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Kaluga (English)
Калуга (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Bird Eye view Kaluga Russia.jpg
Aerial view of Kaluga
Map of Russia - Kaluga Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Kaluga Oblast on the map of Russia
Kaluga is located in Kaluga Oblast
Location of Kaluga on the map of Kaluga Oblast
Coordinates: 54°33′N 36°17′E / 54.55°N 36.283°E / 54.55; 36.283Coordinates: 54°33′N 36°17′E / 54.55°N 36.283°E / 54.55; 36.283
Coat of Arms of Kaluga.png
Coat of arms
Flag of Kaluga.png
Flag
Holiday Second Saturday of September[citation needed]
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Kaluga Oblast
In administrative jurisdiction of Kaluga Oblast[citation needed]
Administrative center of Kaluga Oblast[citation needed]
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
City Head[citation needed] Nikolay Lyubimov[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2002 Census) 334,751 inhabitants[1]
Rank 53rd
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded 1371[citation needed]
Postal code(s) 248xxx[citation needed]
Dialing code(s) +7 4842[citation needed]
Official website http://www.kaluga-gov.ru/
Central Kaluga
Moscow State Technical University in Kaluga
Kaluga Oblast Administration Building
Street in Kaluga
Space Museum in Kaluga

Kaluga (Russian: Калу́га) is a city in western Russia, located on the Oka River 188 km southwest of Moscow. It is the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast[2]. Population: 334,751 (2002 Census);[3] 311,319 (1989 Census).[4] It is served by Kaluga Grabtsevo Airport.

Contents

History

Kaluga was founded in the mid-14th century as a border fortress on the southwestern borders of the Muscovy. It was first mentioned by its present name in 1371. In the Middle Ages, Kaluga was a minor settlement owned by the Princes Vorotynsky. The ancestral home of these princes is located south-west from the modern city.

Kaluga is connected to Moscow by a railway line and the ancient roadway, the Kaluga road (now partly within Moscow (as Starokaluzhskoye Shosse), partly the A101 road). This road was the favoured escape route from the Moscow trap for Napoleon in the fall of 1812. But General Kutuzov repelled Napoleon's advances in this direction and forced the retreating French army onto the old Smolensk road, previously devastated by the French during their invasion of Russia.

Kaluga was occupied by the Nazi armies in 1941. In 1944 the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to intern hundreds of Polish POW - soldiers of the Polish Underground Home Army, who were arrested by advancing Soviet front in the Vilno district.

Kaluga is known for its most famous resident, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a rocket science pioneer who worked here as a school teacher. The Tsiolkovsky museum in Kaluga is dedicated to his theoretical achievements and their practical implementations for modern space research, hence the motto on the city's coat of arms: "The Cradle of Space Exploration".

Economy

In recent years Kaluga has become one of the centers of the Russian automotive industry, with a number of foreign companies opening assembly plants in the area.

On 28 November 2007, Volkswagen Group opened a new assembly plant in Kaluga, with further expansion plans planned to be completed by, or during, 2009. The investment has reached more than 500 million Euro. The plant currently assembles the Volkswagen Passat and Škoda Octavia. Planned annual capacity from 2009: up to 150,000 vehicles.[5]

On 15 October 2007, the Volvo Group broke ground on a new truck assembly plant, scheduled to be finished in early 2009. Once completed the plant is expected to have yearly capacity of 10,000 Volvo and 5,000 Renault trucks.[6]

On 12 December 2007, PSA Peugeot Citroën announced its decision to build a new assembly plant in Kaluga, scheduled to be finished in 2010. The plant is slated to produce midsize passenger vehicles.[7]

On 28 December 2007, Mitsubishi Motors announced its intent to build an assembly plant in Kaluga with the initial annual production capacity of 50,000 cars.[8]

Notable people

International relations

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Twin towns — Sister cities

Kaluga is twinned with:

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. ^ О Калуге, Официальный сайт Городской Управы г. Калуга (Russian)
  3. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  4. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg2.php. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ New Volvo Group assembly plant in Kaluga, Volvo Group corporate news, October 15, 2007
  7. ^ PSA Peugeot Citroën to Build Plant in Kaluga, Russia, PSA Peugeot Citroën press release, December 12, 2007
  8. ^ Mitsubishi signs contract to build plant in Kalug, RIA Novosti, December 28, 2007
  9. ^ "Ими гордится Калуга ("They Bring Pride to Kaluga")" (in Russian). Kaluga: Office of the Affairs of the Mayor of Kaluga. http://www.kaluga-gov.ru/index.php?do=cat&category=imi_gorditsja_kaluga. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Kaluga discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Kaluga

Plural
-

Kaluga

  1. A city in Russia, administrative centre of Kaluga oblast.

Translations


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