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The Kama Sutra (Sanskrit: कामसूत्र), (alternative spellings: Kamasutraṃ or simply Kamasutra), is an ancient Indian Hindu text widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by Mallanāga Vātsyāyana. A portion of the work consists of practical advice on sexual intercourse.[1] It is largely in prose, with many inserted anustubh poetry verses. "Kāma" means sensual or sexual pleasure, and "sūtra" literally means a thread or line that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. The modern English word "suture" is derived from the same root.
The Kama Sutra is the oldest and most notable of a group of texts known generically as Kama Shastra (Sanskrit: Kāma Śāstra).[2] Traditionally, the first transmission of Kama Shastra or "Discipline of Kama" is attributed to Nandi the sacred bull, Shiva's doorkeeper, who was moved to sacred utterance by overhearing the lovemaking of the god and his wife Parvati and later recorded his utterances for the benefit of mankind.[3]
Historian John Keay says that the Kama Sutra is a compendium that was collected into its present form in the second century CE.[4]

Contents

Content

The Mallanaga Vatsyayana's Kama Sutra has 1250 verses, distributed in 36 chapters, which are further organized into 7 parts.[5] According to both the Burton and Doniger[6] translations, the contents of the book are structured into 7 parts like the following:
1. Introductory
Chapters on contents of the book, three aims and priorities of life, the acquisition of knowledge, conduct of the well-bred townsman, reflections on intermediaries who assist the lover in his enterprises (5 chapters).
2. On sexual union
Chapters on stimulation of desire, types of embraces, caressing and kisses, marking with nails, biting and marking with teeth, on copulation (positions), slapping by hand and corresponding moaning, virile behavior in women, superior coition and oral sex, preludes and conclusions to the game of love. It describes 64 types of sexual acts (10 chapters).
Artistic depiction of a sex position. Although Kama Sutra did not originally have illustrative images, part 2 of the work describes different sex positions.
3. About the acquisition of a wife
Chapters on forms of marriage, relaxing the girl, obtaining the girl, managing alone, union by marriage (5 chapters).
4. About a wife
Chapters on conduct of the only wife and conduct of the chief wife and other wives (2 chapters).
5. About others' wives
Chapters on behavior of woman and man, how to get acquainted, examination of sentiments, the task of go-between, the king's pleasures, behavior in the women's quarters (6 chapters).
6. About courtesans
Chapters on advice of the assistants on the choice of lovers, looking for a steady lover, ways of making money, renewing friendship with a former lover, occasional profits, profits and losses (6 chapters).
7. On the means of attracting others to one's self
Chapters on improving physical attractions, arousing a weakened sexual power (2 chapters)

Pleasure and spirituality

Some Indian philosophies follow the "four main goals of life",[7][8] known as the purusharthas:[9]
  1. Dharma: Virtuous living.
  2. Artha: Material prosperity.
  3. Kama: Aesthetic and erotic pleasure.[10][11]
  4. Moksha: Liberation.
Dharma, Artha and Kama are aims of everyday life, while Moksha is release from the cycle of death and rebirth. The Kama Sutra (Burton translation) says:
"Dharma is better than Artha, and Artha is better than Kama. But Artha should always be first practised by the king for the livelihood of men is to be obtained from it only. Again, Kama being the occupation of public women, they should prefer it to the other two, and these are exceptions to the general rule." (Kama Sutra 1.2.14)[12]
Of the first three, virtue is the highest goal, a secure life the second and pleasure the least important. When motives conflict, the higher ideal is to be followed. Thus, in making money virtue must not be compromised, but earning a living should take precedence over pleasure, but there are exceptions.
In childhood, Vātsyāyana says, a person should learn how to make a living; youth is the time for pleasure, and as years pass one should concentrate on living virtuously and hope to escape the cycle of rebirth.[13] Also the Buddha preached a Kama Sutra, which is located in the Atthakavagga (sutra number 1). This Kama Sutra, however, is of a very different nature as it warns against the dangers that come with the search for pleasures of the senses.
Many in the Western world wrongly consider the Kama Sutra to be a manual for tantric sex. While sexual practices do exist within the very wide tradition of Hindu Tantra, the Kama Sutra is not a Tantric text, and does not touch upon any of the sexual rites associated with some forms of Tantric practice.

Translations

The most widely known English translation of the Kama Sutra was privately printed in 1883. It is usually attributed to renowned orientalist and author Sir Richard Francis Burton, but the chief work was done by the pioneering Indian archaeologist, Bhagvanlal Indraji, under the guidance of Burton's friend, the Indian civil servant Foster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot, and with the assistance of a student, Shivaram Parshuram Bhide [14]. Burton acted as publisher, while also furnishing the edition with footnotes whose tone ranges from the jocular to the scholarly. Burton says the following in its introduction:
It may be interesting to some persons to learn how it came about that Vatsyayana was first brought to light and translated into the English language. It happened thus. While translating with the pundits the 'Anunga Runga, or the stage of love', reference was frequently found to be made to one Vatsya. The sage Vatsya was of this opinion, or of that opinion. The sage Vatsya said this, and so on. Naturally questions were asked who the sage was, and the pundits replied that Vatsya was the author of the standard work on love in Sanskrit literature, that no Sanscrit library was complete without his work, and that it was most difficult now to obtain in its entire state. The copy of the manuscript obtained in Bombay was defective, and so the pundits wrote to Benares, Calcutta and Jaipur for copies of the manuscript from Sanskrit libraries in those places. Copies having been obtained, they were then compared with each other, and with the aid of a Commentary called 'Jayamanglia' a revised copy of the entire manuscript was prepared, and from this copy the English translation was made. The following is the certificate of the chief pundit:
'The accompanying manuscript is corrected by me after comparing four different copies of the work. I had the assistance of a Commentary called "Jayamangla" for correcting the portion in the first five parts, but found great difficulty in correcting the remaining portion, because, with the exception of one copy thereof which was tolerably correct, all the other copies I had were far too incorrect. However, I took that portion as correct in which the majority of the copies agreed with each other.'
In the introduction to her own translation, Wendy Doniger, professor of the history of religions at the University of Chicago, writes that Burton "managed to get a rough approximation of the text published in English in 1883, nasty bits and all". The philologist and Sanskritist Professor Chlodwig Werba, of the Institute of Indology at the University of Vienna, regards the 1883 translation as being second only in accuracy to the academic German-Latin text published by Richard Schmidt in 1897.[15]
A noteworthy translation by Indra Sinha was published in 1980. In the early 1990s its chapter on sexual positions began circulating on the internet as an independent text and today is often assumed to be the whole of the Kama Sutra.[16]
Alain Daniélou contributed a noteworthy translation called The Complete Kama Sutra[17] in 1994. This translation, originally into French, and thence into English, featured the original text attributed to Vatsyayana, along with a medieval and a modern commentary. Unlike the 1883 version, Alain Daniélou's new translation preserves the numbered verse divisions of the original, and does not incorporate notes in the text. He includes English translations of two important commentaries:
  • The Jayamangala commentary, written in Sanskrit by Yashodhara during the Middle Ages, as page footnotes.
  • A modern commentary in Hindi by Devadatta Shastri, as endnotes.
Daniélou[18] translated all Sanskrit words into English (but uses the word "brahmin"). He leaves references to the sexual organs as in the original: persistent usage of the words "lingam" and "yoni" to refer to them in older translations of the Kama Sutra is not the usage in the original Sanskrit; he argues that "to a modern Hindu "lingam" and "yoni" mean specifically the sexual organs of the god Shiva and his wife, and using those words to refer to humans' sexual organs would seem irreligious." The view that lingam means only "sexual organs" is disputed by academics like S.N.Balagangadhara.[19]
An English translation by Wendy Doniger and Sudhir Kakar, an Indian psychoanalyst and senior fellow at Center for Study of World Religions at Harvard University, was published by Oxford University Press in 2002. Doniger contributed the Sanskrit expertise while Kakar provided a psychoanalytic interpretation of the text.[20]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Common misconceptions about Kama Sutra. "The Kama Sutra is neither exclusively a sex manual nor, as also commonly used art, a sacred or religious work. It is certainly not a tantric text. In opening with a discussion of the three aims of ancient Hindu life – dharma, artha and kamaVatsyayana's purpose is to set kama, or enjoyment of the senses, in context. Thus dharma or virtuous living is the highest aim, artha, the amassing of wealth is next, and kama is the least of three." —Indra Sinha.
  2. ^ For Kama Sutra as the most notable of the kāma śhāstra literature see: Flood (1996), p. 65.
  3. ^ For Nandi reporting the utterance see: p. 3. Daniélou, Alain. The Complete Kama Sutra: The First Unabridged Modern Translation of the Classic Indian Text. Inner Traditions: 1993. ISBN 0-89281-525-6.
  4. ^ For the Kama Sutra as a compilation, and dating to second century CE, see: Kkgeay, pp. 81, 103.
  5. ^ book, see index pages by Wendy Doniger, also translation by Burton
  6. ^ Date checked: 29 March 2007 Burton and Doniger
  7. ^ For the Dharma Śāstras as discussing the "four main goals of life" (dharma, artha, kāma, and moksha) see: Hopkins, p. 78.
  8. ^ For dharma, artha, and kama as "brahmanic householder values" see: Flood (1996), p. 17.
  9. ^ For definition of the term पुरुष-अर्थ (puruṣa-artha) as "any of the four principal objects of human life, i.e. धर्म (dharma), अर्थ (artha), काम (kāma), and मोक्ष (mokṣa)" see: Apte, p. 626, middle column, compound #1.
  10. ^ For kāma as one of the four goals of life (kāmārtha) see: Flood (1996), p. 65.
  11. ^ For definition of kāma as "erotic and aesthetic pleasure" see: Flood (1996), p. 17.
  12. ^ Quotation from the translation by Richard Burton taken from [1]. Text accessed 3 April 2007.
  13. ^ Book I, Chapter ii, Lines 2-4 Vatsyayana Kamasutram Electronic Sanskrit edition: Titus Texts, University of Frankfurt bālye vidyāgrahaṇādīn arthān, kāmaṃ ca yauvane, sthāvire dharmaṃ mokṣaṃ ca
  14. ^ McConnachie (2007), pp. 123–125.
  15. ^ McConnachie (2007), p. 233.
  16. ^ Sinha, p. 33.
  17. ^ [http://www.alaindanielou.org/The-Complete-Kama-Sutra.html The Complete Kama Sutra by Alain Daniélou
  18. ^ Stated in the translation's preface
  19. ^ Balagangadhara, S.N (2007). Antonio De Nicholas, Krishnan Ramaswamy, Aditi Banerjee. ed. Invading the Sacred. Rupa & Co. pp. 431–433. ISBN 978-81-291-1182-1. 
  20. ^ McConnachie (2007), p. 232.

References

  • Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4.  (fourth revised & enlarged edition).
  • Avari, Burjor (2007). India: The Ancient Past. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-35616-9. 
  • Daniélou, Alain (1993), The Complete Kama Sutra: The First Unabridged Modern Translation of the Classic Indian Text, Inner Traditions, ISBN 0-89281-525-6 .
  • Sudhir Kakar and Doniger, Wendy (2002), Kamasutra (Oxford World's Classics), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-283982-9 .
  • Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. 
  • Flood, Gavin (Editor) (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. ISBN 1-4051-3251-5. 
  • Hopkins, Thomas J. (1971). The Hindu Religious Tradition. Cambridge: Dickenson Publishing Company, Inc.. 
  • Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. 
  • McConnachie, James (2007). The Book of Love: In Search of the Kamasutra. London: Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-84354-373-2. 
  • Sinha, Indra (1999). The Cybergypsies. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-60034-158-5. 

External links

Original and translations

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.The Kama Sutra, by the ancient Indian scholar Mallanaga Vātsyāyana, is a treatise on human sexuality and its place in the well-ordered life.^ Eastern Philosophy: Kama Sutra - 'Praised be the three aims of life, virtue (dharma), prosperity (artha), and love (kama), which are the subject of this work.'

^ Discussion and Quotes / Quotations, Pictures, Positions from Famous Indian Sexual Philosophy of the Kama Sutra.

^ Karma Sutra: Ancient Indian Art of Love.

It was written in Sanskrit at some point during the first six centuries of the Christian era.
Quotations are taken from Sir Richard Burton's translation (1883).
.
  • Man, the period of whose life is one hundred years, should practise Dharma, Artha, and Kama at different times and in such a manner that they may harmonize, and not clash in any way.^ The Kama Sutra is a fantastic way to expand the realms of your sex life and your spirituality at the same time.
    • Karma Sutra Lessons: 7 Ideas for Better Relationships Through the Karma Sutra 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There are so many different sexual positions in the Kama Sutra that you could try a different one per week and it would take years for you to go through them all.
    • Karma Sutra Lessons: 7 Ideas for Better Relationships Through the Karma Sutra 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Eastern Philosophy: Kama Sutra - 'Praised be the three aims of life, virtue (dharma), prosperity (artha), and love (kama), which are the subject of this work.'

    .He should acquire learning in his childhood; in his youth and middle age he should attend to Artha and Kama, and in his old age he should perform Dharma, and thus seek to gain Moksha, that is, release from further transmigration.^ Eastern Philosophy: Kama Sutra - 'Praised be the three aims of life, virtue (dharma), prosperity (artha), and love (kama), which are the subject of this work.'

    ^ It covers the three aims of life, virtue ( dharma ), prosperity ( artha ), and love ( kama ).

    • Part 1, ch. 2
  • If variety is sought in all the arts and amusements, such as archery and others, how much more should it be sought after in the art of love.
    • Part 2, ch. 4
  • A man should fix his affections upon a girl who is of good family, whose parents are alive, and who is three years or more younger than himself. She should be born of a highly respectable family, possessed of wealth, well connected, and with many relations and friends. .She should also be beautiful, of a good disposition, with lucky marks on her body, and with good hair, nails, teeth, ears, eyes and breasts, neither more nor less than they ought to be, and no one of them entirely wanting, and not troubled with a sickly body.^ Touch is the one sensation humans crave more than all others, and when it comes to the Kama Sutra, slow, sensual, patient touch is vital.
    • Karma Sutra Lessons: 7 Ideas for Better Relationships Through the Karma Sutra 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

    The man should, of course, also possess these qualities himself.
    • Part 3, ch. .1
  • A girl who is called by the name of one of the twenty-seven stars, or by the name of a tree, or of a river, is considered worthless, as also a girl whose name ends in "r" or "l". But some authors say that prosperity is gained only by marrying that girl to whom one becomes attached and that therefore no other girl but the one who is loved should be married by anyone.^ EM-KS0008 Karma Sutra ~ The Collection Kit Only lovers' lips can name every one of these distinctive Oils of Love -...
    • Karma Sutra - Shop Smarter.com 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

    • Part 3, ch. .1
  • A man who is of a low mind, who has fallen from his social position, and who is much given to traveling, does not deserve to be married; neither does one who has many wives and children, or one who is devoted to sport and gambling, and who comes to his wife only when he likes.^ Who stops us from doing that (;-) Vedanta (the end of the Vedas) is one and only one ...
    • Karma Sutra- advaita vedanta hells angels! 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.vijaykumar.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Part 3, ch. 4
  • A man may resort to the wife of another, for the purpose of saving his own life, when he perceives that his love for her proceeds from one degree of intensity to another. These degrees are ten in number, and are distinguished by the following marks:
    1. Love of the eye
    2. Attachment of the eye
    3. Constant reflection
    4. Destruction of sleep
    5. Emaciation of the body
    6. Turning away from objects of enjoyment
    7. Removal of shame
    8. Madness
    9. Fainting
    10. Death
    • Part 5, ch. 1
  • The extent of the love of women is not known, even to those who are the objects of their affection, on account of its subtlety.
    • Part 6, ch. 2
  • Women are hardly ever known in their true light, though they may love men, or become indifferent toward them; may give them delight, or abandon them; or may extract from them all the wealth that they may possess.
    • Part 6, ch. .2
  • The Kama Sutra was composed, according to the precepts of Holy Writ, for the benefit of the world, by Vatsyayana, while leading the life of a religious student, and wholly engaged in the contemplation of the Deity.^ Let us take a look at a few recommendations by Kama Sutra experts on how you can get the most out of your sex life.
    • Karma Sutra Lessons: 7 Ideas for Better Relationships Through the Karma Sutra 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Kama Sutra is a fantastic way to expand the realms of your sex life and your spirituality at the same time.
    • Karma Sutra Lessons: 7 Ideas for Better Relationships Through the Karma Sutra 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

    • Part 7, ch. 2

Criticism

.
  • The Kama Sutra is neither exclusively a sex manual nor, as also commonly believed, a sacred or religious work.^ While most couples do not need any extra encouragement to engage in sex, with the Kama Sutra, sex can become a spiritual experience.
    • Karma Sutra Lessons: 7 Ideas for Better Relationships Through the Karma Sutra 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Let us take a look at a few recommendations by Kama Sutra experts on how you can get the most out of your sex life.
    • Karma Sutra Lessons: 7 Ideas for Better Relationships Through the Karma Sutra 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Kama Sutra is a fantastic way to expand the realms of your sex life and your spirituality at the same time.
    • Karma Sutra Lessons: 7 Ideas for Better Relationships Through the Karma Sutra 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

    It is certainly not a tantric text. In opening with a discussion of the three aims of ancient Hindu life – dharma, artha and kama – Vatsyayana's purpose is to set kama, or enjoyment of the senses, in context. Thus dharma or virtuous living is the highest aim, artha, the amassing of wealth is next, and kama is the least of three.

External links

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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Kama Sutra , translated by Richard Francis Burton
Based on the 1883 translation. See also the original in Sanskrit: वात्सायन कामसूत्र.

On Sexual Union

Footnotes

^ These were certainly materialists who seemed to think that a bird in the hand was worth two in the bush.
^ Among the Hindoos the four classes of men are the Brahmans or priestly class, the Kshutrya or warlike class, the Vaishya or agricultural and mercantile class, and the Shoodra or menial class. The four stages of life are, the life of a religious student, the life of a householder, the life of a hermit, and the life of a Sunyasi or devotee.
^ Bali was a demon who had conquered Indra and gained his throne, but was afterwards overcome by Vishnu at the time of his fifth incarnation.
^ Dandakya is said to have abducted from the forest the daughter of a Brahman, named Bhargava, and, being cursed by the Brahman, was buried with his kingdom under a shower of dust. The place was called after his name the Dandaka forest, celebrated in the Bamayana, but now unknown. Ahalya was the wife of the sage Gautama. Indra caused her to believe that he was Gautama, and thus enjoyed her. He was cursed by Gautama and subsequently afflicted with a thousand ulcers on his body.
Kichaka was the brother-in-law of King Virata, with whom the Pandavas had taken refuge for one year. Kichaka was killed by Bhima, who assumed the disguise of Draupadi. For this story the Mahabarata should be referred to.
The story of Ravana is told in the Ramayana, which with the Mahabarata form the two great epic poems of the Hindoos; the latter was written by Vyasa, and the former by Valmiki.
^ The author wishes to prove that a great many things are done by people from practice and custom, without their being acquainted with the reason of things, or the laws on which they are based, and this is perfectly true.
^ The proviso of being married applies to all the teachers.
^ Gift is peculiar to a Brahman, conquest to a Kshatrya, while purchase, deposit, and other means of acquiring wealth belongs to the Vaishya.
^ This term would appear to apply generally to an inhabitant of Hindoostan. it is not meant only for a dweller in a city, like the Latin Urbanus as opposed to Rusticus.
^ Natural garden flowers.
^ Such as quails, partridges, parrots, starlings, etc.
^ The calls of nature are always performed by the Hindoos the first thing in the morning.
^ A colour made from lac.
^ This would act instead of soap, which was not introduced until the rule of the Mahomedans.
^ Ten days are allowed when the hair is taken out with a pair of pincers.
^ These are characters generally introduced in the Hindoo drama; their characteristics will be explained further on.
^ Noonday sleep is only allowed in summer, when the nights are short.
^ These are very common in all parts of India.
^ In the 'Asiatic Miscellany', and in Sir W. Jones's works, will be found a spirited hymn addressed to this goddess, who is adored as the patroness of the fine arts, especially of music and rhetoric, as the inventress of the Sanscrit language, etc. etc. She is the goddess of harmony, eloquence and language, and is somewhat analogous to Minerva. For farther information about her, see Edward Moor's Hindoo Pantheon.
^ The public women, or courtesans (Vesya), of the early Hindoos have often been compared with the Hetera of the Greeks. The subject is dealt with at some length in H. H. Wilson's Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindoos, in two volumes, Trubner and Co., 1871. It may be fairly considered that the courtesan was one of the elements, and an important element too, of early Hindoo society, and that her education and intellect were both superior to that of the women of the household. Wilson says, 'By the Vesya or courtesan, however, we are not to understand a female who has disregarded the obligation of law or the precepts of virtue, but a character reared by a state of manners unfriendly to the admission of wedded females into society, and opening it only at the expense of reputation to women who were trained for association with men by personal and mental acquirements to which the matron was a stranger.'.
^ According to this description a Pithamarda would be a sort of professor of all the arts, and as such received as the friend and confidant of the citizen.
^ A seat in the form of the letter T.
^ The Vita is supposed to represent somewhat the character of the Parasite of the Greek comedy. It is possible that he was retained about the person of the wealthy and dissipated as a kind of private instructor, as well as an entertaining companion.
^ Vidushaka is evidently the buffoon and jester. Wilson says of him that he is the humble companion, not the servant, of a prince or man of rank, and it is a curious peculiarity that he is always a Brahman. He bears more affinity to Sancho Panza, perhaps than any other character in western fiction, imitating him in his combination of shrewdness and simplicity, his fondness of good living and his love of ease. In the dramas of intrigue he exhibits some of the talents of Mercury, but with less activity and ingenuity, and occasionally suffers by his interference. According to the technical definition of his attributes he is to excite mirth by being ridiculous in person, age, and attire.
^ This means, it is presumed, that the citizen should be acquainted with several languages. The middle part of this paragraph might apply to the Nihilists and Fenians of the day, or to secret societies. It was perhaps a reference to the Thugs.
^ This term does not apply to a widow, but to a woman who has probably left her husband, and is living with some other person as a married woman, maritalement, as they say in France.
^ Any woman fit to be enjoyed without sin. The object of the enjoyment of women is twofold, viz. pleasure and progeny. Any woman who can be enjoyed without sin for the purpose of accomplishing either the one or the other of these two objects is a Nayika. The fourth kind of Nayika which Vatsya admits further on is neither enjoyed for pleasure or for progeny, but merely for accomplishing some special purpose in hand. The word Nayika is retained as a technical term throughout.
PD-icon.svg This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
Kama Sutra
Plural
-
Kama Sutra
  1. Alternative spelling of Kamasutra.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|Illustration of a sex position in the Kama Sutra]] Kamasutra (Sanskrit: कामसुत्र), also known in Western countries as the Kama Sutra, is an ancient Indian book on love. It was written by Mallanaga Vatsyayana. Part of the book deals with human sexual behavior.[1]

References

  1. Common misconceptions about Kama Sutra. “The Kama Sutra is neither a sex-manual nor, as also commonly believed, a sacred or religious work. It is certainly not a tantric text. In opening with a discussion of the three aims of ancient Hindu life – dharma, artha and kama – Vatsyayana's purpose is to set kama, or enjoyment of the senses, in context. Thus dharma or virtuous living is the highest aim, artha, the amassing of wealth is next, and kama is the least of the three.” —Indra Sinha.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 02, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Kama Sutra, which are similar to those in the above article.








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