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Kapu
Telugu Kapu.jpg
List of Famous Kapus

Raghupathi Venkaiah • • Vangaveeti Mohana Ranga• • C K Nayudu • • S.V. Ranga Rao• • Chiranjeevi • • Srini Koppolu • • Nagesh Kukunoor • • Vikram Akula • • Savitri• • Mallipudi Mangapati Pallam Raju • • Ghanta Srinivasa Rao • • Achanta Sharath Kamal • • Devi Sri Prasad • • Sekhar Kammula • • Krishna Vamshi • • Venugopal Rao • • Allu Aravind • • Ambati Tirupathi Rayudu • • Thotta Tharani • • Chota K. Naidu • • V.V. Vinayak

Total population
(approx) 15,131,000
Regions with significant populations
Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka
Languages

Telugu, Tamil ,Kannada

Religion

Hinduism

Kapu (Telugu కాపు) refers to a community or social grouping found primarily in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.The word Kapu or Kaapu in Telugu means Protector. Kapus speak Telugu and are primarily an Agrarian community. They are also referred to by their caste title Naidu[1], which means leader.

Castes of India
Kapu
Classification Peasants
Religions Hinduism
Language Telugu, Kannada,Tamil
Populated States Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

The Kapu community is also found in RAMAKRISHNA, Karnataka, Maharashtra and some other south Indian states. Kapu castes Balija, Telaga, Munnuru Kapu, Turpu Kapu, Ontari, constitute about 20 percent of the population of Andhra Pradesh, making them the single largest community in the state. In the last decades of the 20th century, some of them have settled abroad, particularly in South Africa, USA, UK and Australia.

Contents

Origin

Ancient Indian (Bharata) cities and Places(Title and location names are in English.)
  • Kapus were inhabitants of the Andhra region, people who migrated from the north, cleared forests for agriculture and built settlements.[2]
  • Kapu's are referred to as Kaampu in Ancient Texts[citation needed].
  • Kapu are the descendants of the Kaampu tribe, an Indo-Aryan tribe[citation needed], which migrated from Kampilya, Mithila and Ayodhya[citation needed], Ancient cities situated in the Gangetic Plains of North India spread across UP and Bihar.
  • The Migration seems to have occurred 2500 years back[citation needed] which coincides with the raise of the first Andhra Kingdom Satavahanas.
  • This Settlement & Geographical Area was referred to as Tri-linga Desam in the Ancient Texts and the people who were settled in this region were called Telaga and the language spoken by them was called Telugu.
  • This settlement of Telagas started referring to themselves as Balija[citation needed] when the Balijas became quite prominent in the medieval period (around about 1000 CE) with their political and economic contributions from primarily the Setty Sub-Division of Balija.
  • The caste title of the Kapus, Naidu, which is a derivation of the word Nayaka (meaning "leader"), was first used during the era of the Vishnukundina dynasty, which ruled the Krishna and Godavari river deltas during the 3rd Century AD.[citation needed]
  • Kapus share their origins along with similar warrior/agrarian communities like the Kurmis of Bihar and UP and Kunbis/Marathas of Maharashtra and Vokkaliga of Karnataka.[citation needed]
  • The Kapus were primarily a military/agrarian community who took up military service and were into cultivation during peace time. Consequently the Kapu subcastes also evolved based on occupation.[citation needed]
  • Kapus engaged in trade were referred to as Balija. Balijas who took up military service and protected trading caravans were called Balija Nayakulu or Balija Naidu.[citation needed]
  • A significant number of Kapus have today diversified into industry, arts and academia. However, a substantial segment of the population are still farmers.

Castes

Kapu

The Kapu community in Andhra Pradesh is predominantly concentrated in the coastal districts, North Telangana and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh .They are also found in large numbers in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Chattisgarh and Orissa.

Occupation

  • The Kapu community served during the medieval ages as warriors or protectors of villages and regions from bandits or invading forces.
  • During times of peace, warriors who stayed close to villages served as village heads or practiced agriculture.
  • During times of war, they served as soldiers, governors (i.e. Nayaks) and commanders in armies of many south Indian dynasties.
  • The modern day Kapu community is predominantly agrarian, but a significant number have diversified into business, industry, arts and academia.

Some Kapu names are associated with occupations practiced during the medieval period.

  • Village and regional defence committees (Vuru Kapu, Pranta Kapu)
  • Administration (Chinna Kapu, Pedda Kapu)
  • Protection of farms and livestock from bandits (Panta Kapu)

Branches

  • Telaganati (Telaga)
  • Chalukya Kapu
  • Mungaru
  • Mogili
  • Mekala
  • Pakanati (eastern territory)
  • Simhapuri (Balija/Reddy)
  • Velanati
  • Oruganti
  • Nagaralu/Pathrulu
  • Neravati
  • Pedakanti (Narollu)
  • Naagali
  • Namadarlu
  • Modikarlu
  • Koraganji
  • Makena
  • Gandla

Note:- Nagaralu means the dwellers in a nagaram (City). This caste was originally a section of the Kapus which took to town life and separated itself off from the parent stock. They are mainly agriculturists but are also into medicine. A number are Physicians and Pharmacists.

Balija or Balja Naidu

Balijas/Balija Naidu are found in NELLORE and the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. These were agrarians, merchants and warriors of the Kakateeya and Vijaynagara empire periods.According to "Gazetteer of South India" by W.Francis Balijas were more numerous in North Arcot than in any other Madras district [6]

The term Balija is a Telugu derivative of the Sanskrit word, Vanijya, meaning merchant. Balijas are the merchant branch of the Kapu caste, with subcastes based on occupation (members who are purely merchants use the title "Setty"). Balija's also have a warrior branch whose members use the title Naidu. Some Balija Naidu families were appointed to supervise provinces as Nayaks (governors, commanders) by the Kakatiya and Vijayanagara kings and, after these empires lost power, they continued to rule parts of southern Andhra Pradesh and northern Tamil Nadu independently. This includes the Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks, and the last rulers of Sri Lanka, the Kandy Nayaks, before the British occupied Sri Lanka.

There is regional variation in the Balija community as to how they call themselves. In coastal Andhra, they call themselves Kapu/Telaga/Naidu, and in Rayalaseema they are referred to as Balija / Setty Balija / Balija Naidu / Naidu. In Telangana they call themselves Munnuru Kapu.

Origins

As per one theory the Balija branch of Kapus migrated from Balijipeta, Srikakulam District [3] and arose by social changes that occurred among some sections of Kapu Community. The Encyclopedia of World History states, “ Balijas were originally part of the great Telugu migrations southward into the Tamil country in the 15th and 16th centuries, Balija merchant-warriors who claimed these Nayaka positions rose to political and cultural power and supported an ethos that emphasized non-ascriptive, heroic criteria in legitimizing political power. The new egalitarian ethos made it easier for claimants from a variety of communities to succeed to political control". According to Velcheru Narayana Rao and Sanjay Subrahmanyam in "Notes on Political Thoughts in Medieval and Early Modern South India "The emergence of left-hand caste Balijas as trader-warrior-kings as evidence in the Nayak period is a consequence of such conditions of new wealth.This produces collapsing of two Varnas,Kshatriyas and Vysyas into one".(Page 204)[7] Veera Balaingyas were mentioned in Kakatiya inscriptions as powerful Tax collectors and wealthy merchants who were highly respected in Kakatiyan society and used the title Setty. They are previously known as ayyavolu/ihole kshatriyas/lords or the 500 Lords of Aynavole.

Kasturi Nayadu and Peda Koneti Nayudu of the Vasarasi family belonged to the Balija subcaste, and ruled some provinces. The first Rebellion against British Rule was launched by another famous Balija Nayak Katta Bomma Naicker in Tamil Nadu long before the Sepoy Mutiny in Bengal.


The prominence of Balijas grew manifold with the raise of the Vijayanagar Empire with balijas becoming the basic power structure on which the Empire was built. This power seemed to have come from the fact that the Balijas controlled the Economic and Military fortunes of Vijayanagar.They were the wealthy Merchants and the Nayaks who controlled large number of Vijayanagar provinces.

Vijayanagar emperor Krishna Deva Raya had a number of present day Kapu-Balija in his service. In Edgar Thurston's "Castes And Tribes of Southern India" and R.V.Russell's "The Tribes and Castes of Central Provinces of India", the ruling clans of Vijayanagar, Madurai and Thanjavur came from the Balija caste. According to Kante Narayana Desayi's, "Balijakula Charithra", Kings of Vijayanagar, Madurai, Thanjavur, Khandi (Kandy) and Thundeera (Gingee/Chenchi) were interrelated and belonged to Balija caste.

Branches

  • Setty Balija: These were traders and merchants of the Kakatiya dynasty. There was mention of some very old trading guilds concentrated in Bellary, Karnataka. Historian's suggest this was the first branch in Balijas.According to Ananthakrishna Iyer in "The Mysore Tribes and Castes"the Gajula Balijas were also known as Setti Balijas and were considered a very respectable division and "Setti"was the common title applied to them.
  • Balija Naidu: A derivation of the term Balija Nayakulu. This sub caste formed during the Kakatiya dynasty time, primarily to protect the Balija / Setty trading caravans from bandits. The current Anantapur Dt and Nellore Dt were ruled by Balijas.
  • Gajula Balija/Sugavansi Balija: Myth is that Siva’s wife Parvati made a penance in order to look beautiful for Siva and the person that brought her bangles was the ancestor of the Gajula Balija.

Gajula Balija is the largest sub-division of Balijas. The equivalent name for Gajula Balija in Tamil is Valaiyal Chetti. The meaning of Tamil name Valaiyal in Telugu is Gajulu (Bangles). Gajula Balijas attained this name as they were involved in manufacturing and selling bangles initially though they made their mark in various other fields later. The other branch of the Kavarais is Kambalattars(Thottiyars/Thottiyans). Kambalattars were originally the Telugu speaking cultivators that had migrated from Telugu and Karnataka lands to Western parts of Madura Country in sixteenth century during the reign of Madurai Nayaks. They had found employment in Madurai Balija Nayak dynasty and even got promoted as Poligars. Veerapandiya Kattabomman Naicker belonged to this branch of Balija caste (Rajakambala Balija). Kambalattars primarily practiced Vaishnavism. They were known to be energetic and industrious people. As per "Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories ,Tamil Nadu" by Gopal K Bhargava,Shankarlal C.Bhatt under Kambalattars would come Raja Kambalam Naickers,Kollavar,Chillavar,Thockalavar. As per "South Asian Folklore" by Peter J.Claus,Sarah Diamond,Margaret Ann Mills "Chillavaru " sect of Telugu speaking community of Rajakambalam caste performed Devarattam with the help of a drum called "Dundubi"in the places like Madurai,Tiruchi,Coimbatore,Dharmapuri etc and wherever the Kambalattar Naickers lived in large numbers. According to "Asia in the making of Europe" by Donald Frederick Lach,Edwin J Van Kley the Kavarais are numerous and call themselves the "Family of 300".(See Munnuru Kapu below)[8] .

  • Rajamahendravaram Balija or Musu Kamma Balija (named after a special ear ornament worn by women). According to Ananthakrishna Iyer in "The Mysore Tribes and Castes" Rajamahendram Balijas had originally migrated from Nellore,Ananthapur,Kadapa,North Arcot and Chengalpattu.
  • Gandavallu or Gundapodi Vandlu (Supposed to have originally been Komatis)

Balija ruling clans:

Metla Rajulu who ruled in Cuddapah and was the last pricely state to be captured by the British when Rayalaseema was Ceded to them by the Nizam after laying seize to the fort for a couple of months. The Metla Rajulu had alliances and married off their daughter to Sada Siva Raya of the Tuluva Dynasity which helped them establish and play a prominent role during the reign of the Tuluva and Atraveeti Dynasities.

Note:Perika Balija, Krishna Balija, Surya Balija(Kalavatula), Vada Balija (Fishermen), Ediga Balija/Goud (Toddy Tappers), Setty Balija/Chettu Balija/Goud (Toddy Tappers) of Coastal Andhra are not part of Balija or Balija Naidu Caste.

Refer to Balija for further Information

Telaga

Telagas are the most Ancient Feudal Warrior/Agricultural clans of the South India, who practiced agriculture during times of peace. Modern-day Telagas continue in their traditional agricultural occupation, but also have diversified into other occupations.

Origin

  • The origin of the Telagas can be traced to the Western Chalukyan expansion into the Andhra region during the 1st century A.D. The term "Telaga" was a derivation of the word "Telingana". Andhra was referred to as Telingana in the ancient texts[citation needed] as it was the area that had three major Shivinsa-Arama's, thus was called Tri-Linga. The people living there were called "Telugus" and the language spoken by the people there was called "Telugu".
  • Another source of origin[citation needed] mentions that when the Chalukyas invaded Andhra so in order to differentiate between the Native Commanders of the Tri-linga Desam from the commanders in the Chalukyan army the term Telugu Nayakulu was coined which eventually became Telaga Nayak/Naidu.

The Telagas may have served as soldiers of the Western Chalukya rulers under Pulakesin[citation needed]. They formed the bulwark of ancient armies of the Deccan and South India like Cholas, Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Vijayanagar and Nayaks. They seem to have a connection with the Eastern Chalukyas. The Vassals of Chalukyas entered into matrimonial alliances and ultimately established the Chalukya - Chola Dynasty[citation needed]. Another important dynasty of Telagas were the Telugu Cholas who were the first Andhra Kings to write inscriptions in Telugu. They ruled over the Palnadu, Velanadu and Renadu regions of Andhra Pradesh for most of the medieval ages. The Telugu Chodas formed the base on which Chalukyan Empire flourished and were the principal combatants of the Palanadu war/Palanati Yuddam. Telugu Cholas supported Bramha Naidu in this war against the Nalagam Raju.[citation needed]

Other Telaga dynasties are mentioned below.

Dynasties:

  • Telugu Chodas.[citation needed]
    • Velanati Chodas (Velanadu region, current E.G, W.G and Krishna Districts)
    • Renati Chodas (Renadu regions, current Cuddapah, Kurnool Regions)[citation needed]
    • Pottapi Cholas (Renadu regions, current Cuddapah, Chittor Districts)[citation needed]
    • Konidena Chodas (Palanadu region, current Guntur, Prakasam Districts)[citation needed]
    • Nannuru Chodas (Pakanadu region Current Anantapur District)[citation needed]
    • Nellore Chodas (Nellore, Chittor, Chengalpeta and Cuddapah Regions)[citation needed]
  • Kona Kings (Visakhapatnam, E.G, W.G regions, The name Konaseema is derived after these Kings)
  • Kolanu Kings (ruled from Kolanupuram (eluru), ganapavaram, akiveedu as their capitals)
  • Koppula Chiefs (ruled with Pithapuram as capital, E. Godavari, were one of the main combatants along with Mununuri, Reddy and Velama Nayaks in the revolt against Muslim rule)
  • Korukonda Nayaks (ruled from Korukonda)

Refer to Telaga for further Information

Munnuru Kapu

Munnuru Kapus are located primarily in the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh. They are a military branch of the Kapu community, who farmed during peace time. "Munnuru" means "three hundred". Since Kavarais call themselves the "Family of three hundred" it can be inferred that Munnuru Kapus and the Kavarais(Balija Naidus)are one and the same. The Munnuru Kapu functioned as interior palace guards in kingdoms such as those of the Tanjavore Nayaks, Devarakonda, and Nizam.

Munnuru kapus were part of the Original migration which took place to the south India and settled along the banks of the Godavari from Nizamabad to the Delta regions in Coastal Andhra.

Munnuru Kapus are also called Thota Balijas, Telugus, Telengas, Munnurwar, Telenga Kunbi and Thopatkari. They apparently moved to Chanda region from Telugu country travelling along Godavari and Pranahitha rivers.

There was a professional rivalry that lasted for decades between the Munnuru Kapus and the Mudiraju community during the Kakateeya rule. The Mudiraj's were associated with the Devarakonda Velamas.

According to R.S.Mugali in "The Heritage of Karnataka" the Munnurvar (the three hundred) were among the representatives corresponding to the members of a corporation of the cities in the 12th century A.D in Karnataka. According to the same author "Jagattamunnuru"(the three hundred of the World) was the name given to the village assembly of Niruvara under the Vijayanagar rulers.[9]

Origin

There are several stories regarding the origin of the "Munnuru Kapu":

  • King Ganapati Deva of Kakatiya needed support of agrarian communities from coastal Andhra region during the establishment and expansion of the empire, since he had not established power over the Telugu Chodas (Telaga) and Chalukyas in that region. In order to bring legitimacy to their rule and to strengthen its roots, he requested the migration of three hundred families of Kapu / Telaga soldiers from the Kondavidu region of the current Krishna District. The descendants of those who migrated with three hundred families are called Munnuru Kapu. This migration occurred around about 900 years ago.
  • Queen Rudrama Devi of Kakateeya wanted to cultivate large tracts of the Telangana region. A large migration of agriculturists from coastal Andhra region came after her alliance with the Chalukyan Prince (Nidadavole). Three hundred Kapu / Telaga families were dispatched by the prince to bring these vast Telangana lands under cultivation. These three hundred families are called as Munnuru Kapu.
  • The Nawab of Hyderabad requested the Tanjavore Nayaks to send a battalion of his best infantry and cavalry for his personal security. The Nayak dispatched three hundred Telaga men and their families from their imperial guard. The descendants of these three hundred families are now called Munnuru Kapu.
  • The Perikas community, found in Rayalaseema, recall fighting a great battle against three hundred Balijas to prove their valor. As there was no community called Munnuru Balija at that time, it was likely to be the Munnuru Kapus who fought this battle (Kapus are referred to as "Balija Naidu" in Rayalaseema).

Refer to Munnuru Kapu for further Information

Turpu Kapu

Turpu in Telugu means east. The Kapus living on the eastern frontier of Andhra Pradesh called themselves Turpu Kapus. There have been some rulers of coastal kingdoms from this community. They were hard working poor and middle farmers. They are the majority in Srikakulam District, Vizianagaram District and Visakhapatnam District. Of late however the political awakening of this caste has led some representatives of this group to be more politically active.Even though they are majority in population,their dependence on agriculture made them a bit backward in the present society. But still they have a major role in present politics these days. Majority of the political leaders in any political party come from turpu kapu caste in this region.

Ontari

The Kapu Ontari community is concentrated in coastal Andhra Pradesh. They use the titles "Naidu" and "Dora". The Ontari were soldiers and special forces in Andhra Kingdoms who specialized in weapons. Their surnames start with names of weapons (e.g. Kattula (knife), Tupakula (gun or pistol), Kommula, (Bull Horns).

The Kapu Ontari community are different from the (Bunt Ontari community (who were individual hand to hand fighters) and the Ontari of Mudiraj community, who are not part of the Kapu Ontari caste.

Gavara Naidu/Kavarai

This Caste is found in Chitoor,Southern Coastal Andhra and Tamil Nadu."Kavarai is the name for Kapus who have settled in the Tamil country" as per Thurston. Kavarais call themselves Balijas (Born from fire). They use the titles Naidu, Nayakkan, Chetti or Setti and Nayak.As per Niel Brimnes in Constructing the colonial encounter "Kavarais were Tamilized Balija Chettis of Telugu origin ,returned in the census as Wadugas or Northerners " [10] According to Jogendranath Bhattacharya in "Hindu Castes and Sects" though Kavarais were originally devoted entirely to agriculture, in the capacity of land owners, and their lands were cultivated by inferior castes, they were also involved in the other professions such as trading, sailing etc.

Naidu

Naidu is a title commonly incorporated into the names of members of the Kapu community whose ancestors may have served as an army commander, governor, knight, baron, village headman or tax collector. It eventually became a hereditary title. "Naidu" is a Telugu derivation of the Sanskrit title for a head of a band of soldiers, who is known as Nayaka (i.e. protector). The first usage of the title "Nayaka" was by the Vishnukundinas, who conferred the title "Danda Nayaka" on commanders.

During times of war, rulers would call upon the local farmers to join the army. Amongst the Kapu community, some members who served became specialists in certain types of combat and were referred to as Telaga or Ontari Kapus. Some were given posts as commanders and given the title of Nayak/Naidu. At the conclusion of service, some were rewarded by being given charge of territories and made responsible for tax collection, administration and security. Initially, the Naidus served only for so long as the rulers felt they were effective, but some declared independence whenever the central government became weak. They had their greatest influence in telugu society during the Chalukya, Kakatiya, Nayaka, Vijayanagar periods and had the greatest independent power following the fall of Vijayanagar in Tanjore, Madurai, Chenchi, Kandy at least until the Moghuls, Marathas and British took over. Basically although staunchly Hindu, over the centuries this large and proud community was involved in all aspects of society and developed their own social, economic and political structure outside of the rigid Hindu Varna system without developing the habit of preventing marriage between the factions.

In the medieval times the Kakatiyas had many prominent nayakas, several from a Kapu background. Vijayanagar also had several Nayakas of Kapu, Telaga and Balija background. During the expansion of Vijayanagar Empire, the Nayak title was conferred upon non-Telugu speaking communities who served in the same function in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. This title is also being used by other communities in Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh.

In southern Tamil Nadu, Balija's use the title Naicker. It evolved in the following manner during different phases of history.

Nayaka --> Nayudu -->Naidu--> Naicker --> Naidoo

Refer to Naidu for further Information

Dynasties

The following are some ruling clans associated with Kapu community.

  • Telugu Chodas
  • Kona Kings
  • Koppula Chiefs
  • Korukonda Nayaks
  • Vijayanagar- Araveeti Dynasty
  • C.P. Brown mentioned that the Poligars of Anantapur belonged to the Balija Naidu community.
  • Nellore was also ruled by Balija Naidus.
  • Etukuri Bala Rama Murthi mentions in "Andhrula Samkshiptha Charithra" that the Cholas came to be called Kapu and Telaga. Some of their gotra [5](is a patrilineal classification and identification of a caste) is referred as "Cholla" or "Chola". These Kings were from the Chaturtha Kulamu (Source Palanati Veera Charitra) and Kasyapa is their gothram.
  • In Balijakula Charithra, the Kotikam Kaifiyat states: " Sree Manmahaa mandaleshwara Achyuthadeva Mahaa Raayalayya vaaru Daivaprasaada labdavasaath chethanu, karunatho goodi Balija Varna Garikepaati Vamsamuna Kalgina Sree Sree Viswanatha Naayaka gariki Paandya mandalaadhiraaju ane rendunnara koti dravya Raajyaanku sasthrothkamuga pattaabhisekham Vijayanagaramandu Cheyinchiri."
  • According to Vijaya Kumari and Sepuri Bhaskar in their book "Social changes among Balijas", Sree Krishna Deva Raya belonged to Kapu caste.
  • As per "Gazetteer of the Nellore district :Brought up to 1938 " by Government of Madras staff, the Desa section of Balija caste comprises the descendents of the Nayak kings of Madura, Thanjore and Vijayanagar.
  • According to G.S.Ghurye in "Caste and Race in India",the Nayak kings of Madura and Thanjavur were Balijas.
  • According to "Questioning Ramayana: A South Asian Tradition" by Paula Richman, the famous Thanjavur king Raghunatha Nayudu belonged to Balija caste.
  • According to "Literary Cultures in History" by Sheldon Pollock warriors/Traders from Balija caste acquired kingship of the Southern Kingdoms of Madurai and Thanjavur.
  • According to "The Castes and Tribes of The Nizam's Dominions" by Syed Siraj Ul Hassan Kakatiya king Raja Prathaparudra belonged to Kapu Caste.
  • According to Velcheru Narayana Rao and Sanjay Subrahmanyam in "Notes on Political Thoughts in Medieval and Early Modern South India" the left-hand caste Balijas emerged as trader-warrior-kings in the Nayak period.
  • Garikepati is the last name of Madura Balija Kings
  • Alluru is the last name of Thanjavur Balija Kings
  • Chinthalapudi is the last name of Khandi (Ceylon) Balija kings.
  • Chenchi is the last name of Chenchi Nayaks (Senji Nayaks/Genji Nayaks/Gingee Nayaks)
  • There were matrimonial alliances between Kapus and Telugu Chodas, Kakatiya, Vijayanagar, Madurai and Thanjavur Kingdoms. The following are some of the interesting matrimonial alliances among Balija/Kapus of Vijayanagar, Madura, Thanjavur, Kandy and Kakatiya.
    • Vijayanagar emperor Sri Krishna Deva Raya’s half brother was Achyuta Deva Raya. Achyutha Deva Raya's wife Thirumalamba's sister, Murthimamba (Achyuta Deva Raya's sister-in-law) was married to Naidu Alluri Sevappa of Thanjavur.
    • A relative of Naidu Sevappa of Thanjavur, Achyutha Raghunathamma was married to Naidu Garikepati Thirumalla of Madura. Achyutha Raghunathamma was the daughter of Naidu Raghunatha, the grandson of Naidu Sevappa of Thanjavur and Murthimamba (sister-in-law of Vijayanagar emperor Achyutha Deva Raya).
    • The daughter of Naidu Vijaya Raghava of Thanjavur and Naidu Sevappa's great grand daughter Mangamma was married to Naidu Chokkalinga, the grandson of the celebrated Naidu Thirumalla of Madura dynasty.
    • Naidu Raghunatha of Thanjavur married Chenchi Lakshmamma and Kalaavathemma of Madurai and Thundeera (Gingee/Chenchi) dynasties.
    • One of the kings of Kandy was married to a family member of the last king of Thanjavur dynasty, Chengamala Dasu. One of the family members of Madurai dynasty was married to the daughter of Naidu Vijaya Raghava, the son of Chengamala Dasu, the last king of Thanjavur dynasty. The royal members from Thanjavur lived in Khandi (Kandy) of Ceylon for a certain period of time.
    • Queen Sri Ranga Devi, sister of Veera Narasimha Rayalu of Narapathi dynasty was married to king Bhuvanaika Malla of Kakatiya dynasty. (Note: Narapathis are also called Chalukyas. Araveeti families come under genealogical tree of Narapathis).
    • Naidu Chinthalapudi Vijaya Bhupala (Also called Lakshmana Simha Vijayapalana Raju) who ruled Khandi was the brother-in-law of Naidu Kumara Krishnappa (Son of Naidu Viswanatha Garikepati) of Madurai Balija Dynasty. The sister of Naidu Vijaya Bhupala of Khandi (Kandy) was married to Naidu Kumara Krishnappa of Madurai. When Naidu Kumara Krishnappa crowned Naidu Vijaya Bhupala of Khandi(Kandy), he sent 60 families of relatives to Khandi as help.

Kapu Surnames and Gothrams [11][12]

  • Kapu/Balija/Telaga/Munnuru Kapu/Ontari/Turpu Kapu communities use the caste title Naidu.
  • Balija/Kapu/Telaga/ communities use the title Setty / Setti in their surnames to indicate that they are traders (e.g. Reminisetty, Polisetty [6], Perisetty, Chalamalasetty, Pinisetty,narisetty, Chennamsetti, Matlapudi, Sennamsetty, kesamsetty,tirumalasetty, marisetty, nagisetty,tummalasetty, Sankarasetty, Bolisetti, Lakkimsetty, Bavisetty,Yeramsetty and Yengisetty)
  • Munnuru Kapu/Telaga/Kapu/Balija communities use the suffix Reddy in their surnames in Telangana, Rayalaseema and coastal Andhra as they were rulers are that time.
  • Kapus in Telangana area sometimes use the title Patel . In Telangana ,especially in Warangal area elite group of Kapus are known as HAZARIS ( Hazari is the prestigious title conferred upon Kapu as Kapu used to supervise 1000 horsemen during the period of Kakatiya dynasty (Example:Kapus with sur names Akula, Kaluvala and Samudrala in Warangal area are Hazaris ).Most of the Hazaris were Zamindars and Landlords from kakatiya period till the modern era.
  • Kapus /Balijas/Telagas also use title Desayi or Desayi Chetti . In olden days Desayis commanded great respect from the subjects because of their esteemed position of representing justice of peace.As per Ananthakrishna Iyer in "The Mysore Tribes and Castes" almost every taluk in North Arcot had Desayi chetti belonging to Balija caste(Kavarai). Their family name used to be "Dhanapala",meaning "Protector of Wealth".
  • The name Gurusthulu is synonymous with Balijas as per R.V.Russell [13]
  • Kapu and Balija communities also use the tite Rayudu in their names indicating Vijaynagar affiliation and lineage.
  • Telaga/Munnuru Kapu names usually have the Suffix Raoin Coastal and Telangana Regions.
  • Kapu/Telaga surnames ending with the Neni (e.g.chittineni, Lakkineni[7])& Nayuni, which is a derivation of Nayakuni, indicate ancestors served as Mandaladheesulu/commanders under the Kakateeya dynasty.
  • Some /Telaga/Kapu/Balija surnames end with the suffix Pati (e.g. Garikepati,Kandulapati, Pasupuleti), which indicates ancestors owned large tracts of land in medieval times.
  • Chola-Chalukyas have used the title Udayar or Odeyar.

Below is a list of common gothrams found largely in the Kapu community and is not a complete listing of all the Gothrams in the community since there are hundreds of surnames and Gothrams and it would be impossible to catlogue them. The link gives a list of few more Surnames and Gothrams [8]

  1. Atreya
  2. Chettella
  3. Ikshwakula
  4. Atchutha
  5. Ayodhya
  6. Rakshakula
  7. Janakula
  8. Paidipala
  9. Virajala
  10. Nayakula
  11. Raghukula
  12. Mahipala
  13. Mrutyunjaya
  14. Nagula
  15. Nagala
  16. Vamserla
  17. Pasupuneti
  18. Puligolla
  19. Pamidipala
  1. Sunkara
  2. Pogunolla
  3. Seerla
  4. Thota
  5. Tirumalla
  6. Pilla
  7. Saithana
  8. Saladi
  9. Chimtamneedi
  10. Addala
  11. Paidipaala
  12. Vipparla
  13. Pagadala
  14. Dhananjaya
  15. Dasaratha
  16. Konatham
  17. Pasupunolla
  18. Palavalli
  19. Muddala
  20. Rajarushula
  21. janapala
  22. Nageswara
  23. Nagendra
  24. Vanithala
  25. Parshaya
  26. Sunkerla
  1. Nandiyy
  2. Sriramula
  3. Varanati
  4. Anantha
  5. kancherla
  6. Chennuri
  7. Chandrakala
  8. Duvva
  9. Gouthu

RAYI (FAMILY NAME) nunagoppala/nagali

Surnames and Gotrams of kapu / telaga / balija / naidu community people

There are Thousands of Surnames in the Kapu / Telaga / Balija / Naidu community people in andhra pradesh, karnataka, tamilnadu states in india. some of them are as follows:

Surname - Gotram

  • Aanala - Paidipala,
  • Aanala - Paidipala
  • Achukola - Bellala
  • Achanta - Nujella
  • Achuta - Paidipalla
  • Adabala - Paidipala
  • Adagarla - Settella
  • Adapa - Janukula
  • Adapa - Paidipala
  • Adapala - kaasi
  • Adatra - Paidipala
  • Addagarla - Pashupala
  • Addanki - Settipala
  • Addepalli - Paidipala
  • Adikaari - Paidipala
  • Agisetti - Paidipala
  • Aladisetti - Paidipala
  • Akam - Nagalli
  • Akasapu - Paidipalla
  • Akkala - Paidipalla
  • Akkireddi - Ksherakanchina
  • Ambati - Pasupuneti
  • Arja - Ayyavarla
  • Annamdevula - kakapalla
  • Anumakonda - Paidipala
  • Baddula - Pagadasri
  • Ballem - Paidipala
  • Balla - Uparatla
  • Basava - Pydipala
  • Banala - Vullitla
  • Bandla - Hamsa
  • Bandaru - Paidipala
  • Bandaru - Mogali
  • Bande - Paidipala
  • Bandi - Paidapalla
  • Bandreddi - Dhanikula
  • Baregala - Pydipala
  • Batti - Pagidipalla
  • Batchu - Nagula
  • Butcha - Nagula
  • Bayisetty - Akshanthala
  • Bezawada - Pydipala
  • Bharinikala - Pydipala
  • Bobbili - Darbaneedi
  • Bollam - Pydipalla
  • Bollimuntha - Rachapudi
  • Botla - Kakarla
  • Buragadda - Chemathulla
  • Chadalawada - Raghukula
  • Chaladi - Cholla
  • Chalamalasetty - Puligolla
  • CHALIKONDA - PAVIDIPALLA
  • Challa - Pydipala
  • Chapala - Yavvalla
  • Chandaka - Nagali/Nagula
  • Chandana - Paidipala
  • Chandrala - Paidipala
  • Chandu - Musalla
  • Chavalam - Setilla
  • Chavvakula - Janakula
  • Chebrolu - Janakula
  • Cheelamsetty - Pasupunulla
  • Cheerla - Paidipala
  • Chegondi - Dasaratha
  • Chelamkuri - Janakula
  • Chenji - Savarala
  • Chenna - Pamidipalla
  • Chennakesavula - Settinolla
  • Chennu - Pasupunulla
  • Chennam - Paidipala
  • Chilamkurthy - Janakula
  • Chennamsetty - Kasi
  • Chimata - Devendra
  • Chinimilli - Paidipala
  • Chinnamsetti -  ?
  • Chintala - Pavidipalla
  • Chunduri - Pavidipala
  • Dirisala - Paidipala
  • Dabbi - Vishnunama
  • Dachepalli - Pydipala
  • Dadi - Chettinolla
  • Dalavayi - Thammineni
  • Dalayi - Recharla
  • Dale - Paidipala
  • Dande - Dhabbanala
  • Dandina - Paidipala
  • Dandu - Paidipala
  • Dara - Paidipala
  • Dasam - Paidypalla
  • Dasari - Pydipala
  • Dasari - Shankusila
  • Dasari - Paidipalla
  • Dasari - Pasumalla
  • Davuluri - Paidipala
  • Degala - Paidipalla
  • desamsetty - Please fill
  • Desaty - Vepa
  • Desireddy - Pydipala
  • Devanaboina - Munipala
  • Devisetty - Recherla
  • Dhulipudi - Paidipala
  • Dindi - Kasi
  • Dodda - Kacharla
  • Dondapati - Pamidipalla
  • Dosetty - Vepa
  • Dubasi - Sri kurma
  • Dudi-
  • Dudala - pamidipalla
  • Duddukuri - Janakala / janukala
  • Duggirala -
  • Dupisetty - Janukula
  • Dusanapudi - Janakula
  • Dutta - Shettilla
  • Duvva - Pydipala
  • Dyvala - Pydipala
  • Edapa - Palavili
  • Ekambarapu - Pamidipalla
  • Emmadisetty - Pasupuleti
  • Erra - Setti
  • Gadala - Pasunuti
  • Gadamsetty - Janakula
  • Gaddam - Kodhamonala
  • Gade - Pavidipalla / Pamidipalla
  • Gadi - Pydipala
  • Gajula - Kasyapa / Paidipalla
  • Gajulapalli - Kondhakodhi
  • Gali - Paidipala / Pydipala / Pagidipala
  • Galidevara - Pidipala
  • Galla - Paidipala / Chettunella
  • Gandepalli - Pydipala
  • Gandham - Pydipala
  • Gandla - Satnella / chatneella
  • Gandrothu - paidipala
  • Ganesana - Paidipala
  • Ganesula - Paidipala
  • Gangadevi - Sibbigalla
  • Gangisetty - Pamidipalla
  • Ganisetty - Mankolla
  • Ganji - Pydipala
  • Ganta goru - Pamidipalla
  • Gantla - Paidipala
  • Gara - Janakanolla
  • Garaga - Paidipala
  • Garikipati - Dabbanala
  • Gatta - Paidipala
  • Gatti - Janakula
  • Gavini - Pasupunulla
  • Gedala - Paidipala
  • Gedela-Nagula
  • Geddam - Pydipala
  • Ghanta - Nagacherala
  • Gidijala-nagali
  • Gidugu - Bharadwaja
  • Gitta - Pydipala
  • Gogana - Pydipala
  • Golakaram - janikala
  • Goli - Cherukuluri
  • Golakoti - Paidipala
  • Gollapalli - erragodugulu
  • Gonnabathulla - Pydipala
  • Gonti - Nageswara
  • Gopalam - Srilakshmi
  • Goparaju - Please fill
  • Gopisetty - Pamidipalla
  • Gopisetty - Meruvula
  • Gopu - Paidipalla
  • Gorle - Pydipala
  • Gouthu - Mandara
  • Govind - Pydipala
  • Govada - Ponnapalli
  • Gowrisetty - Punyapalli
  • Grandhi - Paidipala
  • Gundala - pamidipalla
  • Gudi - Janakula
  • Guddati - Vasista
  • Gudise - Varavatla / Vashista
  • Gudiseva - Tulasipalla
  • Gudiwada - Nagali
  • Gummineni - Adhiseshu
  • Gundabolu - Paidipalli / Janakula
  • Gundabattula - Paidipala
  • Gundepalli - Paidipala
  • Gundubilli - Aravilla
  • Gundubogula - Pamidipalla / Janakula
  • Gundubogula - Paidipala
  • Gundu - Pamidipala
  • Gundu - Pasupuniti
  • Guntupalli - Paidapala
  • Gunnam - gujjanagulla
  • Gurrala - Chettella
  • Gurubilli - Nagali
  • Hamsala - Nagandera
  • Hanumakonda - Pydipala
  • Haridasula - Pasupuneela
  • Ijanagiri - Rajulu
  • Ijjipireddy - Nagula
  • Ikkurthi - Janakunolla
  • Inti - Midanakula
  • Irri - Palakula
  • Irrinki(Yirrinki) - Pacchalla / Pydipala
  • imadabathini - Akshinthala
  • Inkollu - Marotla
  • Inukonda - Paidipalli
  • Itla - Paidipalli
  • Jada - Pydipala
  • Jagatha - Pasumela
  • Jakka - Pydipalla
  • Jakkal -
  • Jakkampudi - Pidapal
  • Jally - Pasupuneellu
  • jakkampudi - janakula
  • Janapala - Paidipalla
  • Janapareddy - Janakula
  • Janapareddy - JPaidipala
  • Janga - Nagula
  • Janyavula - Pydipala
  • Jarajapu - Nagula
  • Jetti - Podipala
  • Jettiboyina - Paidipala
  • Jinukala - Palutla
  • Jitta - chettinolla
  • Jonna - Janakula
  • Jonnada - Anjalla
  • Jonnakuty - Prasannolla
  • Jujagiri - Janakula
  • Jupudi - Paidipala
  • Jyothula - Paidipala
  • Kabotula - Nagula
  • Kadari - Pasupuneti
  • kadavakollu - Patellavari
  • Kadim(Kadiam or Kadiala) - Paidipala
  • Kaipuram - Paidipala
  • Kakileti - Paidipala
  • Kakumanu - Sivapala
  • Kalari - Janakula
  • Kalla- Nagula
  • Kali - Paidipala
  • Kalisetti- Nagula
  • Kalimi - Paidipala
  • Kamala - Paidipala
  • Kamana - Kasi Nama
  • Kamatham - Garuda / palavalli
  • Kambala - Vishnu
  • Kambhammettu - Pasupuleti
  • Kamisetty - Premala
  • Kammili - Paidipala
  • Kammula - Please provide
  • Kanakala - Nagula
  • Kanakala - paidipala
  • Kanaparthi - akshinthala
  • Kanchipalli - Paidipala
  • Kandi - Nagula
  • Kandikonda - Nulakanoolla
  • Kandlagunta - Pamidipalla
  • Kandula - Paidipala; Janakaneela
  • Kandula - Kaasineela
  • Kankanala - Paidipala
  • Kanna - Paidipala
  • Kanugula - Nageswara / Gajaveera
  • Kanumula - kurmala
  • Kapakayala - Pydipala
  • Kapuganti - Ikshwakula
  • Karabathula - Pasupuneti
  • karedla - Paidipala
  • Karimi - Nagula
  • Karimikonda - Please fill
  • Karnapu - Middetungaram
  • Karanamsetty - Palavalli
  • Karnatapu - Kusumasegari
  • Karri - Kandala
  • Kasarla - Pasupunuti
  • Kasetti - Janakula
  • Kasineni - Pagidi neela
  • Kasuladev - Vashista
  • Katakam - Akshantala
  • Katakamsetty - Janapala
  • Katam - Pydipala
  • Kataru - Yampala / Mudunella
  • Kathari - Pydipala
  • KathULA - Pavidipalla
  • Katiki - Mudunolla
  • Katikireddy - Janakula
  • Katragadda - Karnala
  • Katta - Pamidipalla / Pydipala
  • Katumuri - Paidipaala
  • Kavali - Akshintala
  • Kavati - Pamidipalla
  • Kayala - Akshintalu *karreddy-padipala
  • Keerthi - Paidipala
  • Ketharaju - Ayyavarla
  • Kethineedi - Pushpala
  • Ketinedi - veragala
  • Kelam - Ullutla
  • Khareedu - Paidipala
  • Kilari - Dhana
  • Kilari - Pagidipala
  • Kingam - Nagula
  • Kocherla - Pasupuleti
  • Kochuru - Janakula
  • Kodi - fill
  • Kodide - Paidipala
  • Kodebina - Vashishta
  • Kodeboina - Vashishta
  • Kodey - Pydipala
  • Koduri - Paidipala
  • Kola - Janakula
  • Kolagani - Pydipala
  • Kolasani - Vattivella
  • Kolasani - Vuttigothala
  • Kolapalli - Pydipala
  • Kolla - Janakapala
  • Kolla - Padipala
  • Kollu - Pidipalla
  • Kolukonda - Racherla
  • Kolukula - Janukula
  • Kommirisetti - kummarala
  • Kommisetty - Chitikenala
  • Kommula - Kaundenyasa
  • Kommuri - Nagula
  • Kona - Paidipala
  • Konatham - Pasupunoolla
  • Konatham - Paidipala
  • Kond - Paidipala
  • Kondapalli - Paidipala
  • Kondaveeti - Paidipala
  • Kondra - Paidipala
  • Kondula - Janakula
  • Konedala - Janakulla
  • Koppana - Pydipala
  • Kopparaju - Amarnallo
  • Kopparthi - Paidipala
  • Kopparthi - Pydipala
  • koppineni - pamidipally
  • koppineni - padmanabha
  • Koppireddy - Janakula
  • Koppula - Veeraraghavulu
  • Koppolu - Manikyala
  • korada - Nagala
  • Koraginjala - Paidipala
  • Koreboina - Janakula
  • Korla - Paidipala
  • korni - nageswara
  • Korukonda - Paidipala
  • Kosana- Jathankula
  • Kosuri - Janakulella
  • Kosuri - Janakaneedu
  • Kosuru - Paidipala / Pasikala
  • Kota - nagaligothram
  • kota - pogunoolla
  • Kotagiri - Bahusali
  • Kotari - Paidipalla
  • kotaprolu- Pasupunoolla
  • KOTAPOTHULA - JANAKULA
  • kothapalli - Repalle
  • kothuri - radhitharasa
  • kotikalapudi - pydipala
  • kotipalli - janikula
  • kotla - nagasa
  • Kotni - Paidipala
  • kotte - Tenali
  • kotte - Janakula
  • kotte - Settla
  • kotteti- Nagula
  • kotti- Paidipala
  • kotteda- Nagula
  • koya - Paidipala
  • Krovi - Paidipala
  • Krishnamsetty - Sankhyayanasa
  • Kumpatla - Arudhra
  • kunapareddy - mettalla
  • kunapareddy - Pagadaala
  • Kunchala - paidipala
  • Kunche - paidiplala
  • Kunisetty - paidiplala
  • Kunkapudi - Paidiplala
  • Kunche - Paidipala
  • Kunta - Janakanolla
  • kurasala - madhanasira
  • Kurre - Paidipala
  • Kusu - Settipala

kyanam - karukula

  • Lakkineni - arundhala
  • Lakshmisetty - Ullutla
  • lalam - pempalla
  • Lalicheti -
  • Lanka - Nagula
  • Lankalapalli - paidipalla
  • Lella - paidipala
  • Lingam - Pogunolla
  • lingineni - paidipalla
  • lingineni - pamidipalla
  • Lokala - Pamidipalla
  • Loko - Pydipala
  • Lovisetti - paidipalla
  • Lugalapu - Paidipalla
  • maasireddy - pydipala
  • macca - pydipala
  • macha - Janukula
  • Madamala - Pasupuleti
  • madasu - pydipala
  • Maddala - shatala
  • Maddi - Koundinysa
  • Maddisetty - Dasaradula
  • Madduluri - Bhardvaja
  • maddukuri - chamanthi
  • madireddy - paudipala
  • mahanthi - thaabelu
  • Majji - pydipala
  • Makani - Nagula
  • Mallem - Pydipalla
  • Mallempudi - pydipala
  • Mallu - Macherla
  • Mamilla - Gummulla
  • Mamidala - pydipala
  • Mamillapalli - Macherla
  • manchala - Pydipala / sampangi
  • Manchem - Janakula
  • manda - Vipparla
  • mandala - Grandhapala
  • Mandali - Gandhapala
  • Mandilli - Pydiapala
  • Mangisetti - Pasupuleti
  • Manukonda - Melukolupu
  • Mannuru - Sreevithu
  • manyapu - naagula
  • Maradana - Nagali
  • Marakada - Kowsika
  • Mareddy - Paidipala
  • maredla - paidipala
  • marisetti - pydipalla / mallepula
  • Marri - Velisela
  • Marothu - Paidipala
  • mathe - pogunolla
  • Matlapudi - Chandrakala
  • Mathi - Nelabala
  • Matta - Paidipala
  • Mavuluri - Janakula
  • Medandarao - Nallagulla
  • Medandrao - Nallagulla
  • medicharla - narimulla
  • Medida - Atchutala
  • Medisetty - rellagovula
  • Medisetty - Paidipala
  • meesala - nagula
  • Meka - pavidipalla
  • Mekala - punnepalli
  • Mendu - Karanalu / pamidipalla
  • Merugu - Chettella
  • Mettu - Janakula
  • Miriyala - pydipala
  • Moduga - Janakula
  • Mogali - Kasyapa
  • Mogalipuvvu - Settinolla
  • Mogalla - kasipala
  • Moganti - Chetla
  • Molabanti - Pillivatalla
  • Mopada - Paidipala
  • Mopidevi - Pamidipalla
  • Motupalli - pydipala
  • Mucherla - Naagula
  • Muddam - settilla
  • Muddineni - Athikempula
  • Mullapoodi - Janakanolla
  • Mummadisetty - janakula
  • Mummidi - Janapala
  • Mummidi - Janakula
  • Muramalla - Naga
  • Murahari - Paidipala
  • Murari - Janaknolla
  • Mutha - Janakula
  • Muthamsetty - Janakunolla
  • Muthangi - Paidipala
  • muthangi - setty
  • Muthireddy - Janakula
  • Muttumu - Manikyala
  • Muthyala - Rajanala / Pasupunolla
  • Mutyala - Janakulla / Pamidipalla
  • Mylavarapu - Paidipalla
  • Mylu - Paidipalla
  • Nadella - chennumalla
  • Nadikatla - Paidapala
  • Nadikoti - Ramaneela
  • Nagalla - Pogunolla
  • Nagam - Pydipaala
  • Nagineni - vepakula
  • Nagireddi - Pydipaala
  • Nagisetty - Kandalla / Janakula
  • Naidu - Pasupuleti
  • Nainala - Gogineelu
  • Nainalasetti - Settipala
  • Nainar - Palavalli
  • Nakka - Markandya
  • Nalla - Janukula
  • Nallaganchu - Paidipala
  • Nallagatla -  ?
  • naraharasetty - vasthula
  • Narahari - Dharbasila
  • narahari setty -
  • Naraharisetty - Janakula
  • Narakula - Paidipala
  • naralasetty - Janakamuni
  • Narla - paidepala
  • Narisetty - Ramanuja
  • Naramsetty -?
  • Narukula - Cherukunoolla
  • narukula - chitikinelu
  • nasam - pasupulate
  • NathireddiPaidipalla - Paydipala
  • Nayudu - pamidipalla
  • Nayuni - Kolukula / Kolakalu
  • Nedunuri - Paidipalla
  • Nelluri - Pogunulu
  • Neelam - Paidipala
  • neelam - sirikondala
  • Nerusu - Nagamala
  • Nigamanu - Paidipala
  • Nimmakayala - Paalavalli
  • Nimmala - janakula / kumaralla
  • Nimmana - Pydipala
  • Noolu - Pyidipala
  • Nunna - Pydipala
  • Nusetti - Pamidipala
  • Oduru - dasradula
  • Pacha - Pydipalli
  • PADALA - Atchutha
  • Padala - Pydipala
  • Padalaneni - Recharla
  • Padyala - karanalla
  • Pagadala - Dhabanala
  • paladugu - Janakanillaa
  • palagiri - Gorintaku
  • Paladugu - Paidipalla
  • Palanchu - Please fill
  • Palanki - Pydipala
  • Palapandu - Pydipala
  • PALAPATI - POOGINOOLLA
  • Pallapolu - ottella
  • Palli - Nagula
  • Palnati - Veyyigulla / Pidapala
  • Pallapolu - ottivella
  • Paluri - akshitala
  • Pamarthi - paidipalla
  • pampa - pydipala
  • Panabakam - Reyla
  • Panala - Kandalla
  • Panakalu - Pooginoolla
  • Panchakarla - padipala
  • Panchaparvala - Pydipalla
  • Pandalaneni - Pamidipalla
  • Pandamaneni - Pamidipalla
  • Pandham - Paidipala
  • Pandalaneni - Paidipala
  • Pangisetty -
  • Pantham - Paidipala
  • Panuganti - Janakula
  • Papana - Pavidipalla
  • Papisetty - Pydipala
  • Paravada - Paidipala
  • Parna - Jajula
  • Parna - Virajala
  • parvathareddy - paidipala
  • Pasala - Siripala
  • Pasam - vinukula
  • Pasam - Rathnala
  • Pasupuleti - Pempala / etipala
  • Pasupuleti - thadipatri / Govilla
  • Pasupuleti - Mutyala /janakanolla
  • Pasupuleti - Pisala/ Pydipalla
  • Patagarla - Subalakham
  • Pathi - Setla
  • Pathivada - Nagula
  • Pennati - Pogunolla
  • Pidugu - Gongura
  • poturaju - Janakula
  • pulagam -setnilla
  • Raagu -pydipaala
  • Raavi -Rachanalla
  • Rachamalla - Pasupuneti
  • Raghavarapu -Viriyala
  • Raghavapurapu- Pasupunolla
  • Ragu -paidibala
  • rajanala -paidipala
  • Ramayanam -Govardhana
  • Ramayanam -Govula
  • Rambarki -Nagali
  • Ramisetty -janakula
  • Ram -Paidipala
  • rangisetti -recharla
  • rangu -mungashila
  • Rankireddy -Paidipaala
  • Rao -Paidipala
  • Raparti -Paidipala
  • ravada -pdidipalli
  • ravada -pdidipalai
  • ravinuthala-- Paidipala
  • Ravula -Janakula
  • Ravulapally -Janakula
  • Ravuri -pavidipandla
  • Ravutu -Piatapalla
  • Rayachoti - Rela
  • Rayala - Velpula
  • Rayam - Palavalli
  • Rayapalli - pamunoori
  • rayapureddy - pydipala
  • Rayapureddy - Janapala
  • Rayavarapu - srikrishna
  • Rayini - Bodhineedi
  • Redrouthu - Janakula
  • Rekapalli -
  • Rekhapally - Bharadwaja
  • Remala - Munibala
  • Repalle - Dhanikula
  • Revalla - Nagula
  • Rokkam - Janakula
  • Rowthu / Routhu - Nagula / Nageswara
  • Ryali - Paidipalla
  • Sada - Ragipogu
  • Saddala - Chemanti
  • Sagiri - Dhanikula
  • Sainedi - Kommirisetty
  • Sairi - Aarakula
  • Sakiri - Garikapogula
  • Saladi - Janukula
  • Samarla - Perichetla
  • Samayam - Nerashankula / Nalachakra
  • Sambrani - Paidipala
  • Sammeta - Varalakshmi
  • Samtham - redla
  • Sana - Daneschala
  • Sanam - Pydipala
  • Sane - Pidipala
  • sandhu - naarikella
  • Sandrana - Paidipala
  • Sanga - Vangapoola
  • Sanku - padipalli
  • sannala - janakula
  • Sasipalli - Nagula
  • satti - pydipala
  • Savithena - Pydipala
  • Sayana - Dabbanala
  • Sayyapureddy - Janakula
  • Seelam - Pydipala
  • Seeram - Pydipala
  • Seerala - Janakula
  • Seetala - Paidipala
  • Seethala - Paidipala
  • Seerla - Chettella
  • selagamsetty - janakala
  • Senapathi - Paidipala
  • Setlam - Paidipala
  • Setti - Janakula
  • Settipalli - Pamidipalla
  • Setty - Janakula
  • Settyvari - malahari
  • Sevvana - Manimantra
  • Siddineni - Veludanala
  • sikha - Pamidipalla
  • Sikharam - PAIDIPALA
  • Simhadri - Paidipala
  • Singamsetty - Janakula
  • singamsetty - pidipalla
  • singanasetty - pydipala
  • Singaraju - pananeella
  • Sirasani - Janakula
  • Sirigineedi - Pydipala
  • Sirimisetty - Pydipala
  • Siripurapu - Nagula
  • sode - pakshapala
  • Somarouthu - Dabbanala / Darbanala
  • sravanam - paidipala
  • Sreerangam - Paidipala
  • Srungaram - Paidipala
  • sudhabattula - Pydipala
  • Sugavasi - Ganneru
  • sundara - Janakula
  • sundarapu - Paidipala
  • Sundudru - Chittella
  • Sunkara - paidipala
  • Surabattula - Nagula
  • surisetty - valletla
  • suvvada - nagula
  • Taakasi - Paidipala
  • Tadakaluri - Paidipala
  • Tadi - janakula
  • Tadikonda - Penugunolla
  • Tadisetty - fill
  • Takasi - Janakula
  • Talari - Paidipal
  • Talatam - Chetlapala
  • Talupala - BALUDRA
  • Tambabathula - Paidipala
  • Tammanaboina - Ompella
  • Tambabathula - Chetinola
  • Tankasala - Pasponolla
  • Tanniru - Midhunala
  • Tati - Chettilla
  • Telagamsetty - Janakula
  • Telaganeedi - Rayanaakula
  • Telaganeni - Janakunella
  • Tellapati - Koundinya
  • Teparthi - Paidipala
  • Teppala - Paidapala
  • Thambabathula - Paidipala
  • Thanda-Bargava
  • Thati - Paidipala
  • Theegala - Sankupala
  • Thirumalasetty - pydipala / Viriyala
  • Thirumalasetty - Janakanoolla / kavalendra
  • thirumanadham - paidapala
  • Thomurthy - Nagula
  • Thorati - Paidapalla
  • Thota - Janakula / Pasupunolla
  • Thota - Lakkakula
  • Thotakura - Janakula / Kasipaala
  • Thummala - pydipala
  • Thunduri - Paidipala
  • Tikkisetty - Paidipala
  • Tirumala - Malisetla
  • Tirumalla - Paidipala
  • tirumala setty - --------------
  • Toram - Ratnalu
  • Tummala - janakula
  • Tummalapalli - Paidipala
  • Tungala - Chittella
  • Turumulla - Pydipala
  • Tuta - Chatlapala
  • Udayagiri - Sajjana
  • Uddagiri - Pydipala
  • Uddandi - Musipala
  • Uggina - Paidipala
  • Undapalli - Paidipalla
  • Uppalapti - Punhseela
  • Uppu - Janakula
  • Vadagala - Paidipala
  • Vadapalli - Pasupunolla
  • Vadalasetty - Ganatahi
  • Vaddi - Vanithala
  • Vaddi - Paidipala
  • Vadlani - chettilla
  • Vagvala - Paidipala / Pavidinulla
  • Vaida - Nageswara
  • Vaka - Manikyala
  • valasala - pagidipal
  • valavala - paidipala
  • Valisetty - Janukula
  • Valavala - Kshatriya
  • Vallabhaneni - Paidipalla
  • Vallarapu - Paidipalla
  • Valtheti - Nagula
  • Vanapalli - Pydipala
  • Vangaveeti - Pydipala
  • Vankamalla - Janakula
  • Vannemreddy - Aarunolla
  • Vanteddu - Pydipala
  • Varikuti - Chittilla
  • varre - jankula
  • varre - kanikala
  • Varre - Janakula
  • Vasikarla - Srivatsa
  • Vatti - Pydipala
  • Vatturi - Settinorla
  • Vavilapalli - nageswara
  • veera - janakala
  • veerla - Nagula
  • Veerilla - Pydipala
  • Veerisetty - Padipalla / Janakula
  • Vejju - Nemalapuri
  • Vejju - Nemalapuri
  • Velimicharla - Pamidipala
  • Velivela - Pamidipala
  • Velpuri - Vipparla
  • Vema - Janakula
  • Vempala - Nagula
  • Vemuri - Paidipala
  • Venkatagiri - Bhardvaja
  • Vepuri - Manikyala
  • vinjarapu - janakamuni
  • Vinnakota - Aryakula / aarcharla
  • vinnakota - Narikella / Ariseela
  • Vippadapu - Pamidipala
  • virivada - -----
  • virivada - pavidipalla
  • Vishnumolakala - Srilakshmi
  • Viswanadhula - Palavalli
  • Vullanki - Pacchipaalla
  • Vulli - Kasibhatla
  • Vummadisetty - Manikyala
  • Vungarala - Dhanamjvuppu - Akshantala
  • Yadvareddi-Nagali
  • Yadla - Janakanolla
  • Yadlapalli - Pydipala
  • Yaga - Pidepala
  • Yalavarthi - Srilakshmi
  • Yalla - Pydipala
  • Yalamandala - Bandaru
  • Yanam - paidipala
  • Yanamala - pydipala
  • Yangalasetty - Arella
  • yara - paidipala
  • YARA - Dhanikula
  • Yarramshetty - Kusuma Palli
  • Yarnagula - Ashweejamahamuni
  • Yasa - Pagidipala
  • Yatham - Paidipala
  • Yathamshetti - Pasupunuti
  • Yekkanthi - Maanchala
  • Yedlapalli - vedurupala
  • Yedugundla - Paidipalla
  • Yelamanchi - Ayruvakala
  • Yelesetty - Baradwaja
  • Yelisetty - Paidipala
  • Yelugula - Paidipala
  • Yelugala - Pasupuneeti
  • Yendamuri - Srivatsa
  • Yendrapalli - Paidypala
  • Yenibilli - Paidipala
  • Yenna - paidipala
  • Yenuga - paidipala
  • Yenugutala - Nagula
  • Yenumula - janakula
  • Yempala - Varalakshmi
  • Yerra - Nagula / Chettella
  • Yerragopu - Janakula
  • Yerramsetty - settila
  • yerramsetty - paidipala
  • Yeramasetty - Chhetinala /Akshintala / Recherla
  • yerrapothu - virijella
  • yerrapothu - virejala
  • yerru - Kammaneila
  • Yerubandi - Padipalli
  • Yerva - Neelala
  • yannam - punya pala

°—

Political, social and cultural contributions to South India [14][15]

History records of the Kapu community state that it lived in the area between the Krishna and the Godavari rivers. This community which has prospered even before the Christian era had Telugu as the mother tongue. According to historians the Kapu community during later centuries spread into other regions developing the Telugu language and culture. It is evident that the Kapus were originally a peace loving community but due to onslaught of the invading forces from the north it formed itself into a force which protected its individuality by war. The ability to defend the cultural and religious fabric of the society from the invading forces allowed the Kapus to elevated themselves to superior status among all the other varnas all throughout the medieval ages. The Kapu caste through the Vijayanagaram Empire and through the various Nayaks played a significant role in the formation and expansion of the Telugu Empire and its culture throughout South India and Sri Lanka. Many inspiration leaders who have contributed greatly to the social, cultural and political aspects of South India came from this community.[9] Some of them contributed greatly to the freedom struggle and in the upliftment of the downtrodden by fighting hard against oppression and social evils. The most prominent among them are listed below:

  • Telugu Cholas Kings under whom the Telugu language flourished.
  • Telugu speaking Nayaks of Vijayanagar, Tanjore, Madurai, Kandy expanded the Telugu empire and its culture to Southern most parts of India and Sri Lanka.
  • Many of the Kakatiya chiefs belonging to the Kapu/Telaga/Balija descent protected the Telugu land from Muslim invasions.
  • Katta Bomma Naiker the Poligar in Tamil Nadu was the first to revolt against the British in 1799.
  • Kanneganti Hanumanthu led the anti-tax revolution in the Palnadu area and sacrificed his life to the bullets of Rutherford.
  • E.V.Ramaswamy Naicker (Periya) founder of the Dravida Khazagham Movement which fought for Down Trodden and was to be the base and ideology from which all the Dravida Political Parties originated like DMK,AIDMK etc.
  • Rao Bahadur Sir Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu Chief Minister of the Erswhile Madras Presidency.
  • Marotrao Kannamwar Chief Minister Government of Maharashtra 1961- 1964.
  • Doctor: Orthopaedics Dr. PADALA Janardhan Rao. MS Orthopaedics - Civil Surgeon, FICS, FRCS, WHO Member, District Congress Committee Vice President from Srikakulam and is a First Batch Student of Andhra University and also among the top six Orthopaedics Specialists from India.
  • Father of South Indian cinema Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu who fought against social evils prevalent at his time through his socially conscious films.
  • T. Venkata Surya Prasad (Kalaprapurna, Andhra Kalidasa, Kavibhushana) made great contribution to Telugu literature.
  • Dwaram Venkatswamy Naidu, Musician and Violinist, Gandharva Vidya Bhushana
  • Col C.K. Naidu, first Indian Cricket captain and is considered as the Father of Indian Cricket.
  • S.V. Ranga Rao, one of the greatest actors in the history of Indian Cinema.
  • Kodi Ram Murthy Naidu, famous Indian Wrestler and freedom fighter known as Indian Hercules and Kaliyuga Bhima.
  • Vangaveeti Mohana Ranga fought for the downtrodden and the oppressed.
  • Chiranjeevi Politician, iconic film star, social worker and philanthropist who has won the hearts of the people of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Pawankalyan the sensation in tollywood.
  • Allu Ramlingam great comedian in telugu filim industry.

The following links give you a brief overview and the contributions to all Fields of Social Life

bhima Yannam-punyapala

Contribution of Kapus/Balija/Telagas to literature

Lot of Kapu Nayak kings themselves being great poets enriched Telugu language by encouraging many Telugu poets. It was a common practice of the king's son to compose a Dwipada poem equating his father with "Vishnu" in Madurai and Thanjavur Nayak dynasties as per the "Literary Cultures in History" by Sheldon Pollack . Two views, one stating the king as the deity Vishnu and the other stating the king as the human being representing an aspect of Vishnu had surfaced during the period of Sreekrishna devaraya. They became more obvious when the warriors/Traders from Balija caste became kings of Madurai and Thanjavur dynasties in the seventeenth century. Poets may have been allowed to use Dwipada style with the subject of the court being the king himself.

The following is the list of Balja Naidus that made enormous contribution to Telugu and Sanskrit languages.

  • Sri Krishnadeva Rayalu (Vijayanagara Emperor): Amukthamalyada
  • Raghunatha Naidu (Thanjavur king): Sangeetha Sudha, Ramayana Katha Sangrahamu, Bharatha Katha Sangrahamu, Ramayanam,Parijathapaharanam, Nalabhyudayamu,Achyuthabhyudayamu, Valmiki Charithram.
  • Vijaya Raghava Naidu (Thanjavur king, son of Raghunatha Naidu): Yakshaganas and composition of poems, Raghunatha Nayakabhyudayamu
  • Mannaru deva Prabhuvu (Son of Vijaya Raghava Naidu):Vijaya Raghavabhyudayamu
  • Pasupuleti Rangajamma (One of the queens of Vijaya Raghava Naidu): Mannarudasa Vilasam
  • Vemanayogi: Centum(Sataka) of verses
  • Queen Ganga devi ( wife of Vijaya nagar prince Kumara Kampana): Madhura Vijayam
  • Vijayaranga Chokkanatha Naidu (Madura king): Maghamahathmyamu, Sreeranga Mahathmyamu
  • Samukham Venkata Krishnappa Naidu (Poet in the court and Army chief of Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Naidu of Madura dynasty): Jaimini Bharatham, Ahalya Sankradana Vilasam, Radhika Santhwanam, Saarangadhara Charithra.
  • Thupakula Anantha Bhoopaludu (Poet and Dalavai of Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Naidu of Madura): Vishnupuranam, Bhagavatham,Ramayanam, Bharatham,Garalapuri Mahathmyam, Bhagavadgeetha.
  • Nanne Choda Prabhuvu (Telugu Choda prince, son of Chodaballi of Pakanadu, and Poet): Kumara Sambhavam.
  • Gudaru Venkatadasa Kavi (Poet's sur name is Gudaru and Gothram is Paidipala) : Balarama Charithram.
  • Konidena Nagaya Kavi (Born in Yellammapeta in Kadapa district): Vedavedantha Sarasagraham, Ashtottara Sathakam, Brahmanarada Samvadam
  • Chekuri Siddha Kavi ((Born in Yellammapeta, Kadapa district): Sreerama Karnamrutham, Dwadasa manjareesthavam, Chathurdasa manjareestavam, Venugopala sathakam, Vishnupuranam,Sreeranga mahathmyamu, Haribhakthamrutha saaramu.
  • Macha Venkataraya Kavi (Born in Jalumuru, Visakhapattanam district): Vydarbhee Parinayam, Haribhajana Keerthana kruthi, Chennakesava Ramayana Sangraham, Chaya putra Sathakam, Mukhalingeswarodaharanamu,Rukmini Natakam, Droupadi vasthrapaharanam, Mayuradhwajopakhyanamu,Suddhandhra nirvachana niroshtya kusa charithram.
  • Thumu Ramadasa Kavi (Born in Warangal): Rukmini Kalyanam, Gopika vilasam, Mitravindo dwaham, Kalidasu Natakam, Andhrapada nidhanamu.
  • Tripurana Venkata Surya Prasada Rao (Born in Siddhantham in Visakhapattanam district): Nirvachana Kumara Sambhavamu, Raghu vamsamu, Kiratharjuneeyamu,Uttararama Charithramu, Raghudayamu,Indumati mandaramu, Rati vilapamu, Pathala khandamu, Moilu Rayabharamu, Sree Bhagavadgeethamruthamu
  • Erra Venkata Swami: Vasthuguna Deepika
  • Erra Ayyanna: Telugu Kavaathu
  • Matla Anantharaju (Kadapa district, Telugu Chola descendent):Kakustha Vijayamu


See List of Kapus for More information...

Kapus in the 20th century

Though the Kapu community did have a great role to play in the various social, economic, political and cultural aspects of the Telugu society up until the 19th century, it has not enjoyed economic and political success after India's independence. They started getting into a steady decline except for a few sections of the community who adopted to modern education and economic transition. The decline peaked during the 1970s and 1980s. Off late with economic liberalization and with the removal of License Raj and government monopoly on sectors, the community is slowly but steadily rebuilding itself.

  • The Kapu community were slow in adopting the modern techniques of cultivation, education, business and politics.
  • The richer sections of the community primarily in Coastal Andhra took part in the renaissance but to a larger extent the middle farmers from Rayalaseema and Telangana could not take advantage of this because of not being blessed with natural resources like their coastal counterparts.
  • This resulted in a drastic decrease in education among the community in Rayalaseema, Telangana and North Andhra resulting in poverty.
  • Although socially still a forward community, lack of Government support by the way of political representation, reservations, welfare measures made the some sections of the Kapus economically deprived.
  • They currently have only about 5% representation in government jobs and services despite being about 20.5% of the state population.
  • They have only about 48 members representing both the Parliament and Assembly seats which does not represent the numbers the community has in the state.
  • It is of the opinion that both the major political parties, the Congress and Telugu Desam did not equitably allocate assembly seats to Kapus as per their population. For instance, Balijas, even after being a majority in the Rayalaseema districts have hardly any MLAs representing them in the State Assembly.[10]
  • The lack of strategic or collective decision making and disinclination to join politics are believed to have had a detrimental effect on the community. Off late, however, they are trying to consolidate their representation in elected bodies.
  • A large number of Kapus have diversified into business, industry, arts and academia both in India and abroad. There are also a number of budding entrepreneurs who have succeeded in different fields.

Role in Politics

The community has the credit of Producing Chief Ministers for 2 Different States and has played a very Active role in shaping the Political Landscape of the Southern Indian States in the form of Periyar.

  1. Rao Bahaddur Sir Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu — Governor Madras Presidency (1936–1937) Chief Minister of Madras Presidency(1937)
  2. Marotrao Kannamwar Chief Minister Government of Maharashtra (1961–1964)

References and sources

Important information about Kapu origins can be obtained from Balijapuranam in the Chennai library.

http://books.google.com/books?id=vERnljM1uiEC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=Gazetteer+of+South+India,+Volume+2+By+W.+Francis&source=bl&ots=LRyM_CW3VP&sig=Jk5C3rhmpa2Ia344KFIHsiPftvs&hl=en&ei=r87CSpmkIJPalAejw83IBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false

References


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