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The Kambojs (Hindi: कम्बोज Kamboj, Urdu: کمبوہ Kamboh, Punjabi: ਕਮ੍ਬੋਜ Kamboj) are an ethnic community of the Punjab region. They may relate to the Kambojas, an Iranian tribe known to the peoples of Iron Age India and mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts and epigraphy. [1][2][3][4][5][6] Kamboj is frequently used as a surname in lieu of the sub-caste or the gotra name by many Kambojs of Punjab, India. Their Muslim counterparts living in Pakistan mostly use the last name Kamboh instead of the gotra name.

Contents

Kamboj/Kamboh during Muslim rule

During early years of Islam in India, one of the groups of this clan embraced Islam at the instance of Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya Suhrawardi (of Multan) and his son Shaikh Sadruddin [7].

Muslim Kambohs/Kambojs were very influential and powerful during Lodhi and Moghul rule. Miyan Jumman Khan Kamboh was "Hajib-i-Khas" (Special Lord of Bed Chamber) [8], Umar Khan Kamboh was Amir-i-Akhur (Minister of Cavalry department) [9] and Miyan Ladan Khan Kamboh was an Imam [10] and Royal Nadim of Sikandar Lodhi [11]. Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik Sambhal was Amir-i-Arz (Paymaster General) and then Prime Minister of Sher Shah Suri. General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh was the most capable and trusted general of the Akbar [12][13][14 ]. He had been "Mir Tozak" (Quarter Master General/Master of Ceremonies), "Mir Bakshi" (Lord Pay Master General/Chief Military Adviser), and "Wakil" (Highest Mughal Administrative Officer, Prime Minister) of Emperor Akbar [15][16]. As a Governor of Bengal in 1581, Shabaz Khan had distinguished himself greatly and had commanded 9000 strong cavalry in Bengal when operating in Brahmputra, [17]. Shaikh Gadai Kamboh had been "Sadru-s-Sadur" or "Sadar-i-Jahan" (Administrator General or Lord Chief Justice) in Akbar's reign.[18][19]. Nawab Saddullah Khan Chanyoti was the Prime Minister [20] and General Nawab Bahadur Kamboh had been very active and intelligent military officer and Vizier (Minister) in the court of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan [21]. General Nawab Khair Andesh Khan held a mansab of 5000 horsemen during reign of Aurangzeb and of 6000 during Bahadur Shah's reign [22] and had been governor of Katehr (Rohilkhand), Bihar, Etawah, Bengal, Kalabagh and Hamuiri at different times of his life [23][24][25].

Numerous other Kamboj are known to have occupied very key military and civil positions during Lodhi, Pashtun and the Moghul reign in India. "The Sayyids and the Kambohs among the Indian Muslims were specially favored for high military and civil positions during Moghul rule" [26][27][28][29].

"The Kambo, Indian Shaikh-zadas and local Saiyid nobles rose to prominence during the period under review" (i.e. Lodi dynasty of Delhi) [30].

Muhammad Umar writes: "The (Muslim) Kamboh distinguished themselves by their courage, generosity and high spirits. They were famous for their excellent manners and were particularly gifted with wisdom and nobility....In terms of social stratification, the Kambohs were counted among the Shaikhs.....Among the Indian Muslims, the Kambohs were regarded as the noblest of all. However, perhaps with a view to maintaining the purity of their descent, or because of pride of nobility, they confined their matrimonial relationships within their own groups and did not establish marriage connections with other Muslim groups including even the Saiyids and the Mughals. Some members of this clan like Shahbaz Khan Kamboh, Nawab Abu Muhammad Khan, Bahadur Khan and Nawab Khair Andesh Khan rose to high positions during the reign of Mughals" [31].

Ain-i-Akbari of Abu-Al-Fazal Alami (Trans. H. Blochman) informs us that it was a matter of distinction to belong to the Kamboh lineage during the reigns of Mughal emperors like Akbar and Jahangir [32 ][33][34][35].

The Kambohs held Nakodar in Jullundur [36][37] and Sohna in Gurgaon some centuries ago; and the tombs and mosques that they have left (in Sohna) show that they must have enjoyed considerable position.[38][39][40]

Kamboj/Kamboh in Modern Times

The modern representatives of Ancient Kamboja who still call themselves Kamboj (or prikritic Kamboh, or Kamoz) or Kambhoj are estimated to be around 1.5 million. Rest of the Kamboja population, over the time, is believed to have submerged with other occupationalized castes/groups of the Indian sub-continent. Consequently, one can notice numerous of their sub-caste names over-lap with those of other communities of northern India like the Khatris, Rajputs, Tarkhans, Jats, Brahmins, Arains etc [41]. An earlier view was that, like the Jats, Aheers, Gujjars etc, the Kamboh/Kamboj had descended from the Great Rajput tribes [42], but this hypothesis was later on abandoned and a new theory was proposed that the Rajputs themselves had descended from foreign invading hordes like the Sakas, Pahlavas, Hunas, Kambojas, Yuezhi, Gurjaras etc.

The Kambojs of the north, by tradition, are divided into 52 and 84 clans. 52 line is stated to be descendants of Cadet branch and 84 from the elder Branch. This is claimed as referring to the young and elder military divisions under which they had fought the Bharata War. Numerous of their clan names overlap with other Kshatriyas and the Rajput castes of the north-west India, thereby suggesting that some of the Kshatriya/Rajput clans of north-west must have descended from the Ancient Kambojas.[43]

The Kambojs/Kambohs practiced weapon-worship in the past but the practice is now going out of vogue.[44]

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Diaspora

The Kamboj or Kamboh living in upper India (Greater Punjab) are identified as the modern representatives of the ancient Kambojas [45]. They are found as Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Buddhists and the Jains. Kambojs are known as adventurous and enterprising people. Therefore, as a colonists, servicemen, politicians and businessmen, they have also spread, after the partition, into various parts of India, including a belt of Haryana from Sirsa to Hisar and Karnal to Yamunanagar, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Ganganagar in Rajasthan, Nainital, Dehradoon and Shaheed Udham Singh Nagar in Uttarakhand and Madhya Pradesh. There is also minuscule Kambhoj (jaina) community living since olden times near Nanded in Maharashtra, possibly the dwindling remnant of ancient Kambojas who had settled southwest India around the Christian era. (See links: [3] , [4] ) [46]. The community obviously seems to have mixed with the local communities over time and imbibed local cultures and languages.

The [[Pamiri people|Pamiris], Siyahposh tribe (Kam/Kamoz, Katir/Kamtoz) of Nuristan, Yashkuns, Swatis, and the Yusufzais of Eastern Afghanistan and NWFP of Pakistan are said by various scholars to have descended from the ancient Kambojas.[47]

Scholars also hold that the Kammas of Andhra Pradesh, the Khampas or Khambas/Khambus of Tibet and the Kambis/Kumbis of Gujarat are the distant relatives of the Kambojs of Indian Punjab and the Kambohs of Pakistan; they are the modern representatives of ancient Kambojas who came to India from Central Asia about three thousands years ago [48].

The author of Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency and several other scholars hold that the Kambus (i.e. Kambohs/Kambojs) of Punjab are an offshoot of the Afghan stock[49][50][51][52].

Traditions

The Kambohs are stated to be the ancient inhabitants of Persia.[53].

The Sikh Kamboj of Kapurthala & Jullundur (Punjab) claim descent from Raja Karan [54]. They also have a tradition that their ancestors came from Kashmir.[55]

Hindu Kambohs claim to be related to the Rajputs and to have come from Persia through southern Afghanistan.[56] The Chapter III of Gazetteer of Muzaffarnagar (UP) based on British India census reports of 1881/1891 etc note that about 1200 Muslim and Hindu Kamboj were living in Saharanpur who also claimed to be Rajputs. The Kamboj in Phillaur, District Jullundur, too claimed to be Suryavanshi Rajputs.[57] The Kambohs of Bijnor claim that they came from Trans-Indus country and Mr Purser accepts this as evidently true. Many of the Bijnor Kambohs also have a tradition that they are of the same ethnic stock as the Chattris or Khatris [58]. "In the Census of 1891, it is reported that the Kamboh, who lived around Mathura in the United Province (Uttar Pradesh), were originally Kshatriyas" [59][60][61]. The Rajasthan [district Gazetteers] asserts that the Kambohs are probably related to the Khatris [62]. The Hindu Kambohs from Karnal claim their origin from Garh-Gajni. Their Pandits still pronounce the following couplet at the phera during their marriage ceremony to give information about their original home: Garh Gajni nikaas, Lachhoti Ghaggar vaas (Trans: Originated from the fort of Gajni, and settled down in Ghaggar region (in Haryana or Punjab)). One Gajni or Ghazni is located in Afghanistan, but based on another tradition of the Karnal Kamboj, the eminent ethnographers like H. A. Rose and several other scholars have identified this Gajni in Kambay in Saurashtra (port of Vallabhi)[63]

Muslim Kambohs have a tradition that they descended from ancient Kai dynasty of Persia, to which the emperors Kaikaus, Kaikhusro, Kaikubad, Kai-lehrashab and Darius all belonged. On the last king of the dynasty having been dethroned, and expelled from the country, he wandered about some time with his family and dependents in the neighboring countries and finally settled in Punjab[14 ][64][65][66][67].[68][69][70][71][72][73]

Agriculturists

The modern Kamboj are still found living chiefly by agriculture, business and military service which were the chief professions followed by their Kamboja ancestors some 2500 years ago as powerfully attested by Arthashastra[74] and Brihat Samhita.[75] Numerous foreign and Indian writers have described the modern Kambojs/Kambohs as one of the finest class of agriculturists of India.[76] British colonial writers such as H. A. Rose and Denzil Charles J. Ibbetson note the Kamboj and Ahir agriculturists as the first rank husbandmen.[77] They occupy exactly the same position in general farming as the Ramgarhias occupy in general industry.

The Kambojs have made great contributions in agriculture and military fields. The majority of Krishi Pandit awards in Rajasthan/India have been won by the Kamboj agriculturists[78] . Col Lal Singh Kamboj, a landlord from Uttar Pradesh, was the first Indian farmer to win the prestigious Padam Shri Award for progressive farming in 1968 from President of India. According to M. S. Randhawa (Ex-Vice Chancellor, Punjab University), "For sheer tenacity and persistence no body can beat Kambohs"[79][80].

Supposed relationship with Arains

In the late 19th century a British colonial administrator proposed that the Arains were Kamboj's who had become Muslims.[81][82][83][84]. However, other British writers discounted this viewpoint since many Kambohs were also Muslims.[85][86][87]. Lt. Col. J. M. Wikeley, in 1915, wrote a handbook for the Indian Army, Punjabi Musalmans, which described the history of the people of Punjab and in which he rejected "any supposed relationship between the Kambohs and the Arains.[88].

List of Kamboj gotras (clans)

52 gotras

Azad, Abdal, Ajpal/Ajapal, Angiarey, Asoi, Bahujad, Bage, Ban/Bhaun/Bhawan, Barar, Batti/Bhatti, Basra, Chak, Chandi, Chandna/Chandne/Chand, Chatrath, Daberah, Dhot/Dhat, Dhanju, Dote, Dulai, Handa/Handey, Joiya/Jaiya/Jie, Jammu, Jaspal/Jakhpal, Jatmal, Josan/Jossan, Jaura/Jaure, Judge/Juj, Kadi or Karhi, Khere, Kosle/Kausle, Karanpal, Kaura/Kaure, Kayar/Kaiyar, Khinda/Khinde/Khande, Kirgil, Lori/Laure, Mardak, Mehrok/Mehroke/Mirok/Marok, Momi, Mutti/Moti, Nandha/Nanda/Nandey, Nagpal, Nagri/Nagra, Nandan, Nibber/Nibher, olma, Padhu/Pandhu, Patanroy/Patanrai, Pran, Ratanpal, Sama/Samey, Sandha/Sandhey, Sandher, Sandheyer/Sandheer, Sawan, Soi/Sohi, Shahi/Sahi, Suner, Tandne/Tandna, Tarikha/Trikhe/Trikh, Thind, Tume/Tuma, Turne/Turna, Vinayak, Pathan/Pathane, Unmal.

84 gotras

Aglawe/Aglawey, Ambri/Ambrey, Angotre, Bagyan, Bahia, Bala/Bali, Bangwa/Bangwai, Bangar/Bangare, Banjahal/Bhunjal, Banur, Barham, Bargote/Barhgotey, Bassi/Basi, Bastorh, Beeharh/Beharh, Bhujang, Brahman/Behman, Chamri/Chimre, Chaupal/Chaufal, Cherta/Churta/Churawat, Chhanan/Chhiyanwe, Chhichhoti/Chhichhote/Chhachhate/Chhachha, Chichare/Chachare, Chimne/Chimni/Chimna, Chine/Chini/China, Churiye/Chirwey/Chidey/Charway, Dange, Datane/Dotane/Datana/Dutane, Dehar/Dehal, Dehgal/Duggal, Dhare, Dheel/Dhillan, Dhehte, Dode, Doliyan, Fokni, Gadre or Gadra, Gagre/Gagra, Gagwaik, Gande/Gandi, Gandheyor/Gandhare/Gandhi, Gaure/Gore/Rai Gore/Gori, Geelawe, Ghasitey, Gogan/Gugan, Gosiley, Gal/Gayile, Ghangra, Harse, Jade/Jarhe, Jagman, Judge Jande/Jandu, Jangle/Jangla, Jhamb/Jham, Jhand/Jhandu, / Camari/Kamari/Kamare, Khokhar, Kokar/Kakar/Kakra, Kukri/Kukar, Lahre/Lehri, Lakhi, Lahndey/Landei, Late/Lata, Lahange/Lahinga/Lahinde, Lall, Machhliye/Machhle, Magu/Mage, Mahesi/Mahes, Makore/Makkar, Mall, Momsarang, Sarang, Mandey/Mande, Melle/Malle, Multani, Nagambr/Nigambar, Nehriye/Nehre/Ner/Naru/Nehru/Nauhriye, Nepal/Nipal, Nuri,Olma, Pandey/Pandhey, Padhasi, Rindi, Sainik, Sandle, Sathand, Senpati/Senapati, Sapre Or Sapra/Sawre, Sarnote/Sarkude, Satte, Sauki/Soki, Soni, Suhagi/Suhage/Suage, Sunehre, Silahre/Sulahre/Sulare/Sular/Sulehre, Sulhiro, Tande, Tagal/Tugal, Taparhiye, Thathai/Thathaiya/Thathe, Thingrey/Thengrey.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 107, Ram Chandra Jain.
  2. ^ The Journal of Asian Studies, 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.).
  3. ^ Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt, 1989, p 2, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī.
  4. ^ India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
  5. ^ Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet.
  6. ^ Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311 etc.
  7. ^ Muslim Society in Northern India During the Eighteenth Century, 1998, pp 24, 25 Muhammad Umar.
  8. ^ Medieval India: A Miscellany, 1972, p 31, edited by K.A. Nizami - History; History of Sher Shah Sur, 1971, p 137, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi.
  9. ^ Religious and Intellectual History of the Muslims in Akbar's Reign, with Special Reference to Abuʾl Fazl, 1556-1605: with special reference to Abul Fazi: (1556-1605), 1975, p 186, Saiyid Ather Abbas Rizvi.
  10. ^ Medieval India: A Miscellany, 1972, p 31, Editor: K.A. Nizami - History; History of Sher Shah Sur, 1971, p 171, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi - India; Shershah Suri and His Dynasty, 1995, p 185, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi.
  11. ^ Medieval India: Essays in Intellectual Thought and Culture, 2003, p 100, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi - India; Indo-iranica, 1990, p 9, Iran Society; Hamdard Islamicus: Quarterly Journal of the Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan, 1987, p 65, Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan - Islam.
  12. ^ Islamic Thought and Movements in the Subcontinent, 711-1947, 1979, p 278, Syed Moinul Haq - Islam.
  13. ^ Discovery of Pakistan: By A. Aziz. [2d Rev. Ed.], 1964, p 71, Abdul Aziz - Pakistan.
  14. ^ a b The Sikhs, p 57, A. H. Bingley.
  15. ^ The Dhakhirat Ul-Khawanin of Shaikh Farid Bhakkari: A Biographical Dictionary of Mughal Noblemen, 1993, p 107, Farīd Bhakkari, Shaikh Farid Bhakkari, Ziyaud-Din A. Desai.
  16. ^ The Ain i Akbari, 1873, p 399, Abū al-Faz̤l ibn Mubārak, Trans: Henry Blochmann, Henry Sullivan Jarrett.
  17. ^ Aina-i-Akbari, Blochman’s trans, I, p 399-402.
  18. ^ Muntak̲h̲abu-t-tawārīk̲h̲, p 7, Abd al-Qādir ibn Mulūk Shāh Badāʼūnī.
  19. ^ Glossary of Tribes, Vol I, H. A. Rose
  20. ^ Kamboj Itihaas, 1972, p 79, H. S. Thind.
  21. ^ Shah Jahan, 1975, p 35, Henry Miers Elliot; A Short History of Muslim Rule in India, from the Advent of Islam to the Death of Aurangzeb: From the Advent of Islam to the Death of Aurangzeb, 1965, p 490, Ishwari Prasad; History of India, 1906, p 279, Abraham Valentine Williams Jackson, Romesh Chunder Dutt, Vincent A. Smith, Stanley Lane-Poole, Henry Miers Elliot, William Wilson Hunter, Alfred Comyn Lyall, Amil-i-Salih, III, 247, Muhammad Sallih.
  22. ^ Tarikh-i-Qaum kamboh, p 317-18, Chaudhry Muhammad Yusuf Hasan; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 244, Kirpal Singh; Kamboj Itihaas, 1972, p 79, H. S. Thind.
  23. ^ Statistical, descriptive and historical account of the North-western, 1876, p 292, North-western provinces; District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1904 edition, p 87.
  24. ^ Leadership and Local Politics, 1979, p 158, Shree Nagesh Jha
  25. ^ Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 317-18, Muhammad Yousaf, The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 244, Kirpal Singh.
  26. ^ See: The composition of the Mughal nobility, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1993, p 70, Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc., Robert McHenry; See also: Concise Encyclopedia Britannica, Online.
  27. ^ The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, 2002, p 21, M. Athar Ali.
  28. ^ cf: Cultural History of India, 1975, p 261, A. L. Basham.
  29. ^ Cf: Aristocracy in Medieval India, 1993, p 124, Dhirendra Nath Ojha.
  30. ^ Some Aspects of Afghan Despotism in India, 1969, pp 59, 23 Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi - Lodi dynasty.
  31. ^ Muslim Society in Northern India During the Eighteenth Century, 1998, pp 24, 25 Muhammad Umar; See also: observations made by Saiyid Shah Hamza of Marehra (UP) on the early history of the Kambohs in his Kashif-ul-astar, ca 1277 H/1860 AD).
  32. ^ Ain-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochmann, Part I, p 614.
  33. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 120, William Crooke.
  34. ^ REPORT ON THE REVISED LAND REVENUE SETTLEMENT OF THE MONTGOMERY DISTRICT IN ..., 1878, p 50, fn, W. E. Purser, C. A. Roe.
  35. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, p 14, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven [1].
  36. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, p 180, William Wilson Hunter.
  37. ^ Punjab gazetteers, 1883, bound in 10 vols., without title-leaves, 1883, p 159, Punjab.
  38. ^ Glossary of Tribes, p 443, H. A. Rose; Panjab Castes, p 148, Denzil Ibbetson .
  39. ^ Punjabi Musalmans, 1991, p 89, J. M. Wikeley.
  40. ^ Panjab Castes: "Being a Reprint of the Chapter on "The Races, Castes, and Tribes of the People" in the Report on the Census of the Panjab Published in 1883 by the Late Sir Denzil Ibbetson, K.C.S.I., p 201, Denzil Ibbetson.
  41. ^ IMPORTANT NOTE: In this connection, the views of scholars like V. A. Smith and Col James Tod etc may be noted. V. A Smith states that "the Kshatriya or Rajput group of castes in India is at present essentially an occupational group composed of all clans, following the Hindu rituals, who actually undertook the work of government; consequently, people of most diverse races were and are lumped together as Rajputs; and most of the great Rajput clans now in existence, INSPITE OF THEIR HOARY PEDEGREES, are either descended from foreign immigrants" (i.e obviously like the Sakas, Pahlavas, Kambojas, Hunas, Kunshans etc) or from the indigenous races (like the Gonds and Bhars). According to Col James Tod also, the Rajputs were descendants of the foreign invading tribes like the Sakas, Hunas, Kushans, Gurjaras etc (the list is suggestive only and not exhaustive...exhaustive list also includes the Kambojas, Pahlavas, Yavanas etc). At the time of Col James Tod, Rock Edicts V and XIII of King Asoka (found at Shahbazgarhi/Peshawar and Mansehra/Hazara, which refer to the Kambojas/Yonas etc as the MOST PROMINENT SELF-RULING PEOPLE of north-west...Per H. C Raychaudhury, D. C. Sircar etc) had not yet been completely studied and published. The Shahbazgrahi Edicts of king Asoka were discovered and published in 1836 and his Mansehra Edicts were discovered/published in parts in 1839 and in 1889 AD (See: Asoka Text and Glossary, 1982, XI, XII, Alfered C. Wooler; Ancient India, 1962, p 252 seq, Vidya Dhar Mahajan; Buddhist Sites and Shrines in India: History, Art, and Architecture, 2003, p 317, D. C. Ahir)). The Shar-i-Kuna Inscription of Kandhahar/Afghanistan, which throws light on the Kambojas and the Yonas as very important and intimately connected people, was discovered only as alte as in 1957 AD. Furthermore, the Mathura Lion Capital Inscription which also attests the ROYAL CLAN STATUS of the Kambojas (Kamuia in Kharoshthi) was discovered from Mathura only in 1869 AD (again after death of Col James Tod). Now since James Tod's classic book "Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan" had already been published in 1829 (Vol I) and in 1832 (Vol II), hence James Tod does not discuss the Kambojas among the royal races of northern India (Col Tod has referred to the Kambojas/Cambojas only three times in his classics, and that too in a very passing way). Had the above Inscriptions relating to the Kambojas been known and studied/scrutinized by Col James Tod, he must have given an important place to the Kambojas as an outstanding ancient Rajput clan of north-west. Both Col Tod and Prof Smith had regarded the Kambojas of the Sanskrit texts as if they were some people different from the Iranian or Indo-Iranian race. Curiously enough, they regarded the Kambojas from the Mongolian race and therefore, located them in Tibet/eastern parts of Hindukush, rather than in the Afghanistan/Tajikstan and thought that they may have been a perso-Mongol people (Persian speaking Mongolian Tribe). Had king Asoka's Rock Edicts V and XIII at Mansehra and at Shahbazgarhi been discovered/published by the time of Col James Tod, then the Kambojas (like the Sakas etc) are sure to have found a prominent mention and a place in the list of the 'foreign invading tribes whom Col James Tod and V. A. Smith had regarded as the most probable candidates as the ancestors of the modern Rajputs'. Unfortunately, king Asoka's Rock Edicts V and XIII as found from Mansehra and Shabazgarhi, Edict Shar-i-Kuna discovered from Kandhahar and the Mathura Lion Capital Inscription (discovered from Mathura) were discovered/published only after Col James Tod had already completed/published his classic book "Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan" on Rajputs in 1829/32. And it is also very important to note that much of the information and knowledge about the ancient famous Kamboja tribes became available only after the first quarter of 20th century AD when Dr B. C. Law had published his famous research book "Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India" in 1924. Dr Law has plenteously demonstrated that the Kambojs were a very prominent Ksatriya/Rajput tribe of ancient India (See: Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 230-252, B. C. Law).
  42. ^ Memorandum on Castes, Various census of India, 1873, p 13 , W Forbes.
  43. ^ For overlap of Kamboj/Kshatriya clan names, see Glossary of Tribes, II, p 444, fn. iii.
  44. ^ Jatt Tribes of Zira, p 138; Glossary of Tribes, II, p 444
  45. ^ Memoirs on the history, folk-lore, and distribution of the races of the North Western Provinces of India: being an amplified edition of the original supplemental glossary of Indian terms, 1889, p 304, Henry Miers Elliot, John Beames - Ethnology; Die Holztempel des oberen Kulutales in ihren historischen, religiösen und kunstgeschichtlichen Zusammenhängen, 1974, p 124, Gabriele Jettmar; Report on the settlement of the land revenue of the Sultánpur district. [With] Accompaniments, 1873, p 88, A F. Millett; The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh‎, 1896, pp 458, William Crooke; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874, p 260, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), Asiatic Society of Bengal; Kirāta-jana-kṛti1974, p 113, Suniti Kumar Chatterji; Inscriptions of Aśoka: translation and glossary, 1990, p 86, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury; History, Religion and Culture of India‎, 2004, p 228, S. Gajrani; Encyclopedia of Jalandhar: Jalandhar, 2004, p 38, Harajindar Siṅgha Dilagīr; Geographical and economic studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana parva, 1945, pp 40, 131, Moti Chandra; Early History of India‎, 1942, p 2, Bhai Gulshan Rai; Political, Legal, and Military History of India‎, 1984, p 50, Harbans Singh Bhatia; Hindu polity a constitutional history of India in Hindu times Parts I and II‎, 1955, p 139, K. P. Jayaswal; British Mediation in the Danish-German Conflict‎, 1965, p 79, Holger Hjelholt; Geography from ancient Indian coins & seals, 1989, p 24, Parmanand Gupta; The Cultural Heritage of India : Itihäsas, Purän̈as, Dharma and other s̈ästras, 1953, p 615, Haridāsa Bhaṭṭācāryya, Ramakrishna Mission. Institute of Culture, Suniti Kumar Chatterji; The Problems of Indian Society, 1968, p 69, Devabrata Bose; Vishveshvaranand Indological journal‎, 1992, p 206, Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, Vishveshvaranand Vishva Bandhu Institute of Sanskrit and Indological Studies; Epigraphia zeylanica: being lithic and other inscriptions of Ceylon‎, 1928, p 75, Ceylon Archeological Dept - Inscriptions, Sinhalese; India and the world: researches in India's policies, contacts, and relationships with other countries and peoples of the world, 1964, p 154, Buddha Prakash; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, M. R. Singh; Literary history of ancient India in relation to its racial and linguistic affiliations, 1953, Chandra Chakraberty; Punjab District Gazetteers, 1970, p 85, Punjab (India); Punjab History Conference: 26th Session : Papers., 1994, p 225; Indo-Aryans: contributions towards the elucidation of their ancient and mediaeval history, 1881, p 187, Rājendralāla Mitra; Encyclopaedia of Indian Tribes, 1997, p 89, Shyam Singh Shashi; Punjab history conference, 1996, p 44, Gursharan Singh; Indian cultural influence in Cambodia, 1964, p 273, Bijan Raj Chatterjee; People of India: An Introduction‎, 1992, p 164; Tribes of ancient India‎, 1977, p 99, Mamata Choudhury; People of India, 2003, p 1506, Kumar Suresh Singh, Anthropological Survey of India - Ethnology - 2003 Kumar Suresh Singh, Anthropological Survey of India, Ethnology; India's communities‎, 1998, p 1506, Kumar Suresh Singh, Anthropological Survey of India - Social Science; History of origin of some clans in India, with special reference to Jats, 1992, p 149, Mangal Sen Jindal; The Calcutta Review, 1872, p 70, University of Calcutta; Farmers of India‎, 1959, p 103, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Mohindar Singh Randhawa; Chandigarh: People of India‎, 1997, p 81, Swaran Singh, V. Bhalla, Anthropological Survey of India; Transactions, 1967, p 73, Indian Institute of Advanced Study; Folklore of the Punjab, 1971, p 7, S. S. Waṇajārā Bedī; History of Poros‎, 1967, p 12, Buddha Prakash; India and the world: researches in India's policies, contacts, and relationships with other countries and peoples of the world, 1964, p 154, Buddha Prakash; The People and Culture of Bengal, a Study in Origins: A Study in Origins‎, 2002, p 567, Annapurna Chattopadhyaya; Ref: (1) Aina Tarikhnama and (2) Gur Tirath Sangra—Qoted in : Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province‎, 1886, p 444, H.A. Rose, Sr Denzil Ibbetson, Sir Edward Maclagan
  46. ^ This Kambhoja country of southern India as hinted at by Syed Siraj ul Hassanis, in all probability, is the colonial settlement of the migrating Kambojas, who in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas had entered into and spread into south-western and southern India prior to/around the beginning of Christian era.
  47. ^ See various refs like: Ancient Kamboja, people and the Country, 1981, Kamboj, p 165, 248; Comprehensive History India, Vol II, p 118, N. K. Shastri; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Ounjab, Buddha Parkash; Bharatbhumi aur unke Nivasi, Jaychandra Vidyalankar, p 313-14; Political History of Ancient India, Raychaudhury, 1996, p 133 etc.
  48. ^ India's Communities‎, 1992, p 1508, Kumar Suresh Singh, Anthropological Survey of India - Ethnology; People of India, Punjab, Vol XXXVII, 2003, p 256, Kumar Suresh Singh; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 347, Kirpal Singh.
  49. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1904, p 14, Bombay (India: State)
  50. ^ See also:Indo Aryans: Contribution Towards the Elucidation of their Ancient and Medieval History, 1881, p 186-188, Rajendra Lal Mitra
  51. ^ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal‎, 1874, p 260, Asiatic Society of Bengal - Physical sciences.
  52. ^ Journal, 1874, p 60, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal. Cf quote by William Crooke in: The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh‎, 1896, p 120 - Ethnology.
  53. ^ Panjab Castes, Denzil Ibbetson, p 148; Glossary of Tribes, H. A. Rose, p 443; Jatt Tribes of Zira, 1992, p 137, S. S. Gill; Tarikh-i-Kambohan, p 302, Chouhdri Wahhab ud-Din
  54. ^ See refs: Glossary of Tribes & Castes by H. Rose p 443-445; Also read: "Kamboh" in Panjab Castes by Denzil Ibbetson , pp 149/150; REPORT ON THE REVISED LAND REVENUE SETTLEMENT OF THE MONTGOMERY DISTRICT IN ..., 1878, p 50, C. A. Roe and W. E. Purser; Gazetteer of the Montgomery District (Sahiwal), 1883-84, Edition 1990, p 68, Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab (Pakistan - Sahiwal District (Pakistan); The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh, 1896, p 206, William Crooke - Ethnology; Folklore of the Punjab, 1971, p 8, Sohindara Siṅgha Waṇajārā Bedī - Folklore; Bibliotheca Indica, 1949, p 388, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Asiatick Society (Calcutta, India); Punjabi Musalmans, 1991, p 89, J. M. Wikeley - Ethnology; ʻAin-i-Akbari of Abul Fazl-i-ʻAllami , 1948, p 388, Abū al-Faz̤l ibn Mubārak, Jadunath Sarkar; The Historical Background of Pakistan and Its People, 1973, p 128; An Observation: Perspective of Pakistan, 1987, p 100, Ahmed Abdulla; Punjab, the Land of Beauty, Love, and Mysticism, 1992, p 211, Syed Abdul Quddus - Punjab (India); See also: Kamboj Itihaas, p 7, 1972, H. S. Thind.
  55. ^ Glossary of Tribes, p 443, H. A. Rose; Panjab Castes, p 148, Denzil Ibbetson; Sidhaant Kaumudi, 1966, p 22, Acharya R. R. Pandey
  56. ^ The Sikh, A. H. Bingley, p 57; Encyclopedia of Sikh Religion & Culture, 1997, p 24, Gobind Singh Mansukhani, Romesh Chander Dogra; Punjabi Musalmans, 1991, p 89, J. M. Wikeley - Ethnology.
  57. ^ Glossary of Tribes, Vol II, p 443 fn, H. A. Rose.
  58. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 119, William Crooke.
  59. ^ See: Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p 99, Mamata Choudhury.
  60. ^ Encyclopedia of Indian Tribes 1995, p 89, Padamashri S. S. Sashi, S. S. Shahi.
  61. ^ The authors of both Tribes of Ancient India as well as The Encyclopedia of Indian Tribes also comment that in the Manu Samhita (10.43-44) as well in Mahabharata (13.33.20-21), the Kambojas, the ancestors of modern Kambohs, along with other tribes like the Yavanas, Sakas, Dravadas and Daradas etc have also been described as Kshatriyas, but were degraded to the state of sudras because of their non-observance of sacred rites and of their disrespect to the Brahmanas (p 90).
  62. ^ Rajasthan [district Gazetteers], Edition 2001, p 83, by Rajasthan (India).
  63. ^ Glossary of Castes, H. A. Rose, 1883, p 444; See entry at Kamboh, Punjabi Mahankosh, Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha etc
  64. ^ See: Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab and North-west Frontier Province, Vol II, p 444, H. A. Rose.
  65. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh 1906, Page 119-120 William Crooke.
  66. ^ Völkerstämme am Brahmaputra und verwandtschaftliche Nachbarn, Reise-Ergebnisse und Studien – 1883, P 80, Philipp Wilhelm Adolf Bastian.
  67. ^ Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muzmirāt va rujhānāt 1989, p 1, Munīr Ahmad Marrī.
  68. ^ Supplementary Glossary, p 304, Sir H. M. Eliot.
  69. ^ In their writings G. S. Mansukhani, R. C. Dogra, J. L. Kamboj, K. S. Dardi etc. also refers to this tradition among the Muslim Kambojs claiming relationship with Royal lineage of Persia.
  70. ^ Also cf: The Indo-Aryans: Contribution Towards the Elucidation of their Ancient & Mediaeval History, 1881, p 188-89, Rajendra Lal Mitra.
  71. ^ Kai = Kaiyani = Kawi. Kawi means glory (Median: Farnah, Khotanese: Pharra)..."In Avesta, the xwarenah is called 'Kawyan', that is belonging to the Kawis or Kais. The Kais or Kawis were a partially a legendary dynasty of Eastern Iranian rulers. Xwarenah can be a creative power used by the gods or it can be a religious power. But generally it embodies the concept of good fortune. As a kind of fiery radiance, it would relate to the word for Sun (Xwar) (Old Iranian: Suvar) (hwar=to shine, xwar=to grasp)". (Malandra: 1983, p 88).
  72. ^ Kai or Kawi was a princely title in eastern Iran, or at least in the house of Zarathushtra's eventual patron, Vishtaspa. Zarathushtra attaches no pejorative connection to the title Kawi when it is applied to him. Zarathushtra eventually found a patron, the Kai/Kawi Vishtaspa, who not only espoused the new faith but protected it and helped propagate it by force of arms [2]
  73. ^ As the name Vishtaspa itself suggests, the Kai dynasty was apparently connected with the horses since Aspa in Iranian means horse. And so are the Kambojas---the Ashvakas or Aspasioi/Assakenoi of Arrian. Hence, the Kai ruler Vishtaspa might have been from the Ashvaka clan of the Kambojas
  74. ^ Kambhoja. Sauraastra.ksatriya.shreny.adayo vartta.shastra.upajivinah (||Arthashastra 11.1.04)
  75. ^ Panchala Kalinga Shurasenah Kamboja Udra Kirata shastra-varttah (Brhat Samhita 5.35ab).
  76. ^ Report on the revision of settlement of the Pánipat tahsil & Karnál parganah of the Karnál..., 1883, pp 1, 89; India and World War 1, 1978, p 218, DeWitt C. Ellinwood, S. D. Pradhan; The Transformation of Sikh Society, 1974, p 132, Ethne K. Marenco; Gazetteer of the Montgomery District (Sahiwal), 1883-84, 1990, p 67, Punjab (Pakistan); Report on the Revised Land Revenue Settlement of the Montgomery District in the Mooltan Division, p 49, C. A. Roe and W. E. Purser; Green Revolution, 1974, p 35, Business & Economics etc.
  77. ^ Panjab Castes, 1974, p 149, D. Ibbetson; Glossary, II, pp 6 & 442, H. A. Rose.
  78. ^ Origin of names of Castes and Clans, 2004,Principal Sewa Singh.
  79. ^ Out of the Ashes: An Account of the Rehabilitation of Refugees from West Pakistan in Rural Areas of East Punjab, 1954, p 60, M. S. Randhawa.
  80. ^ Cf: "The Kambos are an agricultural tribe unmatched for their hard work. Due to their tenacity and persistence, they have succeeded in getting the best land in the district allotted to them" (See: Haryana District Gazetteers, 1970, p 99, Kiran Prem - Haryana (India)).
  81. ^ Jalandhar Settlement Report, p 82, sqq; Cf: ˜The tribes and castes of the north-western provinces and Oudh…, 1999 edition, p 206, William Crooke
  82. ^ North Indian Notes and Queries, 1896, p 64, Hindu Mythology, Mythology; A Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of the Punjab & North-west Frontier Province, 1911, p 15, H. A. Rose .
  83. ^ Final Report on the Revision of Settlement of the Sirsá District in the Punjáb, 1884, p 97, J. Wilson, Sir James Wilson - Sirsa (India : District); A Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of the Punjab & North-west Frontier Provinces, 1911, p 13, H. A. Rose; The Historical Background of Pakistan and Its People, 1973, p 128
  84. ^ REVISION OF SETTLEMENT, 1883, p 98, J. WILSON; REPORT ON THE REVISED LAND REVENUE SETTLEMENT OF THE MONTGOMERY DISTRICT, 1878, p 49, C. A. Roe and W. E. Purser; Final Report on the Revision of Settlement of the Sirsá District in the Punjáb, 1884, p 98, J. Wilson, Sir James Wilson.
  85. ^ The Punjab Castes, 1977 Edition, p 148, Denzil Ibbetson.
  86. ^ A Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of the Punjab & North-west Frontier Provinces, 1911, p 14, H. A. Rose.
  87. ^ Punjabi Musalmans‎, 1915, reprinted 1991, p 89, J. M. Wikeley - Ethnology.
  88. ^ Punjabi Musalmans‎, 1915 edition, reprinted 1991, p 88-89, J. M. Wikeley - Ethnology; Punjabi Musalmans‎, 1968 edition, p 109, J. M. Wikeley, Rana Rehman Zafar - Ethnology

Source of Kamboj Gotras (clans)

  • The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 423–432, S Kirpal Singh ji
  • Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punajb and north-west Frontier Provinces, Vol III, p 524, H. A. Rose
  • Kamboja Itihaas, 1972, pp 42–43, S H. S. Thind
  • Jatt Tribes and Zira, 1992, pp 141–42, H. S. Shergill
  • Vishal Kamboj, Monthly
  • http://kambojsociety.com/subcastes.asp

See also

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Etymology

Name derives from ancient Kamboja, an Indo -Iranian Aryan clan of Indo-European family, originally localized in Pamirs and Badakshan in Central Asia.

Pronunciation

  • kum'boh

Noun

Singular
Kamboh

Plural
countable and uncountable; plural Kambohs

Kamboh (countable and uncountable; plural Kambohs)

  1. (uncountable) Muslim name for Kamboj, a community of Indo-Iranian extractions living in north India and Pakistan.
  2. (countable) A member of this community.

Alternative spellings

  • Kambo & Kambu (as found in medieval age Muslim records).

Adjective

Kamboh (not comparable)

Positive
Kamboh

Comparative
not comparable

Superlative
none (absolute)

  1. Relating to the Kamboh people.

See also


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