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State of Kansas
Flag of Kansas State seal of Kansas
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Sunflower State (official);
The Wheat State
Motto(s): Ad astra per aspera
before statehood, known as
the Kansas Territory
Map of the United States with Kansas highlighted
Official language(s) English[1]
Demonym Kansan
Capital Topeka
Largest city Wichita
Largest metro area Kansas portion of Kansas City, MO-KS Metro Area
Area  Ranked 15th in the US
 - Total 82,277 sq mi
(213,096 km2)
 - Width 417 miles (645 km)
 - Length 211 miles (340 km)
 - % water 0.56
 - Latitude 37° N to 40° N
 - Longitude 94° 35′ W to 102° 3′ W
Population  Ranked 33rd in the US
 - Total 2,802,134 (2008 est.)[2]
2,688,418 (2000)
 - Density 32.9/sq mi  (12.7/km2)
Ranked 40th in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mount Sunflower, Wallace County[3]
4,039 ft  (1,232 m)
 - Mean 2,000 ft  (600 m)
 - Lowest point Verdigris River, Montgomery County[3]
679 ft  (207 m)
Admission to Union  January 29, 1861 (34th)
Governor Mark Parkinson (D)
Lieutenant Governor Troy Findley (D)
U.S. Senators Sam Brownback (R)
Pat Roberts (R)
U.S. House delegation Jerry Moran (R)
Lynn Jenkins (R)
Dennis Moore (D)
Todd Tiahrt (R) (list)
Time zones  
 - most of state Central: UTC-6/-5
 - 4 western counties Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations KS US-KS
Website http://www.kansas.gov
Kansas (Listeni /ˈkænzəs/) is a state located in the Midwestern United States.[4] .It is named after the Kansas River which flows through it, which in turn was named after the Kansa tribe, which inhabited the area.^ LIDAR data for the Kansas River Corridor including additional areas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LIDAR data for the Kansas River corridor, including additional areas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] The tribe's name (natively kką:ze) is often said to mean "people of the wind" or "people of the south wind," although this was probably not the term's original meaning.[6][7] Residents of Kansas are called "Kansans."
Historically, the area was home to large numbers of nomadic Native Americans who hunted bison. It was first settled by European Americans in the 1830s, but the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery issue. When officially opened to settlement by the U.S. government in 1854, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine if Kansas would become a free state or a slave state. Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, and was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists eventually prevailed and on January 29, 1861,[8][9] Kansas entered the Union as a free state. After the Civil War, the population of Kansas exploded when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into productive farmland. Today, Kansas is one of the most productive agricultural states, producing many crops, and leading the nation in wheat, sorghum[10] and sunflower production most years.

Contents

Geography

.Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; Missouri on the east; Oklahoma on the south; and Colorado on the west.^ It is bounded on the north by Nebraska, on the east by Missouri, on the west by Colorado , and on the south by Oklahoma.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Territory of Kansas was organized in 1854 with the following limits: beginning at a point on the western boundary of the State of Missouri , where parallel 37° N. crosses the same; thence west on said parallel to the eastern boundary of New Mexico ; thence north of said boundary to 38° N.; thence following said boundary westward to the east boundary of the Territory of Utah on the summit of the Rocky Mountains; thence northward on said summit to 40° N.; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the State of Missouri ; thence south with the western boundary of said state to the place of beginning.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The best-known historic location of these people was a plot of territory including contiguous parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

The state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, and is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. .The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is located in Smith County near Lebanon.^ Download Files: Download File: ArcInfo Interchange,Shapefile Projection/Datum: Geographic/NAD83 Tiling Scheme: State,County [View Tile Reference] .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The geodetic center of North America was located in Osborne County until 1983. This spot was used until that date as the central reference point for all maps of North America produced by the U.S. government.^ The resulting comments and edits were interpreted and used to produce this map showing the range and distribution of prairie chickens in Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The geographic center of Kansas is located in Barton County.^ Department of Human Resources-Job Centers locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas Counties Birth Certificate, Death Record, Marriage License and More (A-D) vitalrec.com the most comprehensive resource for locating vital records on the internet .
  • Kansas Counties Birth Certificate, Death Record, Marriage License and More (A-D) 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.vitalrec.com [Source type: General]

^ Anderson County, Kansas - A 200 MW proposed project of TradeWind Energy of Lenexa, KS. This project is located in Southeastern Anderson County.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geology

Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to gently westward dipping sedimentary rocks. A sequence of Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks underlie the eastern and southern part of the state. The western half of the state consists of Cretacous through Tertiary sediments derived from the erosion of the uplifted Rocky Mountains to the west. The northeastern corner of the state was subjected to glaciation in the Pleistocene and is covered by glacial drift and loess.

Topography

The western two-thirds of the state, lying in the great central plain of the United States, has a generally flat or undulating surface, while the eastern third has many hills and forests. The land gradually rises from east to west; its altitude ranges from 684 ft (208 m) along the Verdigris River at Coffeyville in Montgomery County, to 4,039 ft (1,231 m) at Mount Sunflower, one half mile from the Colorado border, in Wallace County. It is a popular belief that Kansas is the flattest state in the nation, reinforced by a well-known 2003 study[11] stating that Kansas was indeed "flatter than a pancake".[12] This has since been debunked, with most scientists ranking Kansas somewhere between 20th and 30th flattest state, depending on measurement method.[13]

Rivers

Spring River, Kansas
The Missouri River forms nearly 75 mi (121 km) of the state's northeastern boundary. The Kansas River (locally known as the Kaw), formed by the junction of the Smoky Hill and Republican rivers at appropriately-named Junction City, joins the Missouri at Kansas City, after a course of 170 mi (270 km) across the northeastern part of the state. The Arkansas River (pronunciation varies), rising in Colorado, flows with a bending course for nearly 500 mi (800 km) across the western and southern parts of the state. It forms, with its tributaries (the Little Arkansas, Ninnescah, Walnut, Cow Creek, Cimarron, Verdigris, and the Neosho), the southern drainage system of the state. Other important rivers are the Saline and Solomon Rivers, tributaries of the Smoky Hill River; the Big Blue, Delaware, and Wakarusa, which flow into the Kansas River; and the Marais des Cygnes, a tributary of the Missouri River.

National parks and historic sites

Areas under the protection of the National Park Service include:[14]

Climate

Clouds in northeastern Kansas
Kansas contains three climatic types, according to the Köppen climate classification: humid continental, semi-arid steppe, and humid subtropical. The eastern two-thirds of the state (especially the northeastern portion) has a humid continental climate, with cool to cold winters and hot, often humid summers. .Most of the precipitation falls in the summer and spring.^ Elsmore, Kansas - Bourbon Lake Falls , 4 miles east of town is a spectacular seasonal waterfall from spring until mid summer.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

The western third of the state - from about the U.S. Route 183 corridor westward - has a semiarid steppe climate. Summers are hot, often very hot, and generally less humid. Winters are highly changeable between warm and very cold. The western region receives an average of about 16 inches (40 cm) of precipitation per year. Chinook winds in the winter can warm western Kansas all the way into the 80°F (27°C) range. The far south-central and southeastern reaches of the state have a humid subtropical climate with hot, humid summers, milder winters and more precipitation than the rest of the state. .Although not strictly falling in all of the zones, some features of all three climates can be found in most of the state, with droughts and changeable weather between dry and humid not uncommon, and both warm and cold spells in the winter.^ All data is terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall covering the state of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Precipitation ranges from about 46 inches (1200 mm) annually in the southeast of the state, to about 16 inches (400 mm) in the southwest. Snowfall ranges from around 5 inches (130 mm) in the fringes of the south, to 35 inches (900 mm) in the far northwest. .Frost-free days range from more than 200 days in the south, to 130 days in the northwest.^ More than 1,500 people lined up for the free toys.
  • Wichita and Kansas news | Local news, sports, business, entertainment, jobs, restaurants, real estate, cars | Wichita Eagle 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansas.com [Source type: News]

.Thus, Kansas is the 9th or 10th sunniest state in the country, depending on the source.^ In 1819 and 1820 Long's scientific exploration of the country lying west of the Allegheny and east of the Rocky Mountains between 35° and 42° N., embraced the state of Kansas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Western Kansas is as sunny as parts of California and Arizona.^ Even before the first railway was laid in these parts, there was a commercial route extending from the eastern to the western border of Kansas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In spite of the frequent sunshine throughout much of the state, due to its location at a climatic boundary prone to multiple air masses, the state is also vulnerable to strong thunderstorms, especially in the spring.^ State Fire Marshal-Health Care Inspectors locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State Fire Marshal-Fire Prevention Division locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State Conservation Commission Administrative Areas locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many of these storms become Supercell thunderstorms. These can spawn tornadoes, often of F3 strength or higher. According to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center, Kansas has reported more tornadoes (for the period 1 January 1950 through 31 October 2006) than any state except for Texas - marginally even more than Oklahoma. It has also - along with Alabama - reported more F5 tornadoes than any other state. These are the most powerful of all tornadoes. Kansas averages over 50 tornadoes annually.[15]
According to NOAA, the all-time highest temperature recorded in Kansas is 121°F (49.4°C) on July 24, 1936, near Alton, and the all-time low is -40°F (-40°C) on February 13, 1905, near Lebanon.
Kansas's record high of 121°F (49.4°C) ties with North Dakota for the fifth-highest record high in an American state, behind California (134°F/56.7°C), Arizona (128°F/53.3°C), Nevada (125°F/51.7°C), and New Mexico (122°F/50°C).
Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Kansas Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Concordia 36/17 43/22 54/31 64/41 74/52 85/62 91/67 88/66 80/56 68/44 51/30 40/21
Dodge City 41/19 48/24 57/31 67/41 76/52 87/62 93/67 91/66 82/56 70/44 54/30 44/22
Goodland 39/16 45/20 53/26 63/35 72/46 84/56 89/61 87/60 78/50 66/38 50/25 41/18
Topeka 37/17 44/23 56/33 66/43 75/53 84/63 89/68 88/65 80/56 69/44 53/32 41/22
Wichita 40/20 47/25 57/34 67/44 76/54 87/64 93/69 92/68 82/59 70/47 54/34 43/24
[1]

History

For millennia, the land that is presently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541.
.In 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase.^ Homeland Security Regions for the state of Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (8-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From 1812 to 1821, this larger portion of Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory.
.The jurisdictional history of southwest Kansas, specifically the area west of the 103rd meridian and south of the Arkansas River, is more complicated.^ LIDAR data for the Kansas River Corridor including additional areas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LIDAR data for the Kansas River corridor, including additional areas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Prior to the Louisiana Purchase France and Spain had disputed jurisdiction over a wide area of North America, a small part of which included territory now in Southwest Kansas. With the Louisiana Purchase the United States assumed the position of France in that dispute. The Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, negotiated between the American Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and the Spanish Foreign Minister Luis de Onis Gonzalez Vara, completely resolved at least that portion of the dispute which concerned these disputed lands, including what is now southwest Kansas. Under the Adams-Onis Treaty all of the territory in North America which earlier had been the subject of dispute between Spain and France was conceded to Spain by the United States. In turn, under the terms of the Adams-Onis Treaty Spain awarded Florida to the United States. The Florida which the United States received from Spain included not only the territory of the present State of Florida, but also a coastal strip now located in southern Alabama, southern Mississippi, and south-eastern Louisiana.
When Mexico achieved independence from Spain in 1821, the area of what is now southwestern Kansas that had been ceded to Spain under the Adams-Onis Treaty fell under Mexican rule. It became a small part of the contemporaneous Mexican State of Coahila y Tejas.
In 1836 a portion of Coahila y Tejas seceded from Mexico and became the Republic of Texas. Although Mexico was forced de facto to recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas in 1836, the western boundary of the Republic of Texas remained in dispute. A small portion of the area in dispute between Mexico and the Republic of Texas is now southwestern Kansas. Under the "Treaties of Velasco," signed by General Antonio de Santa Ana on behalf of Mexico, this disputed area was recognized as part of the Republic of Texas. However, Mexico did not ratify the "Treaties of Velasco" on the ground that at the time of signing Santa Ana was not the President. (Indeed, only the American government had ever referred to these documents, one public and one secret, as treaties, and then only 10 years later by President Polk when justifying war with Mexico.) The Republic of Texas was annexed to the United States and simultaneously admitted into the Union as the 28th State on December 29, 1845. The large area which the Treaties of Velasco recognized as being part of the Republic of Texas all remained within the State of Texas at this time.
The admission of Texas into the American Union as a State resulted in the rupture of diplomatic relations between Mexico and the United States. The territorial dispute ultimately led to the Mexican-American War. The conclusion of that war was formalized on February 2, 1848 with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. One provision of that treaty established the western boundary of Texas as being in accordance with the Treaties of Velasco. Thus, with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico was removed as a contender for the large territory under consideration, a small part of which is now Southeastern Kansas. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo also transferred a large area, which has become called the Mexican Cession of 1848 and includes present-day California, Nevada, and Utah, all of present-day Arizona except for a strip along the southern border, western New Mexico (except for a strip along the southern border), that portion of present-day Colorado that is west of the crest of the Rocky Mountains, and a part of present-day Wyoming, to the United States. The Mexican Cession is distinct and separate from the clarification of the boundaries of the former Republic of Texas. .However, the fate of the area that became southwestern Kansas was not part of the Mexican Cession but was affected only by the resolution of the boundary between Mexico and the former Republic of Texas.^ Kansas Highway Patrol Troop Areas locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State Conservation Commission Administrative Areas locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This layer is an extract of the high-resolution statewide NHD and includes only water areas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
The Compromise of 1850 was a series of five laws attempting to strike a political balance between pro- and anti-slavery interests. One of those laws, enacted September 9, 1850 drastically adjusted the borders of the State of Texas. Texas transferred a large amount of its area to the federal government in trade for $10,000,000 "stock," redeemable in 14 years and bearing 5% interest. The area stripped away from the State of Texas was divided into three portions. Part of this area was assigned to a newly organized Territory of New Mexico and another part was assigned to a newly organized Territory of Utah. However, the third part remained unorganized territory of the United States. (The formal territories had their own local governments, whereas the unorganized territories were ruled from Washington and/or by the military. The then-unorganized territory derived from Texas included southwestern Kansas, the Panhandle of present-day Oklahoma, portion of eastern Colorado, and a small part of southern Wyoming.
The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. .Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today.^ Wagon ruts on the Santa Fe Trail are 9 miles west of town on Highway 50.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state. The Kansas-Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing the U.S. territories of Nebraska and Kansas, and opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, and Pueblo.
Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border. These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas. .Kansas was admitted to the United States as a slave-free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to enter the Union.^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (8-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (12-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By that time the violence in Kansas had largely subsided.^ The State of Kansas is not as large as the territory organized under the same name; in area it ranks the eleventh among the states in the Union, and it is nearly ten times as large as Massachusetts .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

However, during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly two hundred people. Until the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, Quantrill's raid was the single bloodiest act of domestic terrorism in America.[citation needed] He was roundly condemned by both the conventional confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre war criminal record (see Jones, Gray Ghosts and Rebel Riders Holt & Co. 1956, p. 76).
.After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas.^ After the Civil War, many veterans made homestead claims in Kansas.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicodemus, Kansas was established in July of 1877 and was the largest community established by freed slaves following the Civil War.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

^ The Battle of Mine Creek was one of the largest cavalry battles of the Civil War and the largest battle fought in Kansas.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

Many African Americans also looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown," and led by men like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton began establishing black colonies in the state. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West era commenced in Kansas. Wild Bill Hickok was a deputy marshal at Fort Riley and a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, and both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. .In one year alone, 8 million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns."^ Park City - The Backtrail - One of the ghost was murdered back in these woods several years ago.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Dodge City, Kansas - Free, Fort Dodge (now the Kansas Soldiers' Home) is 5 miles east of town.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

^ Resident - 1997 - $1.5 Million Isabel Nelson, Salina - 1997 - $1.8 Million Larry Henderson, Frontenac - 1997 - $1.5 Million Randy Essenburg, Dodge City - 1998 - $1.0 Million Wyandotte Co .
  • About The Kansas Lottery 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kslottery.com [Source type: General]

.In part as a response to the violence perpetrated by cowboys, on February 19, 1881 Kansas became the first U.S. state to adopt a Constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages.^ All data is terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall covering the state of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1860 107,206
1870 364,399 239.9%
1880 996,096 173.4%
1890 1,428,108 43.4%
1900 1,470,495 3.0%
1910 1,690,949 15.0%
1920 1,769,257 4.6%
1930 1,880,999 6.3%
1940 1,801,028 −4.3%
1950 1,905,299 5.8%
1960 2,178,611 14.3%
1970 2,246,578 3.1%
1980 2,363,679 5.2%
1990 2,477,574 4.8%
2000 2,688,418 8.5%
Est. 2008[2] 2,802,134 4.2%
As of 2007, Kansas has an estimated population of 2,775,997, which is an increase of 20,180, or 0.7%, from the prior year and an increase of 87,579, or 3.3%, since the year 2000.[16] This includes a natural increase since the last census of 93,899 people (that is 246,484 births minus 152,585 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 20,742 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 44,847 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 65,589 people.[17] The population density of the state is 52.9 people per square mile.[18] .The center of population of Kansas is located in Chase County, at 38°27′N 96°32′W / 38.45°N 96.533°W / 38.45; -96.533, approximately three miles north of the community of Strong City.^ This data set provides locational data and student/faculty populations for schools in Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Department of Human Resources-Job Centers locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Juvenile Justice Authority-Community Corrections locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
Demographics of Kansas (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 91.19% 6.41% 1.78% 2.10% 0.12%
2000 (Hispanic only) 6.63% 0.23% 0.19% 0.05% 0.02%
2005 (total population) 90.87% 6.60% 1.67% 2.45% 0.12%
2005 (Hispanic only) 7.89% 0.28% 0.20% 0.06% 0.02%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 1.74% 5.04% -4.13% 19.15% 3.43%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 0.19% 4.28% -5.09% 19.19% 2.86%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 21.51% 25.88% 3.71% 17.69% 5.86%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
As of 2004, the population included 149,800 foreign-born (5.5% of the state population). The largest reported ancestries in the state are: German (25.9%), Irish (11.5%), English (10.8%), American (8.8%), French (3.1%), and Swedish (2.4%).[20] People of German ancestry are especially strong in the northwest, while those of British ancestry and descendants of white Americans from other states are especially strong in the southeast. Mexicans are present in the southwest and make up nearly half the population in certain counties. Many African Americans in Kansas are descended from the Exodusters, newly freed blacks who fled the South for land in Kansas following the Civil War.

Religion

According to a 2008 attitudes survey the religious makeup of Kansas was as follows:
Non-religious 9%
Other 2%
Though small, the Kansas Baha'i community has the distinction of being the second in the western hemisphere, founded in 1897 in Enterprise, Kansas.[citation needed]

Rural flight

Urban and rural populations
.Kansas is one of the slowest-growing states in the nation.^ Kansas, one of the United States of America , is the central state of the Union, to which it was admitted 29 January, 1861.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Members of the armed services or reserve forces of the United States or the Kansas national guard while in the performance of their official duty; .
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

Known as a rural flight, the last few decades have been marked by a migratory pattern out of the countryside into cities.
Out of all the cities in these Midwestern states, 89% have fewer than 3,000 people, and hundreds of those have fewer than 1,000. In Kansas alone, there are more than 6,000 ghost towns and dwindling communities,[21] according to one Kansas historian, Daniel C. Fitzgerald.
At the same time, some of the communities in Johnson County (metropolitan Kansas City) are among the fastest-growing in the country.

Economy

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that the total GDP in 2008 was $122.7 billion, making its United States's 32nd highest state by GDP.[22] Per capita personal income in 2008 was $35,013. The December 2003 unemployment rate was 4.9%. The agricultural outputs of the state are cattle, sheep, wheat, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, hogs, corn, and salt. .Eastern Kansas is part of the Grain Belt, an area of major grain production in the central United States.^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (8-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
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^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (12-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
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The industrial outputs are transportation equipment, commercial and private aircraft, food processing, publishing, chemical products, machinery, apparel, petroleum and mining.
Kansas ranks 8th in U.S. oil production. .Production has experienced a steady, natural decline as it becomes increasingly difficult to extract oil over time.^ Natural gas production from this unconventional resource is rapidly expanding in the Cherokee Platform, where reserves have become economically recoverable.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas production from coalbed methane is rapidly expanding in the Cherokee Platform, where reserves have become economically recoverable.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since oil prices bottomed in 1999, oil production in Kansas has remained fairly constant, with an average monthly rate of about 2.8 million barrels (450,000 m3) in 2004. The recent higher prices have made carbon dioxide sequestration and other oil recovery techniques more economical.
Kansas ranks 8th in U.S. natural gas production. Production has steadily declined since the mid-1990s with the gradual depletion of the Hugoton Natural Gas Field—the state's largest field which extends into Oklahoma and Texas. In 2004, slower declines in the Hugoton gas fields and increased coalbed methane production contributed to a smaller overall decline. Average monthly production was over 32 billion cubic feet (0.9 km³).
Largest Employers (by number of Kansan employees)[23]
Rank Business Employees Location
#1 Spirit AeroSystems 21,000 Wichita
#2 Fort Riley 12,500 Riley County
#3 Van Enterprises 6,000 Shawnee Mission
#4 University of Kansas Medical Center 5,000 Kansas City
#5 Via Christi St. Joseph Hospital 5,000 Wichita
#6 Olathe Medical Center 4,000 Olathe
#7 Via Christi St. Francis Hospital 3,300 Wichita
#8 Kansas State University 3,030 Manhattan
#9 Examone World Wide 3,000 Lenexa
#10 Koch Industries 3,000 Wichita
The Kansas economy is also heavily influenced by the aerospace industry. Several large aircraft corporations have manufacturing facilities in Wichita and Kansas City, including Spirit AeroSystems, Boeing, Cessna, Learjet, and Hawker Beechcraft (formerly Raytheon).
Kansas has three income brackets for income tax calculation, ranging from 3.5% to 6.45%. .The state sales tax in Kansas is 5.3%.^ Kansas, KS,sales tax rate is 6.30%.
  • Kansas, Kansas (KS) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various cities and counties in Kansas have an additional local sales tax.^ Pursuant to Kansas Statutes Annotated 12-16,124(b), cities and counties may: .
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any meeting of the governing body of a county, city or other political or taxing subdivision of the state, or any committee or subcommittee thereof; .
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elk City, Wilson County, Kansas - A 200 MW wind project is proposed near Elk City.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Except during the 2001 recession (March–November 2001) when monthly sales tax collections were flat, collections have trended higher as the economy has grown and two rate increases have been enacted. Total sales tax collections for 2003 amounted to $1.63 billion, compared to $805.3 million in 1990.
.Revenue shortfalls resulting from lower than expected tax collections and slower growth in personal income following a 1998 permanent tax reduction has contributed to the substantial growth in the state's debt level as bonded debt increased from $1.16 billion in 1998 to $3.83 billion in 2006. Some increase in debt was expected as the state continues with its 10-year Comprehensive Transportation Program enacted in 1999. As of June 2004, Moody's Investors Service ranked the state 14th for net tax-supported debt per capita.^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a percentage of personal income, it was at 3.8%—above the median value of 2.5% for all rated states and having risen from a value of less than 1% in 1992. The state has a statutory requirement to maintain cash reserves of at least 7.5% of expenses at the end of each fiscal year, however, lawmakers can vote to override the rule, and did so during the most recent budget agreement.
Major company headquarters in Kansas include the Sprint Nextel Corporation (with world headquarters in Overland Park), Embarq (with national headquarters in Overland Park), YRC Corp Overland Park, Garmin in Olathe, Payless Shoes (National headquarters and major distribution facilities in Topeka), and Koch Industries (with national headquarters in Wichita).

Transportation

Map of the Kansas road system.
The current state license plate design, introduced in April 2007.
Kansas is served by two Interstate highways with one beltway, two spur routes, and three bypasses, with over a total of 874 miles (1,407 km) in all. The first section of Interstate in the nation was opened on I-70 just west of Topeka on November 14, 1956. I-70 is a major east/west route connecting to St. Louis and Kansas City, Missouri, in the east and Denver, Colorado, in the west. Cities along this route (from east to west) include Kansas City, Lawrence, Topeka, Junction City, Salina, Hays, and Colby. I-35 is a major north/south route connecting to Des Moines, Iowa, in the north and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in the south. Cities along this route (from north to south) include Kansas City (and suburbs), Ottawa, Emporia, El Dorado, and Wichita.
Spur routes serve as connections between the two major routes. I-135, a north/south route, connects I-70 at Salina to I-35 at Wichita. I-335, a northeast/southwest route, connects I-70 at Topeka to I-35 at Emporia. I-335 and portions of I-35 and I-70 make up the Kansas Turnpike. Bypasses include I-470 around Topeka and I-235 around Wichita. I-435 is a beltway around the Kansas City Metropolitan Area while I-635 bypasses through Kansas City, Kansas.
US Route 69 runs north and south, from Minnesota to Texas. .The highway passes through the eastern section of Kansas, from the Kansas City area, through Louisburg, Fort Scott, Frontenac, Pittsburg, and Baxter Springs before entering Oklahoma.^ Kansas Highway Patrol Troop Areas locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
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^ STATE AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES: Kansas Highway Patrol Troop Areas .
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^ Kansas Highway Patrol Troop Areas .
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.Kansas also has the second largest state highway system in the country after California.^ Bridges on the state highway system.
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^ The Hugoton Gas Area, in southwestern Kansas, is the fifth largest natural gas field in the United States.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas Non-State Road System .
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This is because of the high number of counties and county seats (105) and the intertwining of them all.
In January 2004, the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) announced the new Kansas 511 traveler information service.[24] .By dialing 511, callers will get access to information about road conditions, construction, closures, detours and weather conditions for the state highway system.^ Bridges on the state highway system.
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^ Additional Information about State Energy Profiles .
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas Non-State Road System .
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Weather and road condition information is updated every 15 minutes. The elaborate and efficient transportation system in Kansas has attracted praise from experts nationwide, including the former Mayor of New York City, Ed Koch, who frequents Kansas roadways.[citation needed]
The state's only major commercial airport is Wichita Mid-Continent Airport, located along US-54 on the western edge of the city. Most air travelers in eastern Kansas fly out of Kansas City International Airport, located in Platte County, Missouri. For those in the far western part of the state, Denver International Airport is a popular option. Manhattan Regional Airport in Manhattan will commence commercial flights to Dallas in August 2009, making it the second commercial airport of the state[25].Connecting flights are available from smaller airports in Dodge City, Garden City, Great Bend, Hays, and Salina. Forbes Field in Topeka, Kansas sustained commercial flights on Allegiant Air for many years until that service was terminated in 2007.

Law and government

State and local politics

Sebelius accepting her nomination by President Barack Obama as Secretary of Health and Human Services.
The top executives of the state are Democratic Governor Mark Parkinson (as of April 28, 2009) and Lieutenant Governor Troy Findley. Both officials are elected on the same ticket to a maximum of two consecutive four-year terms. Parkinson replaced Kathleen Sebelius, who was appointed Secretary of Health and Human Services by President Barack Obama. Parkinson will be eligible for election in his own right in 2010, although he has publicly stated his intention not to run for a full term. The state's Attorney General is Democrat Stephen Six, a former Douglas County District Court Judg who was appointed to the post.
The legislative branch of the state government is the Kansas Legislature. The bicameral body consists of the Kansas House of Representatives, with 125 members serving two-year terms, and the Kansas Senate, with 40 members serving four-year terms.
The judicial branch of the state government is headed by the Kansas Supreme Court. The court has seven judges, who are selected via the Missouri Plan.
State symbols
.Kansas has a reputation as a progressive state with many firsts in legislative initiatives—it was the first state to institute a system of workers' compensation (1910) and to regulate the securities industry (1911).^ Homeland Security Regions for the state of Kansas .
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^ Kansas Non-State Road System .
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^ Kansas State System Bridges .
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Kansas also permitted women's suffrage in 1912, almost a decade before the federal constitution was amended to require it. .Suffrage in all states would not be guaranteed until ratification of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. The council-manager government was adopted by many larger Kansas cities in the years following World War I while many American cities were being run by political machines or organized crime, notably the Pendergast Machine in neighboring Kansas City, Missouri.^ All data is terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall covering the state of Kansas.
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Kansas was also at the center of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, a 1954 Supreme Court decision that banned racially segregated schools throughout the U.S.
Kansas was one of the few states in which Franklin D. Roosevelt had limited political support, winning Kansas only twice in his four campaigns. The state backed Republicans Wendell Willkie and Thomas E. Dewey in 1940 and 1944, respectively. .Kansas also supported Dewey in 1948 despite the presence of incumbent president Harry S. Truman, who hailed from Independence, Missouri, approximately 15 miles east of the Kansas-Missouri state line.^ Digital representation of electric transmission lines for the state of Kansas.
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Over the past four decades, Kansas has remained more socially conservative than many parts of the nation. The 1990s brought new restrictions on abortion, the defeat of prominent Democrats, including Dan Glickman, and the Kansas State Board of Education's 1999 decision to eliminate evolution from the state teaching standards, a decision that was later reversed.[26] In 2005, voters accepted a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage. The next year, the state passed a law setting a minimum age for marriage at 15 years.[27] In 2008, Governor Sebelius vetoed permits for the construction of new coal-fired energy plants in Kansas, saying: "We know that greenhouse gases contribute to climate change. As an agricultural state, Kansas is particularly vulnerable. Therefore, reducing pollutants benefits our state not only in the short term – but also for generations of Kansans to come." [28] However, shortly after Mark Parkinson became governor in 2009 upon Sebelius's resignation, Parkinson announced a compromise plan to allow construction of a coal-fired plant.

Federal politics

The state's current delegation to the Congress of the United States includes Republican Senators Sam Brownback of Topeka and Pat Roberts of Dodge City and Representatives Jerry Moran (R) of Hays (District 1), Lynn Jenkins (R) of Topeka (District 2), Dennis Moore (D) of Lenexa (District 3), and Todd Tiahrt (R) of Goddard (District 4).
Historically, Kansas has been strongly Republican, dating from the Antebellum age when the Republican Party was created out of the movement opposing the extension of slavery into Kansas Territory. Kansas has not elected a Democrat to the U.S. Senate since the 1932 election, when Franklin D. Roosevelt won his first term as President in the wake of the Great Depression. This is the longest Senate losing streak for either party in a single state. Senator Sam Brownback was a candidate for the Republican party nomination for President in 2008. Brownback has stated he will not be a candidate for re-election in 2010.
The only non-Republican presidential candidates Kansas has given its electoral vote to are Populist James Weaver and Democrats Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt (twice), and Lyndon Johnson. In 2004, George W. Bush won the state's six electoral votes by an overwhelming margin of 25 percentage points with 62% of the vote. The only two counties to support Democrat John Kerry in that election were Wyandotte, which contains Kansas City, and Douglas, home to the University of Kansas, located in Lawrence. The 2008 election brought similar results as John McCain won the state with 57% of the votes. Douglas (64% Obama, 34% McCain), Wyandotte (70% Obama, 29% McCain), and Crawford County (49% Obama, 48% McCain) were the only counties in support of President Barack Obama.[29]

State law

See also: Alcohol laws of Kansas
.The legal drinking age in Kansas is 21. In lieu of the state retail sales tax, a 10% Liquor Drink Tax is collected for liquor consumed on the licensed premises and an 8% Liquor Enforcement Tax is collected on retail purchases.^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
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Although the sale of cereal malt beverage (also known as 3.2 beer) was legalized in 1937, the first post-Prohibition legalization of alcoholic liquor did not occur until the state's constitution was amended in 1948. The following year the Legislature enacted the Liquor Control Act which created a system of regulating, licensing, and taxing, and the Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) was created to enforce the act. The power to regulate cereal malt beverage remains with the cities and counties. Liquor-by-the-drink did not become legal until passage of an amendment to the state's constitution in 1986 and additional legislation the following year. .As of November 2006, Kansas still has 29 dry counties and only 17 counties have passed liquor-by-the-drink with no food sales requirement.^ This data set includes all the lakes and wildlife areas in the Kansas 2006 Water Register that have established TMDLs as of October 17, 2006.
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^ This data set includes all the streams in the Kansas 2006 Water Register that have established TMDLs as of October 17, 2006.
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[30] .Today there are more than 2600 liquor and 4000 cereal malt beverage licensees in the state.^ "I think electrolysis is a lot more intimate than laser but there are more fun things that happen at laser than electrolysis."
  • Anne Lawrence: The Anne Who Would Be Queen 22 September 2009 22:28 UTC www.tsroadmap.com [Source type: Original source]

[31]

State agencies

The state's investigative branch is the Kansas Bureau of Investigation. The Kansas Corporation Commission regulates public utilities, common carriers, oil and gas production, telecommunications companies, and motor carriers. The Kansas Department of Agriculture regulates the supply of meat, milk and eggs among other agricultural goods and services.

Important cities and towns

Cities with population of at least 15,000
City Population* Growth rate** Metro area
1 Wichita 366,046 0.49% Wichita
2 Overland Park 171,231 1.71% Kansas City, MO-KS
3 Kansas City 142,562 -0.36% Kansas City
4 Topeka 123,446 0.00% Topeka
5 Olathe 119,993 3.48% Kansas City
6 Lawrence 90,520 1.55% Lawrence
7 Shawnee 60,954 3.17% Kansas City
8 Manhattan 52,284 1.79% Manhattan
9 Lenexa 46,822 2.00% Kansas City
10 Salina 46,483 0.19%
11 Hutchinson 40,889 -0.28%
12 Leavenworth 34,729 -0.26% Kansas City
13 Leawood 31,342 1.60% Kansas City
14 Garden City 28,557 -0.02%
15 Emporia 26,380 -0.21%
16 Dodge City 25,689 0.21%
17 Derby 22,517 2.85% Wichita
18 Prairie Village 22,072 -0.33% Kansas City
19 Junction City 20,671 1.16% Manhattan
20 Hays 20,368 0.21%
21 Liberal 20,074 0.24%
22 Pittsburg 19,649 0.25%
23 Newton 18,133 0.26% Wichita
24 Gardner 17,462 10.01% Kansas City
25 Great Bend 15,564 0.18%
*Estimated as of July 1, 2008[32]
**Estimated annual growth rate 2000–2008
‡Defined as a micropolitan area
Kansas has 627 incorporated cities. By state statute, cities are divided into three classes as determined by the population obtained "by any census of enumeration." A city of the third class has a population of less than 5,000, but cities reaching a population of more than 2,000 may be certified as a city of the second class. .The second class is limited to cities with a population of less than 25,000, and upon reaching a population of more than 15,000, they may be certified as a city of the first class.^ More Kansas directories: Cities, towns, and villages in Kansas between 1000 and 6000 residents   Towns, and villages in Kansas with fewer than 1000 residents .
  • Kansas Bigger Cities (over 6000 residents) - Real Estate, Housing, Schools, Residents, Crime, Pollution, Demographics and More 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: Academic]

First and second class cities are independent of any township and are not included within the township's territory.

Northeast Kansas

.The northeastern portion of the state, extending from the Eastern border to Junction City and from the Nebraska border to south of Johnson County, has a rich history and is home to more than 1.5 million people in the Kansas City (Kansas portion), Lawrence,and Topeka metropolitan areas.^ State Conservation Commission Administrative Areas locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
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^ STATE AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES: Kansas Highway Patrol Troop Areas .
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In the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the cities of Johnson County have some of the fastest growing populations and highest median incomes in the state and the entire country. Overland Park, a young city incorporated in 1960, has the largest population and the largest land area in the county. It is home to Johnson County Community College, the state's largest community college, and the corporate campus of Sprint Nextel, the largest private employer in the metro area. In 2006 the city was ranked as the 6th best place to live in America; the neighboring city of Olathe was 13th.[33] Olathe is the county seat and home to Johnson County Executive Airport. The cities of Olathe, Shawnee, and Gardner have some of the state's fastest growing populations. The cities of Overland Park, Lenexa, Olathe, and Gardner are also notable because they lie along the former route of the Santa Fe Trail. Among cities with at least one thousand residents, Mission Hills has the highest median income in the state.
Several institutions of higher education are located in Northeast Kansas including Baker University (the oldest university in the state) in Baldwin City, MidAmerica Nazarene University in Olathe, Ottawa University in Ottawa and Overland Park, Kansas City Kansas Community College and KU Medical Center in Kansas City, and KU Edwards Campus in Overland Park. .Less than an hour's drive to the west, Lawrence is home to the University of Kansas, the largest public university in the state, and Haskell Indian Nations University.^ Kansas State University Extension Offices locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
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^ Data Creator: Kansas State University Status: This dataset is complete for Kansas.
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^ Data Creator: Delta State University Status: This dataset is complete for Kansas.
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.To the north, Kansas City, Kansas, with the second largest land area in the state, contains a number of diverse ethnic neighborhoods.^ The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas in raster format.
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^ The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas.
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^ State Conservation Commission Administrative Areas locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
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Its attractions include the Kansas Speedway, Kansas City T-Bones and The Legends at Village West retail and entertainment center. Further up the Missouri River, the city of Lansing is the home of the state's first maximum-security prison. Historic Leavenworth, founded in 1854, was the first incorporated city in Kansas. North of the city, Fort Leavenworth is the oldest active Army post west of the Mississippi River. The city of Atchison was an early commercial center in the state and is well-known as the birthplace of Amelia Earhart.
To the west, nearly a quarter million people reside in the Topeka metropolitan area. Topeka is the state capital and home to Washburn University. Built at a Kansas River crossing along the old Oregon Trail, this historic city has several nationally registered historic places. Further westward along Interstate 70 and the Kansas River is Junction City with its historic limestone and brick buildings and nearby Fort Riley, well-known as the home to the U.S. Army's 1st Infantry Division, also known as the "Big Red One." A short distance away, the city of Manhattan is home to Kansas State University, the second largest public university in the state and the nation's oldest land-grant university, dating back to 1863. South of the campus, Aggieville dates back to 1889 and is the state's oldest shopping district of its kind.

Wichita

Wichita, Kansas, the largest city in the state of Kansas
In south-central Kansas, the four-county Wichita metropolitan area is home to nearly 600,000 people. Wichita is the largest city in the state in terms of both land area and population. 'The Air Capital' is a major manufacturing center for the aircraft industry and the home of Wichita State University. With a number of nationally registered historic places, museums, and other entertainment destinations, it has a desire to become a cultural mecca in the Midwest. Although Wichita's population growth has been anemic in recent years, surrounding suburbs are among the fastest growing cities in the state. The population of Goddard has grown by more than 11% per year since 2000.[34] Other fast-growing cities include Andover, Maize, Park City, Derby, and Haysville.
Up river (the Arkansas River) from Wichita is the city of Hutchinson. The city was built on one of the world's largest salt deposits, and it has the world's largest and longest wheat elevator. It is also the home of Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, Prairie Dunes Country Club and the Kansas State Fair. North of Wichita along Interstate 135 is the city of Newton, the former western terminal of the Santa Fe Railroad and trailhead for the famed Chisholm Trail. To the southeast of Wichita are the cities of Winfield and Arkansas City with historic architecture and the Cherokee Strip Museum (in Ark City). The city of Udall was the site of the deadliest tornado in Kansas on May 25, 1955; it killed 80 people in and near the city.[35] To the southwest of Wichita is Freeport, the state's smallest incorporated city (population 8).

Around the state

Kansas Population Density Map
.Located midway between Kansas City, Topeka, and Wichita in the heart of the Bluestem Region of the Flint Hills, the city of Emporia has several nationally registered historic places and is the home of Emporia State University, well-known for its Teachers College.^ Kansas State University Extension Offices locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
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^ EMS Station point locations for the State of Kansas .
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^ This data set provides locational data and student/faculty populations for Colleges and Universities in Kansas.
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It was also the home of newspaper man William Allen White.
Southeast Kansas
Southeast Kansas has a unique history with a number of nationally registered historic places in this coal-mining region. .Located in Crawford County (dubbed the Fried Chicken Capital of Kansas), Pittsburg is the largest city in the region and the home of Pittsburg State University.^ Homeland Security Regions for the state of Kansas .
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^ Kansas State University Extension Offices locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
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^ Data Creator: Kansas State University Status: This dataset is complete for Kansas.
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The neighboring city of Frontenac in 1888 was the site of the worst mine disaster in the state in which an underground explosion killed 47 miners. "Big Brutus" is located a mile and a half outside the city of West Mineral. Along with the restored fort, historic Fort Scott has a national cemetery designated by President Lincoln in 1862.
Central and North-Central Kansas
Salina is the largest city in central and north-central Kansas. South of Salina is the small city of Lindsborg with its numerous Dala horses. Much of the architecture and decor of this town has a distinctly Swedish style. To the east along Interstate 70, the historic city of Abilene was formerly a trailhead for the Chisholm Trail and was the boyhood home of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. To the west is Lucas, the Grassroots Art Capital of Kansas.
Northwest Kansas
Westward along the Interstate, the city of Russell, traditionally the beginning of sparsely-populated northwest Kansas, is the home of former U.S. Senator Bob Dole and the boyhood home of U.S. Senator Arlen Specter. .The city of Hays is home to Fort Hays State University and the Sternberg Museum of Natural History, and is the largest city in the northwest with a population of around 20,000. Two other landmarks are located in smaller towns in Ellis County: the "Cathedral of the Plains" is located 10 miles (16 km) east of Hays in Victoria, and the boyhood home of Walter Chrysler is 15 miles (24 km) west of Hays in Ellis.^ Kansas State University Extension Offices locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
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West of Hays, population drops dramatically, even in areas along I-70, and only two towns containing populations of more than 3,000: Colby and Goodland, which are located 35 milies apart along I-70. The city of Wichita, the largest in both area and population, has been mentioned in a handful of films and television programmes such as Beverly Hills, 90210, a CW teen drama from which a family emigrate to Beverly Hills (hence the title).
Southwest Kansas
Dodge City, famously known for the cattle drive days of the late 19th century, was built along the old Santa Fe Trail route. The city of Liberal is located along the southern Santa Fe Trail route. The first wind farm in the state was built east of Montezuma. Garden City has the Lee Richardson Zoo.

Education

Education in Kansas is governed at the primary and secondary school level by the Kansas State Board of Education. .The state's public colleges and universities are supervised by the Kansas Board of Regents.^ This data set provides locational data and student/faculty populations for Colleges and Universities in Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas State Board of Education Districts - 2008 .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas State University Extension Offices locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Twice since 1999 the Board of Education has approved changes in the state science curriculum standards that encouraged the teaching of intelligent design.^ Kansas State Board of Education Districts - 2008 .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Both times, the standards were reversed after changes in the composition of the board in the next election.

Sports

Professional

Club Sport League City
Kansas City Wizards Soccer Major League Soccer Kansas City
Kansas City T-Bones Baseball Northern League Kansas City
Kansas Koyotes Indoor Football American Professional Football League Topeka
Topeka Golden Giants Baseball Independent Collegiate Summer Wood Bat Topeka
Topeka Mudcats Football Women's Spring Football League Topeka
Topeka Roadrunners Ice hockey North American Hockey League Topeka
Wichita Thunder Ice hockey Central Hockey League Wichita
Wichita Wild Indoor Football Indoor Football League Park City
Wichita Wingnuts Baseball American Association of Independent Professional Baseball Wichita
The Wizards, who have played their home games at CommunityAmerica Ballpark since 2008, are the first top-tier professional sports league and first Major League Soccer team to be located within Kansas. From the start of the 2011 season, the team will move to Wizards Stadium Complex at Village West, a brand new $165m soccer specific stadium.
Historically, many Kansans have supported the major league sports teams of Kansas City, Missouri, including the Kansas City Royals (MLB), the Kansas City Chiefs (NFL) and the Kansas City Brigade (AFL) – in part because the home stadiums for these teams are just miles from the Kansas border. .The Chiefs and the Royals play at the Truman Sports Complex, located about 10 miles (16 km) from the Kansas-Missouri state line.^ EMS Station point locations for the State of Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Digital representation of electric transmission lines for the state of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Kansas City Brigade play in the newly opened Sprint Center, which is even closer to the state line.^ Digital representation of electric transmission lines for the state of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Additionally, from 1973 to 1997 the flagship radio station for the Royals was WIBW in Topeka, Kansas.[36]
Western Kansans sometimes also support the major league teams in Denver, while those who live close to the Oklahoma state line may support the Dallas Cowboys. All Chiefs games are televised throughout Kansas by television stations in Topeka and Wichita, and Broncos and Cowboys games which do not conflict with Chiefs telecasts are also broadcast across the state.
Two major auto racing facilities are located in Kansas. The Kansas Speedway located in Kansas City hosts races of the NASCAR, IRL, and ARCA circuits. Also, the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) holds drag racing events at Heartland Park Topeka.

History

The history of professional sports in Kansas probably dates from the establishment of the minor league Topeka Capitals and Leavenworth Soldiers in 1886 in the Western League.[37][38] The African-American Bud Fowler played on the Topeka team that season, one year before the "color line" descended in professional baseball.[38]
In 1887, the Western League was dominated by a reorganized Topeka team called the Golden Giants – a high-priced collection of major leaguer players, including Bug Holliday, Jim Conway, Ecky Stearns, Perry Werden and Jimmy Macullar, which won the league by 15½ games.[38] On April 10, 1887, the Golden Giants also won an exhibition game from the defending World Series champions, the St. Louis Browns (the present-day Cardinals), by a score of 12-9. However, Topeka was unable to support the team, and it disbanded after one year.

College

While there are no franchises of the four major professional sports within the state, many Kansans are fans of the state's major college sports teams, especially the Jayhawks of the University of Kansas, commonly referred to as "KU", and the Wildcats of Kansas State University, known as "KSU" or "K-State" by many. Wichita State University, which also fields teams (called the Shockers) in Division I of the NCAA, is best known for its baseball program, winning the College World Series in 1989.
Both KU and K-State have tradition-rich programs in men's basketball. The Jayhawks are a perennial national power, ranking second in all-time victories among NCAA programs, behind Kentucky. In 2008, the Jayhawks won their fifth national crown (third NCAA tournament title). K-State also had a long stretch of success on the hardwood, lasting from the 1940s to the 1980s. .Kansas State returned to the NCAA tournament in 2008 for the first time in 12 years.^ Kansas State Board of Education Districts - 2008 .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (12-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

KU is tied for 4th all-time with 13 Final Four appearances, while K-State has made four appearances in the Final Four. Wichita State has made one Final Four appearance.
However, success on the football field has been infrequent for either team. When the two teams met in 1987, KU's record was 1-7 and K-State's was 0-8. Fittingly, the Governor's Cup that year, dubbed the "Toilet Bowl" by the media, ended in a 17-17 tie when the Jayhawks blocked a last-second K-State field goal attempt. There have been recent breakthroughs for both schools. KU won the Orange Bowl for the first time in three tries in 2008, capping a 12-1 season, the best in school history. K-State was historically one of the worst college football programs in the country, until Bill Snyder arrived to coach the Wildcats in 1989. He turned K-State into a national force for most of the 1990s and early 2000s, until he retired after the 2005 season. Snyder returned to the sideline in 2009. The team won the Fiesta Bowl in 1997 and took the Big 12 Conference championship in 2003.
Notable success has also been achieved by the state's smaller schools in football. Pittsburg State University, a NCAA Division II participant, has claimed three national titles in football, two in the NAIA and most recently the 1991 NCAA Division II national title. Pittsburg State became the winningest NCAA Division II football program in 1995. PSU passed Hillsdale College at the top of the all-time victories list in the 1995 season on its march to the national runner-up finish. The Gorillas, in 96 seasons of intercollegiate competition, have accumulated 579 victories – posting a 579-301-48 overall mark.
Washburn University, in Topeka, won the NAIA Men's Basketball Championship in 1987. The Fort Hays State University men won the 1996 NCAA Division II title with a 34-0 record, and the Washburn women won the 2005 NCAA Division II crown. St. Benedict's College (now Benedictine College), in Atchison, won the 1954 and 1967 Men's NAIA Basketball Championships.
In 1992-93, KU became the second college program to participate in a football bowl game, the NCAA men's basketball tournament, and the College World Series in the same academic year. And in the 2007-08 academic year, KU's football and basketball programs set an NCAA Division I record for most combined victories with 49 (12 in football and 37 in basketball).

Notable residents

Amelia Earhart (aviation pioneer), Carrie Nation (temperance activist), former President Dwight D. Eisenhower, former Vice President Charles Curtis, and former presidential candidates Bob Dole and Alf Landon called Kansas their home. NASA astronauts Ronald Evans, Joe Engle, and Steve Hawley also lived in Kansas.
Kansas was home to industrial and intellectual pioneers Walter Chrysler of automotive fame, Clyde Cessna and Lloyd Stearman (aviation pioneers), Jack Kilby (microchip inventor, The Nobel Prize Winner in Physics 2000), George Washington Carver (educator and scientist), Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. (The Nobel Prize Winner in Physiology or Medicine 1971), and Vernon L. Smith (The Nobel Prize Winner in Economics 2002). .Also from Kansas are General Richard Myers (Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2001–05) and Robert Gates (United States Secretary of Defense December 2006–Present).^ State soil geographic database: generalized soils survey of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (8-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In addition, Kansas is the home of "Top Cop" Vern Miller who raided an Amtrak train on July 20, 1972, and confiscated all the liquor on board. He charged Amtrak with selling liquor-by-the-drink, illegal in Kansas at that time and the case was eventually declared, "al certiore," validating both the lower court's conviction and the flamboyant Miller's stance that, "If you don't like a law, get it changed...don't break it."[39]
Kansas was also home to Danny Carey (musician), Del Close (comdedian/actor), Inger Stevens (actress), Vivian Vance (actress), Samuel Ramey (opera singer), Louise Brooks (actress), Annette Bening (actress), Bill Kurtis (Journalist), Jack Cafferty (Journalist), John Brown (abolitionist), Langston Hughes (poet), Gordon Parks (photographer, movie director, musician, author), Fatty Arbuckle (actor), William Inge (writer), Dennis Hopper (actor), Kelli McCarty (actress and Miss USA 91), Buster Keaton (actor), Coleman Hawkins (Jazz musician), Martina McBride (Country Singer), William Stafford (poet), Joe Walsh (Musician), Chely Wright (Country Musician), Melissa Etheridge (musician), Kirstie Alley (actress), Paul Rudd (actor), Sarah Lancaster (actress), Charlie Parker (Jazz musician), Mike Jerrick (network journalist), Steve Doocy (network journalist, author), Campbell Brown (network journalist), Jeff Probst (Survivor host), Melissa McDermott (Journalist), Phil McGraw (psychologist), and William Allen White (editor). And members of the progressive rock band Kansas: Dave Hope (bass), Phil Ehart (drums, percussion) and Kerry Livgren (guitars, keyboards, synthesizers) formed the group named Kansas in 1970 in their hometown of Topeka, along with vocalist Lynn Meredith from Manhattan, Kansas.
Famous fictional residents include: "Marshal Matt Dillon," from the TV show Gunsmoke, "Mary Ann Summers," of Gilligan's Island, "Dennis Mitchell," of Dennis the Menace, "Dean" and "Sam Winchester," from the TV show Supernatural, "Clark Kent"/Superman, "Liz Sherman," from the "Hellboy" comic book series, "Lt. Col. Cameron Mitchell," of Stargate SG-1, "Walter" and "India Bridge," from, Mr. and Mrs. Bridge, "Jonas Nightengale," from, Leap of Faith, "Bailey," from The Suite Life on Deck, "Sam" from Rocket Power and "Dorothy Gale," from The Wizard of Oz.

Landmarks

.
  • Front Street and Boot HIll Museum are located in Dodge City.
  • Santa Fe trail ruts can still be seen 9 miles west of Dodge City.
  • The John Brown museum is located in Osawatomie.
  • The boyhood home of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Eisenhower Library, and his grave are located in Abilene.
  • The home of nationally known newspaperman William Allen White is located in Emporia, KS
  • Abilene is the ending point of the Chisholm Trail where the cattle driven from Texas were loaded onto rail cars.
  • The house of Carrie Nation, now a museum, is located in Medicine Lodge.
  • Constitution Hall in Lecompton is the location where the Kansas Territorial Government convened and drafted a pro-slavery constitution.^ EMS Station point locations for the State of Kansas .
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section.
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [40]
  • .
  • The Wizard of Oz Museum in Wamego features Dorothy's House, a re-creation of the farm house featured in the film The Wizard of Oz.
  • The Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, located in Hutchinson, is affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution.^ Department of Human Resources-Job Centers locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Data Creator: Data Access and Support Center (DASC) Status: This dataset is incomplete for Kansas.
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Data Creator: Data Access and Support Center (DASC) Status: This dataset is complete for Kansas.
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The museum features the largest collection of artifacts from the Russian Space Program outside of Moscow. It is also home to Apollo 13, an SR-71 Blackbird, Liberty 7, and many space artifacts.
  • The award-winning Kansas Museum of History[41] is the state museum, and is located in the capital city of Topeka.
  • The world's largest ball of twine (disputed), created August 15, 1953, in Cawker City.
  • The Big Well, billed as the World's Largest Hand-Dug Well, is located in Greensburg, Kansas.
  • Keeper of the Plains
  • Joyland Amusement Park (Wichita)
  • The Hot and Cold Water Towers of Pratt, Kansas
  • Big Basin Prairie Preserve

See also

References

  1. ^ "Governor’s Signature Makes English the Official Language of Kansas". Us-english.org. 2007-05-11. http://www.us-english.org/inc/news/preleases/viewRelease.asp?ID=252. Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  2. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  3. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 6, 2006. 
  4. ^ Census.gov
  5. ^ John Koontz, p.c.
  6. ^ Rankin, Robert. 2005. "Quapaw." In Native Languages of the Southeastern United States, eds. Heather K. Hardy and Janine Scancarelli. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, pg. 492
  7. ^ Connelley, William E. 1918. Indians. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans, ch. 10, vol. 1
  8. ^ Today in History: January 29
  9. ^ Kansas.gov - The Official Web site of the State of Kansas
  10. ^ Sorghumgrowers.com
  11. ^ Kansas Is Flatter Than a Pancake
  12. ^ Study finds Kansas Flatter Than Pancake
  13. ^ Fracas over Kansas pancake flap
  14. ^ "Kansas". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/state/ks. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  15. ^ NOAA National Climatic Data Center, Retrieved October 25, 2006.
  16. ^ State Population Estimates. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, and States and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (NST-EST2007-01). U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Released 2007-12-22. Six year change is from 2000-07-01 to 2007-07-01.
  17. ^ State Population Estimates. Kansas population has increased at a decreasing rate; reducing the number of congressmen from 5 to 4 in 1992 (Congressional Redistricting Act, eff. 1992). Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Population Change for the United States, Regions and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 (NST-EST2006-04). U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Released 2006-12-22.
  18. ^ edited by John W. Wright (2007). The New York Times 2008 Almanac. p. 178. 
  19. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State - 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-12-05. 
  20. ^ Kansas - Race and Hispanic Origin: 1860 to 1990
  21. ^ http://www.danielcfitzgerald.com/kansasextinctlocations.html
  22. ^ Bea.gov; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)
  23. ^ America's Career InfoNet
  24. ^ Kansas Department of Transportation (2004-01-22). "KDOT Launches New Traveler Information Service". Press release. http://www.ksdot.org/archive/offtransinfo/News04/511_Release.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-14. 
  25. ^ Testa, Anthony Manhattan Regional Airport adds connection to Dallas-Fort Worth International The Kansas State Collegian, Published April 6, 2009, Retrieved on 2009-04-29
  26. ^ Los Angeles Times. Vote by Kansas School Board Favors Evolution's Doubters
  27. ^ Azcentral.com
  28. ^ Kansas Governor Rejects Two Coal-Fired Power Plants
  29. ^ 2008 Election Results - Kansas
  30. ^ "Liquor Licensee and Supplier Information". Alcoholic Beverage Control, Kansas Department of Revenue. http://www.ksrevenue.org/abcsupplierinfo.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  31. ^ "History of Alcoholic Beverages in Kansas". Alcoholic Beverage Control, Kansas Department of Revenue. 2000. http://www.ksrevenue.org/abchistory.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  32. ^ 2008 US Census Population Estimates
  33. ^ "Best places to live 2006". MONEY Magazine. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/bplive/2006/top100/. Retrieved 2006-12-09. 
  34. ^ "Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. http://www.census.gov/popest/estimates.php.  Annual estimates of the population through 2006-07-01. Released 2007-06-28.
  35. ^ "The Blackwell Tornado of 25 May 1955". NWS Norman, Oklahoma. June 13, 2006. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/oun/wxevents/19550525/. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  36. ^ Making Airwaves Through History
  37. ^ Evans, Harold (1940). "Baseball in Kansas, 1867–1940". Kansas Historical Quarterly. http://www.kancoll.org/khq/1940/40_2_evans.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-18. 
  38. ^ a b c Madden, W.C.; Stewart, Patrick (2002). The Western League: A Baseball History, 1885 through 1999. ISBN 0786410035. 
  39. ^ Wichita Eagle, July 20, 1972
  40. ^ Historic Lecompton - Constitution Hall State Historic Site. Retrieved on 13 April 2007.
  41. ^ Kansas Historical Society

External links

Preceded by
Oregon
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on January 29, 1861 (34th)
Succeeded by
West Virginia

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

.Kansas [1] is a state in the Great Plains region of the United States of America.^ Homeland Security Regions for the state of Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (12-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is generally considered the center of the country, at least in geographical terms, though one of its nicknames is "the Heart of America." Thanks to the Wizard of Oz, many non-Kansans (and some Kansans as well) think of it as a place from which to escape; however, there are a lot of great places to visit, particularly if you are interested in the history of the American West. With a little exploration, almost every little town has something of interest.

Regions

There is no clear division between Eastern and Western Kansas, but there are clear regional distinctions.
Eastern Kansas
Most of the larger cities are in Eastern Kansas, which tends to be surprisingly hilly and have more trees and water than other parts of the state
Western Kansas
Generally, Western Kansas is more rural, with very low population density and a lot of open land. Farming forms the basis of the economy. With few notable exceptions, it is drier and flatter
Central Kansas
A mixture of farmland, rolling hills, and man-made lakes, central Kansas is a transition zone between the hilly east and the arid west. Home to Wichita, the largest city in the state.
Flint Hills
Down the center of Eastern Kansas run the Flint Hills, an area of great geological interest, with some of the last living grasslands of the true Great Plains
.
Southeastern Kansas
Far southeastern Kansas is part of the Ozarks region, with beautiful hills, coal mining, and endemic rural poverty. Ozark influence wanes the further you get from the southeast corner of the state.
  • Topeka - Capital and third-largest city of Kansas, also the site of the Kansas State Historical Society Museum.
  • Dodge City
  • Fort Scott — the historic center of the Bleeding Kansas conflict between pro-slavery migrants from Missouri and the anti-slavery locals, and home to Fort Scott National Historic Site
  • Hutchinson - home to the second largest space museum in the world, the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center.
  • Kansas City and Environs - Smaller half of Metro Kansas City, which spills across the border into Missouri.^ Data Access & Support Center ¦ Kansas GIS Policy Board contact the Site Administrator .
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Kansas City as a whole is much larger and more cosmopolitan than Wichita. The second largest city in Kansas is not Kansas City, Kansas, but Overland Park, Kansas, a wealthy yet nondescript suburb of Kansas City. .Overland Park, along with Kansas City suburbs like Shawnee, Olathe, and Lenexa make up Johnson County, which is the largest county by population in Kansas, and one of the richest counties in the United States by per capita income.
  • Lawrence - Home of the University of Kansas.^ Rural and county roads and city streets for the state.
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This data set provides locational data and student/faculty populations for Colleges and Universities in Kansas.
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Lawrence boasts the strongest art, music and bar scenes - not only in the state, but anywhere between Chicago and Denver. Lawrence was founded by anti-slavery fighters ("Free-Staters" or "Jayhawkers") shortly before the start of the Civil War. .This heritage led to the creation of the University of Kansas' imaginary bird mascot, the Jayhawk.
  • Liberal — there's no place like Dorothy's recreated home, a funny name, and a big aircraft museum
  • Manhattan - Home of Kansas State University.^ Kansas State University Extension Offices locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Data Creator: Kansas State University Status: This dataset is complete for Kansas.
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Kansas State University Extension Offices .
    • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Aggieville is one of the most vibrant places in this college town. The town is affectionately nicknamed "the Little Apple."
  • Wichita - Largest city in Kansas, is "the Air Capital of the World" because of the large number of aerospace firms located there, from the smallest Cessna to the 787 Dreamliner, or Airbus 380 Wichita has a hand in the design and/or manfacture of the plane. It has a large air museum. It is also home to Wichita State University, which hosts a top engineering school and highly ranked business school.
  • Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail - Between May 1804 and September 1806, 32 men, one woman, and a baby traveled from the plains of the Midwest to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. They called themselves the Corps of Discovery

Understand

Although Native Americans have lived in Kansas for thousands of years and the first Europeans visited in the 1600s, most Kansas communities date from the early to mid-1880s. The real development of Kansas didn’t take place until the 1850s when pro-slavery settlers from Missouri and antislavery settlers from New England flooded into the area. .This period of "Bleeding Kansas" included a great deal of violence and some people consider this area to have been the cradle of the Civil War.^ LIDAR data for the Kansas River Corridor including additional areas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LIDAR data for the Kansas River corridor, including additional areas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In communities like Lawrence, Kansas many organizations and businesses still proudly display the "free state" name.

Talk

Most residents of Kansas speak a neutral American Standard English. However, in the southeastern region there is a faint southern influence -- both in accent and word choice. This dates back to Civil War era, many pro-slavery citizens moved into this part of the state to land grab and sway elections. Many of the communites in the area still have connections to southwest Missouri and northeast Arkansas communities.
The farther west you go you may run into pockets of comunities with German, Russian, or even Swedish accents. This due to the large number of immigrants that settled in Kansas durring the late 1800's

Get in

If you are driving to Kansas from the east or west, it would be best to take Interstate 70. I-35 travels from the south center of the state and passes northeast meeting I-70 in Kansas City. I-135 travels from Wichita to Salina, connecting the other two major interstate highways.
Wichita has the only major airport in the state, with service to about a dozen cities. Several other smaller cities have very limited commercial service. Many people flying into the state (especially the eastern part) would come through Kansas City (Missouri).
The only regular train service is Amtrak's Southwest Chief, which travels east-west across the state, passing through Kansas City, Lawrence, Topeka, Newton, Hutchinson, Dodge City, and Garden City. This train continues to and from Chicago daily from/to the east and Los Angeles from/to the west. There is also daily connecting daily service to and from St. Louis at Kansas City.
Greyhound Lines and Jefferson Lines provide daily regular serice to and from many destinations in Kansas.

Get around

The only way to travel in Kansas is to drive. Part of the experience of being in the state is to spend time on the road, which is as interesting an experience as you make it. Take the time to plan a route off of the main highways and see the country. Otherwise, if you require public transportation, Kansas may not a place for you. Even the larger cities, like Wichita, Topeka, and Kansas City, offer very limited public transportation.

Eat

.Kansas' best known regional food is Kansas City-style BBQ, associated with the metropolitan Kansas City area including Wyandotte County and Johnson County, as well as portions of Missouri.^ LIDAR data for the Kansas River Corridor including additional areas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LIDAR data for the Kansas River corridor, including additional areas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a slow "pit" style barbecue; sauce is usually an important component to the finished meal. Well-known restaurants include Rosedale and Wyandotte BBQ in Kansas City, Hayward's Pit BBQ and KC Masterpiece and Gates BBQ in Overland Park (Gates, however, is based in Kansas City, Missouri -- an important distinction to some), and Zarda BBQ in Lenexa. KC Masterpiece in Overland Park is the original restaurant that started the chain and its nationally distributed "sweet sauce." In the small town of Spring Hill, K&M BBQ was voted the best BBQ in the Kansas City metro area.
In Abilene, The Brookville Hotel offers family style fried chicken dinners. [2] Stroud's in Fairway serves the best fried chicken in the Kansas City area.
In Crawford County, in the extreme Southeastern corner, there are six "chicken houses." These serve fried chicken dinners, and the side dishes differ from each house. Fried chicken is a distinctive dish in Southeast Kansas, making the region known for their chicken dishes.

Drink

Kansas has very complex and restrictive liquor laws. The short of it is that only 3.2% ABV packaged beer may be sold outside of retail liquor stores. Drinks by the glass were only restricted to private "clubs" until 1987. Kansas today has 29 "dry" counties that prohibit all on-premise liquor sales and as of 2005 only 2 counties and 26 communities have provisions for Sunday sales. Kansas has never ratified the 21st amendment to this day.

Stay safe

Kansas is in "Tornado Alley." Tornadoes and severe thunderstorms with high winds and hail are not uncommon during the spring and summer months. Make sure you keep a radio on in the car. Should you hear the tornado sirens sounding, locate a suitable tornado shelter at once - DO NOT stay outdoors to get a picture! Also, DO NOT try to outrun the tornado in your car! You may wind up driving directly into the tornado's path.
Should the skies be cloudy, and the light take on a greenish-yellow cast, this is an indication of an imminent hail storm - again, seek shelter at once.
.Keep in mind, these storms are spread over a wide area and many residents have never seen a tornado; however, tornado drills are a regular part for all Kansas school children and residents do not hesitate to run to the basement/cellar if a tornado warning is announced.^ This data set includes all the lakes and wildlife areas in the Kansas 2006 Water Register that have established TMDLs as of October 17, 2006.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Refer to the Tornado safety article for analysis of the issues here.
Ice storms and blizzards are also common during the winter, especially in northern Kansas. As with most weather in the region, storms tend to be intense, but roll in and out fairly quickly due to lack of natural obstruction (e.g., mountains).
  • Nebraska - Much like Kansas, the state's northern neighbor has a rich agricultural heritage, offering visitors a glimpse into America's heartland.
  • Missouri - The state's eastern neighbor also has much to see, from the natural beauty of the Ozarks to the major metropolitan areas of Kansas City and St. Louis.
  • Oklahoma - Kansas' southern neighbor has been a state since only 1907 and retains some of the pioneer spirit from its early days as a frontier, along with a lot of Native American history and culture.
  • Colorado - The Rocky Mountain state borders Kansas to the west and offers a mind-boggling array of outdoor activities.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Kansas

Etymology

EB1911A-pict1.png This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this word, please add it to the page as described here.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Kansas
Plural
-
Kansas
  1. A state of the mid United States of America. Capital: Topeka.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Kansas
Flag of Kansas State seal of Kansas
Flag of Kansas SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Sunflower State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Ad astra per aspera
Map of the United States with Kansas highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English[1]
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Topeka
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Wichita
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Kansas City MSA
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 15thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 82,277 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(213,096 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 211 miles (340 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 417 miles (645 km)
 - % water 0.56
 - Latitude 37° N to 40° N
 - Longitude 94° 35′ W to 102° 3′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 33rdImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 2,688,418
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 32.9/sq mi 
12.7/km² (40th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Mount Sunflower[2]
4,039 ft  (1,232 m)
 - Mean 2,000 ft  (600 m)
 - Lowest point Verdigris River[2]
679 ft  (207 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  January 29, 1861 (34th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Kathleen Sebelius (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Sam Brownback (R)
Pat Roberts (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zonesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - most of state Central: UTC-6/-5
 - 4 western counties Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-KSImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.kansas.gov
.Kansas (IPA: /ˈkænzəs/) is a Midwestern state[3] in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American "Heartland". It is named after the Kansas River which flows through it, which in turn was named after the Kansa tribe, who inhabited the area.^ For the reasons given above, Kansas has also been referred to as "The Central State."
  • The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from NETSTATE.COM 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.netstate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The state of Kansas was named after the river.
  • The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from NETSTATE.COM 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.netstate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kansas Lottery held its Holiday Millionaire Raffle drawing on Thursday, and three of the top six winners bought their tickets in the south central region of the state, said Sally Lundsford with the Lottery office in Topeka.
  • Kansas News - Topix 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]
  • Kansas News - Topix 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

[4] .The tribe's name (natively kką:ze) is often said to mean "people of the wind" or "people of the south wind", although this was probably not the term's original meaning.^ The Kansas River was named by the French after the Kansas, Omaha, Kaw, Osage and Dakota Sioux Indian word "KaNze" meaning, in the Kansas language "south wind."
  • The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from NETSTATE.COM 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.netstate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wi'tapahatu, Dakota name, meaning "island butte people."

^ Tepki'n go, own name, meaning "people coming out."

[5][6] Residents of Kansas are called "Kansans".
Historically, the area was home to large numbers of nomadic Native Americans that hunted bison. It was first settled by European Americans in the 1830s, but the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery issue. .When officially opened to settlement by the U.S. government in 1854, abolitionists from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine if Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.^ Early squatters were from the slave state of Missouri.
  • The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from NETSTATE.COM 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.netstate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lecompton, Kansas - Founded by 1854 by pro slavery Missourians, Lecompton was intended to become the state capital.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

^ Kansas and neighboring states .
  • KANSAS SIGHTS | KS Travel, Visits, People, Sports, Trails, Places | www.kansasheritage.org/kssights 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasheritage.org [Source type: General]

.Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, and was known as Bleeding Kansas.^ The best-known historic location of these people was a plot of territory including contiguous parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

^ Those men who made cattle raising their business in the early days were forced to live always on the edge or just beyond settlement.
  • Southwestern Kansas History 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.gardencity.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The abolitionists eventually prevailed and on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state.^ Kansas, one of the United States of America , is the central state of the Union, to which it was admitted 29 January, 1861.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On January 29, 1861, Kansas joined the Union as a free state.
  • The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from NETSTATE.COM 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.netstate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kansas was admitted as a free State on 29 January, 1861.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the Civil War, the population of Kansas exploded when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into productive farmland.^ After years of strife free state forces prevailed; in 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state even as the Missouri-Kansas border evolved into the American Civil War.
  • Lawrence Attractions 22 September 2009 22:28 UTC blrt.business.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About the end of the Civil War some of the Prairie band moved back to Wisconsin but the greater part of them remained and accepted lands in severalty.

^ During the violent period of conflict before the Civil War, Kansas was sometimes referred to as "The Battleground of Freedom."
  • The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from NETSTATE.COM 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.netstate.com [Source type: Original source]

Only sporadic patches of prairie grass remain for other grasses that are suitable for raising cattle have replaced the native grasses. .Today, Kansas is one of the most productive agricultural states, producing many crops, and leading the nation in wheat and sunflower production most years.^ Kansas is essentially an agricultural state.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By Steve Otto Authorhouse Press/2005 Reviewed by Tim Pouncey Kansas in the late 1970's was so different from today; the Sunflower State might as well have been located in Holland.
  • Kansas - LeftyBlogs.com 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.leftyblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ While I have remained involved in many activities in the state over the past years, I have spent much of my business career away from home and thus am unknown to many voters and donors."
  • Kansas | KansasCity.com Prime Buzz 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC primebuzz.kcstar.com [Source type: News]

Contents

Geography

.Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; Missouri on the east; Oklahoma on the south; and Colorado on the west.^ It is bounded on the north by Nebraska, on the east by Missouri, on the west by Colorado , and on the south by Oklahoma.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Territory of Kansas was organized in 1854 with the following limits: beginning at a point on the western boundary of the State of Missouri , where parallel 37° N. crosses the same; thence west on said parallel to the eastern boundary of New Mexico ; thence north of said boundary to 38° N.; thence following said boundary westward to the east boundary of the Territory of Utah on the summit of the Rocky Mountains; thence northward on said summit to 40° N.; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the State of Missouri ; thence south with the western boundary of said state to the place of beginning.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The best-known historic location of these people was a plot of territory including contiguous parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

.The state is divided up into 105 counties with 628 cities.^ Any meeting of the governing body of a county, city or other political or taxing subdivision of the state, or any committee or subcommittee thereof; .
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "We believe our proposal will increase tourism to the state of Kansas and also have a large economic impact on the city, county and state.
  • Jayski's� NASCAR Silly Season Site - Kansas Speedway Track News 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.jayski.com [Source type: News]

^ Wind-farm plan blows into Cowley and Elk counties ( Arkansas City Traveler , Nov.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is located equidistant from the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans. .The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is located in Smith County near Lebanon.^ Ford County, Kansas - A project of enXco that is 100.5 MW in size, located north of Hwy 50/56 near Spearville.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Located about 15 miles east of Wichita near Augusta in Butler County.
  • Best Trails in Kansas | Best Kansas Trails 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.trails.com [Source type: General]

^ Lebanon, Kansas - The Geographical Center of the Continental United States is located northwest of Lebanon, Kansas.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

.The geodetic center of North America was located in Osborne County until 1983. This spot was until then used as the central reference point for all maps of North America produced by the U.S. government.^ Jun 21, 2009 "Great food until we found the hair" Nov 2, 2008 "Best On Mass Ave" Read all reviews map .
  • Lawrence Restaurants: Read Lawrence Restaurant Reviews - TripAdvisor 22 September 2009 22:28 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ Ford County, Kansas - A project of enXco that is 100.5 MW in size, located north of Hwy 50/56 near Spearville.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tuition is free to all pupils residing in the county where the high school is located.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The geographic center of Kansas is located in Barton County.^ Department of Human Resources-Job Centers locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas Counties Birth Certificate, Death Record, Marriage License and More (A-D) vitalrec.com the most comprehensive resource for locating vital records on the internet .
  • Kansas Counties Birth Certificate, Death Record, Marriage License and More (A-D) 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.vitalrec.com [Source type: General]

^ Anderson County, Kansas - A 200 MW proposed project of TradeWind Energy of Lenexa, KS. This project is located in Southeastern Anderson County.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kansas is also one of the six states located on the Frontier Strip and one of several within Tornado Alley.^ Interestingly, Kansas has six designated scenic byways, three of them named for the hills in which they are located: Flint Hills, Glacial Hills and Gypsum Hills.

^ By the terms of the Treaty of New Echota, the Cherokee obtained title to lands in southeastern Kansas, part in one block known as the "Neutral land," and the rest in a strip along the southern boundary of the State.

^ There are several directions that one can head out of camp, the camp is roughly located in the middle of the property, 3 miles from the black top road.
  • Horse & Mule Trail Guide USA: Trails, Campgrounds, Overnight in Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.horseandmuletrails.com [Source type: General]

Topography

.The western two thirds of the state, lying in the great central plain of the United States, has a generally flat or undulating surface, and on a large scale appears almost perfectly flat.^ The general surface of Kansas is undulating.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A great number of European immigrants settled, largely in colonies, in the state in the decade following 1870.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kansas, one of the United States of America , is the central state of the Union, to which it was admitted 29 January, 1861.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[7] However, the eastern third is more hilly and forested. .The land displays a gradual slope up from east to west; its altitude above the sea ranges from 684 feet (208 m) along the Verdigris River at Coffeyville in Montgomery County, to 4039 feet (1,231 m) at Mount Sunflower, one half mile from the Colorado border, in Wallace County.^ Weskan, Kansas - The highest point in Kansas - some people would describe Mount Sunflower as a barely noticeable rise in the middle of a field on a ranch 1/2 mile from the Colorado border.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

^ Shawnee Mission Park, the largest in the Johnson County park system, allows off-road mountain biking along a one-mile section of nature trail on a low… From the guidebook "Mountain Bike!
  • Best Trails in Kansas | Best Kansas Trails 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.trails.com [Source type: General]

^ It has an area of 82,144 square miles, approximately 400 miles from east to west, and 200 miles from north to south.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Spring River, Kansas
.The Missouri River forms nearly 75 miles (120 km) of the state's northeastern boundary.^ Neblazhetama, on the west bank of the Mississippi River a few miles above the mouth of Missouri River, in the present Missouri.

^ The state is drained by the Missouri River that forms the north-eastern boundary, and by the Kansas and Arkansas Rivers and their tributaries - all of which belong to the Mississippi system.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the organization of Missouri as a state in 1821, Kansas received an eastern boundary.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Kansas River (locally known as the Kaw), formed by the junction of the Smoky Hill and Republican rivers at appropriately-named Junction City, joins the Missouri at Kansas City, after a course of 170 miles (274 km) across the northeastern part of the state.^ They were usually on some part of the Kansas River, which derives its name from them.

^ A part of the Pawnee occupied the valley of the Republican Fork of Kansas River.

^ Niudje, on Kansas River, about 4 miles above the site of Kansas City, Mo.

.The Arkansas River, rising in Colorado, flows with a bending course for nearly 500 miles (800 km) across the western and southern parts of the state.^ They ranged over the western part of the State.

^ They were forced to abandon their original plan of crossing the Indian Territory, and follow the western or Pecos trail, whose course was up the Pecos river valley in New Mexico and on north to Colorado.
  • Southwestern Kansas History 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.gardencity.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They rode from Dodge City to Colorado and from the Arkansas river to the Red river of Texas, but the distance was not gauged by miles.
  • Southwestern Kansas History 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.gardencity.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It forms, with its tributaries (the Little Arkansas (pronounced Ar-Kansas), Ninnescah, Walnut, Cow Creek, Cimarron, Verdigris, and the Neosho), the southern drainage system of the state.^ It’s also difficult to argue that the state’s highways are in bad shape when the Reason Foundation last month ranked Kansas as having the third-best highway system in the nation.
  • WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs | The Wichita Eagle Editorial Department Blog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: News]

^ The state is drained by the Missouri River that forms the north-eastern boundary, and by the Kansas and Arkansas Rivers and their tributaries - all of which belong to the Mississippi system.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The internecine struggle in Kansas, in which John Brown was a prominent factor, was potent in forcing the great war that followed between the Northern and the Southern States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Other important rivers are the Saline and Solomon, tributaries of the Smoky Hill River; the Big Blue, Delaware, and Wakarusa, which flow into the Kansas River; and the Marais des Cygnes, a tributary of the Missouri River.^ Manyinkatuhuudje, at the mouth of Big Blue River.

^ According to tradition, the Kansa and the others of the same group originated on Ohio River, the Kansa separating from the main body at the mouth of Kansas River.

^ Since that night, men who walk along the Missouri River near the same hill where the accident occurred hear the screams of a woman.
  • Kansas Haunted Houses & Haunted Houses In Kansas, Wichita, Overland Park, Kansas City, Topeka, Olathe 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.hauntworld.com [Source type: General]

National parks and historic sites

Areas under the protection of the National Park Service include:

Climate

Storm clouds in northeastern Kansas
Kansas contains three climate types, according to the Köppen climate classification: humid continental, semiarid steppe, and humid subtropical. .The eastern two-thirds of the state has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and hot summers.^ In this semi-arid climate it cured upon the ground and became as good for winter grazing as for summer use.
  • Southwestern Kansas History 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.gardencity.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the precipitation falls in the summer and spring.^ Elsmore, Kansas - Bourbon Lake Falls , 4 miles east of town is a spectacular seasonal waterfall from spring until mid summer.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

The western third of the state has a semiarid steppe climate. Summers are hot, often very hot. Winters are cold in the northwest and cool to mild in the southwest. .Also, the western region is semiarid, receiving an average of only about 16 inches (40 cm) of precipitation per year.^ The annual range of temperature is about 120°F. The average temperature of the winter months for twenty years has been 31°F.; of the three summer months 74°F. The mean temperature for the year is thus 53°F. The annual average precipitation, which includes rainfall and the water from melted snow, ranges from fifteen inches in the extreme west to forty-four inches in the extreme south-east.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The price of our MAPP TM video package is only $149, or about 10 hours in the average nursing home.
  • Kansas Medicaid Nursing Home DRA Eligibility Rules and Asset Protection 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC medicaidhelp.com [Source type: General]

^ It slopes gently from an average height of about 3650 feet above sea level at its western boundary to 850 at its eastern; the average slope is about seven feet to the mile.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Chinook winds in the winter can warm western Kansas all the way into the 80 degree Fahrenheit (25 °C) range.^ More Information about this Hotel > View all Kansas Best Western Hotels > .
  • Best Western Kansas Hotels. Find Hotel Specials in Wichita, Kansas City KS and more. 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestwesternkansas.com [Source type: General]

^ With the building of railroads through Western Kansas the Indians were finally driven from the plains and herded into reservations; and the buffaloes were soon all slaughtered by the hunters.
  • Southwestern Kansas History 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.gardencity.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The real history of all Western Kansas began with the cattle which were first driven up over the trail from Texas.
  • Southwestern Kansas History 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.gardencity.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The far south-central and southeastern reaches of the state have a humid subtropical climate, with long, hot summers, short, mild winters, and much more precipitation than the rest of the state.^ In this semi-arid climate it cured upon the ground and became as good for winter grazing as for summer use.
  • Southwestern Kansas History 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.gardencity.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ November 9, 2007 - The Lottery celebrates its 20th anniversary by announcing that it has transferred more than $1 billion to the State in the 20 years since the first ticket was sold.
  • About The Kansas Lottery 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kslottery.com [Source type: General]

^ This erotic interest, which is far more specific than whatever "autogynephilia" is supposed to mean, is something others share.
  • Anne Lawrence: The Anne Who Would Be Queen 22 September 2009 22:28 UTC www.tsroadmap.com [Source type: Original source]

.Precipitation ranges from about 46 inches (1200 mm) annually in the southeast of the state, to about 16 inches (400 mm) in the southwest.^ The annual range of temperature is about 120°F. The average temperature of the winter months for twenty years has been 31°F.; of the three summer months 74°F. The mean temperature for the year is thus 53°F. The annual average precipitation, which includes rainfall and the water from melted snow, ranges from fifteen inches in the extreme west to forty-four inches in the extreme south-east.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Snowfall ranges from around 5 inches (130 mm) in the fringes of the south, to 35 inches (900 mm) in the far northwest. .Frost-free days range from more than 200 days in the south, to 130 days in the northwest.^ More than 1,500 people lined up for the free toys.
  • Wichita and Kansas news | Local news, sports, business, entertainment, jobs, restaurants, real estate, cars | Wichita Eagle 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansas.com [Source type: News]

.Thus, Kansas is the 9th or 10th sunniest state in the country, depending on the source.^ In 1819 and 1820 Long's scientific exploration of the country lying west of the Allegheny and east of the Rocky Mountains between 35° and 42° N., embraced the state of Kansas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Western Kansas is as sunny as parts of California and Arizona.^ Even before the first railway was laid in these parts, there was a commercial route extending from the eastern to the western border of Kansas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

In spite of the frequent sunshine throughout much of the state, the state is also vulnerable to strong thunderstorms, especially in the spring. Many of these storms become Supercell thunderstorms. These can spawn tornadoes, often of F3 strength or higher. .According to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center, Kansas has reported more tornadoes (for the period 1st January 1950 through to 31st October 2006) than any state except for Texas - marginally even more than Oklahoma.^ More Kansas data sets .
  • Kansas QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC quickfacts.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you live in a state other than Kansas, you must get licensed in your state first, and then seek a license in Kansas either by testing or reciprocity.

^ November 9, 2007 - The Lottery celebrates its 20th anniversary by announcing that it has transferred more than $1 billion to the State in the 20 years since the first ticket was sold.
  • About The Kansas Lottery 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kslottery.com [Source type: General]

.It has also - along with Alabama - reported more F5 tornadoes than any other state.^ Either husband or wife may consent in writing, executed in the presence of two witnesses, that the other may bequeath more than half of his or her property from the one so consenting.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elementary & Secondary Education on the state report and more specifically on North Kansas City Schools .

^ This erotic interest, which is far more specific than whatever "autogynephilia" is supposed to mean, is something others share.
  • Anne Lawrence: The Anne Who Would Be Queen 22 September 2009 22:28 UTC www.tsroadmap.com [Source type: Original source]

These are the most powerful of all tornadoes. Kansas averages over 50 tornadoes annually.[8]
Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Kansas Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Concordia 36/17 43/22 54/31 64/41 74/52 85/62 91/67 88/66 80/56 68/44 51/30 40/21
Dodge City 41/19 48/24 57/31 67/41 76/52 87/62 93/67 91/66 82/56 70/44 54/30 44/22
Goodland 39/16 45/20 53/26 63/35 72/46 84/56 89/61 87/60 78/50 66/38 50/25 41/18
Topeka 37/17 44/23 56/33 66/43 75/53 84/63 89/68 88/65 80/56 69/44 53/32 41/22
Wichita 40/20 47/25 57/34 67/44 76/54 87/64 93/69 92/68 82/59 70/47 54/34 43/24
[2]

History

Main article: History of Kansas
For millennia, the land that is presently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. .The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase.^ Originally part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, present day Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory for 18 years.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homeland Security Regions for the state of Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louisiana, of which Kansas was a part, was subject to France until 3 November, 1762 when it became a Spanish possession; only to be retroceded to France in 1800; it was purchased by the United States 30 April, 1803.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Southwest Kansas, however, was still a part of Spain, Mexico, and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican-American War in 1848. From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory.^ The best-known historic location of these people was a plot of territory including contiguous parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

^ They lived in Colorado and New Mexico and ranged over parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.

^ After leaving Iowa, the Sauk and Fox Indians occupied a reserve in the eastern part of Kansas, but about 1859 the Foxes returned to Iowa, and in 1867 the Sauk ceded their Kansas territories and moved to Oklahoma.

.The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe.^ Governor Sebelius helps the Lottery launch a $2 instant ticket dedicated to The Great Santa Fe Trail Horse Race Endurance Ride, the bulk of which will take place in Kansas in September of 2007.
  • About The Kansas Lottery 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kslottery.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1823 the wagon-trains from Missouri to Santa Fé passing through Kansas opened the commerce of the plains.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1880 the state constitution was amended by the adoption of the law prohibiting in Kansas the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors, except for medical , scientific, and mechanical purposes.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today.^ Wagon ruts on the Santa Fe Trail are 9 miles west of town on Highway 50.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

.In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state.^ The first settlement established in the territory where the state of Kansas is presently located was Fort Leavenworth.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fort Leavenworth, begun in 1827, was a popular stop for travelers who were moving across the western frontier.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bishop Fink remained Vicar Apostolic of Kansas until Leavenworth was made an episcopal see , in 1877, when he became its first bishop with jurisdiction over the State of Kansas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Kansas-Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing the U.S. territories of Nebraska and Kansas.^ Kansas (Territory 1854.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first settlement established in the territory where the state of Kansas is presently located was Fort Leavenworth.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Known as Kansas Territory in 1854, people began moving into the great rolling prairies.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

.Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, and Pueblo.^ The best-known historic location of these people was a plot of territory including contiguous parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

^ Kansas Territory extended westward to the summit of the Rocky Mountains, including a large portion of the present State of Colorado under the name of Arapahoe County.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first settlement established in the territory where the state of Kansas is presently located was Fort Leavenworth.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

.Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Southeastern Kansas, namely Crawford County, Bourbon County, and Cherokee County.^ Kansas Territory extended westward to the summit of the Rocky Mountains, including a large portion of the present State of Colorado under the name of Arapahoe County.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anderson County, Kansas - A 200 MW proposed project of TradeWind Energy of Lenexa, KS. This project is located in Southeastern Anderson County.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind-farm plan blows into Cowley and Elk counties ( Arkansas City Traveler , Nov.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. .The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri.^ In 1820 Congress passed an Act enabling the people of Missouri Territory to become a state, but prohibiting slavery in all of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30'.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first settlement established in the territory where the state of Kansas is presently located was Fort Leavenworth.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1805 Congress changed the District of Louisiana to the Territory of "Louisiana", still embracing Missouri and Kansas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.^ Kansas Territory extended westward to the summit of the Rocky Mountains, including a large portion of the present State of Colorado under the name of Arapahoe County.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The State of Kansas is not as large as the territory organized under the same name; in area it ranks the eleventh among the states in the Union, and it is nearly ten times as large as Massachusetts .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In consequence, the North and South entered into a contest to people the Territory of Kansas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Kansas was admitted to the United States as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to enter the Union.^ Kansas, one of the United States of America , is the central state of the Union, to which it was admitted 29 January, 1861.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kansas was admitted as a free State on 29 January, 1861.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1806 Zebulon M. Pike explored the south of Kansas; at his instance (29 September, 1806) the United States flag replaced the Spanish flag at the Pawnee Indian village in the present Republic County.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.By that time the violence in Kansas had largely subsided.^ The State of Kansas is not as large as the territory organized under the same name; in area it ranks the eleventh among the states in the Union, and it is nearly ten times as large as Massachusetts .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly two hundred people.^ The "story" goes that the owner left his wife to go off to war during the Civil war.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Fort Scott - Old Fort - There have been hundreds of sightings here of soldiers from the Civil War and fog-like apparitions sifting up the chimney in the officers' quarters.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On 21 August, 1863, the notorious guerilla Quantrell attacked Lawrence at daybreak and within five hours left the city a smouldering ruin, with 143 of its citizens slain, and 43 others wounded.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Until the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Quantrill's raid was the single bloodiest act of domestic terrorism in America.
.After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas.^ After the Civil War, many veterans made homestead claims in Kansas.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicodemus, Kansas was established in July of 1877 and was the largest community established by freed slaves following the Civil War.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

^ The Battle of Mine Creek was one of the largest cavalry battles of the Civil War and the largest battle fought in Kansas.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

.Many African Americans also looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and led by men like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton began establishing black colonies in the state.^ Arkansas City, Kansas - Cherokee Strip and Land Rush Museum hosts many exhibits related to the history of Arkansas City and the surrounding portions of Kansas and Oklahoma.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

^ The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas in raster format.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first settlement established in the territory where the state of Kansas is presently located was Fort Leavenworth.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West era commenced in Kansas.^ Larned, Kansas - Just a few miles west of Larned is the locally run Santa Fe Trail Center and Fort Larned National Historic Site .
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

Wild Bill Hickok was a deputy marshal at Fort Riley and a marshal at Hays and Abilene. .Dodge City was another wild cowboy town in the late 19th century.^ Dodge City, Kansas - Free, Fort Dodge (now the Kansas Soldiers' Home) is 5 miles east of town.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

.In one year alone, 8 million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns."^ Park City - The Backtrail - One of the ghost was murdered back in these woods several years ago.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Dodge City, Kansas - Free, Fort Dodge (now the Kansas Soldiers' Home) is 5 miles east of town.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

^ Resident - 1997 - $1.5 Million Isabel Nelson, Salina - 1997 - $1.8 Million Larry Henderson, Frontenac - 1997 - $1.5 Million Randy Essenburg, Dodge City - 1998 - $1.0 Million Wyandotte Co .
  • About The Kansas Lottery 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kslottery.com [Source type: General]

Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp were both lawmen in Dodge City. .In part as a response to the violence perpetrated by cowboys, on February 19, 1881, Kansas became the first U.S. state to adopt a Constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages.^ In November of 1986, 64 percent of Kansas voters approved a constitutional amendment authorizing the creation of a state lottery.
  • About The Kansas Lottery 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kslottery.com [Source type: General]

^ Fort Riley has museums & monuments, national cemetery, tours, flight & combat simulators, and the first capital of the State of Kansas.
  • Kansas Travel, Tourism and Attractions 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansastravel.org [Source type: General]

^ In addition, Kansas has adopted other classes of prohibited persons, and incorporated some of the federal prohibitions as state offenses.
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

Demographics

As of 2006, Kansas has an estimated population of 2,764,075, which is an increase of 15,903, or 0.6%, from the prior year and an increase of 71,128, or 2.6%, since the year 2000.Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag
Kansas|03-20.csv|= 6.41| 1.78| 2.10| 0.12|= 0.23| 0.19| 0.05| 0.02|= 6.60| 1.67| 2.45| 0.12|= 0.28| 0.20| 0.06| 0.02|= 5.04| -4.13| 19.15| 3.43|= 4.28| -5.09| 19.19| 2.86|= 25.88| 3.71| 17.69| 5.86}}
As of 2004, the population included 149,800 foreign-born (5.5% of the state population). The largest reported ancestries in the state are: German (25.9%), Irish (11.5%), English (10.8%), American (8.8%), French (3.1%), and Swedish (2.4%).[9] People of German ancestry are especially strong in the northwest, while those of British ancestry and descendants of white Americans from other states are especially strong in the southeast. .Mexicans are present in the southwest and make up nearly half the population in certain counties.^ Renters make up 27.97% of the Kansas, KS, population.
  • Kansas, Kansas (KS) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many African Americans in Kansas are descended from the Exodusters, newly freed blacks who fled the South for land in Kansas following the Civil War.^ After the Civil War, many veterans made homestead claims in Kansas.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About the end of the Civil War some of the Prairie band moved back to Wisconsin but the greater part of them remained and accepted lands in severalty.

^ General R. W. Blair who came to Kansas in 1859, for a generation devoted his eminent talents in peace and in war to furthering the best interests of the state.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Rural flight

Urban and rural populations
.Kansas is one of the slowest-growing states in the nation.^ Kansas, one of the United States of America , is the central state of the Union, to which it was admitted 29 January, 1861.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Members of the armed services or reserve forces of the United States or the Kansas national guard while in the performance of their official duty; .
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

Known as a rural exodus, the last few decades have been marked by a migratory pattern out of the countryside into cities.
.Out of all the cities in these Midwestern states, 89% have fewer than 3000 people, and hundreds of those have fewer than 1000. In Kansas alone, there are more than 6,000 ghost towns, according to one Kansas historian.^ There are 120 towns that have over one thousand inhabitants each; 13 of those have over ten thousand people.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have written for each of these attorneys on more than one occasion, and I expect that each would tell you that he or she makes minimal, if any, editing to my work.
  • Kansas Attorney Profiles - KS Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many stories say that a large group of people went out into the cemetery on Halloween and the next day they were found all slaughtered.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, some of the communities in Johnson County (metropolitan Kansas City) are among the fastest growing in the country.^ Almost every legislature has passed some law in reference to the enforcement of "prohibition" which in the large cities has never been strictly enforced for any length of time.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sherman County, Kansas - An 81 MW wind farm is being proposed for Sherman County, southwest of the city of Goodland.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ness City - Old Ness County Bank Building - In the 1960's the second floor was rented as apartments to some older women.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

Economy

Top 9 Kansas Employers (by number of employees)[10]
Rank Business Employees Location
#1 Spirit AeroSystems 21,000 Wichita
#2 Cessna 13,000 Wichita
#3 Fort Riley 12,500 Riley County
#4 Raytheon 9,500 Wichita
#5 Scanlon's LLC 6,000 Leavenworth
#6 University of Kansas Medical Center 5,000 Kansas City
#7 Via Christi St. Joseph Hospital 5,000 Wichita
#8 Via Christi St. Francis Hospital 3,300 Wichita
#9 Kansas State University 3,030 Manhattan
.The 2003 gross domestic product of Kansas was US$98 billion, an increase of 4.3% over the prior year, but trailing the national average increase of 4.8%.^ An amount below 100 means Kansas, KS is cheaper than the US average.
  • Kansas, Kansas (KS) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On average, there are 230 sunny days per year in Kansas, KS. The July high is around 92 degrees.
  • Kansas, Kansas (KS) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are 97 physicians per 100,000 population in Kansas, KS. The US average is 170.
  • Kansas, Kansas (KS) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its per-capita income was US$29,438. The December 2003 unemployment rate was 4.9%.^ The income per capita is $23,554, which includes all adults and children.
  • Kansas, Kansas (KS) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The agricultural outputs of the state are cattle, sheep, wheat, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, hogs, corn, and salt. The industrial outputs are transportation equipment, commercial and private aircraft, food processing, publishing, chemical products, machinery, apparel, petroleum and mining.
Kansas ranks 8th in U.S. oil production. .Production has experienced a steady, natural decline as it becomes increasingly difficult to extract oil over time.^ Natural gas production from this unconventional resource is rapidly expanding in the Cherokee Platform, where reserves have become economically recoverable.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas production from coalbed methane is rapidly expanding in the Cherokee Platform, where reserves have become economically recoverable.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since oil prices bottomed in 1999, oil production in Kansas has remained fairly constant, with an average monthly rate of about 2.8 million barrels in 2004. The recent higher prices have made carbon dioxide sequestration and other oil recovery techniques more economical.^ Dennis has served on the Kansas Board of Discipline since first being appointed by the Kansas Supreme Court in 1999 and has lectured on the subject of Ethics at various seminars.
  • Kansas Attorney Profiles - KS Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kansas ranks 8th in U.S. natural gas production.^ Although Kansas’s conventional natural gas production has declined by almost a quarter since 2001, the State holds untapped reserves of coalbed methane in its southeastern coal-producing region.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas ranks among the top 10 States in crude oil production.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas wells and pipelines are concentrated in the Anadarko Shelf in southwest Kansas.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Production has steadily declined since the mid-1990’s with the depletion of the Hugoton Natural Gas Field—the state's largest field which extends into Oklahoma and Texas. .In 2004, slower declines in the Hugoton gas fields and increased coalbed methane production contributed to a smaller overall decline.^ Although Kansas’s conventional natural gas production has declined by almost a quarter since 2001, the State holds untapped reserves of coalbed methane in its southeastern coal-producing region.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hugoton Gas Area, in southwestern Kansas, is the fifth largest natural gas field in the United States.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas production from coalbed methane is rapidly expanding in the Cherokee Platform, where reserves have become economically recoverable.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Average monthly production was over 32 billion cubic feet (0.9 km³).
Kansas has three income brackets for income tax calculation, ranging from 3.5% to 6.45%. .The state sales tax in Kansas is 5.3%.^ Kansas, KS,sales tax rate is 6.30%.
  • Kansas, Kansas (KS) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various cities and counties in Kansas have an additional local sales tax.^ Pursuant to Kansas Statutes Annotated 12-16,124(b), cities and counties may: .
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any meeting of the governing body of a county, city or other political or taxing subdivision of the state, or any committee or subcommittee thereof; .
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elk City, Wilson County, Kansas - A 200 MW wind project is proposed near Elk City.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Except during the 2001 recession (March–November 2001) when monthly sales tax collections were flat, collections have trended higher as the economy has grown and two rate increases have been enacted.^ Kansas, KS,sales tax rate is 6.30%.
  • Kansas, Kansas (KS) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Total sales tax collections for 2003 amounted to $1.63 billion, compared to $805.3 million in 1990.
.Revenue shortfalls resulting from lower than expected tax collections and slower growth in personal income following a 1998 permanent tax reduction has contributed to the substantial growth in the state's debt level as bonded debt increased from $1.16 billion in 1998 to $3.83 billion in 2006. Some increase in debt was expected as the state continues with its 10-year Comprehensive Transportation Program enacted in 1999. As of June 2004, Moody's Investors Service ranked the state 14th for net tax-supported debt per capita.^ Kansas is one of the top 10 oil-producing States in the Nation and is a substantial oil-refining State, as well.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The income per capita is $23,554, which includes all adults and children.
  • Kansas, Kansas (KS) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas ranks among the top 10 States in crude oil production.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a percentage of personal income, it was at 3.8%—above the median value of 2.5% for all rated states and having risen from a value of less than 1% in 1992. The state has a statutory requirement to maintain cash reserves of at least 7.5% of expenses at the end of each fiscal year.^ Income Less Than 15K .
  • Kansas, Kansas (KS) - Sperling's BestPlaces 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See more Reserves and Supply data for all States .
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Temporarily or permanently seizing, or authorizing seizure of, any firearm the possession of which is not prohibited under state law, other than as evidence in a criminal investigation; or Requiring registration of any firearm for which registration is not required by state law.
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

.Major company headquarters in Kansas include the Sprint Nextel Corporation (with operational headquarters in Overland Park), Embarq (with national headquarters in Overland Park), Garmin in Olathe, and Payless Shoes (National headquarters and major distribution facilities in Topeka).^ Fifty-One Corporate Woods, 9393 W. 110th St., Suite 500 Overland Park, KS 66210 .
  • Kansas Attorney Profiles - KS Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dodge City Emporia Garden City Hutchinson Kansas City Lawrence Leavenworth Leawood Lenexa Manhattan Mission Olathe Overland Park Pittsburg Salina Shawnee Topeka Wichita .
  • Kansas Attorney Profiles - KS Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LEAVENWORTH...OVERLAND PARK...OLATHE...TARKIO...MARYVILLE...
  • Current Watches, Warnings and Advisories for Kansas Issued by the National Weather Service 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.weather.gov [Source type: News]

Transportation

Map of the Kansas road system.
.Kansas is served by two Interstate highways with two spur routes, three bypasses, and one beltway over a total of 874 miles.^ One of the tear down procedures was two or three of them would walk around the school and take down the flyers promoting the play.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Directions: One mile north of Overbrook Kansas, to 149th, East 1 three quarters of a miles to 7049.
  • Where to find pick your own farms and orchards in Kansas for fruit, vegetables, pumpkins and Christmas trees. 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ Turn right and go one and three quarter miles south to our patch.
  • Where to find pick your own farms and orchards in Kansas for fruit, vegetables, pumpkins and Christmas trees. 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

The first section of Interstate in the nation was opened on I-70 just west of Topeka on November 14, 1956. I-70 is a major east/west route connecting to St. Louis and Kansas City, in the east and Denver, in the west. .Cities along this route (from east to west) include Kansas City, Lawrence, Topeka, Junction City, Salina, Hays, and Colby.^ Total project size is around 250 MW. Buyers of the power from the project include Sunflower Electric of Hays, Midwest Energy (Hays) and Kansas City Board of Public Utilities .
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Directions: Approximately 3 miles straight north of downtown Lawrence, or from I-70 (Kansas Turnpike) East Lawrence exit, north 1 mile on 24/59.
  • Where to find pick your own farms and orchards in Kansas for fruit, vegetables, pumpkins and Christmas trees. 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ Coffeyville Emporia Garden City Hutchinson Kansas City Lawrence Manhattan Pittsburg Salina St. Joseph Topeka Wichita .
  • Kansas Attorney Profiles - KS Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I-35 is a major north/south route connecting to Des Moines, in the north and Oklahoma City, in the south. .Cities along this route (from north to south) include Kansas City (and suburbs), Ottawa, Emporia, El Dorado, and Wichita.^ Coffeyville Emporia Garden City Hutchinson Kansas City Lawrence Manhattan Pittsburg Salina St. Joseph Topeka Wichita .
  • Kansas Attorney Profiles - KS Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dodge City Emporia Garden City Hutchinson Kansas City Lawrence Leavenworth Leawood Lenexa Manhattan Mission Olathe Overland Park Pittsburg Salina Shawnee Topeka Wichita .
  • Kansas Attorney Profiles - KS Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spur routes serve as connections between the two major routes. .I-135, a north/south route, connects I-70 at Salina to I-35 at Wichita.^ Directions: South of Salina off of Interstate 135, use exit 78 or 82 and follow the Smoky Hill Bison signs to the Visitors Center.
  • Where to find pick your own farms and orchards in Kansas for fruit, vegetables, pumpkins and Christmas trees. 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ Directions: South of Salina on I 135 to Exit 82 (Assaria).
  • Where to find pick your own farms and orchards in Kansas for fruit, vegetables, pumpkins and Christmas trees. 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

I-335, a northeast/southwest route, connects I-70 at Topeka to I-35 at Emporia. .I-335 and portions of I-35 and I-70 make up the Kansas Turnpike.^ Directions: Approximately 3 miles straight north of downtown Lawrence, or from I-70 (Kansas Turnpike) East Lawrence exit, north 1 mile on 24/59.
  • Where to find pick your own farms and orchards in Kansas for fruit, vegetables, pumpkins and Christmas trees. 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

Bypasses include I-470 around Topeka and I-235 around Wichita. .I-435 is a beltway around the Kansas City Metropolitan Area while I-635 bypasses through Kansas City, Kansas.^ Additionally, Jeff successfully prosecuted and tried numerous matters while an Assistant City Attorney for the City of Prairie Village, Kansas from 1996 through 2001.
  • Kansas Attorney Profiles - KS Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are a family owned and operated farm, located in a beautiful valley just outside of the Kansas City metro area.
  • Where to find pick your own farms and orchards in Kansas for fruit, vegetables, pumpkins and Christmas trees. 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ Home > Kansas Browse By Practice Areas Metro Areas Counties Cities Find Kansas Lawyer, Legal Aid & Services Profiles by Practice Area .
  • Kansas Attorney Profiles - KS Lawyers - Cornell LII Lawyer Directory 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC lawyers.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

US Route 69 runs north and south, from Minnesota to Texas. .The highway passes through the eastern section of Kansas, from the Kansas City area, through Fort Scott, Frontenac, Pittsburg, and Baxter Springs before entering Oklahoma.^ Prior to the enactment of section 12-16,124, the Supreme Court of Kansas relied on the home rule powers of cities in Kansas under art.
  • Legal Community Against Violence 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lcav.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kansas Highway Patrol Troop Areas locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is also supplied to Kansas by pipelines entering the State from Oklahoma and Colorado.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kansas also has the second largest state highway system in the country after California.^ Bridges on the state highway system.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hugoton Gas Area, in southwestern Kansas, is the fifth largest natural gas field in the United States.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas Non-State Road System .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is because of the high number of counties and county seats (105) and the inter-twineing of them all.
.In January 2004, the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) announced the new Kansas 511 traveler information service.^ The information will be retained for the sole use of Kansas Travel & Tourism or its authorized agents.
  • Kansas Travel and Tourism Division, Kansas Department of Commerce 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.travelks.com [Source type: News]

^ Kansas Travel and Tourism Division, Kansas Department of Commerce .
  • Kansas Travel and Tourism Division, Kansas Department of Commerce 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.travelks.com [Source type: News]

[11] .By dialing 511, callers will get access to information about road conditions, construction, closures, detours and weather conditions for the state highway system.^ Bridges on the state highway system.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional Information about State Energy Profiles .
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas Non-State Road System .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Weather and road condition information is updated every 15 minutes. .The elaborate and efficient transportation system in Kansas has attracted praise from experts nationwide, including the former Mayor of New York City, Ed Koch, who frequents Kansas roadways.^ Manhattan - Kansas State University - The Pi Kappa Phi fraternity house - is haunted by a former frat boy, Duncan, who dies from a hazing incident.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lawrence - University of Kansas - Sigma Nu Fraternity - Apparently the ghost of the mistress of a former governor who lived there.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Kansas City News .
  • Lawrence, Kansas (66044) Conditions & Forecast : Weather Underground 22 September 2009 22:28 UTC www.wunderground.com [Source type: Reference]

The state's only major commercial airport is Wichita Mid-Continent Airport, located along U.S. 54 on the western edge of the city. .Most air travelers in eastern Kansas fly out of Kansas City International Airport, located in Platte County.^ Sherman County, Kansas - An 81 MW wind farm is being proposed for Sherman County, southwest of the city of Goodland.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elk County, Kansas - A project of TradeWind Energy of Lenexa, KS, located 10 miles west of Howard.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sherman County, Kansas - ReNewable Energy Resources , a wind energy development company out of Tennessee, announced in Feb.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For those in the far western part of the state, Denver International Airport is a popular option. .Connecting flights are available from smaller airports in Dodge City, Garden City, Great Bend, Hays, Manhattan, Salina, and Topeka.^ Dodge City - Saint Mary's - Saint Mary's is an old church (no longer used) which is connected to the college.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ CLAY CENTER...MANHATTAN...ABILENE...JUNCTION CITY...TOPEKA...
  • Current Watches, Warnings and Advisories for Kansas Issued by the National Weather Service 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.weather.gov [Source type: News]

Law and government

State and local politics

See also: List of Governors of Kansas
.The top executives of the state are Democratic Governor Kathleen Sebelius and Lieutenant Governor Mark Parkinson.^ This project also falls in the " Heart of the Flint Hills " (PDF, 1.7 MB) area, where Governor Kathleen Sebelius' has discouraged wind farm development.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Both officials are elected on the same ticket to a maximum of two consecutive 4-year terms. Parkinson replaced John E. Moore who served as Lt. Governor during Sebelius's first term which ended on January 8, 2007. Sebelius will not be up for re-election in 2010. The state's Attorney General is Democrat Paul Morrison, a former Republican who was first elected in 2006.
.The legislative branch of the state government is the Kansas Legislature.^ State Toll-free Numbers Judicial Branch Higher Education Legislative Branch .
  • Services Directory - State of Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC services.ks.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The bicameral body consists of the Kansas House of Representatives, with 125 members serving two year terms, and the Kansas Senate, with 40 members serving four year terms.^ Kansas House of Representatives Districts - 2008 .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns map and Kansas River Watershed Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period (2007-2009).
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas House of Representative Districts - districts current as of 2002 redistricting.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

State symbols
.
Kansas has a reputation as a progressive state with many firsts in legislative initiatives—it was the first state to institute a system of workers compensation (1910).
^ The first settlement established in the territory where the state of Kansas is presently located was Fort Leavenworth.
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many rumors are speculated about some of the Universities buildings, which are all some of the oldest in the state of Kansas.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Kansas Non-State Road System .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kansas was also one of the first states to permit women's suffrage in 1912. Suffrage in all states would not be guaranteed until ratification of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. The council-manager government was adopted by many larger Kansas cities in the years following World War I while many American cities were being run by political machines or organized crime.^ Many rumors are speculated about some of the Universities buildings, which are all some of the oldest in the state of Kansas.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Sherman County, Kansas - An 81 MW wind farm is being proposed for Sherman County, southwest of the city of Goodland.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Park City - The Backtrail - One of the ghost was murdered back in these woods several years ago.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

Kansas was also at the center of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, a 1954 Supreme Court decision that banned racially segregated schools throughout the U.S.
Since the 1960s, Kansas has grown more socially conservative. .The 1990s brought new restrictions on abortion, the defeat of prominent Democrats, including Dan Glickman, and the Kansas State Board of Education's 1999 decision to eliminate evolution from the state teaching standards, a decision that was later reversed.^ Kansas State Board of Education Districts - 2008 .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas Board of Education Districts - districts current as of 2002 redistricting.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STATE AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES: Kansas Board of Pharmacy-Drug Inspectors .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] In 2005, voters accepted a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage. The next year, the state passed a law setting a minimum age for marriage at 15 years. [13]
.Although Kansas is considered to be one of the most Republican states in the nation, there has been a long-running feud between the socially moderate (or "mainstream") faction and the socially conservative faction of the party.^ Topeka - Harrison Church - This church is one of the most haunted places in Kansas.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

.This battle is so heated that it is often said that there are three parties in Kansas--Democrats, moderate Republicans and conservative Republicans.^ Greatbend - Pawnee Rock - The rock - It is said that the ghost of Indians battling can be heard, Also a few years ago a man killed his wife’s lover there it is said ghosts remain from this as well.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Hays - The Old Swinging Bridge Park Bike Trail - There was a story that said a girl went to a party at Swinging Bridge Park.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Topeka - Rochester Cemetery - The Albino Lady is seen often in the cemetery Topeka - Kansas Department of Health and Environment - at the KDHE there are said to be two different ghosts that haunt that place.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Kansas 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

It is possible for a Democrat to win by winning the support of moderate Republicans and a few registered independents. .Thus, recently, Kansas has been warming to Democrats, re-electing a Democratic Governor, Kathleen Sebelius in 2006, with 58% of the vote, as well as Democrat Paul Morrison (a former Republican) as replacement for incumbent Attorney General Phill Kline.^ This project also falls in the " Heart of the Flint Hills " (PDF, 1.7 MB) area, where Governor Kathleen Sebelius' has discouraged wind farm development.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Democrats also picked up six seats in the Kansas House of Representatives, and Democrat Nancy Boyda defeated conservative Republican Congressman Jim Ryun in the 2nd Congressional District.^ US House of Representatives Districts - 2008 .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas House of Representatives Districts - 2008 .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas House of Representative Districts - districts current as of 2002 redistricting.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Federal politics

See also: U.S. Congressional Delegations from Kansas
.The state's current delegation to the Congress of the United States includes Republican Senators Sam Brownback of Topeka and Pat Roberts of Dodge City and Representatives Jerry Moran of Hays (District 1), Nancy Boyda of Topeka (District 2), Dennis Moore of Lenexa (District 3), and Todd Tiahrt of Goddard (District 4).^ Tiahrt, Todd (R-KS, District 4) .
  • Kansas | TheMiddleClass.org 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moran, Jerry (R-KS, District 1) .
  • Kansas | TheMiddleClass.org 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moore, Dennis (D-KS, District 3) .
  • Kansas | TheMiddleClass.org 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

.Boyda and Moore are Democrats; Moran and Tiahrt are Republicans.^ Jenkins, Lynn (R, District 2) NA 8% Moore, Dennis (D, District 3) A 96% Moran, Jerry (R, District 1) F 28% Tiahrt, Todd (R, District 4) D 9% .
  • Kansas | TheMiddleClass.org 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

Kansas has not elected a Democrat to the U.S. Senate since 1932, when Franklin D. Roosevelt won his first term as President in the wake of the Great Depression. Senator Sam Brownback carries the distinction of being the most popularly-elected politician in Kansas history and was a candidate for the Republican party nomination for President in 2008.
Historically, Kansas since the state's inception has strongly supported the Republican party. The people of Kansas supported Republican Presidential candidates every election from 1864 to 1888. Aside from Populist candidates winning Kansas' electoral votes in the 1890s, the only Democrats to win Kansas were Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt and Lyndon Johnson. .In recent history, Kansas has not supported a Democratic presidential candidate since 1964, when Lyndon B. Johnson won the state's electoral vote.^ Elk County History (William G. Cutler's "History of the State of Kansas") .
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cutler's History of the State of Kansas .
  • Kansas Census Records Online 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

In 2004, George W. Bush won the state's 6 electoral votes by an overwhelming margin of 25 percentage points with 62% of the vote. .The only two counties to support Democrat John Kerry in the same election were Wyandotte, which contains Kansas City, and Douglas, home to the University of Kansas, located in Lawrence.^ Anderson County, Kansas - A 200 MW proposed project of TradeWind Energy of Lenexa, KS. This project is located in Southeastern Anderson County.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coffey County, Kansas - Two 100 MW wind projects applied for interconnection with SPP in Fall 2008.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ford County, Kansas - A project of enXco that is 100.5 MW in size, located north of Hwy 50/56 near Spearville.
  • Kansas Wind Energy Projects 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

State law

See also: Alcohol laws of Kansas
.The legal drinking age in Kansas is 21. In lieu of the state retail sales tax, a 10% Liquor Drink Tax is collected for liquor consumed on the licensed premises and an 8% Liquor Enforcement Tax is collected on retail purchases.^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although the sale of cereal malt beverage (also known as 3.2 beer) was legalized in 1937, the first post-Prohibition legalization of alcoholic liquor did not occur until the state's constitution was amended in 1948. The following year the Legislature enacted the Liquor Control Act which created a system of regulating, licensing, and taxing, and the Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) was created to enforce the act. The power to regulate cereal malt beverage remains with the cities and counties. Liquor-by-the-drink did not become legal until passage of an amendment to the state's constitution in 1986 and additional legislation the following year. .As of November 2006, Kansas still has 29 dry counties and only 17 counties have passed liquor-by-the-drink with no food sales requirement.^ This data set includes all the lakes and wildlife areas in the Kansas 2006 Water Register that have established TMDLs as of October 17, 2006.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set includes all the streams in the Kansas 2006 Water Register that have established TMDLs as of October 17, 2006.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Today there are more than 2600 liquor and 4000 cereal malt beverage licensees in the state.^ "I think electrolysis is a lot more intimate than laser but there are more fun things that happen at laser than electrolysis."
  • Anne Lawrence: The Anne Who Would Be Queen 22 September 2009 22:28 UTC www.tsroadmap.com [Source type: Original source]

[15]
The state's investigative branch is the Kansas Bureau of Investigation.

Important cities and towns

See also: List of cities in Kansas
Cities with population of at least 10,000
City Population* Growth rate** Metro area
1 Wichita 357,698 0.29% Wichita
2 Overland Park 166,722 1.78% Kansas City
3 Kansas City 143,801 -0.34% Kansas City
4 Topeka 122,113 -0.13% Topeka
5 Olathe 114,662 3.69% Kansas City
6 Lawrence 88,605 1.68% Lawrence
7 Shawnee 59,252 3.64% Kansas City
8 Manhattan 50,737 1.83%
9 Salina 46,140 0.13%
10 Lenexa 44,520 1.71% Kansas City
11 Hutchinson 41,085 -0.29%
12 Leavenworth 34,993 -0.23% Kansas City
13 Leawood 30,702 1.75% Kansas City
14 Garden City 27,175 -0.80%
15 Emporia 26,188 -0.40%
16 Dodge City 26,101 0.54%
17 Prairie Village 21,414 -0.49% Kansas City
18 Derby 21,101 2.62% Wichita
19 Liberal 20,384 0.58%
20 Hays 19,726 -0.23%
21 Pittsburg 19,120 -0.12%
22 Newton 18,093 0.34% Wichita
23 Junction City 16,106 -2.36% Manhattan‡
24 Gardner 15,597 10.17% Kansas City
25 Great Bend 15,537 0.20%
26 McPherson 13,594 -0.23%
27 Ottawa 12,792 1.15% Kansas City
28 El Dorado 12,718 -0.13% Wichita
29 Winfield 11,741 -0.65% Winfield-Arkansas City‡
30 Arkansas City 11,416 -0.78% Winfield-Arkansas City‡
31 Parsons 11,237 -0.36%
32 Merriam 10,773 -0.35% Kansas City
33 Lansing 10,705 1.79% Kansas City
34 Coffeyville 10,387 -0.97%
35 Atchison 10,154 -0.13%
36 Haysville 10,029 2.45% Wichita
*Estimated as of July 1, 2006[16]
**Estimated annual growth rate 2000–2006
‡Defined as a micropolitan area
Kansas has 627 incorporated cities. .By state statute, cities are divided into three classes as determined by the population obtained "by any census of enumeration". A city of the third class has a population of less than 5,000, but cities reaching a population of more than 2,000 may be certified as a city of the second class.^ More Kansas directories: Cities, towns, and villages in Kansas between 1000 and 6000 residents   Towns, and villages in Kansas with fewer than 1000 residents .
  • Kansas Bigger Cities (over 6000 residents) - Real Estate, Housing, Schools, Residents, Crime, Pollution, Demographics and More 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: Academic]

.The second class is limited to cities with a population of less than 25,000, and upon reaching a population of more than 15,000, they may be certified as a city of the first class.^ More Kansas directories: Cities, towns, and villages in Kansas between 1000 and 6000 residents   Towns, and villages in Kansas with fewer than 1000 residents .
  • Kansas Bigger Cities (over 6000 residents) - Real Estate, Housing, Schools, Residents, Crime, Pollution, Demographics and More 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: Academic]

First and second class cities are independent of any township and are not included within the township's territory.

Northeast Kansas

The northeastern portion of the state, extending from the Eastern border to Manhattan and from the Nebraska Border to south of Johnson County, has a rich history and is home to more than 1.5 million people in the Kansas City, Lawrence, Topeka, and St. Joseph metropolitan areas. .In the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the cities of Johnson County have some of the fastest growing populations and highest median incomes in the state and the entire country.^ Rural and county roads and city streets for the state.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kansas area codes and cities within area codes 316, 620, 785, 913 .
  • Kansas area codes and cities within area codes 316, 620, 785, 913 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allareacodes.com [Source type: General]

^ State Conservation Commission Administrative Areas locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Overland Park, a young city incorporated in 1960, has the largest population and the largest land area in the county. It is home to Johnson County Community College, the state's largest community college, and the corporate campus of Sprint Nextel, the largest private employer in the metro area. In 2006 the city was ranked as the 6th best place to live in America; the neighboring city of Olathe was 13th.[17] Olathe is the county seat and home to Johnson County Executive Airport. The cities of Olathe, Shawnee, and Gardner have some of the state's fastest growing populations. .The cities of Overland Park, Lenexa, Olathe, and Gardner are also notable because they lie along the former route of the Santa Fe Trail.^ LEAVENWORTH...OVERLAND PARK...OLATHE...TARKIO...MARYVILLE...
  • Current Watches, Warnings and Advisories for Kansas Issued by the National Weather Service 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.weather.gov [Source type: News]

Among cities with at least one thousand residents, Mission Hills has the highest median income in the state.
.Several institutions of higher education are located in Northeast Kansas including MidAmerica Nazarene University in Olathe, Ottawa University in Ottawa and Overland Park, Kansas City Kansas Community College and KU Medical Center in Kansas City, and KU Edwards Campus in Overland Park.^ Higher Education Institutions 2007-2008 .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Department of Human Resources-Job Centers locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Juvenile Justice Authority-Community Corrections locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Less than an hour's drive to the west, Lawrence is home to the University of Kansas, the largest public university in the state, and Haskell Indian Nations University.^ Kansas State University Extension Offices locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data Creator: Kansas State University Status: This dataset is complete for Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data Creator: Delta State University Status: This dataset is complete for Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To the north, Kansas City, with the second largest land area in the state, contains a number of diverse ethnic neighborhoods.^ The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas in raster format.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State Conservation Commission Administrative Areas locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its attractions include the Kansas Speedway, the Woodlands, and Kansas City T-Bones. Further up the Missouri River, the city of Lansing is the home of the state's first maximum-security prison. Historic Leavenworth, founded in 1854, was the first incorporated city in Kansas. North of the city, Fort Leavenworth is the oldest active Army post west of the Mississippi River. The city of Atchison was an early commercial center in the state and is well-known as the birthplace of Amelia Earhart.
To the west, nearly a quarter million people reside in the Topeka metropolitan area. Topeka is the state capital and home to Washburn University. Built at a Kansas River crossing along the old Oregon Trail, this historic city has several nationally registered historic places. .Further westward along Interstate 70 and the Kansas River is Junction City with its historic limestone and brick buildings and nearby Fort Riley, well-known as the home to the U.S. Army's 1st Infantry Division, also known as the "Big Red One". A short distance away, the city of Manhattan is home to Kansas State University, the second largest public university in the state and the nation's oldest land-grant university, dating back to 1863. South of the campus, Aggieville dates back to 1889 and is the state's oldest shopping district of its kind.^ Kansas State University Extension Offices locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas in raster format.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unified School District boundaries for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wichita

Wichita, the largest city in the state of Kansas
In south-central Kansas, the four-county Wichita metropolitan area is home to nearly 600,000 people. Wichita is the largest city in the state in terms of both land area and population. 'The Air Capital' is a major manufacturing center for the aircraft industry and the home of Wichita State University. With a number of nationally registered historic places, museums, and other entertainment destinations, it has a desire to become a cultural mecca in the Midwest. Although Wichita's population growth has been anemic in recent years, surrounding suburbs are among the fastest growing cities in the state. The population of Goddard has grown by more than 11% per year since 2000.[16] Other fast-growing cities include Andover, Maize, Park City, Derby, and Haysville.
Up river (the Arkansas River) from Wichita is the city of Hutchinson. The city was built on one of the world's largest salt deposits, and it has the world's largest and longest wheat elevator. It is also the home of Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, Prairie Dunes Country Club and the Kansas State Fair. North of Wichita along Interstate 135 is the city of Newton, the former western terminal of the Santa Fe Railroad and trailhead for the famed Chisholm Trail. .To the southeast of Wichita are the cities of Winfield and Arkansas City with historic architecture and the Cherokee Strip Museum (in Ark City).^ ANTHONY...HARPER...WELLINGTON...WINFIELD...ARKANSAS CITY...
  • Current Watches, Warnings and Advisories for Kansas Issued by the National Weather Service 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.weather.gov [Source type: News]

The city of Udall was the site of the deadliest tornado in Kansas on May 25, 1955; it killed 80 people in and near the city.[18] To the southwest of the largest city in the state is Freeport, the state's smallest incorporated city (population 8).

Around the state

Kansas Population Density Map
.Located midway between Kansas City, Topeka, and Wichita in the heart of the Bluestem Region of the Flint Hills, the city of Emporia has several nationally registered historic places and is the home of Emporia State University, well-known for its Teachers College.^ Kansas State University Extension Offices locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EMS Station point locations for the State of Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This data set provides locational data and student/faculty populations for Colleges and Universities in Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was also the home of newspaper man William Allen White.
Southeast Kansas
Southeast Kansas has a unique history with a number of nationally registered historic places in this coal-mining region. Located in Crawford County (dubbed the Fried Chicken Capital of Kansas), Pittsburg is the largest city in the region and the home of Pittsburg State University. The neighboring city of Frontenac in 1888 was the site of the worst mine disaster in the state in which an underground explosion killed 47 miners. "Big Brutus" is located a mile and a half outside the city of West Mineral. Along with the restored fort, historic Fort Scott has a national cemetery designated by President Lincoln in 1862.
Central and North-Central Kansas
Salina is the largest city in central and north-central Kansas. South of Salina is the small city of Lindsborg with its numerous Dala horses. Much of the architecture and decor of this town has a distinctly Swedish style. To the east along Interstate 70, the historic city of Abilene was formerly a trailhead for the Chisholm Trail and was the boyhood home of President Eisenhower. To the west is Lucas, the Grassroots Art Capital of Kansas.
Northwest Kansas
Westward along the Interstate, the city of Russell, traditionally the beginning of sparsely-populated northwest Kansas, is the home of former U.S. Senator Bob Dole and the boyhood home of U.S. Senator Arlen Specter. The city of Hays is home to Fort Hays State University and the Sternberg Museum of Natural History, and is the largest city in the northwest with a population of around 20,000. Two other landmarks are located in smaller towns in Ellis County: the "Cathedral of the Plains" is located 10 miles east of Hays in Victoria, and the boyhood home of Walter Chrysler is 15 miles west of Hays in Ellis. West of Hays, population drops dramatically, even in areas along I-70, and only two towns containing populations of more than 3,000: Colby and Goodland, which are located 35 milies apart along I-70.
Southwest Kansas
.Southwest Kansas, and Dodge City in particular, is famously known for the cattle drive days of the late 19th century.^ URGENT - WINTER WEATHER MESSAGE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DODGE CITY KS 832 PM CST THU JAN 7 2010 ...DANGEROUS WIND CHILLS EXPECTED TONIGHT ACROSS SOUTHWEST KANSAS...
  • Current Watches, Warnings and Advisories for Kansas Issued by the National Weather Service 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.weather.gov [Source type: News]

The city of Dodge was built along the old Santa Fe Trail route. The city of Liberal is located along the southern Santa Fe Trail route. The first wind farm in the state was built east of Montezuma. Garden City has the Lee Richardson Zoo.

Education

Main article: Education in Kansas
Education in Kansas is governed primarily by the Kansas State Board of Education (web). Twice the Board has approved changes in the state science curriculum standards that encouraged the teaching of intelligent design. Both times, the standards were reversed after changes in the composition of the board in the next election.

Professional sports teams

Club Sport League
Kansas City T-Bones Baseball Northern League
Wichita Wranglers Baseball Texas League
Topeka Roadrunners Ice hockey North American Hockey League
Wichita Thunder Ice hockey Central Hockey League
Dodge City Legend Basketball United States Basketball League
Kansas Cagerz Basketball United States Basketball League
Kansas Koyotes Indoor Football American Professional Football League
Although there are no major professional sports league teams within Kansas, many Kansans support the sports teams of Kansas City, including the Kansas City Royals (MLB), the Kansas City Chiefs (NFL), the Kansas City Wizards (MLS) and the Kansas City Brigade (AFL). .All three teams except the Brigade, play at the Truman Sports Complex, located about 10 miles from the Kansas-Missouri state line.^ This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subwatershed (10-digit) 6th level for the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Digital representation of electric transmission lines for the state of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State Fire Marshal-Fire Prevention Division locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the Wizards are considering relocating to a new stadium or complex in Johnson County. The Kansas City Brigade played at the Kemper Arena and will move to the new Sprint Center in 2008.
.Persons in western Kansas may sometimes support the major league teams in Denver, and those areas close to the Colorado state line have large pockets of fans of the NFL's Denver Broncos.^ State Conservation Commission Administrative Areas locations, districts, or boundaries in Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Digital representation of electric transmission lines for the state of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STATE AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES: Kansas Highway Patrol Troop Areas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many people who live close to the Oklahoma state line support the Dallas Cowboys. .All Chiefs games are televised throughout Kansas by television stations in Topeka and Wichita, and any Broncos and Cowboys games which do not conflict with Chiefs telecasts are also broadcast across the state.^ EMS Station point locations for the State of Kansas .
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas.
  • Geodatabase Catalog 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kansasgis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Two major auto racing facilities are located in Kansas. The Kansas Speedway located in Kansas City hosts races of the NASCAR, IRL, and ARCA circuits. Also, the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) holds drag racing events at Heartland Park Topeka.

Miscellaneous topics

Notable residents

Amelia Earhart (aviation pioneer), Carrie Nation (temperance activist), former President Eisenhower, former Vice President Charles Curtis, and former presidential candidates Bob Dole and Alf Landon called Kansas their home. NASA astronauts Ronald Evans, Joe Engle, and Steve Hawley also lived in Kansas.
Despite its strong agricultural reputation, Kansas was home to industrial and intellectual pioneers Walter Chrysler of automotive fame, Clyde Cessna and Lloyd Stearman (aviation pioneers), Jack Kilby (microchip inventor, The Nobel Prize Winner in Physics 2000), George Washington Carver (educator and scientist), Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. (The Nobel Prize Winner in Physiology or Medicine 1971), and Vernon L. Smith (The Nobel Prize Winner in Economics 2002). .Also from Kansas are General Richard Myers (Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2001-05) and Robert Gates (United States Secretary of Defense December 2006 - Present).^ United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 2006 .
  • Kansas | TheMiddleClass.org 8 January 2010 4:04 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

Kansas was also home to Danny Carey (musician),Vivian Vance (actress), Samuel Ramey (opera singer), Louise Brooks (actress), Annette Benning (actress), John Brown (abolitionist), Langston Hughes (poet), Gordon Parks (photographer, movie director, musician, author), Fatty Arbuckle (actor), William Inge (writer), Dennis Hopper (actor), Buster Keaton (actor), Coleman Hawkins (Jazz musician), Martina McBride (Country Singer), Melissa Etheridge (musician), Kirstie Alley (actress), Paul Rudd (actor), Charlie Parker (Jazz musician), Jeff Probst (Survivor host), Survivor: Guatemala winner Danni Boatwright, Phil Stacey (American Idol Finalist) and William Allen White (editor).
No discussion of notable Kansas residents would be complete without mentioning the more famous fictional residents: Marshal Matt Dillon from the TV Show Gunsmoke, Mary Ann Summers of Gilligan's Island, Dennis Mitchell (Dennis the Menace), Dean and Sam Winchester from the TV Show Supernatural, Clark Kent/Superman, Lt. Col. Cameron Mitchell of Stargate SG-1, Walter and India Bridge from Mr. and Mrs. Bridge Jonas Nightengale from Leap of Faith and of course Kansas's most famous fictional daughter, Dorothy Gale from The Wizard of Oz.

Landmarks

Main article: List of Kansas landmarks
See also: List of Registered Historic Places in Kansas
.

See also

References

  1. ^ {{Cite news| url=http://www.kansas.com/news/legislature/story/68114.html| title=Bill makes English official language| publisher=Associated Press| date=[[2007-05-12|]] House Bill No. 2140 was signed into law on May 11, the law begins July 1.
  2. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 6, 2006.
  3. ^ http://www.census.gov/geo/www/us_regdiv.pdf
  4. ^ John Koontz, p.c.
  5. ^ Rankin, Robert. 2005. "Quapaw". In Native Languages of the Southeastern United States, eds. Heather K. Hardy and Janine Scancarelli. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, pg. 492
  6. ^ Connelley, William E. 1918. Indians. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans, ch. 10, vol. 1
  7. ^ http://www.improbable.com/airchives/paperair/volume9/v9i3/kansas.html
  8. ^ [1] NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 25, 2006.
  9. ^ Kansas - Race and Hispanic Origin: 1860 to 1990
  10. ^ America's Career InfoNet
  11. ^ {{Cite press release| publisher=Kansas Department of Transportation| date=[[2004-01-22|]]
  12. ^ Los Angeles Times. Vote by Kansas School Board Favors Evolution's Doubters
  13. ^ http://www.azcentral.com/offbeat/articles/0505MarriageAge05-ON.html
  14. ^ Liquor Licensee and Supplier Information. Alcoholic Beverage Control, Kansas Department of Revenue. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  15. ^ History of Alcoholic Beverages in Kansas. Alcoholic Beverage Control, Kansas Department of Revenue (2000). Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  16. ^ a b Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Annual estimates of the population through [[2007-06-28|]].
  17. ^ Best places to live 2006. MONEY Magazine. Retrieved on 2006-12-09.
  18. ^ The Blackwell Tornado of 25 May 1955. NWS Norman, Oklahoma (June 13, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  19. ^ Historic Lecompton - Constitution Hall State Historic Site. Retrieved on 13 April 2007.
  20. ^ http://www.kshs.org/

External links

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Simple English

State of Kansas
File:Flag of [[File:|100px|State seal of Kansas]]
Flag of Kansas Seal of Kansas
Also called: The Sunflower State (official nickname) or The Wheat State[1]
Saying(s): Ad astra per aspera[1]
Official language(s) English[2]
Capital Topeka[1]
Largest city Wichita[3]
Area  Ranked 15th[1]
 - Total 82,282[1] sq mi
(213,110.3 km²)
 - Width 210[4] miles (340 km)
 - Length 410[4] miles (645 km)
 - % water 0.60[5]
 - Latitude 37° N to 40° N
 - Longitude 94° 35′ W to 102° 3′ W
Number of people  Ranked 34th
 - Total (2010) 2,853,118[6]
 - Density 34.9/sq mi 
13.5/km² (42nd)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Mount Sunflower[7]
4,039 ft  (1,232 m)
 - Average 2,000[8] ft  (600 m)
 - Lowest point Verdigris River[7]
679 ft  (207 m)
Became part of the U.S.  January 29, 1861[1] (34th)
Governor Sam Brownback (R)[9]
U.S. Senators Pat Roberts (R)[10]
Jerry Moran (R)[11]
Time zones  
 - most of state Central: UTC-6/-5
 - Greeley, Hamilton,
Sherman and Wallace counties
Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations KS US-KS
Web site www.kansas.gov

Kansas (pronounced /kăn'zəs/)[12] is a state in the Midwestern United States of America. It had a population of about 2,853,118 people in 2010. The state has a total area of about 81,815 sq mi (211,900 km2). Kansas is the 34th largest state by population and the 15th largest state by area. The name of the state comes from the Kansa Native Americans, whose name comes from a Siouan-language phrase meaning "people of the south wind".[3] Kansas is also known by its nickname, The Sunflower State. The land that would become Kansas was bought in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Kansas became a state on January 29, 1861. It was the 34th state to become part of the United States. The people who live in the state are known as Kansans.[13] The state's capital is Topeka, and its largest city is Wichita.

Kansas is in a region known as America's Breadbasket. Like the other states in this area, Kansas is a large producer of wheat and other grains. In fact, almost one-fifth of all wheat grown in the United States is grown in Kansas.[14] In addition to wheat, Kansas also produces large amounts of grain sorghum, summer potatoes, and sunflowers.[15] Other industries in Kansas include aviation and communications.

Contents

History

Early history

In 1541 the Spanish explorer Coranado traveled in to Kansas while in search of the Lost City of Gold.[16] Later, in 1682, France took formal control of the land that would become Kansas.[17] This land was known as the Louisiana territory. In 1762, France gave the Louisiana territory to Spain. However, in 1801, Spain secretly gave the territory back to France in the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso.[17] Then, on April 30, 1803, Napoleon sold the Louisiana territory (including most of Kansas) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase.[17][18][19] In the early 1800s, Kansas was used to hold Native American peoples that were moved from their native lands.[20]

Statehood

On May 30, 1854, the Congress signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which said that Kansas and Nebraska were both territories of the United States.[21][22] It also said that people living in Kansas would vote on whether slavery would be legal or not.[23]

Upon hearing this, about 1,200 armed New Englanders came to Kansas to vote against slavery. However, thousands of southerners, mostly from Missouri, came to vote for slavery.[23] The final vote was to make slavery legal, and Kansas adopted most of Missouri's slave laws.

Several times, Kansas tried to become a state. Some versions of it's application for statehood allowed slavery, while others did not. Finally, in July 1859, Kansas adopted a free state constitution.[24][25] This application for statehood was sent to the U.S. government in April, 1860 to be voted on. The application was passed by the House of Representatives, but rejected by the Senate.[26] In 1861, after the Confederate states formed, the constitution gained approval from the Union, and Kansas became a state.[20][23][26][27]

Kansas in the Civil War

See also: Bleeding Kansas
File:Battle of
The Lawrence Massacre on August 21, 1863

Soon after Kansas became a state, the Civil War started. Kansas had a minor impact on the war, and hosted a few battles. The most famous of these was the Lawrence Massacre on August 21, 1863. Other famous battles in Kansas include the Battle of Fort Blair and the Battle of Mine Creek.

Post Civil War

See also: Great Migration (African American)

After the Civil War, many free slaves came to Oklahoma and Kansas. In fact, between the years of 1879 and 1881, about 60,000 African Americans came to this region.[28][29] This is because the slaves wanted economic opportunities, which they believed awaited them in Kansas. African Americans also came to Kansas for better political rights and to escape sharecropping.[29]

Weather

[[File:|thumb|right|200px|A tornado in Manhattan, Kansas]]

Kansas is in a temperate area of the country. This means that Kansas has four distinct seasons.

Kansas can have extreme weather in all four seasons. For example, in spring and autumn, Kansas has many tornadoes. In fact, the state averages 55 tornadoes per year.[30] This is because most of Kansas is in the area known as Tornado Alley, where cold and warm air masses come together.

In winter, Kansas has snow in most parts of the state.[31] Blizzards are rare in Kansas, but have occurred famously in January 1886, February 1912, and March 1931.

Economy

Farming has always been an important part of the state economy of Kansas. Only five states grow more items on farms to be sent to other countries.[32] Kansas farmers grow much wheat.[33] However, farming is not the only important part of the economy of Kansas. Many parts of airplanes are made in the city of Wichita, and there are many important companies located in the part of the state located near Kansas City, Missouri, which has several suburbs in Kansas. For example, the Sprint Nextel Corporation, which is one of the largest telephone companies in the United States, has its main offices in Overland Park, Kansas.

State symbols

The state symbols of Kansas are:[1]

File:American bison
The American Bison, Kansas' state animal
Symbol State symbol Date adopted
State flower Native Sunflower 1903
State bird Western Meadowlark 1937
State tree Cottonwood 1937
State song Home on the Range 1947
State animal The American Buffalo 1955

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 "Kansas Quick Facts". governor.ks.gov. https://governor.ks.gov/about-kansas/quickfacts. Retrieved December 30, 2010. 
  2. "Bill makes English official language". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 25, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070525181313/http://kansas.com/news/legislature/story/68114.html. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Kansas". History.com. http://www.history.com/topics/kansas. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Winas 1902, p. 1
  5. "How much of your state is wet?". U.S. Geological Survey. http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wetstates.html. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  6. "Resident Population Data". 2010.census.gov. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-dens-text.php. Retrieved December 30, 2010. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 6, 2006. 
  8. Winas 1902, p. 2
  9. "Governor Sam Brownback". governor.ks.gov. https://governor.ks.gov/about-the-office/governor-sam-brownback. Retrieved December 30, 2010. 
  10. "Senator Roberts Welcomes New Delegation for 112th Congress". roberts.senate.gov. January 5, 2007. http://www.roberts.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?p=PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=0a578bdc-6c67-475b-8249-cf1fcaa8b749. Retrieved January 5, 2011. 
  11. "Kansas Election Results: Jerry Moran Defeats Lisa Johnston In 2010 Senate Race". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/11/02/kansas-election-results-j_n_765984.html. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  12. The Tormont Webster's Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary. United States of America: Tormont Publications Inc. 1990. p. 918. ISBN 2921171325. http://books.google.com/books?id=fxFaAAAACAAJ&dq. Retrieved January 3, 2010. 
  13. "WordNet Search - 3.0". Princeton University. http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=kansan. Retrieved January 5, 2011. 
  14. "FAQ". Kansas Department of Agriculture. http://www.ksda.gov/kansas_agriculture/faq/id/56. Retrieved January 3, 2011. 
  15. "Kansas Agricultural Statistics". Kansas Department of Agriculture. http://www.ksda.gov/statistics/. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  16. "THE WEST - Events from 1500 - 1650". Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/events/1500_1650.htm. Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Ingalls 1892, p. 698
  18. Winas 1902, p. 7
  19. Larned 1894, p. 1936
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Today in History: January 29". Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan29.html. Retrieved January 5, 2011. 
  21. Wishart, David J. (2004). Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press. p. 670. ISBN 0803247877. http://books.google.com/books?id=rtRFyFO4hpEC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  22. Ingalls 1892, pp. 699 –700
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 "Bleeding Kansas". Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html. Retrieved January 3, 2011. 
  24. Winas 1902, p. 8
  25. Larned 1894, p. 1937
  26. 26.0 26.1 Winas 1902, p. 9
  27. Ingalls 1892, p. 705
  28. "General Article: Call of the West". Public Broadcasting Station. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/donner-west-article/. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 "Migrations: The African-American Mosaic (Library of Congress Exhibition)". loc.gov. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam008.html. Retrieved January 23, 2011. 
  30. "Annual Average Number of Tornadoes, 1953-2004". ncdc.noaa.gov. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/avgt5304.gif. Retrieved January 21, 2011. 
  31. "Climate of Kansas". ksre.ksu.edu. 2011 [last update]. http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/wdl/climate/cok/index.asp?page=253. Retrieved January 30, 2011. 
  32. "Kansas Department of Agriculture :: Home Page". ksda.gov. http://www.ksda.gov/. Retrieved May 30, 2010. 
  33. Nicholson, Blake. "N.D. bests Kansas in wheat production". bismarcktribune.com. http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/state-and-regional/article_bafe1700-7a23-5d47-b9f0-987d614269c8.html. Retrieved May 30, 2010. 

Book sources

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