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The Kambojs (Hindi: कम्बोज Kamboj, Urdu: کمبوہ Kamboh, Punjabi:
ਕਮ੍ਬੋਜ Kamboj) are an
community of the Punjab region. They may relate to the Kambojas, an Iranian tribe known to the peoples of Iron Age India
and mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts and epigraphy.  Kamboj
is frequently used as a surname in lieu of the sub-caste or the
gotra name by many Kambojs of Punjab, India. Their Muslim counterparts living in Pakistan mostly use the last
name Kamboh instead of the gotra name.
Kamboj/Kamboh during Muslim
During early years of Islam
in India, one of the groups of
this clan embraced Islam at the
instance of Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya Suhrawardi (of Multan) and his son Shaikh
Muslim Kambohs/Kambojs were very influential and powerful during
Lodhi and Moghul rule.
Miyan Jumman Khan Kamboh was "Hajib-i-Khas" (Special Lord of
Bed Chamber) , Umar
Khan Kamboh was Amir-i-Akhur (Minister of Cavalry department)  and
Miyan Ladan Khan Kamboh was an Imam  and
Royal Nadim of Sikandar Lodhi .
Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik Sambhal was Amir-i-Arz (Paymaster
General) and then Prime Minister of Sher Shah Suri. General Shahbaz Khan
Kamboh was the most capable and trusted general of the Akbar [14
]. He had been "Mir Tozak" (Quarter Master
General/Master of Ceremonies), "Mir Bakshi" (Lord Pay
Master General/Chief Military Adviser), and "Wakil"
(Highest Mughal Administrative Officer, Prime
Minister) of Emperor Akbar . As a
Governor of Bengal in 1581,
Shabaz Khan had distinguished himself greatly and had commanded
9000 strong cavalry in Bengal when operating in Brahmputra, .
Shaikh Gadai Kamboh had been
"Sadru-s-Sadur" or "Sadar-i-Jahan"
(Administrator General or Lord Chief Justice) in Akbar's
Nawab Saddullah Khan Chanyoti was the Prime Minister  and
General Nawab Bahadur Kamboh had been very active and
intelligent military officer and Vizier (Minister) in the court of Mughal
Emperor Shah Jahan
. General Nawab Khair Andesh
Khan held a mansab of 5000 horsemen during reign of Aurangzeb and of 6000
Shah's reign  and
had been governor of
Bihar, Etawah, Bengal, Kalabagh and Hamuiri at different times
of his life .
Numerous other Kamboj are known to have occupied very key
military and civil positions during Lodhi, Pashtun and the Moghul reign in India.
"The Sayyids and the
Kambohs among the Indian Muslims were specially favored for high
military and civil positions during Moghul rule" .
"The Kambo, Indian Shaikh-zadas and local Saiyid nobles rose
to prominence during the period under review" (i.e. Lodi
dynasty of Delhi) .
Muhammad Umar writes: "The (Muslim) Kamboh distinguished
themselves by their courage, generosity and high spirits. They were
famous for their excellent manners and were particularly gifted
with wisdom and nobility....In terms of social stratification, the
Kambohs were counted among the Shaikhs.....Among the Indian
Muslims, the Kambohs were regarded as the noblest of all. However,
perhaps with a view to maintaining the purity of their descent, or
because of pride of nobility, they confined their matrimonial
relationships within their own groups and did not establish
marriage connections with other Muslim groups including even the Saiyids and the
Mughals. Some members of this clan like Shahbaz Khan Kamboh, Nawab
Abu Muhammad Khan, Bahadur Khan and Nawab Khair Andesh Khan rose to
high positions during the reign of Mughals" .
Abu-Al-Fazal Alami (Trans. H. Blochman) informs us that it was
a matter of distinction to belong to the Kamboh lineage during the
reigns of Mughal emperors like Akbar and Jahangir [32
The Kambohs held Nakodar
in Jullundur  and
Sohna in Gurgaon some
centuries ago; and the tombs and mosques that they have left (in Sohna) show that
they must have enjoyed considerable position.
Kamboj/Kamboh in Modern
The modern representatives of Ancient Kamboja who still call
themselves Kamboj (or prikritic Kamboh, or Kamoz) or Kambhoj are estimated to be
around 1.5 million. Rest of the Kamboja population, over the time,
is believed to have submerged with other occupationalized
castes/groups of the Indian sub-continent. Consequently, one can
notice numerous of their sub-caste names over-lap with those of
other communities of northern India like the Khatris, Rajputs, Tarkhans, Jats, Brahmins,
Arains etc . An
earlier view was that, like the Jats, Aheers, Gujjars etc, the Kamboh/Kamboj had
descended from the Great Rajput tribes , but
this hypothesis was later on abandoned and a new theory was
proposed that the Rajputs themselves had descended from foreign
invading hordes like the Sakas, Pahlavas, Hunas, Kambojas, Yuezhi, Gurjaras etc.
The Kambojs of the north, by tradition, are divided into 52 and
84 clans. 52 line is stated to be descendants of Cadet branch and
84 from the elder Branch. This is claimed as referring to the young
and elder military divisions under which they had fought the Bharata War.
Numerous of their clan names overlap with other Kshatriyas and the Rajput castes of the north-west India, thereby
suggesting that some of the Kshatriya/Rajput clans of north-west
must have descended from the Ancient Kambojas.
The Kambojs/Kambohs practiced weapon-worship in the
past but the practice is now going out of vogue.
The Kamboj or Kamboh living in upper India (Greater Punjab) are
identified as the modern representatives of the ancient Kambojas . They
are found as Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Buddhists and the Jains. Kambojs
are known as adventurous and enterprising people. Therefore, as a
colonists, servicemen, politicians and businessmen, they have
also spread, after the partition, into various parts of India,
including a belt of Haryana
from Sirsa to Hisar and Karnal to Yamunanagar, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Ganganagar in Rajasthan, Nainital,
Dehradoon and Shaheed Udham Singh Nagar in Uttarakhand and Madhya Pradesh. There is also minuscule
Kambhoj (jaina) community living since olden times near
Nanded in Maharashtra, possibly the dwindling remnant
of ancient Kambojas who had settled southwest India around the Christian era. (See links:  ,  ) . The
community obviously seems to have mixed with the local communities
over time and imbibed local cultures and languages.
The [[Pamiri people|Pamiris], Siyahposh tribe (Kam/Kamoz, Katir/Kamtoz) of Nuristan,
Yashkuns, Swatis, and the Yusufzais of Eastern Afghanistan and NWFP
of Pakistan are said by
various scholars to have descended from the ancient Kambojas.
Scholars also hold that the Kammas of Andhra Pradesh, the Khampas or
Khambas/Khambus of Tibet and the
Kambis/Kumbis of Gujarat are
the distant relatives of the Kambojs of Indian Punjab and the
Kambohs of Pakistan; they
are the modern representatives of ancient Kambojas who came to India from Central Asia about
three thousands years ago .
The author of Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency and
several other scholars hold that the Kambus (i.e.
Kambohs/Kambojs) of Punjab are an offshoot of the Afghan
The Kambohs are stated to be the ancient inhabitants of Persia..
The Sikh Kamboj of Kapurthala & Jullundur (Punjab) claim descent from Raja Karan . They
also have a tradition that their ancestors came from Kashmir.
Hindu Kambohs claim to be
related to the Rajputs and to
have come from Persia through southern Afghanistan. The
Chapter III of Gazetteer of Muzaffarnagar (UP) based on British India census reports of 1881/1891
etc note that about 1200 Muslim and Hindu Kamboj were living in Saharanpur who also
claimed to be Rajputs. The
Kamboj in Phillaur,
District Jullundur, too claimed to be Suryavanshi
Kambohs of Bijnor claim that
they came from Trans-Indus country and Mr Purser accepts this as
evidently true. Many of the Bijnor Kambohs also have a tradition
that they are of the same ethnic stock as the Chattris or Khatris
"In the Census of 1891, it is reported that the Kamboh, who
lived around Mathura in the United Province
were originally Kshatriyas" . The
Rajasthan [district Gazetteers] asserts that the Kambohs are
probably related to the Khatris . The
Hindu Kambohs from Karnal
claim their origin from Garh-Gajni. Their Pandits still
pronounce the following couplet at the phera during their
marriage ceremony to give information about their original home:
Garh Gajni nikaas, Lachhoti Ghaggar vaas (Trans:
Originated from the fort of Gajni, and settled down in Ghaggar
region (in Haryana or Punjab)). One Gajni
or Ghazni is located in Afghanistan, but based
on another tradition of the Karnal Kamboj, the eminent
ethnographers like H. A. Rose and several other scholars have
identified this Gajni in
Saurashtra (port of Vallabhi)
Muslim Kambohs have a
tradition that they descended from ancient Kai dynasty of
Persia, to which the emperors Kaikaus,
Kaikhusro, Kaikubad, Kai-lehrashab and Darius all belonged. On the last king of the
dynasty having been dethroned, and expelled from the country, he
wandered about some time with his family and dependents in the
neighboring countries and finally settled in Punjab[14
The modern Kamboj are still found living chiefly by agriculture, business and military service which were
the chief professions followed by their Kamboja ancestors some 2500
years ago as powerfully attested by Arthashastra and
Numerous foreign and Indian writers have described the modern
Kambojs/Kambohs as one of the finest class of agriculturists of
British colonial writers such as H. A. Rose and Denzil
Charles J. Ibbetson note the Kamboj and Ahir agriculturists as the
first rank husbandmen. They
occupy exactly the same position in general farming as the
Ramgarhias occupy in general industry.
The Kambojs have made great contributions in agriculture and
military fields. The majority of Krishi Pandit awards in
Rajasthan/India have been won by the Kamboj
agriculturists . Col
Lal Singh Kamboj, a landlord from Uttar Pradesh, was the first
Indian farmer to win the prestigious Padam Shri Award for
progressive farming in 1968 from President of India. According to
M. S. Randhawa (Ex-Vice Chancellor, Punjab University), "For sheer
tenacity and persistence no body can beat Kambohs".
Supposed relationship with
In the late 19th century a British colonial administrator
proposed that the Arains were
Kamboj's who had become Muslims..
However, other British writers discounted this viewpoint since many
Kambohs were also Muslims.. Lt.
Col. J. M. Wikeley, in 1915, wrote a handbook for the Indian Army,
Punjabi Musalmans, which described the history of the
people of Punjab and in which he rejected "any supposed
relationship between the Kambohs and the Arains..
List of Kamboj gotras
Azad, Abdal, Ajpal/Ajapal, Angiarey, Asoi, Bahujad, Bage,
Ban/Bhaun/Bhawan, Barar, Batti/Bhatti, Basra, Chak, Chandi,
Chandna/Chandne/Chand, Chatrath, Daberah, Dhot/Dhat, Dhanju, Dote,
Dulai, Handa/Handey, Joiya/Jaiya/Jie,
Jammu, Jaspal/Jakhpal, Jatmal, Josan/Jossan, Jaura/Jaure,
Judge/Juj, Kadi or Karhi, Khere, Kosle/Kausle, Karanpal, Kaura/Kaure, Kayar/Kaiyar, Khinda/Khinde/Khande,
Kirgil, Lori/Laure, Mardak, Mehrok/Mehroke/Mirok/Marok, Momi,
Mutti/Moti, Nandha/Nanda/Nandey, Nagpal, Nagri/Nagra, Nandan,
Nibber/Nibher, olma, Padhu/Pandhu, Patanroy/Patanrai, Pran,
Ratanpal, Sama/Samey, Sandha/Sandhey, Sandher, Sandheyer/Sandheer,
Sawan, Soi/Sohi, Shahi/Sahi, Suner, Tandne/Tandna,
Tume/Tuma, Turne/Turna, Vinayak, Pathan/Pathane, Unmal.
Aglawe/Aglawey, Ambri/Ambrey, Angotre, Bagyan, Bahia, Bala/Bali,
Bangwa/Bangwai, Bangar/Bangare, Banjahal/Bhunjal, Banur, Barham,
Bargote/Barhgotey, Bassi/Basi, Bastorh, Beeharh/Beharh, Bhujang,
Brahman/Behman, Chamri/Chimre, Chaupal/Chaufal,
Churiye/Chirwey/Chidey/Charway, Dange, Datane/Dotane/Datana/Dutane,
Dehar/Dehal, Dehgal/Duggal, Dhare, Dheel/Dhillan, Dhehte, Dode,
Doliyan, Fokni, Gadre or Gadra, Gagre/Gagra, Gagwaik, Gande/Gandi,
Gandheyor/Gandhare/Gandhi, Gaure/Gore/Rai Gore/Gori, Geelawe,
Ghasitey, Gogan/Gugan, Gosiley, Gal/Gayile, Ghangra, Harse,
Jade/Jarhe, Jagman, Judge Jande/Jandu, Jangle/Jangla, Jhamb/Jham,
Jhand/Jhandu, / Camari/Kamari/Kamare, Khokhar, Kokar/Kakar/Kakra,
Kukri/Kukar, Lahre/Lehri, Lakhi, Lahndey/Landei, Late/Lata,
Lahange/Lahinga/Lahinde, Lall, Machhliye/Machhle, Magu/Mage,
Mahesi/Mahes, Makore/Makkar, Mall, Momsarang, Sarang, Mandey/Mande,
Melle/Malle, Multani, Nagambr/Nigambar,
Nehriye/Nehre/Ner/Naru/Nehru/Nauhriye, Nepal/Nipal, Nuri,Olma,
Pandey/Pandhey, Padhasi, Rindi, Sainik, Sandle, Sathand,
Senpati/Senapati, Sapre Or Sapra/Sawre, Sarnote/Sarkude, Satte,
Sauki/Soki, Soni, Suhagi/Suhage/Suage, Sunehre,
Silahre/Sulahre/Sulare/Sular/Sulehre, Sulhiro, Tande, Tagal/Tugal,
Taparhiye, Thathai/Thathaiya/Thathe, Thingrey/Thengrey.
Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 107, Ram Chandra Jain.
The Journal of Asian Studies, 1956, p 384, Association for Asian
Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.).
Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt, 1989, p 2,
Munīr Aḥmad Marrī.
India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the
Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet.
Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber,
1962, p 80, 311 etc.
Muslim Society in Northern India During the Eighteenth Century,
1998, pp 24, 25 Muhammad Umar.
Medieval India: A Miscellany, 1972, p 31, edited by K.A. Nizami -
History; History of Sher Shah Sur, 1971, p 137, Iqtidar Husain
Religious and Intellectual History of the Muslims in Akbar's Reign,
with Special Reference to Abuʾl Fazl, 1556-1605: with special
reference to Abul Fazi: (1556-1605), 1975, p 186, Saiyid Ather
Medieval India: A Miscellany, 1972, p 31, Editor: K.A. Nizami -
History; History of Sher Shah Sur, 1971, p 171, Iqtidar Husain
Siddiqi - India; Shershah Suri and His Dynasty, 1995, p 185,
Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi.
Medieval India: Essays in Intellectual Thought and Culture, 2003, p
100, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi - India; Indo-iranica, 1990, p 9, Iran
Society; Hamdard Islamicus: Quarterly Journal of the Hamdard
National Foundation, Pakistan, 1987, p 65, Hamdard National
Foundation, Pakistan - Islam.
Islamic Thought and Movements in the Subcontinent, 711-1947, 1979,
p 278, Syed Moinul Haq - Islam.
Discovery of Pakistan: By A. Aziz. [2d Rev. Ed.], 1964, p 71, Abdul
Aziz - Pakistan.
b The Sikhs, p 57, A. H. Bingley.
The Dhakhirat Ul-Khawanin of Shaikh Farid Bhakkari: A Biographical
Dictionary of Mughal Noblemen, 1993, p 107, Farīd Bhakkari, Shaikh
Farid Bhakkari, Ziyaud-Din A. Desai.
The Ain i Akbari, 1873, p 399, Abū al-Faz̤l ibn Mubārak, Trans:
Henry Blochmann, Henry Sullivan Jarrett.
Aina-i-Akbari, Blochman’s trans, I, p 399-402.
Muntak̲h̲abu-t-tawārīk̲h̲, p 7, Abd al-Qādir ibn Mulūk Shāh
Glossary of Tribes, Vol I, H. A. Rose
Kamboj Itihaas, 1972, p 79, H. S. Thind.
Shah Jahan, 1975, p 35, Henry Miers Elliot; A Short History of
Muslim Rule in India, from the Advent of Islam to the Death of
Aurangzeb: From the Advent of Islam to the Death of Aurangzeb,
1965, p 490, Ishwari Prasad; History of India, 1906, p 279, Abraham
Valentine Williams Jackson, Romesh Chunder Dutt, Vincent
A. Smith, Stanley Lane-Poole, Henry Miers Elliot, William
Wilson Hunter, Alfred Comyn Lyall, Amil-i-Salih, III, 247, Muhammad
Tarikh-i-Qaum kamboh, p 317-18, Chaudhry Muhammad Yusuf Hasan; The
Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 244, Kirpal Singh; Kamboj
Itihaas, 1972, p 79, H. S. Thind.
Statistical, descriptive and historical account of the
North-western, 1876, p 292, North-western provinces; District
Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1904 edition,
Leadership and Local Politics, 1979, p 158, Shree Nagesh Jha
Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 317-18, Muhammad Yousaf, The Kambojas
Through the Ages, 2005, p 244, Kirpal Singh.
See: The composition of the Mughal nobility, The New Encyclopaedia
Britannica, 1993, p 70, Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc., Robert
McHenry; See also: Concise Encyclopedia Britannica, Online.
The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, 2002, p 21, M. Athar Ali.
cf: Cultural History of India, 1975, p 261, A. L. Basham.
Cf: Aristocracy in Medieval India, 1993, p 124, Dhirendra Nath
Some Aspects of Afghan Despotism in India, 1969, pp 59, 23 Iqtidar
Husain Siddiqi - Lodi dynasty.
Muslim Society in Northern India During the Eighteenth Century,
1998, pp 24, 25 Muhammad Umar; See also: observations made by
Saiyid Shah Hamza of Marehra (UP) on the early history of the
Kambohs in his Kashif-ul-astar, ca 1277 H/1860 AD).
Ain-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochmann, Part I,
The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol
III, p 120, William Crooke.
REPORT ON THE REVISED LAND REVENUE SETTLEMENT OF THE MONTGOMERY
DISTRICT IN ..., 1878, p 50, fn, W. E. Purser, C. A. Roe.
Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, p 14, Sir James MacNabb
Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven .
Imperial Gazetteer of India, p 180, William Wilson Hunter.
Punjab gazetteers, 1883, bound in 10 vols., without title-leaves,
1883, p 159, Punjab.
Glossary of Tribes, p 443, H. A. Rose; Panjab Castes, p 148, Denzil
Punjabi Musalmans, 1991, p 89, J. M. Wikeley.
Panjab Castes: "Being a Reprint of the Chapter on "The Races,
Castes, and Tribes of the People" in the Report on the Census of
the Panjab Published in 1883 by the Late Sir Denzil Ibbetson,
K.C.S.I., p 201, Denzil Ibbetson.
IMPORTANT NOTE: In this connection, the
views of scholars like V. A. Smith and Col James Tod etc may be
noted. V. A Smith states that "the Kshatriya or Rajput group of
castes in India is at present essentially an occupational group
composed of all clans, following the Hindu rituals, who actually
undertook the work of government; consequently, people of most
diverse races were and are lumped together as Rajputs; and most of
the great Rajput clans now in existence, INSPITE OF THEIR HOARY
PEDEGREES, are either descended from foreign immigrants" (i.e
obviously like the Sakas, Pahlavas, Kambojas, Hunas, Kunshans etc)
or from the indigenous races (like the Gonds and Bhars). According
to Col James Tod also, the Rajputs were descendants of the foreign
invading tribes like the Sakas, Hunas, Kushans, Gurjaras etc (the
list is suggestive only and not exhaustive...exhaustive list also
includes the Kambojas, Pahlavas, Yavanas etc). At the time of Col
James Tod, Rock Edicts V and XIII of King Asoka (found at
Shahbazgarhi/Peshawar and Mansehra/Hazara, which refer to the
Kambojas/Yonas etc as the MOST PROMINENT SELF-RULING PEOPLE of
north-west...Per H. C Raychaudhury, D. C. Sircar etc) had not yet
been completely studied and published. The Shahbazgrahi Edicts of
king Asoka were discovered and published in 1836 and his Mansehra
Edicts were discovered/published in parts in 1839 and in 1889 AD
(See: Asoka Text and Glossary, 1982, XI, XII, Alfered C.
Wooler; Ancient India, 1962, p 252 seq, Vidya Dhar Mahajan;
Buddhist Sites and Shrines in India: History, Art, and
Architecture, 2003, p 317, D. C. Ahir)). The Shar-i-Kuna
Inscription of Kandhahar/Afghanistan, which throws light on the
Kambojas and the Yonas as very important and intimately connected
people, was discovered only as alte as in 1957 AD. Furthermore, the
Mathura Lion Capital Inscription which also
attests the ROYAL CLAN STATUS of the Kambojas (Kamuia in
Kharoshthi) was discovered from Mathura only in 1869 AD (again
after death of Col James Tod). Now since James Tod's classic book
"Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan" had already been published in
1829 (Vol I) and in 1832 (Vol II), hence James Tod does not discuss
the Kambojas among the royal races of northern India (Col Tod has
referred to the Kambojas/Cambojas only three times in his classics,
and that too in a very passing way). Had the above Inscriptions
relating to the Kambojas been known and studied/scrutinized by Col
James Tod, he must have given an important place to the Kambojas as
an outstanding ancient Rajput clan of north-west. Both Col Tod and
Prof Smith had regarded the Kambojas of the Sanskrit texts as if
they were some people different from the Iranian or Indo-Iranian
race. Curiously enough, they regarded the Kambojas from the
Mongolian race and therefore, located them in Tibet/eastern parts
of Hindukush, rather than in the Afghanistan/Tajikstan and thought
that they may have been a perso-Mongol people (Persian speaking
Mongolian Tribe). Had king Asoka's Rock Edicts V and XIII at
Mansehra and at Shahbazgarhi been discovered/published by the time
of Col James Tod, then the Kambojas (like the Sakas etc) are sure
to have found a prominent mention and a place in the list of the
'foreign invading tribes whom Col James Tod and V. A. Smith had
regarded as the most probable candidates as the ancestors of the
modern Rajputs'. Unfortunately, king Asoka's Rock Edicts V and XIII
as found from Mansehra and Shabazgarhi, Edict Shar-i-Kuna
discovered from Kandhahar and the Mathura Lion Capital Inscription
(discovered from Mathura) were discovered/published only after Col
James Tod had already completed/published his classic book "Annals
and Antiquities of Rajasthan" on Rajputs in 1829/32. And it is also
very important to note that much of the information and knowledge
about the ancient famous Kamboja tribes became available only after
the first quarter of 20th century AD when Dr B. C. Law had
published his famous research book "Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient
India" in 1924. Dr Law has plenteously demonstrated that the
Kambojs were a very prominent Ksatriya/Rajput tribe of ancient
India (See: Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 230-252,
B. C. Law).
Memorandum on Castes, Various census of India, 1873, p 13 , W
For overlap of Kamboj/Kshatriya clan names, see Glossary of Tribes,
II, p 444, fn. iii.
Jatt Tribes of Zira, p 138; Glossary of Tribes, II, p 444
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of Indian Tribes, 1997, p 89, Shyam Singh Shashi; Punjab history
conference, 1996, p 44, Gursharan Singh; Indian cultural influence
in Cambodia, 1964, p 273, Bijan Raj Chatterjee; People of India: An
Introduction, 1992, p 164; Tribes of ancient India, 1977, p 99,
Mamata Choudhury; People of India, 2003, p 1506, Kumar Suresh
Singh, Anthropological Survey of India - Ethnology - 2003 Kumar
Suresh Singh, Anthropological Survey of India, Ethnology; India's
communities, 1998, p 1506, Kumar Suresh Singh, Anthropological
Survey of India - Social Science; History of origin of some clans
in India, with special reference to Jats, 1992, p 149, Mangal Sen
Jindal; The Calcutta Review, 1872, p 70, University of Calcutta;
Farmers of India, 1959, p 103, Indian Council of Agricultural
Research, Mohindar Singh Randhawa; Chandigarh: People of India,
1997, p 81, Swaran Singh, V. Bhalla, Anthropological Survey of
India; Transactions, 1967, p 73, Indian Institute of Advanced
Study; Folklore of the Punjab, 1971, p 7, S. S. Waṇajārā Bedī;
History of Poros, 1967, p 12, Buddha Prakash; India and the world:
researches in India's policies, contacts, and relationships with
other countries and peoples of the world, 1964, p 154, Buddha
Prakash; The People and Culture of Bengal, a Study in Origins: A
Study in Origins, 2002, p 567, Annapurna Chattopadhyaya; Ref: (1)
Aina Tarikhnama and (2) Gur Tirath Sangra—Qoted in : Glossary
of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier
Province, 1886, p 444, H.A. Rose, Sr Denzil Ibbetson, Sir Edward
This Kambhoja country of southern India as hinted at by Syed Siraj
ul Hassanis, in all probability, is the colonial settlement of the
migrating Kambojas, who in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas had
entered into and spread into south-western and southern India prior
to/around the beginning of Christian era.
See various refs like: Ancient Kamboja, people and the Country,
1981, Kamboj, p 165, 248; Comprehensive History India, Vol II, p
118, N. K. Shastri; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient
Ounjab, Buddha Parkash; Bharatbhumi aur unke Nivasi, Jaychandra
Vidyalankar, p 313-14; Political History of Ancient India,
Raychaudhury, 1996, p 133 etc.
India's Communities, 1992, p 1508, Kumar Suresh Singh,
Anthropological Survey of India - Ethnology; People of India,
Punjab, Vol XXXVII, 2003, p 256, Kumar Suresh Singh; The Kambojas
Through the Ages, 2005, p 347, Kirpal Singh.
Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1904, p 14, Bombay (India:
See also:Indo Aryans: Contribution Towards the Elucidation of their
Ancient and Medieval History, 1881, p 186-188, Rajendra Lal
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874, p 260, Asiatic
Society of Bengal - Physical sciences.
Journal, 1874, p 60, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal. Cf quote by
William Crooke in: The Tribes and Castes of the North-western
Provinces and Oudh, 1896, p 120 - Ethnology.
Panjab Castes, Denzil Ibbetson, p 148; Glossary of Tribes, H. A.
Rose, p 443; Jatt Tribes of Zira, 1992, p 137, S. S. Gill;
Tarikh-i-Kambohan, p 302, Chouhdri Wahhab ud-Din
See refs: Glossary of Tribes & Castes by H. Rose p 443-445;
Also read: "Kamboh" in Panjab Castes by Denzil Ibbetson , pp
149/150; REPORT ON THE REVISED LAND REVENUE SETTLEMENT OF THE
MONTGOMERY DISTRICT IN ..., 1878, p 50, C. A. Roe and W. E. Purser;
Gazetteer of the Montgomery District (Sahiwal), 1883-84, Edition
1990, p 68, Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab (Pakistan - Sahiwal District
(Pakistan); The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces
and Oudh, 1896, p 206, William Crooke - Ethnology; Folklore of the
Punjab, 1971, p 8, Sohindara Siṅgha Waṇajārā Bedī - Folklore;
Bibliotheca Indica, 1949, p 388, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal,
Asiatick Society (Calcutta, India); Punjabi Musalmans, 1991, p 89,
J. M. Wikeley - Ethnology; ʻAin-i-Akbari of Abul Fazl-i-ʻAllami ,
1948, p 388, Abū al-Faz̤l ibn Mubārak, Jadunath Sarkar; The
Historical Background of Pakistan and Its People, 1973, p 128; An
Observation: Perspective of Pakistan, 1987, p 100, Ahmed Abdulla;
Punjab, the Land of Beauty, Love, and Mysticism, 1992, p 211, Syed
Abdul Quddus - Punjab (India); See also: Kamboj Itihaas, p 7, 1972,
H. S. Thind.
Glossary of Tribes, p 443, H. A. Rose; Panjab Castes, p 148, Denzil
Ibbetson; Sidhaant Kaumudi, 1966, p 22, Acharya R. R. Pandey
The Sikh, A. H. Bingley, p 57; Encyclopedia of Sikh Religion &
Culture, 1997, p 24, Gobind Singh Mansukhani, Romesh Chander Dogra;
Punjabi Musalmans, 1991, p 89, J. M. Wikeley - Ethnology.
Glossary of Tribes, Vol II, p 443 fn, H. A. Rose.
The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol
III, p 119, William Crooke.
See: Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p 99, Mamata Choudhury.
Encyclopedia of Indian Tribes 1995, p 89, Padamashri S. S. Sashi,
S. S. Shahi.
The authors of both Tribes of Ancient India as well as
The Encyclopedia of Indian Tribes also comment that in the
Samhita (10.43-44) as well in Mahabharata (13.33.20-21), the Kambojas,
the ancestors of modern Kambohs, along with other tribes like the
Dravadas and Daradas etc
have also been described as Kshatriyas, but were degraded to the
state of sudras because of their non-observance of sacred rites and
of their disrespect to the Brahmanas (p 90).
Rajasthan [district Gazetteers], Edition 2001, p 83, by Rajasthan
Glossary of Castes, H. A. Rose, 1883, p 444; See entry at Kamboh,
Punjabi Mahankosh, Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha etc
See: Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab and North-west
Frontier Province, Vol II, p 444, H. A. Rose.
The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh 1906,
Page 119-120 William Crooke.
Völkerstämme am Brahmaputra und verwandtschaftliche Nachbarn,
Reise-Ergebnisse und Studien – 1883, P 80, Philipp Wilhelm Adolf
Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muzmirāt va rujhānāt 1989, p 1,
Munīr Ahmad Marrī.
Supplementary Glossary, p 304, Sir H. M. Eliot.
In their writings G. S. Mansukhani, R. C. Dogra, J. L. Kamboj, K.
S. Dardi etc. also refers to this tradition among the Muslim
Kambojs claiming relationship with Royal lineage of Persia.
Also cf: The Indo-Aryans: Contribution Towards the Elucidation of
their Ancient & Mediaeval History, 1881, p 188-89, Rajendra Lal
Kai = Kaiyani = Kawi. Kawi means glory (Median: Farnah, Khotanese:
Pharra)..."In Avesta, the xwarenah is called 'Kawyan', that is
belonging to the Kawis or Kais. The Kais or Kawis were a partially
a legendary dynasty of Eastern Iranian rulers. Xwarenah can be a
creative power used by the gods or it can be a religious power. But
generally it embodies the concept of good fortune. As a kind of
fiery radiance, it would relate to the word for Sun (Xwar) (Old
Iranian: Suvar) (hwar=to shine, xwar=to grasp)". (Malandra:
1983, p 88).
Kai or Kawi was a princely title in eastern Iran, or at least in the house of Zarathushtra's
eventual patron, Vishtaspa. Zarathushtra attaches no
pejorative connection to the title Kawi when it is applied to him.
Zarathushtra eventually found a patron, the Kai/Kawi Vishtaspa, who not only
espoused the new faith but protected it and helped propagate it by
force of arms 
As the name Vishtaspa itself suggests, the Kai
dynasty was apparently connected with the horses since Aspa in
Iranian means horse. And so are the Kambojas---the Ashvakas or
Aspasioi/Assakenoi of Arrian. Hence, the Kai ruler Vishtaspa might
have been from the Ashvaka clan of the Kambojas
vartta.shastra.upajivinah (||Arthashastra 11.1.04)
Panchala Kalinga Shurasenah Kamboja Udra Kirata
shastra-varttah (Brhat Samhita 5.35ab).
Report on the revision of settlement of the Pánipat tahsil &
Karnál parganah of the Karnál..., 1883, pp 1, 89; India and World
War 1, 1978, p 218, DeWitt C. Ellinwood, S. D. Pradhan; The
Transformation of Sikh Society, 1974, p 132, Ethne K. Marenco;
Gazetteer of the Montgomery District (Sahiwal), 1883-84, 1990, p
67, Punjab (Pakistan); Report on the Revised Land Revenue
Settlement of the Montgomery District in the Mooltan Division, p
49, C. A. Roe and W. E. Purser; Green Revolution, 1974, p 35,
Business & Economics etc.
Panjab Castes, 1974, p 149, D. Ibbetson; Glossary, II, pp 6 &
442, H. A. Rose.
Origin of names of Castes and Clans, 2004,Principal Sewa
Out of the Ashes: An Account of the Rehabilitation of Refugees from
West Pakistan in Rural Areas of East Punjab, 1954, p 60, M. S.
Cf: "The Kambos are an agricultural tribe unmatched for their
hard work. Due to their tenacity and persistence, they have
succeeded in getting the best land in the district allotted to
them" (See: Haryana District Gazetteers, 1970, p 99, Kiran
Prem - Haryana (India)).
Jalandhar Settlement Report, p 82, sqq; Cf: ˜The tribes and castes
of the north-western provinces and Oudh…, 1999 edition, p 206,
North Indian Notes and Queries, 1896, p 64, Hindu Mythology,
Mythology; A Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of the Punjab
& North-west Frontier Province, 1911, p 15, H. A. Rose .
Final Report on the Revision of Settlement of the Sirsá District in
the Punjáb, 1884, p 97, J. Wilson, Sir James Wilson - Sirsa
(India : District); A Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of
the Punjab & North-west Frontier Provinces, 1911, p 13, H. A.
Rose; The Historical Background of Pakistan and Its People, 1973, p
REVISION OF SETTLEMENT, 1883, p 98, J. WILSON; REPORT ON THE
REVISED LAND REVENUE SETTLEMENT OF THE MONTGOMERY DISTRICT, 1878, p
49, C. A. Roe and W. E. Purser; Final Report on the Revision of
Settlement of the Sirsá District in the Punjáb, 1884, p 98, J.
Wilson, Sir James Wilson.
The Punjab Castes, 1977 Edition, p 148, Denzil Ibbetson.
A Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of the Punjab &
North-west Frontier Provinces, 1911, p 14, H. A. Rose.
Punjabi Musalmans, 1915, reprinted 1991, p 89, J. M. Wikeley -
Punjabi Musalmans, 1915 edition, reprinted 1991, p 88-89, J. M.
Wikeley - Ethnology; Punjabi Musalmans, 1968 edition, p 109, J. M.
Wikeley, Rana Rehman Zafar - Ethnology
Source of Kamboj Gotras
- The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 423–432, S Kirpal Singh
- Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punajb and north-west Frontier
Provinces, Vol III, p 524, H. A. Rose
- Kamboja Itihaas, 1972, pp 42–43, S H. S. Thind
- Jatt Tribes and Zira, 1992, pp 141–42, H. S. Shergill
- Vishal Kamboj, Monthly