Sanskrit scholars such as Kullu Bhatta. As a result, [they] falsely maintained that the length of Kali Yuga is 432,000 years, of which 4994 would have elapsed as of 1894, leaving 427,006 years remaining. Yukteswar Giri declares this "A dark prospect! And fortunately one not true." He himself offers an astronomical explanation for a shorter cycle in which Kali Yuga lasts only 2,400 years (1,200 x 2 = one descending Kali Yuga cycle + one ascending cycle). He argues that Kali Yuga is represented by the introduction of atomic energy and electricity.[2]

Notes

  1. ^ The Indus Script and the Rg-Veda, Page 16, By Egbert Richter-Ushanas, ISBN 8120814053
  2. ^ a b The Holy Science, by Jnanavatar Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri, Yogoda Sat-Sanga Society of India, 1949
  3. ^ a b Astrology of the Seers, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-914955-89-6
  4. ^ Yogananda, Paramhansa. Autobiography of a Yogi. BiblioBazaar. pp. 200–201. ISBN 9780554224664. http://books.google.com/books?id=_R6B6e4l4_4C&pg=PA201. 
  5. ^ Dimitri Kitsikis, L'Orocc, dans l'âge de Kali, Editions Naaman,1985, ISBN 2-89040-359-9
  6. ^ The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Markandeya-Samasya Parva: Section CLXXXIX
  7. ^ Bhāgavata Purāṇa 1.16.20
  8. ^ Ramesh Chaturvedi, Shantilal Nagar. Brahmavaivarta Purana. Parimal Publications. ISBN 8171101704.  Online Book 4, Chapter 129, versus 49-60
  9. ^ CHAP. VII

See also

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Etymology

Transliteration of Devanāgarī कली युग (Age of Kali, or Age of Darkness).

Alternative spellings

  • Kalī Yuga

Proper noun

Singular
Kali Yuga

Plural
-

Kali Yuga

  1. In Hinduism, one of four stages of development that the world goes through as part of the cycle of Yugas, traditionally thought to have begun at midnight (00:00) on 18 February, 3102 BCE under the Julian calendar (23 January under the Gregorian calendar), and last 432,000 years.

See also

  • Dvapara Yuga
  • Treta Yuga
  • Satya Yuga

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Kali Yuga (Devanāgarī: कलियुग, lit. "Age of Kali", "age of vice"), is one of the four stages of development that the world goes through as part of the cycle of Yugas, as described in Hindu scriptures, the others being Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga. According to the Surya Siddhanta, an astronomical treatise that forms the basis of all Hindu and Buddhist calendars, Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BCE [1] in the proleptic Julian calendar or 23 January 3102 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is also considered by many Hindus to be the time that god Krishna died as a result of a freak bow hunting accident. The Kali Yuga is traditionally thought to last 432,000 years. Kali Yuga is also recognized and stated in Sikhism, in the Guru Granth Sahib.[2]

Most interpretations of Hindu scriptures believe that earth is currently in Kali Yuga, though others believe that earth is now at the beginning of Dvapara Yuga. Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually throughout the Kali Yuga: it is mostly referred to as the Dark Age, mainly because people are the furthest possible from God. The description of Kali Yuga given below is an indication of its interpretive relevance in our current worldly existence.

Hinduism generally considers morality to be comparable to a bull known as Dharma. In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull had four legs, and in each age morality is reduced by a quarter. By the age of Kali, morality will be reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age. Thus, the bull will only have one leg: morality will wait on men.[3]

Kali Yuga is associated with the apocalypse demon Kali, not be confused with the goddess Kālī, as these are unrelated words in the Sanskrit language. The "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife, discord, quarrel, or contention," whereas the goddess "Kaali" means "time".

Contents

Attributes of Kali Yuga

Various Puranas (like Bhagavata 12.2) give lists of Kali Yuga symptoms. Some of them are:

In relation to rulers

Rulers will become unreasonable: they will levy taxes unfairly. Rulers will no longer see it their duty to promote spirituality or to protect their subjects: they will become a danger to the world. People will start migrating seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source.

In relation to people's relationships

Source: Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Section CLXXXIX[3]

Avarice and wrath will be common, men will openly display animosity towards each other. Ignorance of Dharma will occur. Lust will be viewed as being socially acceptable. People will have thoughts of murder for no justification, and they will see nothing wrong with that mind-set.

People will be inclined to follow false sciences. Family murders will also occur. People will see those who are helpless as easy targets and remove everything from them.

Many other unwanted changes will occur. The right hand will deceive the left and the left the right. Men with false reputation of learning will teach the Truth and the old will betray the senselessness of the young, and the young will betray the dotage of the old. Cowards will have the reputation of bravery and the brave will be enervated cowards. People will not trust a single person in the world, not even their immediate family. Even husband and wife will find contempt in each other.

In the Kali Yuga even pre-teenage girls will get pregnant. The primary cause will be the social acceptance of sexual intercourse as being the central requirement of life.

It is believed that sin will increase exponentially, whilst virtue will fade and cease to flourish. People will take vows only to break them soon.

Alongside death and famine being everywhere, men will have lustful thoughts and so will women. People will without reason destroy trees and gardens. As previously mentioned, men will murder. There will be no respect for animals, and also meat eating will start.

People will become addicted to intoxicating drinks. Men will find their jobs stressful and will go to retreats to escape their work.

Gurus will no longer be respected and their students will attempt to injure them. Their teachings will be insulted and followers of Kama will wrest control of the mind from all humans.

As the sin increases exponentially, so will the incidence of divine justice and wrath.

Weather and nature conditions in the Kali Yuga

when flowers will be begot within flowers, and fruits within fruits, then will the Yuga come to an end. And the clouds will pour rain unseasonably when the end of the Yuga approaches.

10,000 years era within Kali yuga

The Brahma Vaivarta Purana mentions a ten thousand years period[4] within the Kali yuga of increased bhakti influence. It starts 5,000 years[5] after the beginning of Kali yuga, i.e. around 1900 CE, given the traditional dating of Kali yuga.

In his discussion with historian Arnold Toynbee in London, Srila Prabhupada said: "I have started this Krishna Conscious Movement among the Indians and Americans and for the next ten thousand years it will increase. Then there will be a gloomy picture of Kali Yuga. Ten thousand years is not a short time. It is our duty on behalf of Krishna."[6]

Personification

Main article: Kali (Demon)

Kali (Devanāgari: कलि) is the reigning lord of Kali Yuga and nemesis of Sri Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of Lord Vishnu. According to the Vishnu Purana, he is a negative manifestation of Vishnu who, along with his extended evil family, perpetually operates as a cause of the destruction of this world.[7] He serves as an antagonistic force in the Kalki Purana.

Towards the end of this yuga, Kalki will come riding on a white horse to battle Kali and his dark forces. The world would suffer a fiery end where all evil will perish. And in turn will start a new age, the age of Satya Yuga.

Other interpretations of Kali Yuga and the Yuga cycle

Other interpretations of the Hindu scriptures, most notably by David Frawley and Sri Yukteswar Giri, hold a different view of the Yuga cycle. Based on historical and scriptural evidence, they state that the Yugas change in a cycle much like the four seasons, where the planet moves repeatedly and gradually from one Yuga to the next, without a sudden jump from Kali into Satya Yuga. Further, they both state that historical evidence shows that Kali Yuga ended around 1700 CE, changing at that time to Dwapara Yuga.

Also supporting their view is the fact that humans are becoming taller in height, more intelligent, and are living longer. This, according to Sri Yukteswar, is contrary to some of the only objective criteria for defining Kali Yuga.

Sri Yukteswar Giri

According to Sri Yukteswar Giri, we are currently in Dwapara Yuga. In his book The Holy Science, he explains that "the astronomers and astrologers who calculate the almanacs have been guided by wrong annotations of certain Sanskrit scholars (such as Kullu Bhatta) of the dark age of Kali Yuga, and now maintain that the length of Kali Yuga is 432,000 years, of which 4994 have (in 1894 CE) elapsed, leaving 427,006 years still remaining. A dark prospect! And fortunately one not true." The Holy Science includes his astronomical explanation for a shorter Yuga Cycle, in which Kali Yuga lasts only 2,400 years (1,200x2, one descending Kali Yuga cycle, followed by an ascending cycle).[8]

Sri Yukteswarji noted that Dwapura Yuga is represented by the introduction of atomic energy and electricity and we appear to have just entered that age during the renaissance.

Notes

  1. ^ The Indus Script and the Rg-Veda, Page 16, By Egbert Richter-Ushanas, ISBN 8120814053
  2. ^ The Guru Nanak (founder of Sikhism) Prophecies
  3. ^ a b The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Markandeya-Samasya Parva: Section CLXXXIX
  4. ^ Brahma Vaivarta Purana 4.129.59, kaler daśa-sahasrāṇi madbhaktāḥ saṃti bhū-tale
  5. ^ ibid, 4.129.50, kaleḥ pañcasahasrāni
  6. ^ Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta Vol. V, Ch. 6, p. 161
  7. ^ CHAP. VII
  8. ^ The Holy Science, by Jnanavatar Swami Sriyukteswar Giri, Yogoda Sat-Sanga Society of India, 1949

See also

External links


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Kali Yuga. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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Simple English

In Hinduism, Kali Yuga (Devanāgarī: कलियुग, lit. "Age of Kali", "age of vice"), is one of the four stages or yugas that the world goes through.[1] Traditionally, most Hindus believe that the Kali Yuga is 432,000 years long. Kali Yuga is also recognized and stated in Sikhism, in the Guru Granth Sahib.[2]

References

  1. According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BCE in the Julian calendar or 23 January 3102 BCE in the Gregorian calendar.
  2. The Guru Nanak (founder of Sikhism) Prophecies

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