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Kannada
ಕನ್ನಡ kannaḍa
A bilingual sign board in Kannada and English in Bangalore
Kannadaalphabet.jpg
Spoken in Karnataka, India, significant communities in USA, Australia, Singapore, UK, United Arab Emirates.
Region Karnataka,Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa.
Total speakers 38 million native (2001, only India)[1], 9 million as a second language[2]
Ranking 27[3]
Language family Dravidian
Official status
Official language in  India (Karnataka)
Regulated by Various academies and the Government of Karnataka[4]
Language codes
ISO 639-1 kn
ISO 639-2 kan
ISO 639-3 kan
Kannadaspeakers.png
Distribution of native Kannada speakers in India
Indic script
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ Kannaḍa) is one of the major Dravidian languages of India, spoken predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas (ಕನ್ನಡಿಗರು Kannadigaru), number roughly 38 million,[1] making it the 27th most spoken language in the world.[3] It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.[5]

The Kannada language is written using the Kannada script. The other native languages of Karnataka, Tulu, Kodava Takk, Beary bashe and Konkani are also written using the Kannada script.

Kannada is attested epigraphically from the mid-1st millennium CE, and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Contemporary Kannada literature is the most successful in India, with India's highest literary honor, the Jnanpith awards, having been conferred seven times upon Kannada writers, which is the highest for any language in India.[6] Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the Ministry of Culture, the Government of India officially recognised Kannada as a classical language.[7][8]

Contents

History

The Halmidi inscription at Halmidi village in old-Kannada dated 450 CE. (Kadamba Dynasty)

The initial development of the Kannada language is similar to that of other Dravidian languages and independent of Sanskrit.[9] During later centuries, Kannada, along with other Dravidian languages like Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, etc., has been greatly influenced by Sanskrit in terms of vocabulary, grammar and literary styles.[10][11][12] The Sanskrit influence is present in most abstract, religious, scientific and rhetorical terms. Kannada also has several Hindi and Marathi loanwords, chiefly relating to feudalism and militia.[13]

Early epigraphy

old-Kannada inscription dated 578 CE (Badami Chalukya dynasty) at Badami cave temple no.3

Pre-old Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years.[14][15][16][17] The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada.[18]

Written tradition of Kannada begins in the 5th to 6th century CE. The earliest examples of a full-length Kannada language stone inscription (shilashaasana) containing Brahmi characters with characteristics resembling those of Tamil in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada) script can be found in the Halmidi inscription, dated 450 CE, indicating that Kannada had become an administrative language by this time.[19][20][21][22] The 5th century Tamatekallu inscription of Chitradurga and the Chikkamagaluru inscription of 500 CE are further examples.[23][24][25]

Over 30,000 inscriptions written in the Kannada language have been discovered so far.[26] Prior to the Halmidi inscription, there is an abundance of inscriptions containing Kannada words, phrases and sentences, proving its antiquity. The 543 CE Badami cliff inscription of Pulakesi I is an example of a Sanskrit inscription in Hale Kannada script.[27][28]

The earliest full-length Kannada copper plates in Old Kannada script (early eighth century CE) belongs to the Alupa King Aluvarasa II from Belmannu, South Kanara district and displays the double crested fish, his royal emblem.[29] The oldest well-preserved palm leaf manuscript is in Old Kannada and is that of Dhavala, dated to around the ninth century, preserved in the Jain Bhandar, Mudbidri, Dakshina Kannada district.[30] The manuscript contains 1478 leaves written using ink.[30]

Old Kannada (9th – 14th centuries)

Kannada literature begins to flourish under the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (9th to 10th century).

7th century old-Kannada inscription on Chandragiri hill, Shravanabelagola
Badami Chalukya inscription in old-Kannada, Virupaksha Temple, 745 CE Pattadakal
9th century old-Kannada inscription of Rashtrakutas at Navalinga temple in Kuknur, Karnataka

The written Kannada language has come under various religious and social influences in its 1600 years of known existence. Linguists generally divide the written form into four broad phases.

From the ninth to fourteenth centuries CE, Kannada works were classified under Old Kannada (Halegannada). In this period Kannada showed a high level of maturity as a language of original literature.[31] Mostly Jain and Saivite poets produced works in this period. This period saw the growth of Jain puranas and Virashaiva Vachana Sahitya or simply vachana, a unique and native form of literature which was the summary of contributions from all sections of society.[32][33] Early Brahminical works also emerged from the eleventh century.[34] By the tenth century Kannada had seen its greatest poets, such as Pampa, Sri Ponna and Ranna, and its great prose writings such as the Vaddaradhane of Shivakotiacharya, indicating that a considerable volume of classical prose and poetry in Kannada had come into existence a few centuries before Kavirajamarga (c.850).[35] Among existing landmarks in Kannada grammar, Nagavarma II's Karnataka-bhashabhushana (1145) and Kesiraja's Shabdamanidarpana (1260) are the oldest.[36][37]

Middle Kannada (14th – 18th centuries)

In the period between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries CE, Brahmanical Hinduism had a great influence on Middle Kannada (Nadugannada) language and literature. Non-brahmin Hindu saints like Kanakadasa and Brahminical saints of the Vaishnava sect such as Purandaradasa, Naraharitirtha, Vyasatirtha, Sripadaraya, Vadirajatirtha, Vijaya Dasa, Jagannathadasa, Prasanna Venkatadasa etc., produced devotional poems in this period.[38] Kanakadasa's Ramadhanya Charite is a rare work, concerning itself with the issue of class struggle.[39] This period saw the advent of Haridasa Sahitya which made rich contributions to bhakti literature and sowed the seeds of Carnatic music.

Modern Kannada (1800 – present)

The Kannada works produced by the end of the nineteenth century and later are classified as Hosagannada or Modern Kannada. However, till the beginning of the twentieth century there were Kannada literary works that could still be classified under the heading of Middle Kannada. Most notable among them are the poet Muddana's works. His works may be described as the "Dawn of Modern Kannada". Generally, linguists treat Indira Bai or Saddharma Vijayavu by Gulvadi Venkata Raya as the first literary works in Modern Kannada.

Coins

Some early Kadamba Dynasty coins bearing the Kannada inscription Vira and Skandha were found in Satara collectorate.[40] A gold coin bearing three inscriptions of Sri and an abbreviated inscription of king Bhagiratha's name called bhagi (390–420 CE) in old Kannada exists.[41] A Kadamba copper coin dated to the fifth century CE with the inscription Srimanaragi in Kannada script was discovered in Banavasi, Uttara Kannada district.[42] Coins with Kannada legends have been discovered spanning the rule of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Badami Chalukyas, the Alupas, the Western Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar Empire, the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi, the Keladi Nayakas and the Mysore Kingdom, the Badami Chalukya coins being a recent discovery.[43][44][45] The coins of the Kadambas of Goa are unique in that they have alternate inscription of the king's name in Kannada and Devanagari in triplicate,[46] a few coins of the Kadambas of Hangal are also available.[47]

Literature and poetry

old-Kannada inscription at the base of Gomateshwara monolith in Shravanabelagola (981 CE. Western Ganga Dynasty) note the fingertips of the subject, plants, and scrolls surrounding the inscription
Kannada Hoysala inscription of 1220 CE at Ishwara temple Hassan district that shows three deities flanked by adorned animals, a nursing cow to the left and an elephant to the right

The oldest existing record of Kannada poetry in tripadi metre is the Kappe Arabhatta record of 700 CE.[48] Kavirajamarga by King Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I (850 CE) is the earliest existing literary work in Kannada. It is a writing on literary criticism and poetics meant to standardize various written Kannada dialects used in literature in previous centuries. The book makes reference to Kannada works by early writers such as King Durvinita of the sixth century and Ravikirti, the author of the Aihole record of 636 CE.[35][49] Since the earliest available Kannada work is one on grammar and a guide of sorts to unify existing variants of Kannada grammar (ವ್ಯಾಕರಣ) and literary styles, it can be safely assumed that literature in Kannada must have started several centuries earlier.[35][50] An early extant prose work, the Vaddaradhane by Shivakotiacharya of 900 CE provides an elaborate description of the life of Bhadrabahu of Shravanabelagola.[51]

Kannada works from earlier centuries mentioned in the Kavirajamarga are not yet traced. Some ancient texts now considered extinct but referenced in later centuries are Prabhrita (650 CE) by Syamakundacharya, Chudamani (Crest Jewel—650 CE) by Srivaradhadeva, also known as Tumbuluracharya, which is a work of 96,000 verse-measures and a commentary on logic (Tatwartha-mahashastra).[52][53][54] Other sources date Chudamani to the sixth century or earlier.[55][56] The Karnateshwara Katha, a eulogy for King Pulakesi II, is said to have belonged to the seventh century; the Gajastaka, a work on elephant management by King Shivamara II, belonged to the eighth century,[57] and the Chandraprabha-purana by Sri Vijaya, a court poet of King Amoghavarsha I, is ascribed to the early ninth century.[58] Tamil Buddhist commentators of the tenth century CE (in the commentary on Nemrinatham, a Tamil grammatical work) make references that show that Kannada literature must have flourished as early as the fourth century CE.[59]

The Middle Kannada period gave birth to several genres of Kannada literature, with new forms of composition coming into use, including Ragale (a form of blank verse) and meters like Sangatya and Shatpadi. The works of this period are based on Jain and Hindu principles. Two of the early writers of this period are Harihara and Raghavanka, trailblazers in their own right. Harihara established the Ragale form of composition while Raghavanka popularized the Shatpadi(six-lined stanza) meter.[60] A famous Jaina writer of the same period is Janna, who expressed Jain religious teachings through his works.[61]

The Vachana Sahitya tradition of the twelfth century is purely native and unique in world literature, and the sum of contributions by all sections of society. Vachanas were pithy poems on that period's social, religious and economic conditions. More importantly, they held a mirror to the seed of social revolution, which caused a radical re-examination of the ideas of caste, creed and religion. Some of the important writers of Vachana literature include Basavanna, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi.[33] Kumara Vyasa, who wrote the Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari, has arguably been the most famous and most influential Kannada writer of the fifteenth century. His work, entirely composed in the Bhamini Shatpadi meter, is a sublime adaptation of the first ten chapters of the Mahabharata.[62] The Bhakti movement gave rise to Dasa Sahitya around the fifteenth century which significantly contributed to the evolution of Carnatic music in its present form. This period witnessed great Haridasas like Purandara Dasa who has been aptly called the Pioneer of Carnatic music, Kanaka Dasa, Vyasathirtha and Vijaya Dasa.[63][64][65]

Modern Kannada in the twentieth century has been influenced by many movements, notably Navodaya, Navya, Navyottara, Dalita and Bandaya. Contemporary Kannada literature has been highly successful in reaching people of all classes in society. Works of Kannada literature have received seven Jnanpith awards, which is the highest number awarded for the literature in any Indian language.[66] It has also received forty-seven Sahitya Academy awards.

Theatre art

Yakshagana.

Yakshagana, a theatre art form from Karnataka, which is also prevalent in north Kerala, is usually staged in Kannada or Tulu. Yakshagana as an art form preserves the finest aspects of the Kannada language. Kannada films and plays usually cater to the modern masses and the Kannada used in them is influenced by modernity. This form of Kannada enjoys relative popularity.

Dialects

There is also some distinction between the spoken and written forms of the language. Spoken Kannada tends to vary from region to region. The written form is more or less constant throughout Karnataka, however. The Ethnologue reports "about 20 dialects" of Kannada. Among them are Kundagannada (spoken exclusively in Kundapura), Nadavar-Kannada (spoken by Nadavaru), Havigannada (spoken mainly by Havyaka Brahmins), Are Bhashe (spoken mainly in the Sullia region of Dakshina Kannada), Soliga, Gulbarga Kannada, Dharawad Kannada, Chitradurga Kannada, and others. All of these dialects are influenced by their regional and cultural background.

Ethnologue also classifies a group of "Kannada languages" comprising four members, besides Kannada proper including Badaga, Holiya and Urali.

Geographic distribution

Kannada is mainly spoken in Karnataka in India, and to a good extent in the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Goa, as well as in sizeable communities in the USA, Europe, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Middle Eastern countries, Canada, Malaysia, Australia, the UK, and Singapore.

Kannada billboards in India.

Official status

Kannada is one of the twenty-two official languages of India and is the sole administrative language of the State of Karnataka. It is also one of the three classical languages of India.

Writing system

The Kannada language edition of Wikipedia.

The language uses forty-nine phonemic letters, divided into three groups: swaragalu (vowels – thirteen letters); vyanjanagalu (consonants – thirty-four letters); and yogavaahakagalu (neither vowel nor consonant – two letters: the anusvara and the visarga ), similar to the vowels and consonants of English. The character set is almost identical to that of other Indian languages. The script itself, derived from Brahmi script, is fairly complicated like most other languages of India owing to the occurrence of various combinations of "half-letters" (glyphs), or symbols that attach to various letters in a manner similar to diacritical marks in the Romance languages. The Kannada script is almost perfectly phonetic, but for the sound of a "half n" (which becomes a half m). The number of written symbols, however, is far more than the forty-nine characters in the alphabet, because different characters can be combined to form compound characters (vattaksharas). Each written symbol in the Kannada script corresponds with one syllable, as opposed to one phoneme in languages like English. The script of Kannada is also used in other languages such as Tulu, Kodava Takk and Konkani. The Kannada script is syllabic.

Extinct Kannada letters

Kannada literary works employed the letters (transliterated '' or 'rh') and (transliterated '', 'lh' or 'zh'), whose manner of articulation most plausibly could be akin to those in present-day Malayalam and Tamil. The letters dropped out of use in the twelfth and eighteenth centuries, respectively. Later Kannada works replaced 'rh' and 'lh' with (ra) and (la) respectively.[67]

Another letter (or unclassified vyanjana (consonant)) that has become extinct is 'nh' or 'inn'. (Likewise, this has its equivalent in Malayalam and Tamil.) The usage of this consonant was observed until the 1980s in Kannada works from the mostly coastal areas of Karnataka (especially the Dakshina Kannada district). Now hardly any mainstream works use this consonant. This letter has been replaced by ನ್ (consonant n).

Kannada script in computing

Transliteration

Several transliteration schemes/tools are used to type Kannada characters using a standard keyboard. These include Baraha[68] (based on ITRANS) and Quillpad[69] (predictive transliterator). Nudi, the government of Karnataka's standard for Kannada Input, is a phonetic layout loosely based on transliteration.

Unicode

Kannada
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+0C8x        
U+0C9x  
U+0CAx  
U+0CBx       ಿ
U+0CCx        
U+0CDx                          
U+0CEx    
U+0CFx                            

Grammar

Kannada is a highly inflected language with three genders (masculine, feminine, and neutral or common) and two numbers (singular and plural). It is inflected for gender, number and tense, among other things. The first authoritative known book on Kannada grammar is Shabdhamanidarpana by Keshiraaja. The first available Kannada book is a tretise on poetry Kaviraja Maarga.

Dictionary

A German priest, the Reverend Ferdinand Kittel, composed the first Kannada-English dictionary, consisting of more than 70,000 words.[70] Ferdinand Kittel also wrote a book on Kannada grammar called "A Grammar of the Kannada Language: Comprising the Three Dialects of the Language".[71]

See also

External links

Kannada language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Notes

  1. ^ a b Census 2001: Talen per staat
  2. ^ Top 30 languages of the world. Vistawide.
  3. ^ a b Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People. Encarta. Archived 2009-10-31.
  4. ^ THE KARNATAKA OFFICIAL LANGUAGE ACT, 1963 – Karnataka Gazette (Extraordinary) Part IV-2A. Government of Karnataka. 1963. pp. 33.  
  5. ^ "The Karnataka Official Language Act" (PDF). Official website of Department of Parliamentary Affairs and Legislation. Government of Karnataka. http://dpal.kar.nic.in/26%20of%201963%20(E).pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-29.  
  6. ^ "Awardees detail for the Jnanpith Award". Official website of Bharatiya Jnanpith. Bharatiya Jnanpith. http://jnanpith.net/laureates/index.html. Retrieved 2008-05-12.  
  7. ^ "Declaration of Telugu and Kannada as classical languages". Press Information Bureau. Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India. http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=44340. Retrieved 2008-10-31.  
  8. ^ "Kannada gets classical tag". DH News Service. www.Deccanhearld.com. http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/Nov12008/scroll2008110198257.asp. Retrieved 2008-10-31.  
  9. ^ Kittel (1993), pp 1–2
  10. ^ "Literature in all Dravidian languages owes a great deal to Sanskrit, the magic wand whose touch raised each of the languages from a level of patois to that of a literary idiom". (Sastri 1955, p309)
  11. ^ Takahashi, Takanobu. 1995. Tamil love poetry and poetics. Brill’s Indological library, v. 9. Leiden: E.J. Brill, p16,18
  12. ^ "The author endeavours to demonstrate that the entire Sangam poetic corpus follows the "Kavya" form of Sanskrit poetry"-Tieken, Herman Joseph Hugo. 2001. Kāvya in South India: old Tamil Caṅkam poetry. Groningen: Egbert Forsten
  13. ^ J. Bucher; Ferdinand Kittel (1899), A Kannaḍa-English school-dictionary: chiefly based on the labours of the Rev. Dr. F. Kittel, Basel Mission Book & Tract Depository, http://books.google.com/books?id=fMW5AAAAIAAJ&pg=PP13  
  14. ^ Kamath (2001), p. 5–6
  15. ^ (Wilks in Rice, B.L. (1897), p490)
  16. ^ Pai and Narasimhachar in Bhat (1993), p103
  17. ^ Iravatham Mahadevan. "Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century AD". Harvard University Press. http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/MAHEAR.html. Retrieved 2007-04-12.  
  18. ^ The word Isila found in the Ashokan inscription (called the Brahmagiri edict from Karnataka) meaning to shoot an arrow is a Kannada word, indicating that Kannada was a spoken language in the third century BCE (Dr. D.L. Narasimhachar in Kamath 2001, p5)
  19. ^ Ramesh (1984), p10
  20. ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 2, Sahitya Akademi (1988), p1717, p 1474
  21. ^ A report on Halmidi inscription, Muralidhara Khajane. "Halmidi village finally on the road to recognition". The Hindu, Monday, November 3, 2003. The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2003/11/03/stories/2003110304550500.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-25.  
  22. ^ Kamath (2001), p10
  23. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p6
  24. ^ Rice (1921), p13
  25. ^ Govinda Pai in Bhat (1993), p102
  26. ^ Sahitya Akademi (1988), p1717
  27. ^ Kamath (2001), p58
  28. ^ Azmathulla Shariff. "Badami: Chalukyans' magical transformation". Spectrum, Deccan Herald, Tuesday, July 26, 2005. Deccan Herald. http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/jul262005/spectrum1422512005725.asp. Retrieved 2006-11-25.  
  29. ^ Gururaj Bhat in Kamath (2001), p97
  30. ^ a b Mukerjee, Shruba. "Preserving voices from the past". Deccan Herald, Sunday, August 21, 2005. Sunday Herald. http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/aug212005/sundayherald101012005820.asp. Retrieved 2007-04-11.  
  31. ^ The earliest cultivators of Kannada literature were Jain scholars (Narasimhacharya 1988, p17)
  32. ^ More than two hundred contemporary Vachana poets have been recorded (Narasimhacharya 1988, p20)
  33. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p361
  34. ^ Durgasimha, who wrote the Panchatantra, and Chandraraja, who wrote the Madanakatilaka, were early Brahmin writers in the eleventh century under Western Chalukya King Jayasimha II (Narasimhacharya 1988, p19)
  35. ^ a b c Sastri (1955), p355
  36. ^ Sastri (1955), p359
  37. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p19
  38. ^ Sastri (1955), pp 364–365
  39. ^ The writing exalts the grain Ragi above all other grains that form the staple foods of much of modern Karnataka (Sastri 1955, p365
  40. ^ The coins are preserved at the Archaeological Section, Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, Mumbai – Kundangar and Moraes in Moraes (1931), p382
  41. ^ The coin is preserved at the Indian Historical Research Institute, St. Xavier's College, Mumbai – Kundangar and Moraes in Moraes (1931), p 382
  42. ^ Dr Gopal, director, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. "5th century copper coin discovered at Banavasi". Hindu, Monday, February 6, 2006. The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2006/02/06/stories/2006020609090400.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-18.  
  43. ^ Kamath (2001), p12, p57
  44. ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. http://prabhu.50g.com/. Retrieved 2006-11-27.  
  45. ^ Harihariah Oruganti-Vice-President, Madras Coin Society. "Vijayanagar Coins-Catalogue". http://www.vijayanagaracoins.com/htm/history.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-27.  
  46. ^ This shows that the native vernacular of the Goa Kadambas was Kannada – Moraes (1931), p384
  47. ^ Two coins of the Hangal Kadambas are preserved at the Royal Asiatic Society, Mumbai, one with the Kannada inscription Saarvadhari and other with Nakara. Moraes (1931), p385
  48. ^ Kamath (2001), p67
  49. ^ Kamath (2001), p90
  50. ^ Jyotsna Kamat. "History of the Kannada Literature-I". Kamat's Potpourri, November 4, 2006. Kamat's Potpourri. http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/kar/literature/history1.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-25.  
  51. ^ Sastri (1955), p356
  52. ^ The seventeenth-century Kannada grammarian Bhattakalanka wrote about the Chudamani as a milestone in the literature of the Kannada language (Sastri (1955), p355)
  53. ^ Jyotsna Kamat. "History of the Kannada Literature – I". Kamat's Potpourri, November 4, 2006. Kamat's Potpourri. http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/kar/literature/history1.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-25.  
  54. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp 4–5
  55. ^ Rice, B.L. (1897), p497
  56. ^ 6th century Sanskrit poet Dandin praised Srivaradhadeva's writing as "having produced Saraswati from the tip of his toungue, just as Shiva produced the Ganges from the tip of his top knot (Rice E.P., 1921, p27)
  57. ^ Kamath (2001), p50, p67
  58. ^ The author and his work were praised by the latter-day poet Durgasimha of 1025 CE (Narasimhacharya 1988, p18.)
  59. ^ Sri K. Appadurai. "The place of Kannada and Tamil in Indias national culture". Copyright INTAMM. 1997. Archived from the original on 2007-04-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20070415154722/http://www.intamm.com/journalism/ta-jour3.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-25.  
  60. ^ Sastri (1955), pp 361–2
  61. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p20
  62. ^ Sastri (1955), p364
  63. ^ Moorthy, Vijaya (2001). Romance of the Raga. Abinav publications. pp. 67. ISBN 8170173825. http://books.google.com/books?id=2s2xJetsy0wC&pg=PP1&ots=2C265wfJrs&dq=Romance+of+the+Raga&sig=7I4E3woQgDL7Gl8_cx_m18BSQf4#PPA67,M1.  
  64. ^ Iyer (2006), p93
  65. ^ Sastri (1955), p365
  66. ^ "welcome to:Bhartiya Jnanpith". Jnanpith.net. http://jnanpith.net/laureates/index.html. Retrieved 2008-11-07.  
  67. ^ Rice, Edward. P (1921), "A History of Kanarese Literature", Oxford University Press, 1921: 14–15
  68. ^ See http://baraha.com/
  69. ^ "QuillPad – Typing in Kannada has never been easier". Quillpad.in. http://quillpad.in/kannada. Retrieved 2008-11-07.  
  70. ^ Manjulakshi & Bhat. "Kannada Dialect Dictionaries and Dictionaries in Subregional Languages of Karnataka". Language in India, Volume 5 : 9 September 2005. Central Institute of Indian Languages, University of Mysore. http://www.languageinindia.com/sep2005/kannadadictionary1.html. Retrieved 2007-04-11.  
  71. ^ Ferdinand Kittel. A Grammar of the Kannada Language: Comprising the Three Dialects of the Language. 1993. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120600568

References


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