Kalmar: Wikis

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Kalmar
Storgatan in Kalmar

Coat of arms
Kalmar is located in Sweden
Kalmar
Coordinates: 56°40′N 16°22′E / 56.667°N 16.367°E / 56.667; 16.367Coordinates: 56°40′N 16°22′E / 56.667°N 16.367°E / 56.667; 16.367
Country Sweden
Province Småland
County Kalmar County
Municipality Kalmar Municipality
Charter 1100
Area [1]
 - Total 18.85 km2 (7.3 sq mi)
Population (2005-12-31)[1]
 - Total 35,170
 Density 1,866/km2 (4,832.9/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Kalmar is a city in Småland in the south-east of Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea. It had 35,170 inhabitants in 2005[1] and is the seat of Kalmar Municipality with a total of 61,321 inhabitants (2006). It is also the capital of Kalmar County, which comprises 12 municipalities with a total of 233,776 inhabitants (2006).

From the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries, Kalmar was one of Sweden's most important cities. Between 1602 and 1913 it was the episcopal see of Kalmar Diocese, with a bishop, and the Kalmar Cathedral from 1702 is still a fine example of classicistic architecture. It became a fortified city, with the still mighty Kalmar Castle as the center. After the Treaty of Roskilde 1658 Kalmar's importance diminished, until the industry sector was initiated in the 19th century. The city is home to parts of Linnaeus University.

Geographically Kalmar is the main route to the island of Öland thanks to the Öland Bridge.

Contents

History

Seal of Kalmar, 13th century

The area around Kalmar has been inhabited since ancient times. Diggings have found traces of stone age gravefields. The oldest sources of there being a town are however from the 11th century. According to a medieval folk tale, the Norwegian patron Saint Olav had his ships moved to Kalmar. The oldest city seal of Kalmar is from somewhere between 1255–1267, making it the oldest known city seal in Scandinavia.

In the 12th century the first foundations of a castle were established, with the construction of a round tower for guard and lookout. The tower was continuously expanded on in 13th century, and as such, Queen Margaret called an assembly there between head of states of Sweden and Norway, and on July 13, 1397, the Kalmar Union treaty was signed, which would last until 1523. Kalmar's strategic location, near the Danish border (at the time the Scanian lands, i.e. the provinces of Blekinge, Halland and Scania, were part of Denmark), and its harbour and merchancy, also involved it into several feuds. There are two events independently labelled Kalmar bloodbath: The first in 1505, when King John of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden let execute the mayor and city council of Kalmar; the second in 1599 by command of Duke Charles, later to became King Charles IX of Sweden.

In the 1540s, first King Gustav Vasa, and later his sons Erik XIV of Sweden and John III of Sweden would organize a rebuilding of the castle into the magnificent Renaissance castle it is today.

Kalmar became a diocese in 1602, a position it held until 1903. In 1634, Kalmar County is founded, with Kalmar as the natural capital. In 1660, the Kalmar Cathedral was begun by drawings of Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. It would be inaugurated in 1702.

In 1611-1613, it suffered in the Kalmar War, which began with a Danish siege of Kalmar Castle. 1611 is mentioned as the darkest year of Kalmar's history, but by no means the only dark year; much blood has been shed in the vicinity of the castle. The last was during the Scanian War in the 1670s, leading its sieges to a total of 22—yet, the castle was never taken.

After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the strategical importance of Kalmar gradually diminished as the borders were drawn to a southern latitude. In 1689, the King established his main naval base south in Karlskrona and Kalmar lost its status as one of Sweden's main military outposts.

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Today

In more recent times, Kalmar has been an industrial city with Kalmar Verkstad making steam engines, trains and large machinery, later bought by Bombardier. Volvo closed their factory for buildning cars i.e. 740, 760, 960 in 1994 and due to further relocation of industry jobs in the 90s and 00s Bombardier closed their factory in 2005. Around 2000 industrial jobs was lost. It has a university with over 9,000 students and a research facility for Telia Sonera.

Kalmar has embarked on a comprehensive program to reduce fossil fuel use. A local trucking firm, which employs nearly 450 people, has installed computers that track fuel efficiency and have cut diesel use by 10 percent, paying off the cost of the devices in just a year. The company is now looking to fuel its future fleet with biodiesel.[2]

A large wood pulp plant harnesses the steam and hot water it once released as waste to provide heating, through below-ground pipes, and generates enough electricity to power its own operations and 20,000 homes.[2]

Bicycle lanes are common, and cars line up at Kalmar city's public biogas pump. Building codes now require thermal insulation and efficient windows for new construction or retrofits. Street lights use low-energy sodium bulbs, and car dealers promote fuel-efficient and hybrid vehicles.[2]

Gallery

Notable natives

See also

References

Notes

External links

Murkrona.svg Kalmar is one of 133 places with the historical city status in Sweden.

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Kalmar [1] is a city in the Småland province of the Götaland region of south-east Sweden with a population of 60,000 (2007). It is one of the oldest Swedish cities, dating back to the year 1027.

Get in

You can go here by train from Malmö, or from Copenhagen Airport. Flying to Stockholm (Skavsta) is another option, and driving down the E22. Kalmar does have an airport with connections to Stockholm Arlanda.

For boat lovers Kalmar has a beautiful harbour with good facilities for the visitor. Occasionally cruise ships stop at Kalmar.

Get around

You can walk to all interesting locations. The city centre is relatively small, with two main squares. On one you find the cathedral (Domkyrkan) and the other is called Larmtorget. From the second one, you can walk to the Baronen shopping centre. You can also rent canoes at the low cost hotel Svanen, and you can paddle your way around the centre, which is an island.

  • Kalmar Castle (Kalmar Slott) [2]
  • Kalmar County Museum (Kalmar läns museum) [3]
  • The cathedral (Domkyrkan) dating back to 1660
  • Kalmar Art museum opens 2008 in a new, highly controversial building
  • Salve experience the middle ages, live!

Do

Kalmar is an interesting town in many ways. The town was established in 12th centry and the old city wall is still well preserved. The Kalmar Castle dates back to the year 1160 A.D and the tower of the castle was continuously expanded in the 13th centry. Beside the castle, there is a very peaceful city park.

This town is connected to the island of Öland by a bridge, which used to be Europe's longest (6 km). Kalmar is about 45 minutes away (by car) from the Glass Kingdom (Glasriket) where the famous works of Orrefors, Kosta Boda, Nybro, Pukeberg, Målerås are located. Kalmar has a football team, Kalmar FF, [4] that won the Swedish cup in 2007. They play in the highest division, the Allsvenskan. You can watch them play at Fredriksskans, one of Sweden's prettiest football stadiums.

Study

Kalmar has a university, Högskolan i Kalmar. It is known for its courses in seafaring, teaching and economics (Baltic School of Economics).

Buy

The past couple of years many shopping malls and establishments have opened in Kalmar. The main shopping areas are

  • Billen. IKEA, CityGross and other large stores. By the E22.
  • Giraffen. ICA Maxi, Onoff, CoopForum and many other stores
  • Baronen. Close to the harbour. Many smaller shops and a movie theatre
  • the city centre has many small shops

In the museum Länsmuséet you can buy many Christmas articles, some made after designs by Jenny Nyström, a famous swedish artist born in Kalmar.

  • Thai Silk Palace, Fiskaregatan 8
  • Kama Sushi, Västra Sjögatan 13
  • Helén & Jörgens Larmtorget, voted by many as the best in town
  • Calmar Hamnkrog the restaurant with the best location in town, on the water!
  • Larmgatan 10, Larmgatan 10, combination of Asian and European cuisine
  • Krusentiernska gården A wonderful coffeeshop in a beautiful garden setting
  • Kullzénska caféet Wonderful small coffeeshop in an old building in the centre
  • Calmar Stadshotell [5], Stortorget 14 - classy and centrally located
  • Hotel Packhuset on the harbour
  • Hotel Witt
  • Brofästet Hotell & Konferens
  • Lågpris Hotell och vandrarhem Svanen
  • Frimurarehotellet
  • Café Dream [6] (Västra Sjögatan 17) is an Internet cafe. 30 SEK for 30 minutes.

Get out

Kalmar suits very well as the starting point, if you want to experience the Swedish east cost. Swebusexpress runs between Kalmar and Karlskrona regularly and the cost of this bus trip is low. It is also possible to travel to another elegant and relaxing summer resort in the east cost, Västervik. The local bus goes to Borgholm in Öland island and it takes approximately one hour.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

KALMAR (CALMAR), a seaport of Sweden on the Baltic coast, chief town of the district (lain) of Kalmar, 250 m. S. S. W. of Stockholm by rail. Pop. (1900), 12,715. It lies opposite the island of Oland, mainly on two small islands, but partly on the mainland, where there is a pleasant park. The streets are regular, and most of the houses are of wood. The principal public edifices, however, are constructed of limestone from Oland, including the cathedral, built by Nicodemus Tessin and his son Nicodemus in the second half of the 17th century. Kalmar, a town of great antiquity, was formerly strongly fortified, and there remains the island-fortress of Kalmarnahus, dating partly from the 12th century, but mainly from the 16th and 17th. It contains the beautiful chamber of King Eric XIV.

(d .1 577), an historical museum, and in the courtyard a fine ornate well-cover. This stronghold stood several sieges in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, and the town gives name to the treaty (Kalmar Union) by which Sweden, Norway and Denmark were united into one kingdom in 1397. Kalmar has an artificial harbour admitting vessels drawing 19 ft. There are a school of navigation, and tobacco and match factories, the produce of which, together with timber and oats, is exported. Shipbuilding is carried on.


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