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Political Map: the Kashmir region districts, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Valley of Kashmir.
Ninth-highest: The Nanga Parbat mountain, a most dangerous climb, is in the Northern Areas of Kashmir.
.Kashmir (Balti: کشمیر; Dogri: कश्मीर, Gojri: کشمیر; Poonchi/Chibhali: کشمیر; Kashmiri: कॅशीर, کٔشِیر; Ladakhi: ཀཤམིར; Shina: کشمیر; Uyghur: كەشمىر) is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent.^ To start the history of Kashmir in the nineteenth century is like beginning the history of the subcontinent after the war of independence of 1857 (The Great Indian Mutiny).
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Indian part of the state of Kashmir is divided into 3 main regions: Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The famous sapphires of Kashmir are mined from a remote region high in the Great Himalayan mountains of northwestern India.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range.^ Till the advent of Karkota dynasty (beginning of 8th Century) the Gonanda dynasty gave Kashmir only two notable rulers viz.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Recent archaeological finds in Kashmir have supported the theory that the Indus valley Civilisation indeed stretched right to the origins of the Indus beyond the Himalayas, into the Karakorums and into Kashmir.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Writes P. N. Bamzai : " Mahraja Gulab Singh is the only Indian ruler to have carved out a state during the 19th century out of the wreckage of the great kingdom of Sikhs.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Contemporarily, Kashmir denotes a larger area that includes the Indian administered state of Jammu and Kashmir (Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh), the Pakistani administered Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir, and the Chinese-administered regions of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.^ The Indian area is divided into the following divisions: Ladakh, Jammu and the Kashmir Valley.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Indian part of the state of Kashmir is divided into 3 main regions: Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indian held Kashmir at Aksai-chin and Demochok in Ladakh.
  • The J&K conflict: A Chronological Introduction - India Together 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United Nations,[1] and other local entities, use the designation Jammu and Kashmir to geographically denote said area.^ The Indian area is divided into the following divisions: Ladakh, Jammu and the Kashmir Valley.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kabul valley Proutonsa (Poonch), Pajapuri (Rajauri) Kangra, Jammu, Kisthwar and Ladhak, one after the other threw-off their allegiance to the rulers of Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the State of Jammu and Kashmir has a Muslim majority but is by no means a homogenous religious or ethnic entity.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to the Mahabharata,[2] the Kambojas ruled Kashmir during the epic period with a Republican system of government [3][4][5] In the first half of the first millennium, the Kashmir region became an important center of Buddhism and later of Hinduism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose.^ It is strange that during this dark period a Hindu also became a Governor here.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Hindu conflicts died down, around the 8th century B.C Buddhism took root in the subcontinent.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in life he supported Buddhism (to the ire of the Hindu Brahmans).
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

[6] .In 1349, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir and inaugurated the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Swati dynasty.^ Kashmiri rulers were Buddhist till it was conquered by the Muslims in 1339 AD. Even though Kashmir was inhabited by Muslims, it was still being ruled by Buddhist princes till 1349 when Shah Mirza, after the death of his royal patron, ascended the throne under the title of Samsuddin Shah.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Rinchin for 3 years became the ruler of Kashmir, Shah Mir was the first rular of Shah Miri-dynasty, and the decendants of Lankar Chak established Chak rule in the Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sultan of Kashmir, Nazuk Shah, became almost a puppet in his hands.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

[7] .For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughals, who ruled from 1526 until 1751, then the Afghan Durrani Empire that ruled from 1747 until 1820.[7] That year, the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir.^ For seven hundred years Kashmir was under Buddhist rule.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jammu and Kashmir(J&K * ) State is created under the Treaty of Amritsar between the East India company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu who buys Kashmir Valley from the East India Company for Rs.75,00,000 and adds it to Jammu and Ladakh already under his rule.
  • The J&K conflict: A Chronological Introduction - India Together 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ruling monarch Rinchen Shah converted to Islam and assumed the name of Sadruddin in 1327 AD. Thereafter, beginning with his former general Shahmir, a series of Muslim dynasties ruled the State with brief interludes of annexation into neighbouring States, to become a part of the Mughal Empire in the late 16th century, under its greatest ruler Akbar.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

[7] .In 1846, upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Dogras—under Gulab Singh—became the new rulers.^ Gulab Singh was a ruthless ruler.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jammu and Kashmir(J&K * ) State is created under the Treaty of Amritsar between the East India company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu who buys Kashmir Valley from the East India Company for Rs.75,00,000 and adds it to Jammu and Ladakh already under his rule.
  • The J&K conflict: A Chronological Introduction - India Together 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was Gulab Singh who conquered one by one different places and regions of the state, Jammu,.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Dogra Rule, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947, when the former princely state became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People's Republic of China.^ India and Pakistan think that the dispute is between them and ignore the people of Kashmir.

^ Pakistan's Relations with India, 1947 - 1966.

^ Thus Jammu & Kashmir became a Princely State and remained so till 1947 until India occupied it.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Etymology

General view of Temple and Enclosure of Marttand (the Sun), at Bhawan, ca. A.D. 490–555; the colonnade ca. A.D. 693–729. Surya Temple at Martand, Jammu & Kashmir, photographed by John Burke, 1868.
.The Nilamata Purana describes the Valley’s origin from the waters; का Ka (“water”) + शिमिरि Shimir (“to desiccate”), hence, Kaashmir denotes “a land desiccated from water”.^ The name Kashmir also implies land desicated from water: "ka" (the water ) and shimeera (to desicate).
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The mythological traditions supported fully by the research of geologists confirm that the valley originally was a huge lake called "Satisar", ( the land of goddess Sati, consort of Lord Shiva ) and its waters were blocked near Baramulla (ancient Varahmulla).
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.An alternate nominal origin theory proposes that Kaashmir is a contraction of either Kashyap-mira or Kashyapmir or Kashyapmeru, denoting the “sea of Kashyapa” and the “mountain of Kashyapa”, eponyms of Kashyapa, the sage credited with having drained the primordial Satisar lake that occupied the Kaashmir valley before he reclaimed it from the water.^ The mythological traditions supported fully by the research of geologists confirm that the valley originally was a huge lake called "Satisar", ( the land of goddess Sati, consort of Lord Shiva ) and its waters were blocked near Baramulla (ancient Varahmulla).
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Recent archaeological finds in Kashmir have supported the theory that the Indus valley Civilisation indeed stretched right to the origins of the Indus beyond the Himalayas, into the Karakorums and into Kashmir.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said that the Kashmir Valley was once the great lake Satisar (the Lake of the goddess Sati, also known as Durga), home to ferocious demons.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.Considering the Valley an embodiment of the goddess Uma, the Nilamata Purana gives it the place-name Kaashmira, from which derives the contemporary Kashmir place-name.^ Kashmir dispute, whether you call it India and Pakistan problem or give it any other name, is essentially related to national identity and future of people of Jammu and Kashmir.

^ It is said that the Kashmir Valley was once the great lake Satisar (the Lake of the goddess Sati, also known as Durga), home to ferocious demons.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Plebiscite Administrator shall derive from the State of Jammu and Kashmir the powers he considers necessary.."
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

Nonetheless, the Kaashmiris colloquially use the place-name Kashir, which is phonetically derived from Kaashmir, as noted in the Aurel Stein introduction to the Rajatarangini metrical chronicle.
.In the Rajatarangini, a history of Kashmir written by Kalhana in the 12th century, it is stated that the valley of Kaashmir was formerly a lake.^ GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY The terms "Kashmir" and "Muslim" are often loosely, and erroneously, used when referring to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said that the Kashmir Valley was once the great lake Satisar (the Lake of the goddess Sati, also known as Durga), home to ferocious demons.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "It is a dream come true," gushed the 45-year-old housewife from central India, standing on the banks of Srinagar's Dal lake in the Himalayan valley of Kashmir.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was drained by the great rishi or sage, Kashyapa, son of Marichi, son of Brahma, by cutting the gap in the hills at Baramulla (Varaha-mula).^ Responding to the penances of the great sage Kashyapa, the grandson of Brahma himself, the gods destroyed the demon of the lake, with a pebble divinely caste, which today stands as the hill upon which towers the fortress built by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, and known today as Hari Parbat.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

Cashmere is a variant spelling of Kaashmir.[8]

History

Buddhism and Hinduism in Kashmir

This general view of the unexcavated Buddhist stupa near Baramulla, with two figures standing on the summit, and another at the base with measuring scales, was taken by John Burke in 1868. The stupa, which was later excavated, dates to 500 CE
.The Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka is often credited with having founded the old capital of Kashmir, Shrinagari, now ruins on the outskirts of modern Srinagar.^ A bus service across the divide began last spring; there are now seven flights daily into the capital, Srinagar.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has made his name immortal by founding the city of Praverseinpura (modern city of Srinagar), the summer capital of the state at present.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar called now as " Pandrethan ", ( Puranadhisthan ) and also build many vihars and temples and repaired the old shrine.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

Kashmir was long to be a stronghold of Buddhism.[9]
.As a Buddhist seat of learning, it is possible that the Sarvāstivādan school dominated Kashmir.^ Kashmir was the most flourishing centre of Buddhist learning in this period.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearly 500 Buddhist and Hindu scholars attended this conference, and a learned Kashmir Brahmin Vasumitra presided over its session.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] East and Central Asian Buddhist monks are recorded as having visited the kingdom. .In the late 4th century AD, the famous Kuchanese monk Kumārajīva, born to an Indian noble family, studied Dīrghāgama and Madhyāgama in Kashmir under Bandhudatta.^ The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- India 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus the arts and crafts of Kashmir became famous in Europe and America and the shawls of Kashmir in particular became a fashionable item in England in seventeenth century.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pursuant to the Accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India the Constitution of India made provision to accord to State of Jammu and Kashmir a special and protected place in the Indian polity, under Article of 370 of the Constitution.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

He later became a prolific translator who helped take Buddhism to China. His mother Jīva is thought to have retired to Kashmir. .Vimalākṣa, a Sarvāstivādan Buddhist monk, travelled from Kashmir to Kucha and there instructed Kumārajīva in the Vinayapiṭaka.^ There in black and white, with all the authority of the Foreign Office behind them, are the words, "We strongly advise against all travel to Jammu and Kashmir."
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Adi Shankara visited the pre-existing Sarvajñapīṭha (Sharada Peeth) in Kashmir in late 8th century CE or early 9th Century CE. The Madhaviya Shankaravijayam states this temple had four doors for scholars from the four cardinal directions.^ Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkic in the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning in the late 15th century.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- India 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Till the advent of Karkota dynasty (beginning of 8th Century) the Gonanda dynasty gave Kashmir only two notable rulers viz.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The faith came to Kashmir through the Sufi saint Bulbul Shah in the early fourteenth century, finding wide acceptance.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.The southern door (representing South India) had never been opened, indicating that no scholar from South India had entered the Sarvajna Pitha.^ There is no adult franchise, no assembly and the people have never participated in an election or sent representatives to the National Assembly.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.Adi Shankara opened the southern door by defeating in debate all the scholars there in all the various scholastic disciplines such as Mimamsa, Vedanta and other branches of Hindu philosophy; he ascended the throne of Transcendent wisdom of that temple.^ Of these there is at least one large piece, bigger than a polo or croquet ball, and others smaller all of a rich blue colour.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were provided same opportunities that other Hindus had there.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost all the muslim chroniclers speak of the wholesale destruction of Hindu shrines including the 'Martand' Temple, and forcible conversion of Hindus to Islam.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

[11]
Abhinavagupta (approx. 950 - 1020 AD[12][13]) was one of India's greatest philosophers, mystics and aestheticians. .He was also considered an important musician, poet, dramatist, exeget, theologian, and logician[14][15] - a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture.^ Any person who represented the States authority, considered unfriendly to the militants cause, or held in esteem by the local people and thus able to influence their thinking towards peaceful resolution of conflict and opposed to militancy and Pakistans machinations, became a target.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

[16][17]
.He was born in the Valley of Kashmir[18] in a family of scholars and mystics and studied all the schools of philosophy and art of his time under the guidance of as many as fifteen (or more) teachers and gurus.^ It may, however, be noted that the product of the Kashmir mines suffers more from flaws and blemishes than that of many other mines.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three years ago , when I last visited the Kashmir valley to report on the insurgency for the BBC , I would have answered no to all theses questions.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there are signs all over the valley information local and visitors alike that the police are with U. for U. ever and always ,the sight of so many police officers and solidiers in public places still makes srinagar look like a city under siege.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .In his long life he completed over 35 works, the largest and most famous of which is Tantrāloka, an encyclopedic treatise on all the philosophical and practical aspects of Trika and Kaula (known today as Kashmir Shaivism).^ The trekkers all over the world often share their experiences in Kashmir throughout their life time, as it is said the climbing friendship lasts long.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dhanwantri’s teaching of highest professional excellence are reflected mainly in monumental classic monograph Sushrata Samhita, which has dealt extensively with all the then known aspects of surgery.

^ Kashmir was an issue between these two nations long before the terrorist phenomenon was ever known about in the west.

.Another one of his very important contributions was in the field of philosophy of aesthetics with his famous Abhinavabhāratī commentary of Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharata Muni.^ Chris Chisu Seattle, WA Very beautiful and moving pictures but, yeah, another proof that no one gives a damn about injustice in this world.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the field of Philosophy Kashmir's contribution is the "Shiva School of thought", which assumed a distinctive character in the valley.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before switching over to the early Muslim period, it would be proper to point out, very briefly of course, the contribution of people here, in the field of Philosophy, Literature and Archaeology.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

[20]

Muslim rule

.
Gateway of enclosure, (once a Hindu temple) of Zein-ul-ab-ud-din's Tomb, in Srinagar.
^ Writes M. Hassan: "In their misplaced zeal for their faith, Sikandar and his minister Saif-ud-din (who was originally a Hindu) were also responsible for the destruction of images and temples ."
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

Probable date A.D. 400 to 500
, 1868. John Burke. Oriental and India Office Collection. British Library.
.The Muslims and Hindus of Kashmir lived in relative harmony, since the Sufi-Islamic way of life that Muslims followed in Kashmir complemented the Rishi tradition of Kashmiri Pandits.^ Hindus and Muslims lived peacefully in Kashmir before !
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Muslims and Hindus can live in harmony.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Forget about Hindu and Muslim factors, all Kashmiries are first Indian.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This led to a syncretic culture where Hindus and Muslims revered the same local saints and prayed at the same shrines[citation needed].^ Almost all the muslim chroniclers speak of the wholesale destruction of Hindu shrines including the 'Martand' Temple, and forcible conversion of Hindus to Islam.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These are the same people who made the rule of majority (according to their democratic rules) of muslim or hindus areas would be muslim and then this (crupt writer) is writing that those rules were flawed.

.Famous sufi saint Bulbul Shah was able to convert Rinchan Shah who was then prince of Kashgar Ladakh to an Islamic lifestyle, thus founding the Sufiana composite culture.^ The faith came to Kashmir through the Sufi saint Bulbul Shah in the early fourteenth century, finding wide acceptance.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under this rule, Muslim, Hindu and Buddhist Kashmiris generally co-existed peacefully.^ The main portion of the inhabitants is Muslim, followed by Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists and Christians.

^ Hindus and Muslims lived peacefully in Kashmir before !
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Forget about Hindu and Muslim factors, all Kashmiries are first Indian.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

Over time, however, the Sufiana governance gave way to outright Muslim monarchs.

First Muslim Ruler, Shah Mir

.In the beginning of 14th century a ferocious Mongol, Dulucha, invaded the valley through its northern side Zojila Pass, with an army of 60,000 men.^ In the beginning of 14th century a ferocious Mongol, Dulucha invaded the valley through its northern side Zojila Pass, with an army of 60,000 men.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Like Taimur in the Punjab and Delhi, Dulucha carried sword and fire, destroyed towns and villages and slaughtered thousands.^ Thousands of Indus valley or Harappan archaeological cultural sites discovered in India in the States of Punjab, Harayana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Jammu and Kashmir.

.His savage attack practically ended the Hindu rule in Kashmir.^ His savage attack practically ended the Hindu rule in Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was the direct descendant of Lankar Chak who had come to Kashmir towards the close of Hindu rule.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the eclipse of Utpala dynasty, Lohara dynasty ruled Kashmir till the end of the Hindu rule in Kashmir (1339).
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Raja Sahadev was the ruler then.^ A weak and worthless man Raja Sahadev was the ruler then.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was during his reign that three men, Shah Mir from Swat (tribal) territory on the borders of Afghanistan, Rinchin from Ladhak, and Lankar Chak from Dard territory near Gilgit came to Kashmir, and played a notable role in subsequentive political history of the valley.^ It was during his reign that three adventurers, Shah Mir from Swat ( Tribal) territory on the borders of Afganistan, Rinchin from Ladhak, and Lankar Chak from Dard territory near Gilgit came to Kashmir, and played a notable role in subsequentive political history of the valley.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These visitors have played a great role in highlighting Kashmir and its beauties to the world.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It treats Azad Kashmir territory and Gilgit-Balistan areas as its own domain which a Joint Secretary controls as Chief Advisor.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.All the three men were granted Jagirs by the King.^ All the three men were granted Jagirs by the King.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Rinchin for 3 years became the ruler of Kashmir, Shah Mir was the first rular of Shah Miri-dynasty.^ Rinchin for 3 years became the ruler of Kashmir, Shah Mir was the first rular of Shah Miri-dynasty, and the decendants of Lankar Chak established Chak rule in the Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kashmir remained a dependency of Kabul rulers till 1819, roughly a period of 67 years.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sultan of Kashmir, Nazuk Shah, became almost a puppet in his hands.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.After his demise, his son Jamshed became the ruler who was later removed by his own brother Ali Sher Swati in the matter of just a couple of months.^ Now Ali Shah repented and instead of going on pilgrimage to Mecca, he returned along with the forces of the Ruler of Jammu and regained his kingdom from his brother.

^ Just to cite an example, I am an Urdu speaking "Bihari," former Pakistani, whose parents migrated to East Pakistan from India after the independence of East Pakistan from Pakistan, which became Bangladesh later.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After his death, it is mostly the weak rulers except his grand son Jayatida, who ruled the valley.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some Kashmiri rulers, such as Sultan Zain-ul-Abidinwho was popularly known as budshah(r.1423-1474), were tolerant of all religions in a manner comparable to Akbar.^ This is all due to Zain-ul-Abidin."
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A Vakh uttered by Mirza Kak (popularly) known as Kak Ji) unnerved the pathan rulers of Kashmir in the early 19th Century.

^ One is Sultan Shihabud-din, and the second is the great Sultan Zain-ul-Abdin.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, several Muslim rulers of Kashmir were intolerant of other religions.^ The Kabul valley Proutonsa (Poonch), Pajapuri (Rajauri) Kangra, Jammu, Kisthwar and Ladhak, one after the other threw-off their allegiance to the rulers of Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It may, however, be noted that the product of the Kashmir mines suffers more from flaws and blemishes than that of many other mines.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Don`t get confused that i have mixed with other religion, I perform all my rilegious duties with more peacefully securely and spiritually even in this Non Muslim World.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sultãn Sikandar Butshikan of Kashmir (AD 1389-1413) is often considered the worst of these.^ Quite often, Pakistan uses its logic of objections on these projects, under the ambit of Indus Water Treaty, to halt progress on Kashmir issue resolution .

Historians have recorded many of his atrocities. .The Tarikh-i-Firishta records that Sikandar persecuted the Hindus and issued orders proscribing the residence of any other than Muslims in Kashmir.^ It may, however, be noted that the product of the Kashmir mines suffers more from flaws and blemishes than that of many other mines.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 10 per cent of India's population is Muslim, whereas few Hindus or Sikhs remain in Pakistan.

^ Kashmir's Hindu's and Muslims had to bear the brunt of this game plan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.He also ordered the breaking of all "golden and silver images". The Tarikh-i-Firishta further states: "Many of the Brahmins, rather than abandon their religion or their country, poisoned themselves; some emigrated from their native homes, while a few escaped.^ Like the rest of India, it represents a mosaic of different religions, different ethnic groups and cultures as do many other States of India.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Can you tell how many prominent persons in Pakistan are of a religion other than Muslim.

.After the emigration of the Brahmins, Sikandar ordered all the temples in Kashmir to be thrown down.^ Writes H. Gotezi " The temple of Martand set the model for Kashmir Hindu Art in all the following centuries....
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hazrat-Bal Mosque; the most sanctified of all Muslim shrines, Avantipur temples, Amarnath Caves, Shankaracharya temple, Martand Temple all add to the scenic appeal of Kashmir.

Having broken all the images in Kashmir, (Sikandar) acquired the title of ‘Destroyer of Idols’."[21]
.The metrical chronicle of the kings of Kashmir, called Rajatarangini, has been pronounced by Professor H.H.Wilson to be the only Sanskrit composition yet discovered to which the appellation "history" can with any propriety be applied.^ Pakistan has never claimed Kashmir to be a part of Pakistan and it only calls for the aspirations of the Kashmiri people to be realized by means of a UN chartered plebiscite as was done in the case of Hyderabad and Junagarh.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And the other thing is: these so called "millitants" are Islamistic terrorists and NOTHING ELSE! When they attack the World Trade Center, they are Islamistic terrorists, when they attack India or Kashmir, then they are only "millitants" or what?
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He won the loyality and affection of his subjects who called him Budshah or the great king, a name by which he is remembered even to day by the people of Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.It first became known to the Muslims when, on Akbar's invasion of Kashmir in 1588, a copy was presented to the emperor.^ Rinchin for 3 years became the ruler of Kashmir, Shah Mir was the first rular of Shah Miri-dynasty, and the decendants of Lankar Chak established Chak rule in the Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was in 1579 that illuminated Moghul emperor Akbar visited Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Things became different gradually when those who dared first, encouraged others to come to Kashmir independently.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A translation into Persian was made at his order.^ The Sultan had also established a translation department where important works were translated from Sanskrit into Persian and Arabic.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

A summary of its contents, taken from this Persian translation, is given by Abul Fazl in the Ain-i-Akbari. The Rajatarangini was written by Kalhana about the middle of the 12th century. His work, in six books, makes use of earlier writings that are now lost.
The Rajatarangini is the first of a series of four histories that record the annals of Kashmir. Commencing with a rendition of traditional history of very early times, the Rajatarangini comes down to the reign of Sangrama Deva, (c.1006 AD). The second work, by Jonaraja, continues the history from where Kalhana left off, and, entering the Muslim period, gives an account of the reigns down to that of Zain-ul-ab-ad-din, 1412. P. Srivara carried on the record to the accession of Fah Shah in 1486. The fourth work, called Rajavalipataka, by Prajnia Bhatta, completes the history to the time of the incorporation of Kashmir in the dominions of the Mogul emperor Akbar, 1588.

Sikh rule and Princely State

.
1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu.
^ Like politics of Pakistan it is difficult to predict future of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the on going struggle.

^ Indeed, the State of Jammu and Kashmir has a Muslim majority but is by no means a homogenous religious or ethnic entity.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY The terms "Kashmir" and "Muslim" are often loosely, and erroneously, used when referring to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.
.By the early 19th century, the Kashmir valley had passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan, and four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghans, to the conquering Sikh armies.^ On the issue of Kashmir, UN Resolution 39, passed on 20 Jan 1948, offered to assist in peaceful conclusion to the conflict and resolution 47 on 21 April 1948 that invading Pakistani army retreat, so that a plebiscite can be conducted under UN supervision.

^ The ruling monarch Rinchen Shah converted to Islam and assumed the name of Sadruddin in 1327 AD. Thereafter, beginning with his former general Shahmir, a series of Muslim dynasties ruled the State with brief interludes of annexation into neighbouring States, to become a part of the Mughal Empire in the late 16th century, under its greatest ruler Akbar.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fittingly referred to as heaven, Kashmir has been ruled by King Ashoka, the Kushanas, Gonondas, Guptas, Karkotas, Mughals, Afghans, Sikhs, and at last by the Dogras in the 19th century.

.Earlier, in 1780, after the death of Ranjit Deo, the Raja of Jammu, the kingdom of Jammu (to the south of the Kashmir valley) was captured by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh of Lahore and afterwards, until 1846, became a tributary to the Sikh power.^ The Kabul valley Proutonsa (Poonch), Pajapuri (Rajauri) Kangra, Jammu, Kisthwar and Ladhak, one after the other threw-off their allegiance to the rulers of Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1819, 30,000 soliders of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir, defeated the Pathans, and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh's empire.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The irrelevance of the Hurriyat to the people of Jammu and Kashmir and the situation in the state, became visibly apparent during the elections held in 1996.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

[22] .Ranjit Deo's grandnephew, Gulab Singh, subsequently sought service at the court of Ranjit Singh, distinguished himself in later campaigns, especially the annexation of the Kashmir valley by the Sikhs army in 1819, and, for his services, was appointed governor of Jammu in 1820. With the help of his officer, Zorawar Singh, Gulab Singh soon captured Ladakh and Baltistan, regions to the east and north-east of Jammu.^ It was Gulab Singh who conquered one by one different places and regions of the state, Jammu,.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kabul valley Proutonsa (Poonch), Pajapuri (Rajauri) Kangra, Jammu, Kisthwar and Ladhak, one after the other threw-off their allegiance to the rulers of Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1819, 30,000 soliders of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir, defeated the Pathans, and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh's empire.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

[22]
.In 1845, the First Anglo-Sikh War broke out, and Gulab Singh "contrived to hold himself aloof till the battle of Sobraon (1846), when he appeared as a useful mediator and the trusted advisor of Sir Henry Lawrence.^ However shawl industry in Kashmir received its death-blow when war broke out between Germany and France in 1870.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the defeat of the Sikhs by the British, the latter annexed and then sold Kashmir to the local feudatory Gulab Singh, who then assumed the title of Maharaja.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Writes P. N. Bamzai : " Mahraja Gulab Singh is the only Indian ruler to have carved out a state during the 19th century out of the wreckage of the great kingdom of Sikhs.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

Two treaties were concluded, of which the first gave the State of Lahore (i.e. West Punjab) to the British, whereas the second gave all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the east of Indus and west of Ravi" (i.e. the Vale of Kashmir) to Gulab Singh.[22][23] .Soon after Gulab Singh's death in 1857, his son, Ranbir Singh, added the emirates of Hunza, Gilgit and Nagar to the kingdom.^ He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tibet, as well as part of Pamier, besides the genuinely kingdoms of Jammu and Kashmir came into Maharaja Gulab Singh's possession.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Writes P. N. Bamzai : " Mahraja Gulab Singh is the only Indian ruler to have carved out a state during the 19th century out of the wreckage of the great kingdom of Sikhs.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

Portrait of Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1847, a year after signing the Treaty of Amritsar, when he became Maharaja by purchasing the territories of Kashmir "to the eastward of the river Indus and westward of the river Ravi"[24] for 75 lakhs rupees from the British (Artist: James Duffield Harding).
.The Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu (as it was then called) was constituted between 1820 and 1858 and was "somewhat artificial in composition and it did not develop a fully coherent identity, partly as a result of its disparate origins and partly as a result of the autocratic rule which it experienced on the fringes of Empire."^ Like politics of Pakistan it is difficult to predict future of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the on going struggle.

^ The internal situation of Jammu and Kashmir is, by the will of its people, strictly Indias affair and there is no call for any international intervention.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the State of Jammu and Kashmir has a Muslim majority but is by no means a homogenous religious or ethnic entity.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

[25] .It combined disparate regions, religions, and ethnicities: to the east, Ladakh was ethnically and culturally Tibetan and its inhabitants practised Buddhism; to the south, Jammu had a mixed population of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs; in the heavily populated central Kashmir valley, the population was overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim, however, there was also a small but influential Hindu minority, the Kashmiri brahmins or pandits; to the northeast, sparsely populated Baltistan had a population ethnically related to Ladakh, but which practised Shi'a Islam; to the north, also sparsely populated, Gilgit Agency, was an area of diverse, mostly Shi'a groups; and, to the west, Punch was Muslim, but of different ethnicity than the Kashmir valley.^ Jammu has a majority Hindu population(60%), but with substantial Muslim and Sikh minorities.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kashmir Valley itself is predominantly Muslim, with small components of Hindus and Sikhs.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kashmiri Muslim population is dominating the town.

[25] .After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in which Kashmir sided with the British, and the subsequent assumption of direct rule by Great Britain, the princely state of Kashmir came under the suzerainty of the British Crown.^ Army rules Kashmir: Indian HR activist , 16 Jun 2008 :.
  • Kashmir Watch :: In-depth coverage on Kashmir conflict 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.kashmirwatch.com [Source type: News]

^ Subsequently, on 26 January 1957 at the 765th meeting of the Security Council the representative of the Soviet Union stated "The question of Kashmir has been settled by the people of Kashmir themselves.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For support during the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the British wrote off that debt and awarded the Nizam the Order of the Star of India.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

Year 1947 and 1948

The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire.
.Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh, who had ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1925, was the reigning monarch in 1947 at the conclusion of British rule of the subcontinent and the subsequent partition of the British Indian Empire into the newly independent Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.^ He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the death of Maharaja Pratap Singh his nephew Maharaja Sir Hari Singh ascended the throne in 1925.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Long live Kashmir, long live India and long live Pakistan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.As parties to the partition process, both countries had agreed that the rulers of princely states would be given the right to opt for either Pakistan or India or—in special cases—to remain independent.^ But Kashmiris want either freedom or autonomy from both Pakistan and India.

^ This was sought to be undermined by the use of military force in 1947, which though successfully resisted by the Kashmiris with the support of Indias army, resulted in a portion of the State remaining under Pakistans occupation.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These australians dont have any idea if india - pakistan go to war what would be the consequences.

.Kashmir's population was overall 77 per cent Muslim but with internal areas of non-Muslim majority.^ Indeed, the State of Jammu and Kashmir has a Muslim majority but is by no means a homogenous religious or ethnic entity.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 10 per cent of India's population is Muslim, whereas few Hindus or Sikhs remain in Pakistan.

^ Everyone knows Kashmir is beautiful, that's why the Pakis want it plus the Muslim population in the region.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.It shared a boundary with both India and Pakistan.^ Joint control of Kashmir by both India and Pakistan is one of the interesting suggestions that have been thrown up .

^ The Kashmiri people just want freedom from both India and Pakistan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Kashmir" for nearly one and a half decades has become a Scapegoat for both India & Pakistan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

Pakistan anticipated that the Maharaja would accede to Pakistan, when the British paramountcy ended on 14–15 August. When he hesitated to do this, Pakistan launched a guerilla infiteration meant to frighten its ruler into submission. Instead the Maharaja appealed to Mountbatten[26] for assistance, and the Governor-General agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India."[27] Once the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession, "Indian soldiers entered Kashmir and drove the Pakistani-sponsored irregulars from all but a small section of the state. The United Nations was then invited to mediate the quarrel. .The UN mission insisted that the opinion of Kashmiris must be ascertained, while India insisted that no referendum could occur until all of the state had been cleared of irregulars."^ Since India claims to be an epitome of democracy she should hold a referendum but we all know that it seems highly unlikely.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Accession of the State to India had never been an issue for the Kashmiris.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to me, of all the 28 states of India, Kashmir is the most beautiful.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

[27]
.In the last days of 1948, a ceasefire was agreed under UN auspices; however, since the plebiscite demanded by the UN was never conducted, relations between India and Pakistan soured,[27] and eventually led to two more wars over Kashmir in 1965 and 1999.^ India and Pakistan think that the dispute is between them and ignore the people of Kashmir.

^ Two wars have already been fought over Kashmir.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Re Kashmir; more an excuse than a reason for hositilities between India and Pakistan.

.India has control of about half the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir; Pakistan controls a third of the region, the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir.^ Indeed, the portion of the State now called the Northern Areas, has been declared a part of Pakistan, separate to the entity named "Azad Kashmir" It is very significant that during the debates in the UN Security Council and in the wording of the two resolutions the sovereignty of India over Jammu and Kashmir was taken as accepted.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The river runs a 3200 kilometer (2000 mile) course, through Ladakh district in Jammu & Kashmir and Northern Areas in India , then runs through the North in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan, and merges into the Arabian Sea near Pakistan’s port city of Karachi .

^ They also contended that even the Sino-Pakistan Agreement of 1963 conceded that the Northern Areas were a part of the State of J&K. The Government of Pakistan took the specious plea that the Government of Pakistan "was not functioning or operating within the territory of Azad Jammu & Kashmir (and) as such it was not amenable to the jurisdiction of this court".
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Although there was a clear Muslim majority in Kashmir before the 1947 partition and its economic, cultural, and geographic contiguity with the Muslim-majority area of the Punjab (in Pakistan) could be convincingly demonstrated, the political developments during and after the partition resulted in a division of the region.^ Kashmir was initially ceded to Pakistan due to the Muslim majority.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When India was partitioned in 1947, there were disputes over which bits should go to Muslim majority Pakistan and which should go to Hindu majority India.

^ Rohit Choudhary Kolkata, West BEngal When people talk about Kashmir being part of Pakistan, this being a Muslim majority state and religion being the basis of partition, they forget that going by that logic India should be an entirely Hindu nation.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Pakistan was left with territory that, although basically Muslim in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped.^ More than 10 per cent of India's population is Muslim, whereas few Hindus or Sikhs remain in Pakistan.

^ Even today India has a larger Muslim population than Pakistan, a clear indication that religion is not the sole basis for a separate nationhood.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What you have written is at best idealist gunk that bears no relation to the actual treatment of non-muslims in Pakistan where they are basically second class citizens.

.The largest Muslim group, situated in the Vale of Kashmir and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked."^ Muslims are responsible for the situation in Kashmir.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite this, civil society groups in Kashmir, and in India as well, do have a crucial role to play in promoting a peaceful resolution of the ongoing conflict in the region .

^ The data is more alarming more than 10,000 of innocent Kashmiris have disappeared in Indian Military custody.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

[28]
The Karakash River (Black Jade River) which flows north from its source near the town of Sumde in Aksai Chin, to cross the Kunlun Mountains.
Topographic map of Kasmir.
.The UN Security Council on 20 January 1948 passed Resolution 39, establishing a special commission to investigate the conflict.^ On the issue of Kashmir, UN Resolution 39, passed on 20 Jan 1948, offered to assist in peaceful conclusion to the conflict and resolution 47 on 21 April 1948 that invading Pakistani army retreat, so that a plebiscite can be conducted under UN supervision.

^ Subsequently, on 26 January 1957 at the 765th meeting of the Security Council the representative of the Soviet Union stated "The question of Kashmir has been settled by the people of Kashmir themselves.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The UN has passed resolutions recognising terrorism as a major threat to human rights.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

Subsequent to the commission's recommendation, the Security Council ordered in its Resolution 47, passed on 21 April 1948, that the invading Pakistani army retreat from Jammu & Kashmir and that the accession of Kashmir to either India or Pakistan be determined in accordance with a plebiscite to be supervised by the UN.

Post-1948 developments

.The eastern region of the erstwhile princely state of Kashmir has also been beset with a boundary dispute.^ The identity of Jammu and Kashmir as a State that refuses to share power with people or devolve authority to the grassroots democratic institutions of governance can be seen in the regional and sub-regional dissension.

^ For democratic regions British said it will divide the country on the basis of will of people, but on the princely state it will be the choice of the ruler.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aman islamabad Kashmir is one of the most intractable and thorniest disputes between India and Pakistan since their inception as independent states in 1947.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the late 19th- and early 20th centuries, although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China never accepted these agreements, and the official Chinese position did not change with the communist takeover in 1949. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the north-east portion of Ladakh.^ The border agreement which related to the alignment of the entire boundary line between Chinas Sinkiang and the contiguous areas under the actual control of Pakistan was ceded: "The two parties have agreed that after the settlement of the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan the sovereign authority concerned will reopen negotiations with the government of the Peoples Republic of China on the boundary as described in Article II of the present agreement of Kashmir so as to sign a boundary treaty to replace the present agreement ......"
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pahalgam, which is also en route to the Hindu shrine at the caves of Amarnath , is triply protected-by Kashmirs border security force , the central reserve policy force and Indian army.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Vakh uttered by Mirza Kak (popularly) known as Kak Ji) unnerved the pathan rulers of Kashmir in the early 19th Century.

[28]
"By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962."[28]
China has occupied Aksai Chin since the early 1950s and, in addition, an adjoining region almost 8% of the territory, the Trans-Karakoram Tract was ceded by Pakistan to China in 1963.
.Meanwhile, elections were held in Indian Jammu & Kashmir, which brought up the popular Muslim leader Sheikh Abdullah, who with his party National Conference, by and large supported India.^ In these elections, the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India was not questioned.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then peoples in Kashmir will support INDIA. .
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jammu and Kashmir Elections first phase .

.The elected Constituent Assembly met for the first time in Srinagar on October 31, 1951.[29] Then The State Constituent Assembly ratified the accession of the State to the Union of India on February 6, 1954 and the President of India subsequently issued the Constitution (Application to J&K) Order under Article 370 of the Indian Constitution extending the Union Constitution to the State with some exceptions and modifications.^ The Accession of the State to India had never been an issue for the Kashmiris.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the accession the people of Jammu and Kashmir have participated in elections while the Constitution of India, in terms of article 370, provides the framework that guarantees the special identity and status of Jammu and Kashmir within the Indian Union.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is an expression of their will, expressed through the ballot box, that the National Conference, a supporter of Jammu and Kashmirs accession to India, remains the dominant political party in the State, first under Sheikh Abdullahs leadereship and, following the latest Assembly and Parliamentary elections in 1996, and 1998 under his son Dr Farooq Abdullah.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.The State’s own Constitution came into force on January 26, 1957 under which the elections to the State Legislative Assembly were held for the first time on the basis of adult franchise the same year.^ Along with this constitution, the Presidential Election Bill was also passed on August 25, 1974 providing for the direct election of the President through adult franchise, and of the PM by a majority in the Assembly.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The State was fully incorporated into the systems of administration and land settlement which long remained a legacy of that Empire in India, well after its own disintegration.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no adult franchise, no assembly and the people have never participated in an election or sent representatives to the National Assembly.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.This Constitution further reiterated the ratification of the State’s accession to Union of India.^ The Accession of the State to India had never been an issue for the Kashmiris.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It adopted, in 1956, the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir which declared that the State of Jammu and Kashmir was an integral part of India, and that Accession to India was final and irrevocable.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the accession the people of Jammu and Kashmir have participated in elections while the Constitution of India, in terms of article 370, provides the framework that guarantees the special identity and status of Jammu and Kashmir within the Indian Union.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] .However, these tidings were not recognized by Pakistan, which has continued to press for a plebiscite to ascertain the wishes of the people.^ Pakistan made no attempt to ascertain the will of the people of these states.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Democratic elections are a recognised means of ascertaining the wishes of the people and the people of the State of Jammu and Kashmir have repeatedly participated in such elections.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pakistan has never claimed Kashmir to be a part of Pakistan and it only calls for the aspirations of the Kashmiri people to be realized by means of a UN chartered plebiscite as was done in the case of Hyderabad and Junagarh.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Pakistan set up its own Kashmir, called Azad Kashmir in a tiny Western chunk that it controls.^ They are neither a province of Pakistan nor a part of "Azad Kashmir".
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It treats Azad Kashmir territory and Gilgit-Balistan areas as its own domain which a Joint Secretary controls as Chief Advisor.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Earlier several other members of the Organization of the Society of Jesus have come to Kashmir ever-since the Society started functioning in 1534 and they revealed to the Western world about existence of the Gods own land up in the Himalayas.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The much larger region of Pakistani Kashmir in the North-West, which was a province named Northern Areas in the erstwhile state, by and large bore no mention in Pakistani laws and Constitution as being of any status, until in 1982 the Pakistani President General Zia ul Haq proclaimed that the people of the Northern Areas were Pakistanis and had nothing to do with the State of Jammu and Kashmir.^ In 1982 General Zia ul Haq proclaimed that the people of the Northern Areas were Pakistanis and had nothing to do with the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is well known in Kashmir that the political system in West Bengal always supported well being of Kashmir and Kashmiris in as much as they have always supported the provision of special status of Kashmir in the Indian constitution and West Bengal has been the only State where Kashmiris were not harmed or harassed post 1990.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like politics of Pakistan it is difficult to predict future of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the on going struggle.

[30]

Current status and political divisions

Populous Kashmir valley (Bordered in brown),[31] Jammu and Ladakh are in Indian controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir.
.The region is divided among three countries in a territorial dispute: Pakistan controls the northwest portion (Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir), India controls the central and southern portion (Jammu and Kashmir) and Ladakh, and China controls the northeastern portion (Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract).^ India and Pakistan think that the dispute is between them and ignore the people of Kashmir.

^ India, Pakistan and China must stop claiming Kashmir as part of their respective countries.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of India and Pakistan LOC was created, which divided the Kashmir.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.India controls the majority of the Siachen Glacier area including the Saltoro Ridge passes, whereas Pakistan controls the lower territory just southwest of the Saltoro Ridge.^ Joint control of Kashmir by both India and Pakistan is one of the interesting suggestions that have been thrown up .

^ It treats Azad Kashmir territory and Gilgit-Balistan areas as its own domain which a Joint Secretary controls as Chief Advisor.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But first it has to be under U.N. control for at least a decade so that neither Pakistan nor India have undue influence over the local population.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.India controls 141,338 km2 (54,571 sq mi) of the disputed territory, Pakistan 85,846 km2 (33,145 sq mi) and China, the remaining 37,555 km2 (14,500 sq mi).^ Subject to the provisions of sub-sections (3) and (4) of this section, the territories of India shall be the territories under the sovereignty of His Majesty which, immediately before the appointed day, were included in British India except the territories which under sub-section (2) of this section are to be the territories of Pakistan.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Relations between India and Pakistan over Kashmir have been improving, even though the dispute threatened to take the countries to nuclear war as recently as 2002.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ India offered to settle the problem under pleblicite under UN, provided Pakistan agreed to return the territory and did not influence the events.

.Jammu and Azad Kashmir lie outside Pir Panjal range, and are under Indian and Pakistani control respectively.^ We people of Jammu and Kashmir never had any control or say over it.

^ Outside the collection seen in the Jammu and Kashmir State Treasury, few cut stones of greater than 65 ct have been reported (Schwieger, 1990).
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It treats Azad Kashmir territory and Gilgit-Balistan areas as its own domain which a Joint Secretary controls as Chief Advisor.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

These are populous regions. Main cities are Jammu, Muzaffarabad and Rawalakot.
.The Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly called Northern Areas, are a group of territories in the extreme north, bordered by the Karakoram, the western Himalayas, the Pamir, and the Hindu Kush ranges.^ It treats Azad Kashmir territory and Gilgit-Balistan areas as its own domain which a Joint Secretary controls as Chief Advisor.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ None of the constitutions of Pakistan, adopted in 1956, 1962, 1972 and 1973 - recognised that Northern Areas are part of the Pakistan territories.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ PAKISTAN OCCUPIED KASHMIR (SO-CALLED "AZAD KASHMIR") In terms of territory, the area of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is 222,236 sq kilometers while the area illegally occupied by Pakistan is 78,114 sq.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.With its administrative center at the town of Gilgit, the Northern Areas cover an area of 72,971 km² (28,174 mi²) and have an estimated population approaching 1,000,000. The other main city is Skardu.^ Its population of 1.5 million inhabits a vast area of 72,495 sq.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pakistan also denied the well-known Karachi Agreement of April 28, 1949 "whereby the administrative control of Northern Areas was delivered to the Government of Pakistan".
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pakistan does not trust the administration of POK to handle the Northern Areas which Islamabad considers strategically vital.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ladakh is a region in the east, between the Kunlun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south.^ But just by virtue of being in Kashmir you are already far up in the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world, so this should not come as a surprise.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- India 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] Main cities are Leh and Kargil. .It is under Indian administration and is part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.^ William H New Delhi Kashmir existed as an independednt entity much before the Indian or the Pakistani state even existed.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Outside the collection seen in the Jammu and Kashmir State Treasury, few cut stones of greater than 65 ct have been reported (Schwieger, 1990).
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rohan Gaikar Nasik, Maharashtra Kashmir is an Indian State by the treaty signed by Kashmir's king during Pakistani invasion in 1947.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in the area and is mainly inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.^ Most people come here through a Kashmiri travel agent, or hook up with the handful of Western agents based in the area.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
Aksai Chin is a vast high-altitude desert of salt that reaches altitudes up to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft). Geographically part of the Tibetan Plateau, Aksai Chin is referred to as the Soda Plain. The region is almost uninhabited, and has no permanent settlements.
.Though these regions are in practice administered by their respective claimants, neither India nor Pakistan has formally recognised the accession of the areas claimed by the other.^ These australians dont have any idea if india - pakistan go to war what would be the consequences.

^ Only an honourable settlement for Kashmir, amicable for India and Pakistan, has the potential to usher not only an era of peace and stability in the region but also a process of reconciliation between the people of Kashmir, India and Pakistan.

^ I am not supporting HR violation but what I am saying is that it is not unique to Kashmir, it is happening at so many other places of India and Pakistan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.India claims those areas, including the area "ceded" to China by Pakistan in the Trans-Karakoram Tract in 1963, are a part of its territory, while Pakistan claims the entire region excluding Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract.^ India, Pakistan and China must stop claiming Kashmir as part of their respective countries.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ India and Pakistan both claim Kashmir as a vital part of their territory and thus culture.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only an honourable settlement for Kashmir, amicable for India and Pakistan, has the potential to usher not only an era of peace and stability in the region but also a process of reconciliation between the people of Kashmir, India and Pakistan.

.The two countries have fought several declared wars over the territory.^ Two wars have already been fought over Kashmir.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The declaration of ceasefire by India and Pakistan, confidence building measures launched by the two countries and of course various militant organizations supporting tourism also helped in its revival.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- India 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 established the rough boundaries of today, with Pakistan holding roughly one-third of Kashmir, and India one-half, with a dividing line of control established by the United Nations.^ "Kashmir" for nearly one and a half decades has become a Scapegoat for both India & Pakistan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of India and Pakistan LOC was created, which divided the Kashmir.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Long live Kashmir, long live India and long live Pakistan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 resulted in a stalemate and a UN-negotiated ceasefire.

Kashmir valley

Kashmir valley seen from satellite. Snow capped Pir Panjal range separates the valley from plains.
.The Kashmir valley or Vale of Kashmir is a valley between Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range.^ But just by virtue of being in Kashmir you are already far up in the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world, so this should not come as a surprise.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is around 135 km long and 32 km wide, formed by the Jhelum River.[31] .It was called as "Paradise on Earth" by Jahangir.^ Showkat Rather Kashmir Kashmir, the so-called Paradise on earth.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ SHOWKAT RATHER BANGLORE, KARNATAKA There is lot to say about the miseries in Kashmir-the so called Paradise on earth, but whatever has happened has happened.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

Currently it has population of around 4 million, mostly Muslim.
.It lies completely within Indian administration in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.^ Like politics of Pakistan it is difficult to predict future of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the on going struggle.

^ William H New Delhi Kashmir existed as an independednt entity much before the Indian or the Pakistani state even existed.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Outside the collection seen in the Jammu and Kashmir State Treasury, few cut stones of greater than 65 ct have been reported (Schwieger, 1990).
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

Srinagar is its main city and also the summer capital of the state. Other main cities are Anantnag and Baramulla. There has been armed insurgency since 1989 due to the conflict. It has access to the rest of India through Banihal Tunnel near Qazigund on NH 1A to Jammu, which is interrupted by snowfall in winter. .The popular tourist places in the valley are Gulmarg, Dal Lake, Pahalgam, Amarnath temple etc.^ Dal lake , neglect throughout the insurgency , may still be weed ridden in places , but a fervent attempt is being made that have grown as entangled as spaghetti.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "It is a dream come true," gushed the 45-year-old housewife from central India, standing on the banks of Srinagar's Dal lake in the Himalayan valley of Kashmir.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a romantic experience to travel to Kashmir in spring when snow over the slopes of Gulmarg, Pahalgam and Sonamarg still appears fresh while flowers appear in abundance in the Valley plains.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Demographics

.In the 1901 Census of the British Indian Empire, Muslims constituted 74.16% of the total population of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu, Hindus, 23.72%, and Buddhists, 1.21%.^ Like politics of Pakistan it is difficult to predict future of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the on going struggle.

^ William H New Delhi Kashmir existed as an independednt entity much before the Indian or the Pakistani state even existed.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pahalgam, which is also en route to the Hindu shrine at the caves of Amarnath , is triply protected-by Kashmirs border security force , the central reserve policy force and Indian army.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hindus were found mainly in Jammu, where they constituted a little less than 70% of the population.^ More than 10 per cent of India's population is Muslim, whereas few Hindus or Sikhs remain in Pakistan.

^ Kashmiri Hindus (Pandits as they are called locally) are forced to flee Kashmir and live in camps in Jammu uprooted from their ancestral homes.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] .In the Kashmir Valley, Muslims constituted 95.6% of the population and Hindus 3.24%.^ More than 10 per cent of India's population is Muslim, whereas few Hindus or Sikhs remain in Pakistan.

^ Everyone knows Kashmir is beautiful, that's why the Pakis want it plus the Muslim population in the region.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kashmir's Hindu's and Muslims had to bear the brunt of this game plan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] .These percentages have remained fairly stable for the last 100 years.^ Three years ago , when I last visited the Kashmir valley to report on the insurgency for the BBC , I would have answered no to all theses questions.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mehran Khan Srinagar, J&K These pictures are really expressing the trauma faced by the Kashmiri people over the last 19 years.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

[34] .Forty years later, in the 1941 Census of British India, Muslims accounted for 93.6% of the population of the Kashmir Valley and the Hindus for 4%.^ More than 10 per cent of India's population is Muslim, whereas few Hindus or Sikhs remain in Pakistan.

^ Three years ago , when I last visited the Kashmir valley to report on the insurgency for the BBC , I would have answered no to all theses questions.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everyone knows Kashmir is beautiful, that's why the Pakis want it plus the Muslim population in the region.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

[34] .In 2003, the percentage of Muslims in the Kashmir Valley was 95%[35] and those of Hindus 4%; the same year, in Jammu, the percentage of Hindus was 66% and those of Muslims 30%.^ Three years ago , when I last visited the Kashmir valley to report on the insurgency for the BBC , I would have answered no to all theses questions.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kashmir's Hindu's and Muslims had to bear the brunt of this game plan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This young patient of 45 years had a desire to have a glimpse of Kashmir valley in his life time, despite his fast deteriorating health condition.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .In the 1901 Census of the British Indian Empire, the population of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu was 2,905,578. Of these 2,154,695 were Muslims (74.16%), 689,073Hindus (23.72%), 25,828 Sikhs, and 35,047 Buddhists.^ Like politics of Pakistan it is difficult to predict future of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the on going struggle.

^ William H New Delhi Kashmir existed as an independednt entity much before the Indian or the Pakistani state even existed.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Outside the collection seen in the Jammu and Kashmir State Treasury, few cut stones of greater than 65 ct have been reported (Schwieger, 1990).
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

A Muslim shawl making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolith., William Simpson.
Among the Muslims of the princely state, four divisions were recorded: "Shaikhs, Saiyids, Mughals, and Pathans. The Shaikhs, who are by far the most numerous, are the descendants of Hindus, but have retained none of the caste rules of their forefathers. They have clan names known as krams ..."[33] It was recorded that these kram names included "Tantre," "Shaikh,", "Bhat", "Mantu," "Ganai," "Dar," "Damar," "Lon" etc. .The Saiyids, it was recorded "could be divided into those who follow the profession of religion and those who have taken to agriculture and other pursuits.^ It became a pride possession for an elegant wardrobe for all those who could afford, which today is true about modern citizen of India.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Things became different gradually when those who dared first, encouraged others to come to Kashmir independently.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their kram name is "Mir." While a Saiyid retains his saintly profession Mir is a prefix; if he has taken to agriculture, Mir is an affix to his name."[33] The Mughals who were not numerous were recorded to have kram names like "Mir" (a corruption of "Mirza"), "Beg," "Bandi," "Bach," and "Ashaye." Finally, it was recorded that the Pathans "who are more numerous than the Mughals, ... are found chiefly in the south-west of the valley, where Pathan colonies have from time to time been founded. The most interesting of these colonies is that of Kuki-Khel Afridis at Dranghaihama, who retain all the old customs and speak Pashtu."[33]
.The Hindus were found mainly in Jammu, where they constituted a little less than 60% of the population.^ More than 10 per cent of India's population is Muslim, whereas few Hindus or Sikhs remain in Pakistan.

^ Kashmiri Hindus (Pandits as they are called locally) are forced to flee Kashmir and live in camps in Jammu uprooted from their ancestral homes.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] .In the Kashmir Valley, the Hindus represented "524 in every 10,000 of the population (i.e. 5.24%), and in the frontier wazarats of Ladhakh and Gilgit only 94 out of every 10,000 persons (0.94%)."^ Only 10 percent of Valley's orphans taken care of by orphanages , 24 May 2008 :.
  • Kashmir Watch :: In-depth coverage on Kashmir conflict 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.kashmirwatch.com [Source type: News]

^ It can only see Kashmir valley to be free, independent nation, isn't it ?
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kashmir consists of three sub provinces: Kashmir valley, Jammu and Ladhakh.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] In the same Census of 1901, in the Kashmir Valley, the total population was recorded to be 1,157,394, of which the Muslim population was 1,083,766, or 93.6% and the Hindu population 60,641.[33] Among the Hindus of Jammu province, who numbered 626,177 (or 90.87% of the Hindu population of the princely state), the most important castes recorded in the census were "Brahmans (186,000), the Rajputs (167,000), the Khattris (48,000) and the Thakkars (93,000)."[33]
.In the 1911 Census of the British Indian Empire, the total population of Kashmir and Jammu had increased to 3,158,126. Of these, 2,398,320 (75.94%) were Muslims, 696,830 (22.06%) Hindus, 31,658 (1%) Sikhs, and 36,512 (1.16%) Buddhists.^ Everyone knows Kashmir is beautiful, that's why the Pakis want it plus the Muslim population in the region.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It's Hindu population had reduced to 1-2% of total.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Azad Kashmir has a populace which is absolutely happy and content in sharp contrast to IHK where the population is brutally crushed to maintain the ever hegemonic desirs of the Indian leadership.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the last census of British India in 1941, the total population of Kashmir and Jammu (which as a result of the second world war, was estimated from the 1931 census) was 3,945,000. Of these, the total Muslim population was 2,997,000 (75.97%), the Hindu population was 808,000 (20.48%), and the Sikh 55,000 (1.39%).^ Because freedom means free from all these things and that is why i would love to live in Non Muslim World because they are really free from all these blessings.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone knows Kashmir is beautiful, that's why the Pakis want it plus the Muslim population in the region.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ron Girn Vancouver, British Columbia If Kashmir should become independent from India then logically Baluchistan and Sindh should separate from Pakistan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

[36]
.According to political scientist Alexander Evans, approximately 95% of the total population of 160,000-170,000 of Kashmir Brahmins, also called Kashmiri Pandits, (i.e. approximately 120,000 to 150,000) left the Kashmir Valley in 1990 "as militant violence engulfed the state".[37] According to the CIA Factbook chapter on India, approximately 150,000 Kashmiri Pandits from the state of Jammu and Kashmir are internally displaced.^ According to me, of all the 28 states of India, Kashmir is the most beautiful.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The violence that is rapidly engulfing large parts of Jammu and Kashmir, set off by a controversial government decision to grant a tract of land to a temple trust in Kashmir, threatens to totally disrupt the already tenuous inter-communal relations in the region.

^ Like politics of Pakistan it is difficult to predict future of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the on going struggle.

[38]
Administered by Area Population  % Muslim  % Hindu  % Buddhist  % Other
India Kashmir Valley ~4 million 95% 4%*
Jammu ~3 million 30% 66% 4%
Ladakh ~0.25 million 48% 46% 6%
Pakistan Azad Kashmir ~2.6 million 100%
Northern Areas ~1 million 99%
China Aksai Chin
.
  • Statistics from the BBC In Depth report.
  • About 135,000 Hindus/Muslims in Indian Administered Kashmir are internally displaced due to militancy.^ Pakistanis talk about Indian-occupied Kashmir.
    • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Kashmir's Hindu's and Muslims had to bear the brunt of this game plan.
    • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Kashmir was initially ceded to Pakistan due to the Muslim majority.
    • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    - CIA

Culture and cuisine

Brokpa women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes
Kashmiri cuisine includes dum aloo (boiled potatoes with heavy amounts of spice), tzaman (a solid cottage cheese), rogan josh (lamb cooked in heavy spices), yakhiyn (lamb cooked in curd with mild spices), hakh (a spinach-like leaf), rista-gushtaba (minced meat balls in tomato and curd curry),danival korme and of course the signature rice which is particular to Asian cultures. The traditional wazwan feast involves cooking meat or vegetables, usually mutton, in several different ways.
Alcohol and Beef are not widely consumed in Kashmir. There are two styles of making tea in the region: nun chai, or salt tea, which is pink in colour (known as chinen posh rang or peach flower colour) and popular with locals; and kahwah, a tea for festive occasions, made with saffron and spices (cardamom, cinamon,sugar, noon chai leaves) , and lipton tea.

Economy

Tourism is one of the main sources of income for vast sections of the Kashmiri population. Shown here is the famous Dal Lake in Srinagar.
Skardu in the Northern Areas, is the point of departure for mountaineering expeditions in the Karakorams.
Kashmir's economy is centred around agriculture. .Traditionally the staple crop of the valley was rice, which formed the chief food of the people.^ Hope all these complexities and grievances of the people of Jammu, the people of Kashmir valley form the basis of peaceful and just solution to the present turmoil in the state .

In addition, Indian corn, wheat, barley and oats were also grown. Given its temperate climate, it is suited for crops like asparagus, artichoke, seakale, broad beans, scarletrunners, beetroot, cauliflower and cabbage. Fruit trees are common in the valley, and the cultivated orchards yield pears, apples, peaches, and cherries. The chief trees are deodar, firs and pines, chenar or plane, maple, birch and walnut, apple, cherry.
.Historically, Kashmir became known worldwide when Cashmere wool was exported to other regions and nations (exports have ceased due to decreased abundance of the cashmere goat and increased competition from China).^ Kashmir dispute, whether you call it India and Pakistan problem or give it any other name, is essentially related to national identity and future of people of Jammu and Kashmir.

^ After working so hard and making so many sacrifices why on earth I left the JKLF and became part a of new and smaller party Kashmir National Party .

^ Kashmir was an issue between these two nations long before the terrorist phenomenon was ever known about in the west.

Kashmiris are well adept at knitting and making Pashmina shawls, silk carpets, rugs, kurtas, and pottery. Saffron, too, is grown in Kashmir. Efforts are on to export the naturally grown fruits and vegetables as organic foods mainly to the Middle East. Srinagar is known for its silver-work, papier mache, wood-carving, and the weaving of silk.
.The economy was badly damaged by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which, as of October 8, 2005, resulted in over 70,000 deaths in the Pakistan-controlled part of Kashmir and around 1,500 deaths in Indian controlled Kashmir.^ MULTAN , PAKISTAN Kashmir is a part of Pakistan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Joint control of Kashmir by both India and Pakistan is one of the interesting suggestions that have been thrown up .

^ Millants should fight pakistan for azad kashmir instead of causing trouble in indian kashmir.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Indian-administered portion of Kashmir is believed to have potentially rich rocks containing hydrocarbon reserves.^ I understand their grief but I do believe that the Indian army has every right to be in Kashmir.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Has Kashmir become a blind spot for Indian human rights activists and the media?Kashmiri civil society activists certainly believe so.

[39][40]

History of Tourism in Kashmir

.During the 19th century rule, Kashmir was a popular tourist destination due to its climate.^ Aaron Coelho Toronto, Ontario Kashmir would beat Paris and Venice as the most popular destination for romance if it wasn't for war.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

Only 200 passes a year were issued by the government. European sportsmen and travellers, in addition to residents of India, traveled there freely. The railway to Rawalpindi, and a road thence to Srinagar made access to the valley easier. When the temperature in Srinagar rose at the beginning of June, the residents migrated to Gulmarg, which was a fashionable hill station during British rule. This great influx of visitors resulted in a corresponding diminution of game for the sportsmen. Special game preservation rules were introduced, and nullahs were let out for stated periods with a restriction on the number of head to be shot. Rawalakot was another popular destination.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unmogip/
  2. ^ MBH 7.4.5.
  3. ^ MBH 7/91/39-40.
  4. ^ Mahabharata 7.4.5
  5. ^ Political History of Ancient India, from the Accession of Parikshit to the ..., 1953, p 150, Dr H. C Raychaudhuri - India; Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India: (a Study on the Puranic Lists of the ..., 1955, p 78, Dr S. B. Chaudhuri; An Analytical Study of Four Nikāyas, 1971, p 311, D. K.Barua - Tipiṭaka.
  6. ^ Basham, A. L. (2005) The wonder that was India, Picador. Pp. 572. ISBN 033043909X, p. 110.
  7. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pp. 93-95.
  8. ^ "Kaashmir." The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.
  9. ^ A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass 2000, page 256.
  10. ^ A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass 2000, pages 263-264.
  11. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp. 186–195. 
  12. ^ Triadic Heart of Shiva, Paul E. Muller-Ortega, page 12
  13. ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 27
  14. ^ Re-accessing Abhinavagupta, Navjivan Rastogi, page 4
  15. ^ Key to the Vedas, Nathalia Mikhailova, page 169
  16. ^ The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy, Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare, page 12
  17. ^ Companion to Tantra, S.C. Banerji, page 89
  18. ^ Doctrine of Divine Recognition, K. C. Pandey, page V
  19. ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 35
  20. ^ Luce dei Tantra, Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta, Raniero Gnoli, page LXXVII
  21. ^ Muhammad Qãsim Hindû Shãh Firishta : Tãrîkh-i-Firishta, translated by John Briggs under the title "History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India." First published in 1829, New Delhi Reprint 1981.
  22. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. "Kashmir: History." pp. 94-95.
  23. ^ Treaty of Amritsar, March 16, 1846.
  24. ^ From the text of the Treaty of Amritsar, signed March 16, 1846.
  25. ^ a b Bowers, Paul. 2004. "Kashmir." Research Paper 4/28, International Affairs and Defence, House of Commons Library, United Kingdom.
  26. ^ Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of British India, stayed on in independent India from 1947 to 1948, serving as the first Governor-General of the Union of India.
  27. ^ a b c Stein, Burton. 1998. A History of India. Oxford University Press. 432 pages. ISBN 0195654463. Page 368.
  28. ^ a b c Kashmir. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 27, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  29. ^ a b "Major Events". Jammu and Kashmir Government, India. http://jammukashmir.nic.in/profile/majev.htm#1. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  30. ^ "A Comprehensive Note on Jammu & Kashmir: The Northern Areas". Embassy of India, Washington D.C.. http://www.indianembassy.org/policy/Kashmir/Kashmir_MEA/Northern_Areas.html. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  31. ^ a b http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/312921/Vale-of-Kashmir
  32. ^ a b Jina, Prem Singh (1996). Ladakh: The Land and the People. Indus Publishing. ISBN 8173870578. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pp. 99-102.
  34. ^ a b Rai, Mridu. 2004. Hindu Ruler, Muslim Subjects: Islam and the History of Kashmir. Princeton University Press. 320 pages. ISBN 0691116881. p. 37.
  35. ^ a b BBC. 2003. The Future of Kashmir? In Depth.
  36. ^ Brush, J. E. 1949. "The Distribution of Religious Communities in India" Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 39(2):81-98.
  37. ^ Evans, Alexander. 2002. "A departure from history: Kashmiri Pandits, 1990-2001" Contemporary South Asia, 11(1):19-37.
  38. ^ CIA Factbook: India–Transnational Issues
  39. ^ Iftikhar Gilani (2008-10-22). "Italian company to pursue oil exploration in Kashmir". Daily Times. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008\10\22\story_22-10-2008_pg7_41. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  40. ^ Ishfaq-ul-Hassan (2008-02-22). [www.dnaindia.com/india/report_india-pakistan-to-explore-oil-jointly_1152227 "India, Pakistan to explore oil jointly"]. Daily News and Analysis. www.dnaindia.com/india/report_india-pakistan-to-explore-oil-jointly_1152227. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 

Further reading

  • Blank, Jonah. "Kashmir–Fundamentalism Takes Root," Foreign Affairs, 78,6 (November/December 1999): 36-42.
  • Drew, Federic. .1877. “The Northern Barrier of India: a popular account of the Jammoo and Kashmir Territories with Illustrations; 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London.^ India and Pakistan both claim Kashmir as a vital part of their territory and thus culture.
    • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ India and Pakistan ended up having their slice of territory of Kashmir.
    • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu. 1971.
  • Evans, Alexander. .Why Peace Won’t Come to Kashmir, Current History (Vol 100, No 645) April 2001 p.^ I read a lot about the history of Kashmir and still cannot understand why we have to fight over it.
    • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She does not explain why the Kashmir dispute acquired its' current contours.
    • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The history of Kashmir is no longer something which can be imposed from above: its democratisation will ensure that it will always remain in the making, and never find its conclusion.

    170-175.
  • Hussain, Ijaz. .1998. "Kashmir Dispute: An International Law Perspective", National Institute of Pakistan Studies.
  • Irfani, Suroosh, ed "Fifty Years of the Kashmir Dispute": Based on the proceedings of the International Seminar held at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir August 24–25, 1997: University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, AJK, 1997.
  • Joshi, Manoj Lost Rebellion: Kashmir in the Nineties (Penguin, New Delhi, 1999).
  • Khan, L. Ali The Kashmir Dispute: A Plan for Regional Cooperation 31 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 31, p. 495 (1994).
  • Knight, E. F. 1893. Where Three Empires Meet: A Narrative of Recent Travel in: Kashmir, Western Tibet, Gilgit, and the adjoining countries.^ Asif Ali Khan Arjah Bagh, Azad Kashmir This site is very informative and great sceneries of Jannat Nazeer Kashmir.
    • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Like politics of Pakistan it is difficult to predict future of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the on going struggle.

    ^ William H New Delhi Kashmir existed as an independednt entity much before the Indian or the Pakistani state even existed.
    • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    Longmans, Green, and Co., London. Reprint: Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company, Taipei. 1971.
  • Köchler, Hans. The Kashmir Problem between Law and Realpolitik. Reflections on a Negotiated Settlement. .Keynote speech delivered at the "Global Discourse on Kashmir 2008." European Parliament, Brussels, 1 April 2008.
  • Lamb, Hertingfordbury, UK: Roxford Books,1994, "Kashmir: A Disputed Legacy.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George.^ Speech delivered by Dr Shabir Choudhry in a seminar at the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva on 11 March 2008 .

    1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Neve, Arthur. (Date unknown). The Tourist's Guide to Kashmir, Ladakh, Skardo &c. 18th Edition. Civil and Military Gazette, Ltd., Lahore. (The date of this edition is unknown - but the 16th edition was published in 1938).
  • Schofield, Victoria. 1996. Kashmir in the Crossfire. London: I B Tauris.
  • Stein, M. Aurel. 1900. Kalhaṇa's Rājataraṅgiṇī–A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr, 2 vols. London, A. Constable & Co. Ltd. 1900. Reprint, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1979.
  • Younghusband, Francis and Molyneux, Edward 1917. Kashmir. A. & C. Black, London.
  • Norelli-Bachelet, Patrizia. ."Kashmir and the Convergence of Time, Space and Destiny", 2004; ISBN 0-945747-00-4. First published as a four-part series, March 2002 - April 2003, in 'Prakash', a review of the Jagat Guru Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji Charitable Foundation.^ I think some one has for the first time touched the real strength of Kashmir, its people in the shadow of our beautiful Land.
    • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    [1]
  • Muhammad Ayub. An Army; Ita Role & Rule (A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil 1947-1999) Rosedog Books, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA 2005. ISBN 0-8059-9594-3.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Kashmir can refer to multiple places:

Republic of India

Pakistan

This article is a disambiguation page. If you arrived here by following a link from another page you can help by correcting it, so that it points to the appropriate disambiguated page.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Area in sq. m.
Pop. in 1901.
Jammu
5,223
1,521,307
Kashmir
7,922
1,157,394
Frontier Districts
443
226,877
.KASHMIR, or Cashmere, a native state of India, including much of the Himalayan mountain system to the north of the Punjab.^ KASHMIR, or CASHMERE , an elevated and enclosed valley in the Himalaya mountains, north of the Punjab.

^ KASHMIR, or Cashmere , a native state of India , including much of the Himalayan mountain system to the north of the Punjab .

^ Mountains, Jammu and Kashmir state, India.
  • Kashmir (region, Indian subcontinent) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has been fabled in song for its beauty (e.g. in .Moore's Lalla Rookh), and is the chief health resort for Europeans in India, while politically it is important as guarding one of the approaches to India on the north-west frontier.^ Moore's Lalla Rookh ), and is the chief health resort for Europeans in India, while politically it is important as guarding one of the approaches to India on the north-west frontier .

^ Jammu and Kashmir is a picturesque state sited in North India and famed for being the proud owner of some of the country's best hill resorts.

^ Eight days after a killer earthquake convulsed the Himalayan valleys of Kashmir and the north-west frontier provinces, an abandoned three-year-old ...

.The proper name of the state is Jammu and Kashmir, and it comprises in all an estimated area of 80,900 sq.^ Official name, Jammu and Kashmir.

^ Indian sovereignty in the State of Jammu and Kashmir .
  • Kashmir - Blogs, Pictures, and more on Blogged 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.blogged.com [Source type: News]

^ One such State was Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Kashmir - The Autonomy Resolution 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.defencejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

m., with a population (1901) of 2,905,578, showing an increase of 14.21% in the decade. .It is bounded on the north by some petty hills chiefships and by the Karakoram mountains; on the east by Tibet; and on the south and west by the Punjab and North-West Frontier provinces.^ To the north is Xinjiang, to the east is Tibet; west and south is Kashmir.
  • Kashmir Rulers with Coins 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.chiefacoins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is bounded on the north by some petty hills chiefships and by the Karakoram mountains; on the east by Tibet ; and on the south and west by the Punjab and North-West Frontier provinces.

^ It is divided into four provinces: Sindh, Punjab, North West Frontier Province and Balochistan.
  • Welcome to Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC welcomekashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The state is in direct political subordination to the Government of India, which is represented by a resident.^ The state is in direct political subordination to the Government of India, which is represented by a resident.

^ India dissolved the state government and placed the state in direct control of the governor.
  • Kashmir - The story behind the story 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC didyouknow.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The state is the only one in India to have its own Constitution and the President of India cannot issue directions to the state government in exercise of the executive power of the Union as he can in every other state.
  • Kashmir | Life @ DiGiTSS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC life.digitss.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its territories comprise the provinces of Jammu (including the jagir of Punch), Kashmir, Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit; the Shin states of Yaghistan, of which the most important are Chilas, Darel and Tangir, are nominally subordinate to it, and the two former pay a tribute of gold dust.^ Jammu & Kashmir is one of the States of Republic of India comprising of three different regions or provinces Kashmir , Jammu and Ladakh.
  • Jammu & Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ Culturally, the state has three distinct regions - Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
  • Jammu & Kashmir | North India Online 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.north-india.in [Source type: Original source]

^ Introducing Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir constitutes the northern most state of India.
  • Jammu & Kashmir India,Kashmir Tourism India,Jammu Kashmir Vacation Tours,Kashmir Travel Tourism in India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.vacationsindia.com [Source type: General]

.The following are the statistics for the main divisions of the state: The remainder of the state consists of uninhabited mountains, and its only really important possessions are the districts of Jammu and Kashmir.^ Indian sovereignty in the State of Jammu and Kashmir .
  • Kashmir - Blogs, Pictures, and more on Blogged 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.blogged.com [Source type: News]

^ Jammu and Kashmir consists of three divisions: Jammu, the Vale of Kashmir and Ladakh.
  • Kashmir Photos | Photos of Kashmir | Lakes | Mountains | Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.kashmirphotos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One such State was Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Kashmir - The Autonomy Resolution 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.defencejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

Table of contents

Physical Conformation

.The greater portion of the country is mountainous, and with the exception of a strip of plain on the south-west, which is continuous with the great level of the Punjab, may be conveniently divided into the following regions: (1) The outer hills and the central mountains of Jammu district.^ Jammu was once divided into 22 hill principalities.
  • Jammu & Kashmir | North India Online 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.north-india.in [Source type: Original source]

^ Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with Himachal Pradesh to the south, Pakistan to the west and People's Republic of China to the north and the east.
  • Kashmir Photos | Photos of Kashmir | Lakes | Mountains | Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.kashmirphotos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jammu and Kashmir is really three regions: the foothill plains of Jammu; the lakes and blue valleys of Kashmir rising to alpine passes, the high altitude plains and starkly beautiful mountains of Ladakh, which lies beyond those passes.
  • Tourism in Kashmir,Kashmir Tourism,Tourism of Jammu Kashmir, Tourism of Kashmir, Kashmir Travel Tourism,Jammu Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.tourismofjammukashmir.com [Source type: General]

(2) The valley of Kashmir.
.(3) The far side of the great central range, including Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit.^ The far side of the great central range, including Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit.

^ Jammu and Kashmir was modern India's largest princely state, and included Ladakh and Baltistan.
  • The Himalayas - Kashmir Himalayas - History 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrounded on both sides by River Jhelum the valley of Kashmir comprises of Kishtwar, Ladakh & Zanskar ranges.
  • Kashmir,Kashmir India,Kashmir in India,State Kashmir,Kashmir history,Kashmir tourist places,Kashmir tour,tour to Kashmir,Kashmir in india 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indiaprofile.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hills in the outer region of Jammu, adjoining the Punjab plains, begin with a height of roo to 200 ft., followed by a tract of rugged country, including various ridges running nearly parallel, with long narrow valleys between.^ The hills in the outer region of Jammu, adjoining the Punjab plains, begin with a height of roo to 200 ft., followed by a tract of rugged country, including various ridges running nearly parallel, with long narrow valleys between.

^ Jammu and Kashmir is really three regions: the foothill plains of Jammu; the lakes and blue valleys of Kashmir rising to alpine passes, the high altitude plains and starkly beautiful mountains of Ladakh, which lies beyond those passes.
  • Tourism in Kashmir,Kashmir Tourism,Tourism of Jammu Kashmir, Tourism of Kashmir, Kashmir Travel Tourism,Jammu Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.tourismofjammukashmir.com [Source type: General]

^ First, the mountainous and semi mountainous plain known as Kandi belt, the second, hills including Shivaliks, the third mountains of Kashmir Valley and Pir Panchal range and the fourth is tract of Ladakh.
  • Jammu & Kashmir | North India Online 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.north-india.in [Source type: Original source]

.The average height of these ridges is from 3000 to 4000 ft.^ The average height of these ridges is from 3000 to 4000 ft.

^ These terraces vary in height at different parts of the valley from 100 to 300 ft.

.The central mountains are commonly 8000 to io,000 ft., covered with pasture or else with forest.^ The central mountains are commonly 8000 to io,000 ft., covered with pasture or else with forest.

^ On the steep hillsides above the lake, Indian military officials, Kashmiri militants and impoverished natives are taking advantage of the lack of regulation to strip the mountains of their forest cover.

.Then follow the more lofty mountain ranges, including the region of perpetual snow.^ Then follow the more lofty mountain ranges, including the region of perpetual snow .

^ The rescue effort has been hampered by the inaccessibility of the mountainous region where the quake hit, and a fast-approaching winter that is expected to claim even more lives.
  • PM says aid to Pakistan could increase - Breaking News - National - Breaking News 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.theage.com.au [Source type: News]

^ Land, Economy, and Government A beautiful region of S Asia, Kashmir is covered with lofty, rugged mountains, including sections of the Himalayan and Karakorum ranges.
  • Kashmir Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A great chain of snowy mountains branching off south-east and north-west divides the drainage of the Chenab and the Jhelum rivers from that of the higher branches of the Indus.^ Pakistan was allocated water from the western rivers – Indus, Jhelum and Chenab.
  • SASNET: Kashmir Dispute 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.sasnet.lu.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is bounded by Srinagar in the north east, south and west by Poonch and in the north and north west by Baramulla.

^ Rivers include the Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab.

.It is within spurs from this chain that the valley of Kashmir is enclosed amid hills which rise from 14,000 to 15,000 ft., while the valley itself forms a cup-like basin at an elevation of 5000 to 6000 ft.^ It is within spurs from this chain that the valley of Kashmir is enclosed amid hills which rise from 14,000 to 15,000 ft., while the valley itself forms a cup -like basin at an elevation of 5000 to 6000 ft.

^ Just like we did after the 1971 war, when we agreed to release 90,000 Pakistani Prisoners of War and return more than 15,000 sq km of captured territory, without settling the Kashmir dispute once and for all.
  • Hey Ram: Let's give away Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC sify.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The hills forming the northern half-circuit of the Kashmir valley, and running beyond, include many lofty mountain masses and peaks, the most conspicuous of which, a little outside the confines of Kashmir, is Nanga parbat, a grand hill (35° 15’ N., 74° 35’ E.), rising 26,629 feet above the sea, with an extensive area of glacier on its eastern face.

.All beyond that great range is a wide tract of mountainous country, bordering the north-western part of Tibet and embracing Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit.^ There is a common border with China alongside Gilgit and Baltistan in the north.
  • Welcome to Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC welcomekashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The far side of the great central range, including Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit.

^ All beyond that great range is a wide tract of mountainous country, bordering the north-western part of Tibet and embracing Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit.

.The length of the Kashmir valley, including the inner slopes of its surrounding hills, is about 120 m.^ The length of the Kashmir valley, including the inner slopes of its surrounding hills, is about 120 miles from north-west to south-east.

^ The length of the Kashmir valley, including the inner slopes of its surrounding hills, is about 120 m.

^ Kashmir has a strong spiritual essence; the aura of the surrounding beauty makes it a place to commune closely with nature and ones inner being.
  • Kasheer, All about Kasheer, Kashmir Information Portal, Kasheer Online, Travel, Culture, Tourism, Blog, Kashmir Music, Art and Crafts, ,Kashmir Cuisine, Kashmir Wallpapers, Kashmir Links, Directory, 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC kasheeronline.com [Source type: General]

from north-west to south-east with a maximum width of about 75 m. .The low and comparatively level floor of the basin is 84 m.^ The low and comparatively level floor of the basin is 84 miles long and 20 to 24 miles broad.

long and 20 to 24 m. broad.
.The hills forming the northern half-circuit of the Kashmir valley, and running beyond, include many lofty mountain masses and peaks, the most conspicuous of which, a little outside the confines of Kashmir, is Nanga Parbat, the fourth highest mountain in the world, 26,656 ft.^ The hills forming the northern half-circuit of the Kashmir valley, and running beyond, include many lofty mountain masses and peaks, the most conspicuous of which, a little outside the confines of Kashmir, is Nanga parbat, a grand hill (35° 15’ N., 74° 35’ E.), rising 26,629 feet above the sea, with an extensive area of glacier on its eastern face.

^ The hills forming the northern half- circuit of the Kashmir valley, and running beyond, include many lofty mountain masses and peaks, the most conspicuous of which, a little outside the confines of Kashmir, is Nanga Parbat, the fourth highest mountain in the world, 26,656 ft.

^ Located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, Jammu and Kashmir lies in the vicinity of the Karakoram and western Himalayan mountain ranges.
  • Jammu and Kashmir, Jammu Kashmir Travel, Jammu Kashmir Tourism Guide - India Travelog 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indiatravelog.com [Source type: General]

above the sea, with an extensive area of glacier on its eastern face. .The great ridge which is thrown off to the south-west by Nanga Parbat rises, at a distance of 12 m., to another summit 20,740 ft.^ The great ridge which is thrown off to the south-west by Nanga Parbat rises, at a distance of 12 m., to another summit 20,740 ft.

^ The great ridge which is thrown off to the south-west by Nanga parbat rises, at a distance of 12 miles to another summit 20,740 feet in height, from which run south-west and south-east the ridges which are the northern watershed boundary of Kashmir.

^ Precipitation is variable; it is heavier in areas that can be reached by the monsoonal winds west and south of the great ranges and sparse to the north and east where continental conditions prevail.
  • Kashmir (region, Indian subcontinent) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

in height, from which run south-west, and south-east the ridges which are the northern watershed boundary of Kashmir. .The former range, after running 70 m.^ The former range, after running 70 m.

^ The former range, after running 70 miles south-west, between the valleys of the Kishanganga and the Kunhar or Nain-sukh, turns southward, closely pressing the river Jelum, after it has received the Kishanganga, with a break a few miles further south which admits the Kunhar.

south-west, between the valleys of the .Kishenganga and the Kunhar or Nain-sukh, turns southward, closely pressing the river Jhelum, after it has received the Kishenganga, with a break a few miles farther south which admits the Kunhar.^ The former range, after running 70 miles south-west, between the valleys of the Kishanganga and the Kunhar or Nain-sukh, turns southward, closely pressing the river Jelum, after it has received the Kishanganga, with a break a few miles further south which admits the Kunhar.

^ Kishenganga and the Kunhar or Nain-sukh, turns southward, closely pressing the river Jhelum, after it has received the Kishenganga, with a break a few miles farther south which admits the Kunhar.

^ On the north-east side of this low narrow plain of the Jhelum is a broad hilly tract between which and the higher boundary range runs the Kishenganga River.

.This range presents several prominent summits, the highest two 16,487 and 15,544 ft.^ This range presents several prominent summits, the highest two 16,487 and 15,544 ft.

^ This range presents several prominent summits, the two highest 16,487 and 15,544 feet above the sea.

^ The highest points on this range, where it skirts Kashmir, are 16,795, 16,930, and 17,202 feet above the sea.

above the sea. .The range which runs south-east from the junction peakabove mentioned divides the valley of the Kishenganga from that of the Astor and other tributaries of the Indus.^ The range which runs south-east from the junction peak above-mentioned divides the valley of the Kishanganga from that of the Astor and other tributaries of the Indus.

^ The range which runs south-east from the junction peakabove mentioned divides the valley of the Kishenganga from that of the Astor and other tributaries of the Indus.

^ The former range, after running 70 miles south-west, between the valleys of the Kishanganga and the Kunhar or Nain-sukh, turns southward, closely pressing the river Jelum, after it has received the Kishanganga, with a break a few miles further south which admits the Kunhar.

.The highest point on this range, where it skirts Kashmir, is 17,202 ft.^ The highest points on this range, where it skirts Kashmir, are 16,795, 16,930, and 17,202 feet above the sea.

^ The highest point on this range, where it skirts Kashmir, is 17,202 ft.

^ Himalaya, the world's largest mountain range, which also features the highest mountain peak of the world can be distinctly viewed from the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

above the sea. .For more than 50 m.^ For more than 50 m.

^ The mountainous region of Kashmir has been a flashpoint between India and Pakistan for more than 50 years.
  • BBC NEWS | South Asia | Q&A: Kashmir dispute 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Kashmir has been a flashpoint between India and Pakistan for more than 50 years and the scene of...
  • Kashmir, Geographic Region - News - Evri 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: News]

from .Nanga Parbat there are no glaciers on this range; thence eastward they increase; one, near the Zoji-la pass, is only 10,850 ft.^ For a distance of more than 50 miles from Nanga Parbat there are no glaciers on this range; thence eastward they increase; one, near the Zoji-la-Pass, is only 10,850 feet above the sea.

^ There are no glaciers.

^ Mount Godwin Austen or K2 (28,250 ft) and Nanga Parbat (26,650 ft) lies in the northern Kashmir.
  • Kashmir, Information about Kashmir, Kashmir Tour 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

above the sea. .The mountains at the east end of the valley, running nearly north and south, drain inwards to the Jhelum, and on the other side to the Wardwan, a tributary of the Chenab.^ The mountains at the east end of the valley, running nearly north and south, drain inwards to the Jhelum, and on the other side to the Wardwan, a tributary of the Chenab.

^ The mountains at the east end of the valley, running nearly north and south, drain inwards to the Jhelum, and on the other side of the Wardwan, a tributary of the Chenab.

^ Kashmir Valley is not a desert valley, its a lush picturesque mountainous valley in central asia to the extreme north east of Pakistan.
  • LED ZEPPELIN - KASHMIR LYRICS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.sing365.com [Source type: General]

.The highest part of this eastern boundary is 14,700 ft.^ The highest part of this eastern boundary is 14,700 feet.

.There no are glaciers.^ There no are glaciers.

^ There are no glaciers.

^ Some glaciers are as high as 24,000 ft, and for miles around, there is no question of any human population.

.The highest point on the Panjal range, which forms the south and south-west boundary, is 15,523 ft.^ The highest point on the Panjal range, which forms the south and south-west boundary, is 15,523 feet above the sea.

^ The highest point on this range, where it skirts Kashmir, is 17,202 ft.

^ The highest point on the Panjal range, which forms the south and south-west boundary, is 15,523 ft.

above the sea.
The river Jhelum (q.v.) or .Behat (Sanskrit (Vitasta) - theHydaspes of Greek historians and geographers - flows north-westward through the middle of the valley.^ Behat (Sanskrit ( Vitasta) - theHydaspes of Greek historians and geographers - flows north-westward through the middle of the valley.

^ The river Jhelum or Behat (Sanskrit Vitasta) – the Hydaspes of Greek historians and geographers – flows north-westward through the middle of the valley.

^ River Jehlum is the only river which flows through the Kashmir valley.
  • Jammu & Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

.After a slow and winding course it expands about 25 m.^ After a slow and winding course it expands about 25 m.

^ After a slow and winding course it expands, about 15 miles below Srinagar, over a slight depression in the plain, and forms the Wular lake and marsh, which is of ill-defined extent, but may be called about 10 miles long and 6 broad.

below .Srinagar, over a slight depression in the plain, and forms the Wular lake and marsh, which is about 122 m.^ Srinagar , over a slight depression in the plain, and forms the Wular lake and marsh , which is about 122 m.

^ After a slow and winding course it expands, about 15 miles below Srinagar, over a slight depression in the plain, and forms the Wular lake and marsh, which is of ill-defined extent, but may be called about 10 miles long and 6 broad.

^ For the next 24 miles to the Wular lake, and thence to Baramula, its fall is only about 2 _ feet in the mile.

by 5 m. in extent, and surrounded by the lofty mountains which .tower over the north and north-east of the valley.^ Kashmir Valley is not a desert valley, its a lush picturesque mountainous valley in central asia to the extreme north east of Pakistan.
  • LED ZEPPELIN - KASHMIR LYRICS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.sing365.com [Source type: General]

^ The mountains at the east end of the valley, running nearly north and south, drain inwards to the Jhelum, and on the other side to the Wardwan, a tributary of the Chenab.

^ And again clouds pass over the valley and are arrested by the higher hills on the north-east side.

.Leaving the lake on the south-west side, near the town of Sopur, the river pursues its sluggish course south-westward, about 18 m.^ Leaving the lake on the south-west side, near the town of Sopur, the river pursues its sluggish course south-westward, about 18 m.

^ In the fort on the south side of the river is the palace.

^ Leaving the lake on the south-west side, near the town of Sopur, the river pursued its sluggish course south-westward, about 18 miles, to the gorge at Baramula.

to the gorge at Baramulla. .From this point the stream is more rapid through the narrow valley which conducts it westward 75 m.^ From this point the stream is more rapid through the narrow valley which conducts it westward 75 m.

^ Form this point the stream is more rapid through the narrow valley which conducts it westward 75 miles toMuzaffarabad, where it turns sharply south, joined by the Kishanganga.

^ From this point I returned, taking the more frequented route through Yelchung to the Zanskar Valley near the village of Zangla.
  • Kashmir Sapphire Mines 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: Original source]

to .Muzaffarabad, where it turns sharply south, joined by the Kishenganga.^ Muzaffarabad, where it turns sharply south, joined by the Kishenganga.

^ Kishenganga and the Kunhar or Nain-sukh, turns southward, closely pressing the river Jhelum, after it has received the Kishenganga, with a break a few miles farther south which admits the Kunhar.

^ Form this point the stream is more rapid through the narrow valley which conducts it westward 75 miles toMuzaffarabad, where it turns sharply south, joined by the Kishanganga.

.At Islamabad, about 40 m.^ At Islamabad , about 40 m.

^ At Islamabad, about 40 miles above Srinagar, the river is 5400 feet above sea-level, and at Srinagar 5235 feet.

above .Srinagar, the river is 5400 ft.^ Srinagar, the river is 5400 ft.

^ At Islamabad, about 40 miles above Srinagar, the river is 5400 feet above sea-level, and at Srinagar 5235 feet.

above sea-level, and at .Srinagar 5235 ft.^ Srinagar 5235 ft.

.It has thus a fall of about 4 ft.^ It has thus a fall of about 4 ft.

^ It has thus a fall of about 4 feet per mile in this part of its course.

^ Wular lake, and thence to Baramulla, its fall is only about 24 ft.

per mile in this part of its course. For the next 24 m. to the .Wular lake, and thence to Baramulla, its fall is only about 24 ft.^ For the next 24 miles to the Wular lake, and thence to Baramula, its fall is only about 2 _ feet in the mile.

^ Wular lake, and thence to Baramulla, its fall is only about 24 ft.

^ It has thus a fall of about 4 ft.

in the mile. On the 80 m. of the river in the flat valley between .Islamabad and Baramulla, there is much boat traffic; but none below Baramulla, till the river comes out into the plains.^ On the 80 miles of the river in the flat valley between Islamabad and Baramula there is much boat traffic; but none below Baramula, tillthe river comes out into the plains.

^ Islamabad and Baramulla, there is much boat traffic; but none below Baramulla, till the river comes out into the plains.

^ This made it possible for the Satisar Lake to be drained into the plains below, and the land of Kashmir appeared.

.On the north-east side of this low narrow plain of the Jhelum is a broad hilly tract between which and the higher boundary range runs the Kishenganga River.^ On the north-east side of this low narrow plain of the Jhelum is a broad hilly tract between which and the higher boundary range runs the Kishenganga River.

^ On the north-east side of this low narrow plain of the Jhelum is a broad hilly tract between which and the higher boundary range runs the Kishanganga river.

^ The former range, after running 70 miles south-west, between the valleys of the Kishanganga and the Kunhar or Nain-sukh, turns southward, closely pressing the river Jelum, after it has received the Kishanganga, with a break a few miles further south which admits the Kunhar.

.Near the east end of this interior hilly tract, and connected with the higher range, is one summit 17,839 ft.^ Near the east end of this interior hilly tract, and connected with the higher range, is one summit 17,839 ft.

^ Near the east end of this interior hilly tract, and connected with the higher range, is one summit 17,839 feet.

^ On the north-east side of this low narrow plain of the Jhelum is a broad hilly tract between which and the higher boundary range runs the Kishenganga River.

.Around this peak and between the ridges which run from it are many small glaciers.^ Around this peak and between the ridges which run from it are many small glaciers.

^ Around the foot of many spurs of the hills which run down on the Kashmir plain are pieces of low table-land, which are called karewa.

^ The public buses, small size mini vans in fact, that run regularly between the twin cities of Jammu and Srinagar, are [...
  • The Idea of India » Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asimrafiqui.com [Source type: General]

.These heights look down on one side into the beautiful valley of the Sind River, and on another into the valley of the Lidar, which join the Jhelum.^ These heights look down on one side into the beautiful valley of the Sind River, and on another into the valley of the Lidar, which join the Jhelum.

^ These heights look down on one side into the beautiful valley of the Sind river, and on another into the valley of the Lidar, which join the Jhelum.

^ The valley of the Jhelum River, the celebrated Vale of Kashmir, is the most populous area and the economic heart of the region; it produces abundant crops of wheat and rice.
  • Kashmir Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among the hills north of Srinagar rises one conspicuous mountain mass, 16,903 ft.^ Among the hills north of Srinagar rises one conspicuous mountain mass, 16,903 feet in height, from which on its north side descent tributaries of the Kishanganga, and on the south the Wangat river, which flows into the Sind.

^ Among the hills north of Srinagar rises one conspicuous mountain mass, 16,903 ft.

^ The hills forming the northern half- circuit of the Kashmir valley, and running beyond, include many lofty mountain masses and peaks, the most conspicuous of which, a little outside the confines of Kashmir, is Nanga Parbat, the fourth highest mountain in the world, 26,656 ft.

in height, from which on its north side descend tributaries of the .Kishenganga, and on the south the Wangat River, which flows into the Sind.^ Kishenganga, and on the south the Wangat River, which flows into the Sind.

^ Kishenganga and the Kunhar or Nain-sukh, turns southward, closely pressing the river Jhelum, after it has received the Kishenganga, with a break a few miles farther south which admits the Kunhar.

^ These heights look down on one side into the beautiful valley of the Sind River, and on another into the valley of the Lidar, which join the Jhelum.

.By these rivers and their numerous affluents the whole valley of Kashmir is watered abundantly.^ By these rivers and their numerous affluents the whole valley of Kashmir is watered abundantly.

^ The valley of the Jhelum River, the celebrated Vale of Kashmir, is the most populous area and the economic heart of the region; it produces abundant crops of wheat and rice.
  • Kashmir Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most developed regions of Indian agricultural production and almost the whole Pakistani agricultural sector are dependent on the waters from rivers which originate in the mountains of Kashmir or the adjacent Himalayan range.
  • SASNET: Kashmir Dispute 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.sasnet.lu.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Around the foot of many spurs of the hills which run down on the Kashmir plain are pieces of low table-land, called karewa. These terraces vary in height at different parts of the valley from 100 to 300 ft.^ Around the foot of many spurs of the hills which run down on the Kashmir plain are pieces of low table-land, which are called karewa.

^ Around the foot of many spurs of the hills which run down on the Kashmir plain are pieces of low table-land, called karewa.

^ These terraces vary in height at different parts of the valley from 100 to 300 ft.

above the alluvial plain. .Those which are near each other are mostly about the same level, and separated by deep ravines.^ Those which are near each other are mostly about the same level, and separated by deep ravines.

^ If a cold peace emerges, trade is kept at the same level (or marginally increases), people to people contact is maintained as is, and other non essential government cooperation is maintained.
  • http://blogs.reuters.com/pakistan/tag/kashmir/ 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC blogs.reuters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 186,670 tourists, mostly from other parts of northern India, visited Kashmir in the first five months of this year, compared with 98,613 in the same period last year, tourism officials said.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The level plain in the middle of the Kashmir valley consists of fine clay and sand, with water-worn pebbles.^ The level plain in the middle of the Kashmir valley consists of fine clay and sand , with water-worn pebbles.

^ The level plain the middle of the Kashmir valley is fine clay and sand, with water-worn pebbles.

^ The karewas consist of horizontal beds of clay and sand, the lacustrine nature of which is shown by the shells which they contain.

.The karewas consist of horizontal beds of clay and sand, the lacustrine nature of which is shown by the shells which they contain.^ The karewas consist of horizontal beds of clay and sand, the lacustrine nature of which is shown by the shells which they contain.

^ The level plain in the middle of the Kashmir valley consists of fine clay and sand , with water-worn pebbles.

.Two passes lead northward from the Kashmir valley, the Burzil (13,500 ft.^ In Pakistan, up on an inhospitable pass at some 4000 metres (13,120 ft.
  • Peridot - english 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the hills of the north boundary are two passes, the Burzil (13,500 feet) and the Kamri (13,200).

^ This lead to the war that finally resulted in Kashmir's uneasy division between the two newly created states.
  • Village Without Casualties | Mother Jones 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: News]

) and the .Kamri (14,050).^ Kamri (14,050).

.The Burzil is the main pass between Srinagar and Gilgit via Astor.^ The Burzil is the main pass between Srinagar and Gilgit via Astor.

^ The road from Srinagar to Leh via Kargil is a magnificent piece of engineering and the means by which most people travel between the two places.
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is usually practicable only between the middle of July and the middle of September.^ By the former is the direct route between Srinagar and Iskardo it is usually practicable only between 15th July and 15th September.

^ It is usually practicable only between the middle of July and the middle of September.

.The road from Srinagar to Lehin Ladakh follows the Sind valley to the Zoji-la-pass (11,300 ft.^ The road from Srinagar to Lehin Ladakh follows the Sind valley to the Zoji-la-pass (11,300 ft.

^ The road from Srinagar to Le In Ladak goes by the Zoji-la Pass (11,300 feet), near the north-east corner of the valley.

^ In the midst of the Palaeozoic area lie the alluvium and Pleistocene deposits of the Srinagar valley, and the Mesozoic and Carboniferous basin of the upper part of the Sind valley.

) .Only a short piece of the road, where snow accumulates, prevents this pass being used all the year.^ Only a short piece of the road, where snow accumulates, prevents this pass being used all the year.

^ All these resorts can only be visited by road from Srinagar, as they are not connected to each other directly.
  • Jammu and Kashmir Tourism,Kashmir Tourism Guide,Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir,Tourism Info on Kashmir India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indiasite.com [Source type: General]

^ However, many pieces feature heavily corroded surfaces and thus the blue layer is only partially present, if at all.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the south-east end of the valley are three passes, the Margan (11,500 ft.^ At the south-east end of the valley are three passes, the Margan (11,500 ft.

^ The beautiful valley of Kashmir is nestled in between the inner Himalayan Range to the east, comprising of the Nanga Parbat and the outer Himalayan range to the west and south called the Pir Panjal.

^ Limestone is found in parts of the east and west ends of the valley, and in the hills upon the Manas bal lake.

), the .Hoksar (13,315) and the Marbal (11,500), leading to the valleys of the Chenab and the Ravi.^ Hoksar (13,315) and the Marbal (11,500), leading to the valleys of the Chenab and the Ravi .

^ At the south-east end of the valley are three passes, the Murgil (11,600 feet), the Hoksar (13,315), and the Murbul (11,550) all leading over to the valleys of the Chenab and the Ravi.

^ Two passes lead northward from the Kashmir valley, the Burzil (13,500 ft.

.South of Islamabad, on the direct route to Jammu and Sialkot, is the Banihal pass (9236 ft.^ South of Islamabad, on the direct route to Jammu and Sialkot , is the Banihal pass (9236 ft.

^ South of Islamabad, on the direct route to Jamu and Siakot, is the Banihal Pass (9200 feet).

^ At Rajaori, south of these passes, the road divides: one line leads to Bhimbar and Gujrat, the other to Jamu and Sialkot by Aknur.

). .Further west on the Panjal range is the Pir Panjal or Panchal pass (11,400 ft.^ Further west on the Panjal range is the Pir Panjal or Panchal pass (11,400 ft.

^ South-west of Baramulla is the Haji Pir pass (8500 ft.

^ The heart of the area is the fertile Vale of Kashmir (The Valley), which lies between the Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range, making it a militarily strategic area.
  • Kashmir - The story behind the story 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC didyouknow.org [Source type: Original source]

), with a second pass, the .Rattan Pir (8200 ft.^ Rattan Pir (8200 ft.

), across a second ridge about 15 m. south-west of it. .Between the two passes is the beautifully situated fort of Baramgali.^ Between the two passes is the beautifully situated fort of Baramgali.

^ Between the two passes is the beautifully situated fort of Baramgali and a well-known rest-house for travelers.

.This place is in the domain of the raja of Punch, cousin and tributary of the maharaja of Kashmir.^ This place is in the domain of the raja of Punch, cousin and tributary of the maharaja of Kashmir.

^ This place is in the domain of Raja Moti Singh of Punch, cousin and tributary of the maharaja of Kashmir.

.At Rajaori, south of these passes, the road divides: one line leads to Bhimber and Gujrat, the other to Jammu and Sialkot by Aknur.^ At Rajaori, south of these passes, the road divides: one line leads to Bhimbar and Gujrat, the other to Jamu and Sialkot by Aknur.

^ At Rajaori, south of these passes, the road divides: one line leads to Bhimber and Gujrat , the other to Jammu and Sialkot by Aknur.

^ The Kabul valley Proutonsa (Poonch), Pajapuri (Rajauri) Kangra, Jammu, Kisthwar and Ladhak, one after the other threw-off their allegiance to the rulers of Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.South-west of Baramulla is the Haji Pir pass (8500 ft.^ South-west of Baramulla is the Haji Pir pass (8500 ft.

^ The beautiful valley of Kashmir is nestled in between the inner Himalayan Range to the east, comprising of the Nanga Parbat and the outer Himalayan range to the west and south called the Pir Panjal.

^ The great ridge which is thrown off to the south-west by Nanga Parbat rises, at a distance of 12 m., to another summit 20,740 ft.

), which indicates the road to Punch. .From Punch one road leads down to the plains at the town of Jhelum, another eastward through the hills to the Rattan Pir pass and Rajaori.^ From Punch one road leads down to the plains at the town of Jhelum, another eastward through the hills to the rattan Pir Pass and Rajaori.

^ From Punch one road leads down to the plains at the town of Jhelum, another eastward through the hills to the Rattan Pir pass and Rajaori.

^ Lastly there is the river pass of the Jhelum, which is the easy route from the valley westward, having two ways down to the plains, one by Muzaffarabad and the Hazara valley to Hassan Abdal, the other by the British hill station of Marri (Murree) to Rawal Pindi.

.Lastly, there is the river pass of the Jhelum, which is the easy route from the valley westward, having two ways down to the plains, one by Muzaffarabad and the Hazara valley to Hasan Abdal, the other by the British hill station of Murree to Rawalpindi.^ Lastly there is the river pass of the Jhelum, which is the easy route from the valley westward, having two ways down to the plains, one by Muzaffarabad and the Hazara valley to Hassan Abdal, the other by the British hill station of Marri (Murree) to Rawal Pindi.

^ Lastly, there is the river pass of the Jhelum, which is the easy route from the valley westward, having two ways down to the plains, one by Muzaffarabad and the Hazara valley to Hasan Abdal, the other by the British hill station of Murree to Rawalpindi .

^ Economy: Although the district is considered deficient in natural irrigation, about 90 per cent of the population depends in one way or other on agriculture for their livelihood.

Geology

.The general strike of the beds, and of the folds which have affected them, is from N.W. to S.E., parallel to the mountain ranges.^ The general strike of the beds, and of the folds which have affected them, is from N.W. to S.E., parallel to the mountain ranges.

.Along the south-western border lies the zone of Tertiary beds which forms the Sub-Himalayas.^ Along the south-western border lies the zone of Tertiary beds which forms the Sub-Himalayas.

^ South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- India 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between the Ganga plains and the Tibetan Plateau are the Trans-Himalaya, forming a rugged zone of transition.
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Next to this is a great belt of Palaeozoic rocks, through which rise the granite, gneiss and schist of the Zanskar and Dhauladhar ranges and of the Pir Panjal.^ The irregular ridges of the Panjal range are granite and gneiss, with schists and slates.

^ Next to this is a great belt of Palaeozoic rocks, through which rise the granite , gneiss and schist of the Zanskar and Dhauladhar ranges and of the Pir Panjal.

^ The beautiful valley of Kashmir is nestled in between the inner Himalayan Range to the east, comprising of the Nanga Parbat and the outer Himalayan range to the west and south called the Pir Panjal.

.In the midst of the Palaeozoic area lie the alluvium and Pleistocene deposits of the Srinagar valley, and the Mesozoic and Carboniferous basin of the upper part of the Sind valley.^ In the midst of the Palaeozoic area lie the alluvium and Pleistocene deposits of the Srinagar valley, and the Mesozoic and Carboniferous basin of the upper part of the Sind valley.

^ The Mesozoic deposits belong chiefly to the Trias and Jura , but Cretaceous beds have been found near the head of the Tsarap valley.

^ The road from Srinagar to Lehin Ladakh follows the Sind valley to the Zoji-la-pass (11,300 ft.

.Beyond the great Palaeozoic belt is a zone of Mesozoic and Tertiary beds which commences at Kargil and extends south-eastward past the Kashmir boundary to Spiti and beyond.^ Beyond the great Palaeozoic belt is a zone of Mesozoic and Tertiary beds which commences at Kargil and extends south-eastward past the Kashmir boundary to Spiti and beyond.

^ The great ridge which is thrown off to the south-west by Nanga parbat rises, at a distance of 12 miles to another summit 20,740 feet in height, from which run south-west and south-east the ridges which are the northern watershed boundary of Kashmir.

^ Along the south-western border lies the zone of Tertiary beds which forms the Sub-Himalayas.

.Finally, in Baltistan and the Ladakh range there is a broad zone composed chiefly of gneiss and schist of ancient date.^ Finally, in Baltistan and the Ladakh range there is a broad zone composed chiefly of gneiss and schist of ancient date.

^ The irregular ridges of the Panjal range are granite and gneiss, with schists and slates.

^ The hills surrounding the valley are chiefly gneiss and schists.

.The oldest fossils found belong either to the Ordovician or Silurian systems.^ The oldest fossils found belong either to the Ordovician or Silurian systems.

.But it is not until the Carboniferous is reached that fossils become at all abundant (so far as is yet known).^ But it is not until the Carboniferous is reached that fossils become at all abundant (so far as is yet known).

^ But the far more important document- the alleged Instrument of Ascension was not published until many years later, if at all.
  • Jinnah & Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.klc.org.pk [Source type: Original source]

.The Mesozoic deposits belong chiefly to the Trias and Jura, but Cretaceous beds have been found near the head of the Tsarap valley.^ The Mesozoic deposits belong chiefly to the Trias and Jura , but Cretaceous beds have been found near the head of the Tsarap valley.

^ In the midst of the Palaeozoic area lie the alluvium and Pleistocene deposits of the Srinagar valley, and the Mesozoic and Carboniferous basin of the upper part of the Sind valley.

.The Tertiary system includes representatives of all the principal divisions recognized in other parts of the Himalayas.^ "This was never part of our culture before all the violence," says Saifullah Khalid, the principal of the Muslim Welfare Society-run orphanage where Abdullah lives.
  • Kashmir // Current 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC current.com [Source type: General]

^ Kashmir includes parts of the Himalayas and the Karakoram Range .
  • Kashmir Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Horrible and frightening incidents happen in almost all parts of the world today that includes India.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Climate

.The valley of Kashmir, sheltered from the south-west monsoon by the Panjal range, has not the periodical rains of India.^ The valley of Kashmir, sheltered from the south-west monsoon by the panjal range, has not the periodical rains of India.

^ The valley of Kashmir, sheltered from the south-west monsoon by the Panjal range, has not the periodical rains of India.

^ The former range, after running 70 miles south-west, between the valleys of the Kishanganga and the Kunhar or Nain-sukh, turns southward, closely pressing the river Jelum, after it has received the Kishanganga, with a break a few miles further south which admits the Kunhar.

.Its rainfall is irregular, greatest in the spring months.^ Its rainfall is irregular, greatest in the spring months.

.Occasional storms in the monsoon pass over the crests of the Panjal and give heavy rain on the elevated plateaus on the Kashmir side.^ Occasional heavy storms in the monsoon pass over the crests of the Panjal and give heavy rain on the elevated plateaus on the Kashmir side.

^ Occasional storms in the monsoon pass over the crests of the Panjal and give heavy rain on the elevated plateaus on the Kashmir side.

^ The valley of Kashmir, sheltered from the south-west monsoon by the panjal range, has not the periodical rains of India.

.And again clouds pass over the valley and are arrested by the higher hills on the north-east side.^ And again clouds pass over the valley and are arrested by the higher hills on the north-east side.

^ And again clouds pass over the valley and are arrested by the higher hills on the northeast side, on which they pour themselves.

^ All of North west India east of the Khyber pass, is clearly a totally unique country, naturally allied to Kashmir.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

.Snow falls on the surrounding hills at intervals from October to March.^ Snow falls on the surrounding hills at intervals from October to March.

^ Snow falls on the surrounding hills at intervals from October to March, and sometimes in great quantity.

^ At the beginning of October snow began to fall regularly and work had to be given up for the season.
  • Kashmir Sapphire Mines 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the valley the first snow generally falls about the end of December, but never to any great amount.^ In the valley the first snow generally falls about the end of December, but never to any great amount.

^ In the valley the first snow generally falls about the end of December, and never to any great amount.

^ Snow falls on the surrounding hills at intervals from October to March, and sometimes in great quantity.

.The hottest months are July, August and the greater part of September, during which the noon shade temperature varies from 85° to 90° and occasionally 95° at Srinagar, probably the hottest place in the valley.^ The hottest months are July, August and the greater part of September, during which the noon shade temperature varies from 85° to 90° and occasionally 95° at Srinagar, probably the hottest place in the valley.

^ Climate If planning to take a travel trip to Kashmir, summers are the best from June-August, during this time the temperatures of Srinagar is between 25°C and 35°C, temperatures in the hill resorts are considerably lower.
  • Jammu and Kashmir Tourism,Kashmir Tourism Guide,Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir,Tourism Info on Kashmir India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indiasite.com [Source type: General]

^ Even in the best years, mining was limited to the three short summer months of July-September, being covered in snow at other times.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The coldest months are January and February, when for several weeks the average minimum temperature is about 15° below freezing.^ The coldest months are January and February, when for several weeks the average minimum temperature is about 15° below freezing.

^ This war with some gaps continued for about 14 months, and was stopped at the intervention of UN on January 1, 1949.

.As a health resort the province, excluding Srinagar, which is insanitary and relaxing, has no rival anywhere in the neighbourhood of India.^ As a health resort the province, excluding Srinagar, which is insanitary and relaxing, has no rival anywhere in the neighbourhood of India.

^ Moore's Lalla Rookh ), and is the chief health resort for Europeans in India, while politically it is important as guarding one of the approaches to India on the north-west frontier .

.Its climate is admirably adapted to the European constitution, and in consequence of the varied range of temperature and the facility of moving about the visitor is enabled with ease to select places at elevations most congenial to him.^ Its climate is admirably adapted to the European constitution, and in consequence of the varied range of temperature and the facility of moving about the visitor is enabled with ease to select places at elevations most congenial to him.

^ The most wide-ranging book ever published on gender-selective mass killing, or "gendercide," this collection of essays is also the first to explore systematically the targeting of non- combatant "battle-age" males in various wartime and peacetime contexts.
  • Gendercide Watch - case studies: Kashmir/Punjab/The Delhi Massacre 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When asked about Spain, the reply is: "Western European facilities are different."
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Formerly only 200 passes a year were issued by the government, but now no restriction is placed on visitors, and their number increases annually.^ Formerly only 200 passes a year were issued by the government, but now no restriction is placed on visitors, and their number increases annually.

^ C Major political parties in Pakistan and Pak media have repeatedly asked Pak governments over the years to break bonds with terrorists and get out of the Kashmir issue, because supporting terrorists has resulted only in increasing Talibanization of Pakistan.
  • Truth on Kashmir and Terrorism in India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.stephen-knapp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For English visitors four routes are authorized by the Government of India, one by the Pir Panjal Pass and three by Baramula, - from Punch, from Murree, and from Muzaffarabad.

.European sportsmen and travellers, in addition to residents of India, resort there freely.^ European sportsmen and travellers, in addition to residents of India, resort there freely.

^ Moore's Lalla Rookh ), and is the chief health resort for Europeans in India, while politically it is important as guarding one of the approaches to India on the north-west frontier .

^ Army is also human, they come from vast parts of India just to protect their Homeland, there in when they have to live so far from their families they resort to depression and some to agression.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.The railway to Rawalpindi, and a driving road thence to Srinagar make the valley easy of access.^ The railway to Rawalpindi, and a driving road thence to Srinagar make the valley easy of access.

^ The road to Srinagar started at Rawalpindi and followed the course of the Jhelum into the vale of Kashmir.
  • Jinnah & Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.klc.org.pk [Source type: Original source]

^ The road from Srinagar to Lehin Ladakh follows the Sind valley to the Zoji-la-pass (11,300 ft.

.When the temperature in Srinagar rises at the beginning of June, there is a general exodus to Gulmarg, which has become a fashionable hillstation.^ When the temperature in Srinagar rises at the beginning of June, there is a general exodus to Gulmarg, which has become a fashionable hillstation.

.This great influx of visitors has resulted in a corresponding diminution of game.^ This great influx of visitors has resulted in a corresponding diminution of game.

.Special game preservation rules have been introduced, and nullahs are let out for stated periods with a restriction on the number of head to be shot.^ Special game preservation rules have been introduced, and nullahs are let out for stated periods with a restriction on the number of head to be shot.

^ Despite their threats and pleas the people turned out in large numbers to vote in most parts of the state except in some pockets which were known to be in thrall of the militants.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Indian State continues to argue that elections held in J&K since 1951 are effectively a substitute for a plebiscite- that people have come out and voted and indicated acceptance of the Indian Rule.
  • Kashmir: Terrorism Or Freedom Movement? By Akhila Raman 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

.The wild animals of the country include ibex, markhor, oorial, the Kashmir stag, and black and brown bears.^ The wild animals of the country include ibex , markhor , oorial, the Kashmir stag , and black and brown bears.

^ The animals chiefly sought in both countries are the Ovis ammon, ovis poli, antelope, ibex mar-khor or wild goat, must deer, Tibetan stag, brown and black bear, and leopard.

^ The dense forests of Kashmir are a delight to the sport lovers and adventurers for whom there are ibex, snow leopard, musk deer, wolf, red bear, black bear and leopard.
  • Hotels in Jammu Kashmir, Jammu Kashmir Hotels, Resorts in Jammu Kashmir, Budget, Deluxe, Luxury Hotels in J & K, India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.getsetbook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many sportsmen now cross into Ladakh and the Pamirs.^ Many sportsmen now cross into Ladakh and the Pamirs .

^ The game is in consequence now only to be found within reduced areas of the more secluded little valleys and more difficult hill sides, and many sportsmen now cross over into Ladak.

^ In fact, it is now known that Indian troops had moved into Kashmir before the tribesmen had crossed the border.

People

.The great majority of the inhabitants of Kashmir are professedly Mahommedans, but their conversion to the faith of Islam is comparatively recent and they are still strongly influenced by their ancient superstitions.^ The great majority of the inhabitants of Kashmir are professedly Mahommedans, but their conversion to the faith of Islam is comparatively recent and they are still strongly influenced by their ancient superstitions.

^ The ancient name Kasyapa-pur was applied to the kingdom of Kashmir when it comprehended great part of the Punjab and extended beyond the Indus.

^ At the time of Baburs invasion 1526 Kashmir and Sind were independent but they did not play any major role.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

.At the census of 1901 out of a total population in the whole state of 2,905,578, there were 2,154,695 Mahommedans, 689,073 Hindus, 35,047 Buddhists and 25,828 Sikhs.^ At the census of 1901 out of a total population in the whole state of 2,905,578, there were 2,154,695 Mahommedans, 689,073 Hindus, 35,047 Buddhists and 25,828 Sikhs.

^ J&K's Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Gujar and Bakarwal, and Shia people genuinely fear that they   will be decimated in a Pakistani state - or a Taliban style independant state.
  • Jammu & Kashmir: Self-Determination, Demands, Plebiscite, Secession,History, Accession, India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC members.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a myth that the demand for a plebiscite reflects the aspirations of all (or a sizable majority) of the state's population, and is the only way for the people of J&K to articulate their right to self-determination.
  • Jammu & Kashmir: Self-Determination, Demands, Plebiscite, Secession,History, Accession, India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC members.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Hindus are mostly found in Jammu, and the Buddhists are confined to Ladakh.^ The Hindus are mostly found in Jammu, and the Buddhists are confined to Ladakh.

^ According to 1981 census, the Kashmir Valley has a population of 3.1 million with 95% Muslim majority; Jammu and Ladakh are predominantly Hindu and Buddhist respectively; the total population of Indian and Pakistan controlled J&K is 6 million (with 64% Muslim majority) and 2.55 million (with 100% Muslim majority) respectively.
  • The J&K conflict: A Chronological Introduction - India Together 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kashmir: Terrorism Or Freedom Movement? By Akhila Raman 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Maharaja's territorial possessions included the Buddhist area of Ladakh, the predominantly Hindu region of Jammu, the majority Muslim valley of Kashmir, as well as smaller Muslim kingdoms in the west.
  • Dismal World | Disputes: Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.dismalworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Kashmir proper the few Hindus (60,682) are almost all Brahmans, known as Pundits.^ In Kashmir proper the few Hindus (60,682) are almost all Brahmans, known as Pundits.

^ I have read nearly all the comments, and I am not satisfied with a few, we are Kashmiri Pandits and our clan was highly educated and respected, we Pandits are known for discipline and mannerism.
  • Azad Kashmir Pictures « ~ Kashmir ~ 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC kashmir.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All said and done, the beauty of Kashmir is unparalleled and it is truly known as the "Paradise on Earth".
  • Kashmir Tourism - Kashmir India - Jammu and Kashmir - Tourism in Kashmir - Jammu Kashmir Tourism - Kashmir Valley 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.bharatonline.com [Source type: News]

.Superstition has made the Kashmiri timid; tyranny has made him a liar; while physical disasters have made him selfish and pessimistic.^ Superstition has made the Kashmiri timid; tyranny has made him a liar; while physical disasters have made him selfish and pessimistic.

.Up to recent times the cultivator lived under a system of begar, which entitled an official to take either labour or commodities free of payment from the villages.^ Up to recent times the cultivator lived under a system of begar, which entitled an official to take either labour or commodities free of payment from the villages.

^ Under this arrangement, the various princely states could freely join either India or Pakistan.
  • Maps of Pakistan 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC mapup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both are rice eaters and after Bengal, Kashmir had the next highest percentage area of land under rice cultivation from earliest times.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Having no security of property, the people had no incentive to effort, and with no security for life they lost the independence of free men.^ Having no security of property, the people had no incentive to effort, and with no security for life they lost the independence of free men.

^ Thousands of people became the victims and lost their lives for no fault of theirs, and property worth crores accumulated for decades was lost just within a weeks time.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ J&K's Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Gujar and Bakarwal, and Shia people genuinely fear that they   will be decimated in a Pakistani state - or a Taliban style independant state.
  • Jammu & Kashmir: Self-Determination, Demands, Plebiscite, Secession,History, Accession, India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC members.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.But the land settlement of 1889 swept all these abuses away.^ But the land settlement of 1889 swept all these abuses away.

^ The result of all these measures was, that a great increase of land became available for cultivation.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Land which had no value in 1889 is now eagerly sought after by all classes.

.Restrictive monopolies, under which bricks, lime, paper and certain other manufactures were closed to private enterprise, were abolished.^ Restrictive monopolies, under which bricks, lime , paper and certain other manufactures were closed to private enterprise, were abolished.

.The results of the settlement are thus enumerated by Sir Walter Lawrence: "Little by little, confidence has sprung up.^ The results of the settlement are thus enumerated by Sir Walter Lawrence : "Little by little, confidence has sprung up.

^ A complete list of the flora and fauna of the valley will be found in Sir Walter Lawrence's book on Kashmir.

^ Sir Walter Lawrence carried the first assessment of land revenue system in the state on scientific lines.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Land which had no value in 1889 is now eagerly sought after by all classes.^ Land which had no value in 1889 is now eagerly sought after by all classes.

^ But the land settlement of 1889 swept all these abuses away.

^ According to the paper, "there is [now] no alternative but to start all over."
  • Conflict Over Kashmir | The American Prospect 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.prospect.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cultivation has extended and improved.^ Cultivation has extended and improved.

.Houses have been rebuilt and repaired, fields fenced in, orchards planted, vegetable gardens well stocked and new mills constructed.^ Houses have been rebuilt and repaired, fields fenced in, orchards planted, vegetable gardens well stocked and new mills constructed.

^ Jahangir, his son was captivated by the beauty of the Kashmir and made it a man-made paradise by planting chenar trees and constructing pleasure gardens.
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barley, bajra, jowar, pulses and vegetables are also grown in some parts of Kashmir in the market gardens and well-watered areas.
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Women no longer are seen toiling in the fields, for their husbands are now at home to do the work, and the long journeys to Gilgit are a thing of the past.^ Women no longer are seen toiling in the fields, for their husbands are now at home to do the work, and the long journeys to Gilgit are a thing of the past.

^ The isolation of Kashmir from the rest of the country was now a thing of the past, and large number of people, mostly europeans began to visit the valley.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the past 11 years, the Assembly has not worked for more than 100 days [in Srinagar].Now if it is not a joke in the name of democracy then what is it?

When the harvest is ripe the peasant reaps it at his own good time, and not a soldier ever enters the villages." In consequence of this improvement in their conditions of life and of the influx of wealth into the country brought by visitors, the Kashmiri grows every year in material prosperity and independence of character. .The Kashmir women have a reputation for beauty which is not altogether deserved, but the children are always pretty.^ The Kashmir women have a reputation for beauty which is not altogether deserved, but the children are always pretty.

^ For her exquisite beauty and mesmerizing surroundings, Kashmir has always attracted lot of attention from the Europeans who view this place through the glamour of ‘Lala Rookh’.

^ Sunil Yande Farmington Hills, MI Kashmir has always been a beautiful and serene place - an ideal destination for honeymooners and vacationeers all over India.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.The language spoken in Kashmir is akin to that of the Punjab, though marked by many peculiarities.^ It may be said to possess no literature, though Kashmir has produced many literary men.

^ The Kashmir valley has a large number of old buildings of the Hindu period, interesting from their style, which is peculiar to Kashmir, and from the traces which many of them bear of Greek art.

^ The language of Kashmir (which is spoken only in the valley itself, and in the few outlying settlements of Kashmiris in the neighboring hills and in northern India) is of the Aryan family.

.It possesses an ancient literature, which is written in a special character (see KASH1kIIR1).^ It possesses an ancient literature, which is written in a special character ( see KASH1kIIR1).

Natural Calamities

.The effect of physical calamities partly incidental to the climate of Kashmir, upon the character of its inhabitants has been referred to.^ The effect of physical calamities partly incidental to the climate of Kashmir, upon the character of its inhabitants has been referred to.

^ Physical Conformation 2 Geology 3 Climate 4 People 5 Natural Calamities 6 Crops 7 Industries 8 History .

.The list includes fires, floods, earthquakes, famines and cholera.^ The list includes fires, floods, earthquakes, famines and cholera .

.The ravages of fire are chiefly felt in Srinagar, where the wood houses and their thatched roofs fall an easy prey to the flames.^ The ravages of fire are chiefly felt in Srinagar, where the wood houses and their thatched roofs fall an easy prey to the flames.

.The national habit of carrying a hangar, or small brazier, underneath the clothes for the purpose of warming the body, is a fruitful cause of fires.^ The national habit of carrying a hangar, or small brazier , underneath the clothes for the purpose of warming the body, is a fruitful cause of fires.

^ In cold weather they are in the habit of carrying, under this loose dress, a small portable brazier with heated charcoal.

.Srinagar is said to have been burnt down eighteen times.^ Srinagar is said to have been burnt down eighteen times.

.Many disastrous floods are recorded, the greatest being the terrible inundation which followed the slipping of the Khadanyar mountain below Baramula in A.D. 879. The channel of the Jhelum river was blocked and a large part of the valley submerged.^ The valley, called the Hagshu Tokpho, leading down from the pass to the north, opens into the wider valley of the Zanskar River, a large tributary of the Indus; here the valley is open and fairly level for a long distance, containing many villages and monasteries, and in parts well cultivated, but almost bare of trees.
  • Kashmir Sapphire Mines 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Skiing, golf, trekking, river rafting, paragliding, camping and a number of other sports draw large number of tourists to the Kashmir valley.
  • Kashmir Tourism - Kashmir India - Jammu and Kashmir - Tourism in Kashmir - Jammu Kashmir Tourism - Kashmir Valley 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.bharatonline.com [Source type: News]

^ To the north of the Zanskar River in this part of its course a considerable change takes place in the aspect of the mountains, corresponding with a change in their geological structure.
  • Kashmir Sapphire Mines 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1841 a serious flood caused great damage to life and property; there was another in 1893, when six out of the seven bridges in Srinagar were washed away, 25,426 acres under crops were submerged and 2225 houses were wrecked; another flood occurred in July 1903, when the bund between the Dal Lake and the canal gave way, and the lake rose 10 ft.^ Srinagar is situated around the Dal lake.
  • Kashmir, Information about Kashmir, Kashmir Tour 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1841 a serious flood caused great damage to life and property; there was another in 1893, when six out of the seven bridges in Srinagar were washed away, 25,426 acres under crops were submerged and 2225 houses were wrecked; another flood occurred in July 1903, when the bund between the Dal Lake and the canal gave way, and the lake rose 10 ft.

^ Since the 15th century eleven great earthquakes have occurred, all of long duration and accompanied by great loss of life.

in half an hour. .Between two and three thousand houses in and around Srinagar collapsed, while over 40 miles of the tonga road were submerged.^ Between two and three thousand houses in and around Srinagar collapsed, while over 40 miles of the tonga road were submerged.

^ The road from Srinagar to Leh via Kargil is a magnificent piece of engineering and the means by which most people travel between the two places.
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Islamabad, about 40 miles above Srinagar, the river is 5400 feet above sea-level, and at Srinagar 5235 feet.

.Since the 15th century eleven great earthquakes have occurred, all of long duration and accompanied by great loss of life.^ Since the 15th century eleven great earthquakes have occurred, all of long duration and accompanied by great loss of life.

^ The trekkers all over the world often share their experiences in Kashmir throughout their life time, as it is said the climbing friendship lasts long.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 19th century there were four severe earthquakes, the last two occurring in 1864 and 1885, when some 3500 people were killed.

.During the 19th century there were four severe earthquakes, the last two occurring in 1864 and 1885, when some 3500 people were killed.^ During the 19th century there were four severe earthquakes, the last two occurring in 1864 and 1885, when some 3500 people were killed.

^ During the 19th century also there were ten epidemics of cholera, all more or less disastrous, while the worst (in 1892) was probably the last.

^ Since the 15th century eleven great earthquakes have occurred, all of long duration and accompanied by great loss of life.

.Native historians record nineteen great famines, the last two occurring in 1831 and 1877. In 1878 it was reported that only two-fifths of the total population of the valley survived.^ Native historians record nineteen great famines, the last two occurring in 1831 and 1877.

^ In 1878 it was reported that only two-fifths of the total population of the valley survived.

^ According to a report prepared by order of the maharaja in 1873, the population of the valley at that time was nearly 492,000.

.During the 19th century also there were ten epidemics of cholera, all more or less disastrous, while the worst (in 1892) was probably the last.^ During the 19th century also there were ten epidemics of cholera, all more or less disastrous, while the worst (in 1892) was probably the last.

^ During the 19th century, Kashmir became popular with the British.
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fittingly referred to as heaven, Kashmir has been ruled by King Ashoka, the Kushanas, Gonondas, Guptas, Karkotas, Mughals, Afghans, Sikhs, and at last by the Dogras in the 19th century.

.During that year 5781 persons died in Srinagar and 5931 in the villages.^ The Maharaja died in 1857 after a rule of 11 years, during which period he laid the foundation of a sound system of administration.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.The centre of infection is generally supposed to be the squalid capital of Srinagar, and some efforts to improve its sanitation have been made of recent years.^ The centre of infection is generally supposed to be the squalid capital of Srinagar, and some efforts to improve its sanitation have been made of recent years.

^ He has made his name immortal by founding the city of Praverseinpura (modern city of Srinagar), the summer capital of the state at present.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the problem is widely known to the authorities in Srinagar and New Delhi, neither has ever made any serious effort to curb it."
  • Gendercide Watch - case studies: Kashmir/Punjab/The Delhi Massacre 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: Original source]

Crops

.The staple crop of the valley is rice, which forms the chief food of the people.^ The staple crop of the valley is rice , which forms the chief food of the people.

^ The valley of the Jhelum River, the celebrated Vale of Kashmir, is the most populous area and the economic heart of the region; it produces abundant crops of wheat and rice.
  • Kashmir Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The peaceful Dravidians were an enlightened and cultured peoples and they formed the Indus Valley Civilisation.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

.Indian corn comes next; wheat, barley and oats are also grown.^ Indian corn comes next; wheat , barley and oats are also grown.

.Every kind of English vegetable thrives well, especially asparagus, artichoke, seakale, broad beans, scarletrunners, beetroot, cauliflower and cabbage.^ Every kind of English vegetable thrives well, especially asparagus , artichoke , seakale, broad beans, scarletrunners, beetroot, cauliflower and cabbage .

.Fruit trees are met with all over the valley, wild but bearing fruit, and the cultivated orchards yield pears, apples, peaches, cherries, &c., equal to the best European produce.^ Fruit trees are met with all over the valley, wild but bearing fruit, and the cultivated orchards yield pears, apples, peaches, cherries, &c., equal to the best European produce.

^ In the Vale of Kashmir, there are very large orchards of apples, peaches, pears, apricots, walnuts and almonds.
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After sometime, these solidified tears grew in the form of trees which bear fruit, which is indeed the Rudraksha.

.The chief trees are deodar, firs and pines, chenar or plane, maple, birch and walnut.^ The chief trees are deodar, firs and pines, chenar or plane, maple , birch and walnut .

^ Of the broad-leaf trees, there are maple, horse chestnuts, silver fir, etc.
  • Hotels in Jammu Kashmir, Jammu Kashmir Hotels, Resorts in Jammu Kashmir, Budget, Deluxe, Luxury Hotels in J & K, India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.getsetbook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these trees are the chenar tree (the giant Asian Plane Tree, Platanus orientalis), willows and a wide variety of pines.
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are state departments of viticulture, hops, horticulture and sericulture.^ There are state departments of viticulture, hops, horticulture and sericulture.

.A complete list of the flora and fauna of the valley will be found in Sir Walter Lawrence's book on Kashmir.^ Kashmir tourism is also famous for the exotic flora and fauna found in the region.
  • Kashmir Tourism - Kashmir India - Jammu and Kashmir - Tourism in Kashmir - Jammu Kashmir Tourism - Kashmir Valley 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.bharatonline.com [Source type: News]

^ A complete list of the flora and fauna of the valley will be found in Sir Walter Lawrence's book on Kashmir.

^ The results of the settlement are thus enumerated by Sir Walter Lawrence : "Little by little, confidence has sprung up.

Industries

.The chief industry of Srinagar was formerly the weaving of the celebrated Kashmir shawl, which dates back to the days of the emperor Baber.^ The chief industry of Srinagar was formerly the weaving of the celebrated Kashmir shawl , which dates back to the days of the emperor Baber .

^ However shawl industry in Kashmir received its death-blow when war broke out between Germany and France in 1870.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 1/8/05) 2005 Jan 15, In Kashmir separatist guerrillas stormed a government building in Srinagar, triggering a gunbattle with security forces days ahead of Republic Day celebrations.
  • Timeline Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.These shawls first became fashionable in Europe in the reign of Napoleon, when they fetched from £io to ,'loo; but the industry received a blow at the time of the FrancoGerman War, and the famine of 1877 scattered the weavers.^ These shawls first became fashionable in Europe in the reign of Napoleon , when they fetched from £io to ,'loo; but the industry received a blow at the time of the FrancoGerman War, and the famine of 1877 scattered the weavers.

^ However shawl industry in Kashmir received its death-blow when war broke out between Germany and France in 1870.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus the arts and crafts of Kashmir became famous in Europe and America and the shawls of Kashmir in particular became a fashionable item in England in seventeenth century.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The place of the Kashmir shawl has to some extent been taken by the Kashmir carpet, but the most thriving industry now is that of silkweaving.^ Of course of late the illegal occupiers of Kashmir have taken to destroying ancient temples and renaming Hindu sites e.g., Abhinava Gufa is now some Muslim name, soon Srinagar (named after Devi) will be something else.
  • Azad Kashmir Pictures « ~ Kashmir ~ 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC kashmir.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As I have a small engagement related to the industry after my retirement I have felt that for some it has been a dream to visit Kashmir, irrespective of their advanced age or ill health.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However shawl industry in Kashmir received its death-blow when war broke out between Germany and France in 1870.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Srinagar is also celebrated for its silver-work, papier mache and wood-carving.^ Srinagar is also celebrated for its silver -work, papier mache and wood-carving .

^ The original industries for which Kashmir was known for namely carpet- manufacturing, fruit cultivation, wood carving, embroidery and paper mache had gone in quandary.
  • Jinnah & Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.klc.org.pk [Source type: Original source]

^ The manufacture of a variety of articles in papier mache and ornamentall painted wood-work employs a number of people in Srinagar.

.The minerals and metals of the Jammu district are promising, and a company has been formed to work them.^ The minerals and metals of the Jammu district are promising, and a company has been formed to work them.

.Coal of fair quality has been found, but the difficulties of transport interfere with its working.^ Coal of fair quality has been found, but the difficulties of transport interfere with its working.

^ Even the common minerals, coal and iron, are not found in any large quantity, and where they do occur, are poor in quality.
  • Kashmir Sapphire Mines 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: Original source]

History

.The metrical chronicle of the kings of Kashmir, called Rajatarangini, was pronounced by Professor H. H. Wilson to be the only Sanskrit composition yet discovered to which the title of history can with any propriety be applied.^ The metrical history of the kings of Kashmir, called Raja Tarangini, was pronounced by Professor H.H. Wilson (1825) to be the only Sanskrit composition yet discovered to which the title of history can with any propriety be applied.

^ The metrical chronicle of the kings of Kashmir, called Rajatarangini, was pronounced by Professor H. H. Wilson to be the only Sanskrit composition yet discovered to which the title of history can with any propriety be applied.

^ And the fourth work, called Rajavalipataka, by Prajnia Bhatta, completes the history to the time of the incorporation of Kashmir in the dominions of the Mogul emperor Akbar , 1588.

.It first became known to the Mahommedans when, on Akbar's invasion of Kashmir in 1588, a copy was presented to the emperor.^ It first became known to the Mohammedans when on Akbar’s invasion of Kashmir in 1588, a copy was presented to the emperor.

^ It first became known to the Mahommedans when, on Akbar's invasion of Kashmir in 1588, a copy was presented to the emperor.

^ And the fourth work, called Rajavalipataka, by Prajnia Bhatta, completes the history to the time of the incorporation of Kashmir in the dominions of the Mogul emperor Akbar , 1588.

.A translation into Persian was made by his order, and a summary of its contents, from this Persian translation, is given by Abu'l Fazl in the A'in-i-Akbari. The Rajatarangini, the first of a series of four Sanskrit histories, was written about the middle of the 12th century by P. Kalhana.^ The Rajatarangini, the first of a series of four Sanskrit histories, was written about the middle of the 12th century by P. Kalhana.

^ The Raja Tarangini is a series of four histories.

^ A translation into Persian was made by his order, and a summary of its contents, from this Persian translation, is given by Abu'l Fazl in the A'in-i-Akbari.

.His work, in six books, makes use of earlier writings now lost.^ His work, in six books, which bears the name afterwards given to the whole, makes use of earlier writings now lost.

^ His work, in six books, makes use of earlier writings now lost.

Commencing with traditional history of very early times, it comes down to the reign of Sangrama Deva, 1006; the second work, by Jonaraja, takes up the history in continuation of Kalhana's, and, entering the Mahommedan period, gives an account of the reigns down to that of Zain-ul-ab-ad-din, 1412. P. Srivara carried on the record to the accession of Fah Shah, 1486. And the fourth work, called Rajavalipataka, by Prajnia Bhatta, completes the history to the time of the incorporation of Kashmir in the dominions of the Mogul emperor Akbar, 1588.
.In the Rajatarangini it is stated that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake, and that it was drained by the great rishi or sage, Kasyapa, son of Marichi, son of Brahma, by cutting the gap in the hills at Baramulla (Varaha-mula).^ In the Rajatarangini it is stated that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake, and that it was drained by the great rishi or sage, Kasyapa, son of Marichi, son of Brahma, by cutting the gap in the hills at Baramulla (Varaha- mula ).

^ In the earliest of the four histories is stated that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake, and that it was drained by the great rishi or sage, Kasyapa, son of Marichi, son of Brahma, by cutting the gap in the hills at Baramula (Varaha-mula).

^ Responding to the penances of the great sage Kashyapa, the grandson of Brahma himself, the gods destroyed the demon of the lake, with a pebble divinely caste, which today stands as the hill upon which towers the fortress built by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, and known today as Hari Parbat.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.When Kashmir had been drained, he brought in the Brahmans to occupy it.^ When Kashmir had been drained, he brought in the Brahmans to occupy it.

.This is still the local tradition, and in the existing physical condition of the country we may see some ground for the story which has taken this form.^ This is still the local tradition, and in the existing physical condition of the country we may see some ground for the story which has taken this form.

^ Some of the aging locals i met in Kashmir still remember the promise of plebiscite given by Jawaharlal Nehru in an emotional speech at Lal Chowk Grounds in Srinagar more than half a century ago.
  • Kashmir: Terrorism Or Freedom Movement? By Akhila Raman 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words this could be taken as tacit admission by UN that any powerful country can occupy others territory and after passage of some long time, the territory will legally become that of the powerful country.
  • Dr. Charles G. Cogan: Hands Off Kashmir! 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.The name of Kasyapa is by history and tradition connected with the draining of the lake, and the chief town or collection of dwellings in the valley was called Kasyapa-pur - a name which has been plausibly identified with the Kaorairvpos of Hecataeus (Steph.^ It has been called many names throughout history.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The name of Kasyapa, however, is by history and tradition connected with the draining of the lake, and the chief town or collection of dwellings in the valley was called Kasyapa-pur – a name which has been plausibly identified with the of Hecateus (Steph.

^ The name of Kasyapa is by history and tradition connected with the draining of the lake, and the chief town or collection of dwellings in the valley was called Kasyapa-pur - a name which has been plausibly identified with the Kaorairvpos of Hecataeus (Steph.

Byz., s.v.) and .Kaa7rarvpos of Herodotus (iii.^ Kaa7rarvpos of Herodotus (iii.

102, iv. 44). .Kashmir is the country meant also by Ptolemy's Kaa1nJpca.^ Kashmir is the country meant also by Ptolemy’s.

^ Kashmir is the country meant also by Ptolemy's Kaa1nJpca.

.The ancient name Kasyapa-pur was applied to the kingdom of Kashmir when it comprehended great part of the Punjab and extended beyond the Indus.^ The ancient name Kasyapa-pur was applied to the kingdom of Kashmir when it comprehended great part of the Punjab and extended beyond the Indus.

^ The ancient name kasyapa-pur was applied to the kingdom of Kashmir when it comprehended great part of the Punjab and extended beyond the Indus.

^ Faisalabad, Punjab This is a great site on Kashmir.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the 7th century Kashmir is said by the Chinese traveller Hsuan Tsang to have included Kabul and the Punjab, and the hill region of Gandhara, the country of the Gandarae of classical geography.^ In the 7th century Kashmir is said by the Chinese traveller Hsuan Tsang to have included Kabul and the Punjab, and the hill region of Gandhara, the country of the Gandarae of classical geography .

^ In the 7th century Kashmir is said by the Chinese traveler Hwen Tsang to have included Cabul and the Punjab, and the hill region of Gandhara, the country of the Gandarae of classical geography.

^ Hsuan Tsang spent two years (631-633) in Kashmir ( Kia-chi-mi-lo).

.At an early date the Sanskrit name of the country became Kasmir. The earliest inhabitants, according to the Rajatarangini, were the people called Naga, a word which signifies "snake."^ At an early date the Sanskrit name of the country became Kasmir.

^ The earliest inhabitants, according to the Rajatarangini, were the people called Naga, a word which signifies "snake."

^ The metrical chronicle of the kings of Kashmir, called Rajatarangini, was pronounced by Professor H. H. Wilson to be the only Sanskrit composition yet discovered to which the title of history can with any propriety be applied.

.The history shows the prevalence in early times of tree and serpent worship, of which some sculptured stones found in Kashmir still retain the memorials.^ The history shows the prevalence in early times of tree and serpent worship , of which some sculptured stones found in Kashmir still retain the memorials.

^ The history shows the prevalence in early times of tree and serpent worship, of which some sculptured stones found in Kashmir still retain the memorials.

^ I read a lot about the history of Kashmir and still cannot understand why we have to fight over it.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.The town of Islamabad is called also by its ancient name Anant-nag ("eternal snake").^ The town of Islamabad is called also by its ancient name Anant-nag ("eternal snake").

^ The town of Islamabad is called also by its ancient name Anant-nag (eternal snake).

.The source of the Jhelum is at Vir-nag (the powerful snake), &c.^ The source of the Jhelum is at Vir-nag (the powerful snake), &c.

.The other races mentioned as inhabiting this country and the neighbouring hills are Gandhari, Khasa and Daradae.^ The other races mentioned as inhabiting this country and the neighboring hills are Gandhara, Khasa, and Darada.

^ The other races mentioned as inhabiting this country and the neighbouring hills are Gandhari, Khasa and Daradae.

.The Khasa people are supposed to have given the name Kasmir.^ The Khasa people are supposed to have given the name Kasmir.

.In the Mahabharata the Kasmira and Daradae are named together among the Kshattriya races of northern India.^ In the Mahabharata the Kasmira and Daradae are named together among the Kshattriya races of northern India.

^ In the Mahabharata the Kasmira and Darada are named together among the Kshattriya races of northern India.

.The question whether, in the immigration of the Aryans into India, Kashmir was taken on the way, or entered afterwards by that people after they had reached the Punjab from the north-west, appears to require an answer ire favour of the latter view (see vol.^ Then peoples in Kashmir will support INDIA. .
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The question whether, in the immigration of the Aryans into India, Kashmir was taken on the way, or entered afterwards by that people after they had reached the Punjab from the north-west, appears to require an answer in favor of the latter view (se vol.

^ The question whether, in the immigration of the Aryans into India, Kashmir was taken on the way, or entered afterwards by that people after they had reached the Punjab from the north-west, appears to require an answer ire favour of the latter view (see vol.

ii. of .Dr J. Muir's Sanskrit Texts). The Aryan races of Kashmir and surrounding hills, which have at the present time separate geographical distribution, are given by Mr Drew as Kashmiri (mostly Mahommedan), in the Kashmir basin and a few scattered places outside; Dard (mostly Mahommedan) in Gilgit and hills north of Kashmir; Dogra (Hindu) in Jamma; Dogra (Mahommedan, called Chibali) in Punch and hill country west of Kashmir; Pahari or mountaineers (Hindu) in Kishtwar, east of Kashmir, and hills about the valley of the Chenab.^ The Aryan races of Kashmir and surrounding hills, which have at the present time separate geographical distribution, are given by Mr Drew as kashmiri (mostly Mohammenda), in the Kashmir basin and a few scattered places outside; Dard (mostly Mohammedan) in Gilgit and hills north of Kashmir; Dogra (Hindu) in Jamu; Dogra (Mohammedan, called Chibali) in Punch and hill country west of Kashmir; Pahari or mountaineers (Hindu) in Kishtwar, east of Kashmir, and hills about the valley of the Chenab.

^ The Aryan races of Kashmir and surrounding hills, which have at the present time separate geographical distribution, are given by Mr Drew as Kashmiri (mostly Mahommedan), in the Kashmir basin and a few scattered places outside; Dard (mostly Mahommedan) in Gilgit and hills north of Kashmir; Dogra (Hindu) in Jamma; Dogra (Mahommedan, called Chibali ) in Punch and hill country west of Kashmir; Pahari or mountaineers (Hindu) in Kishtwar, east of Kashmir, and hills about the valley of the Chenab.

^ The world has been mostly silent about this ethnic cleansing of Hindus from Kashmir.
  • Truth on Kashmir and Terrorism in India 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.stephen-knapp.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the time of Asoka, about 245 B.C., one of the Indian Buddhist missions was sent to Kashmir and Gandhara.^ In the time of Asoka, about 245 B.C., one of the Indian Buddhist missions was sent to Kashmir and Gandhara.

^ In the time of Asoka , about 245 B.C., one of the Indian Buddhist missions was sent to Kashmir and Gandhara.

^ Pakistanis talk about Indian-occupied Kashmir.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.After his death Brahmanism revived.^ After his death Brahmanism revived.

.Then in the time of the three Kushan princes, Huvishka, Jushka and Kanishka, who ruled over Kashmir about the beginning of the Christian era, Buddhism was to a great extent restored, though for several centuries the two religions existed together in Kashmir, Hinduism predominating.^ Then in the time of the three Tartar princes, Hushka, Jushka, and Kanishka, who reigned in Kashmir immediately before, and in the beginning of, the Christian era, Buddhism was to a great extent restored.

^ Then in the time of the three Kushan princes, Huvishka, Jushka and Kanishka , who ruled over Kashmir about the beginning of the Christian era, Buddhism was to a great extent restored, though for several centuries the two religions existed together in Kashmir, Hinduism predominating.

^ For various years, Kashmir was ruled by the Scythian Hindu princes who were succeeded by the Tartars.
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet Kashmir, when Buddhism was gradually losing its hold, continued to send Buddhist teachers to other lands.^ Yet Kashmir, when Buddhism was gradually losing its hold, continued to send Buddhist teachers to other lands.

^ Yet Kashmir, when Buddhism was gradually losing its hold, continued to send out its Buddhist teachers to other lands.

^ Kanishka had convened the Buddhist Council of Kashmir to spread Buddhism instead of Hinduism in the subcontinent (much to the chagrin of the Brahmans ).
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

.In this Hindu-Buddhist period, and chiefly between the 5th and 10th centuries of the Christian era, were erected the Hindu temples in Kashmir.^ In this Hindu-Buddhist period, and chiefly between the 5th and 10th centuries of our era, were erected the Hindu temples in Kashmir.

^ In this Hindu-Buddhist period, and chiefly between the 5th and 10th centuries of the Christian era, were erected the Hindu temples in Kashmir.

^ Then in the time of the three Kushan princes, Huvishka, Jushka and Kanishka , who ruled over Kashmir about the beginning of the Christian era, Buddhism was to a great extent restored, though for several centuries the two religions existed together in Kashmir, Hinduism predominating.

.In the 6th and 7th centuries Kashmir was visited by some of the Chinese Buddhist pilgrims to India.^ In the 6th and 7th centuries Kashmir was visited by some of the Chinese Buddhist pilgrims to India.

^ In the 7th century Kashmir is said by the Chinese traveller Hsuan Tsang to have included Kabul and the Punjab, and the hill region of Gandhara, the country of the Gandarae of classical geography .

^ As I have a small engagement related to the industry after my retirement I have felt that for some it has been a dream to visit Kashmir, irrespective of their advanced age or ill health.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country is called Shie-mi in the narrative of To Yeng and Sung Yun (578).^ The country is called Shie-mi in the narrative of To Yend and Sung Yan (578).

^ The country is called Shie-mi in the narrative of To Yeng and Sung Yun (578).

^ I was really young when my family left Kashmir and were called migrants in our own country.
  • Azad Kashmir Pictures « ~ Kashmir ~ 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC kashmir.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the Chinese travellers of the next century was for a time an elephant-tamer to the king of Kashmir.^ One of the Chinese travelers of the next century was for a time an elephant-tamer to the king of Kashmir.

^ One of the Chinese travellers of the next century was for a time an elephant -tamer to the king of Kashmir.

^ In the 7th century Kashmir is said by the Chinese traveller Hsuan Tsang to have included Kabul and the Punjab, and the hill region of Gandhara, the country of the Gandarae of classical geography .

.Hsuan Tsang spent two years (631-633) in Kashmir (Kia-chi-mi-lo). He entered by Baramula and left by the Pir Panjal pass.^ He entered by Baramula and left by the Pir Panjal Pass.

^ He entered by Baramula and left by the Pir Panjal pass.

^ Hsuan Tsang spent two years (631-633) in Kashmir ( Kia-chi-mi-lo).

.He describes the hill-girt valley, and the abundance of flowers and fruits, and he mentions the tradition about the lake.^ He describes the hill-girt valley, and the abundance of flowers and fruits, and he mentions the tradition about the lake.

^ Limestone is found in parts of the east and west ends of the valley, and in the hills upon the Manas bal lake.

^ It is a romantic experience to travel to Kashmir in spring when snow over the slopes of Gulmarg, Pahalgam and Sonamarg still appears fresh while flowers appear in abundance in the Valley plains.
  • Kashmir Travel Press, Travel Kashmir information, Jammu & Kashmir Travel information, Kashmir Travel Guidelines, Travel to Kashmir precautions, Ladakh Travel, Travel Jammu, Kashmir Tourism, KashmirTravel Tourism,Travel Information Kashmir 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC induskashmir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He found in Kashmir many Buddhists as well as Hindus.^ He found in Kashmir many Buddhists as well as Hindus.

^ In this Hindu-Buddhist period, and chiefly between the 5th and 10th centuries of our era, were erected the Hindu temples in Kashmir.

^ The Kashmir valley was mostly inhabited by many people that included sun worshippers, Zorastarians, and Buddhists.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the following century the kings of Kashmir appear to have paid homage and tribute to China, though this is not alluded to in the Kashmir chronicle.^ In the following century the kings of Kashmir appear to have paid homage and tribute to China, though this is not alluded to in the Kashmir history.

^ In the following century the kings of Kashmir appear to have paid homage and tribute to China , though this is not alluded to in the Kashmir chronicle.

^ The metrical chronicle of the kings of Kashmir, called Rajatarangini, was pronounced by Professor H. H. Wilson to be the only Sanskrit composition yet discovered to which the title of history can with any propriety be applied.

.Hindu kings continued to reign till about 1294, when Udiana Deva was put to death by his Mahommedan vizier, Amir Shah, who ascended the throne under the name of Shams-ud-din.^ Hindu kings continued to reign till about 1294, when Udiana Deva was put to death by his Mahommedan vizier , Amir Shah, who ascended the throne under the name of Shams-ud-din.

^ Hindu kings continued to reign till about 1294, when Udiana Deva was put to death by his Mohammedan vizier, Amir Shah, who ascended the throne, taking the name of Shams-id-din.

^ The former ascended the throne in 1354, and continued to rule till 1373.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Of the Mahommedan rulers mentioned in the Sanskrit chronicles, one, who reigned about the close of the 14th century, has made his name prominent by his active opposition to the Hindu religion, and his destruction of temples.^ Of the Mahommedan rulers mentioned in the Sanskrit chronicles, one, who reigned about the close of the 14th century, has made his name prominent by his active opposition to the Hindu religion, and his destruction of temples.

^ Of the Mohammedan rulers mentioned in the second of the Sanskrit histories, one, who reigned about the close of the 14th century, has made his name prominent by his active opposition to the Hindu religion, and his destruction of the temples.

^ Hindu kings continued to reign till about 1294, when Udiana Deva was put to death by his Mahommedan vizier , Amir Shah, who ascended the throne under the name of Shams-ud-din.

.This was Sikandar, known as But-shikan, or the "idol-breaker."^ This was Sikandar, known as But-shikan, or the "idol-breaker."

^ This was Sikandar, known as But-shikan, or the :idol-breaker."

^ Their ruinous condition is ascribed partly to Sikandar te idol-breaker, partly to earthquakes, which are frequent in Kashmir.

.It was in his time that India was invaded by Timur, to whom Sikandar made submission and paid tribute.^ It was in his time that India was invaded by Timur, to whom Sikandar made submission and paid tribute.

^ For the first time since Pakistan began its propaganda war against India on the Kashmir issue, it is being made answerable for its own repression of its citizens.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

.The country fell into the hands of the Moguls in 1588. In the time of Alamgir it passed to Ahmad Shah Durani, on his third invasion of India (1756); and from that time it remained in the hands of Afghans till it was wrested from them by Ranjit Singh, the Sikh monarch of the Punjab, in 1819. Eight Hindu and Sikh governors under Ranjit Singh and his successors were followed by two Mahommedans similarly appointed, the second of whom, Shekh Imam-ud-din, was in charge when the battles of the first Sikh war 1846 brought about new relations between the British Government and the Sikhs.^ The country fell into the hands of the Mughals in 1588.

^ A native news-writer, employed by the British Government, remains in Kahsmir.

^ Eight Hindu and Sikh governors under Ranjit Singh and his successors were followed by two Mahommedans similarly appointed, the second of whom, Shekh Imam-ud-din, was in charge when the battles of the first Sikh war 1846 brought about new relations between the British Government and the Sikhs.

.Gulab Singh, a Dogra Rajput, had from a humble position been raised to high office by Ranjit Singh, who conferred on him the small principality of Jammu.^ Ghulab Singh, a Dogra Rajput, had from a humble position been raised to high office by Ranjit Singh, who conferred on him the small principality of Jamu.

^ Gulab Singh, a Dogra Rajput , had from a humble position been raised to high office by Ranjit Singh, who conferred on him the small principality of Jammu.

^ Jammu and Kashmir(J&K * ) State is created under the Treaty of Amritsar between the East India company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu who buys Kashmir Valley from the East India Company for Rs.75,00,000 and adds it to Jammu and Ladakh already under his rule.
  • The J&K conflict: A Chronological Introduction - India Together 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the final defeat of the Sikhs at Sobraon (February 1846), Gulab Singh was called to take a leading part in arranging conditions of peace.^ On the final defeat of the Sikhs at Sobraon (February 1846), Ghulab Singh was called to take a leading part in arranging conditions of peace.

^ On the final defeat of the Sikhs at Sobraon (February 1846), Gulab Singh was called to take a leading part in arranging conditions of peace.

^ After the end of the first Sikh War in 1846, it was assigned to the Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu, who founded the dynasty of Dogra Rajputs.
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Tourism 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The treaty of Lahore (March 9, 1846) sets forth that, the British Government having demanded, in addition to a certain assignment of territory, a payment of a crore and a half of rupees (12 millions sterling), and the Sikh government being unable to pay the whole, the maharaja (Dhulip Singh) cedes, as equivalent for one crore, the hill country belonging to the Punjab between the Beas and the Indus, including Kashmir and Hazara.^ The treaty of Lahore (March 9, 1846) sets forth that, the British Government having demanded, in addition to a certain assignment of territory, a payment of a crore and a half of rupees (12 millions sterling ), and the Sikh government being unable to pay the whole, the maharaja (Dhulip Singh) cedes, as equivalent for one crore, the hill country belonging to the Punjab between the Beas and the Indus, including Kashmir and Hazara.

^ The treaty of Lahore (March 9, 1846) sets forth that, the British Government having demanded, in addition to a certain assignment of territory, a payment of a crore and a half of rupees (1 _ millions sterling), and the Sikh Government being unable topay the whole, the maharaja (Dhalip Singh) cedes, as equivalent for one crore, the hill country belonging to the Punjab between the Bias and the Indus, including Kashmir and Hazara.

^ Kashmir will be a country one day.
  • Azad Kashmir Pictures « ~ Kashmir ~ 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC kashmir.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The governorgeneral, Sir Henry Hardinge, considered it expedient to make over Kashmir to the Jammu chief, securing his friendship while the British government was administering the Punjab on behalf of the young maharaja.^ The governor-general, Sir Henry Hardinge, considered it expedient to make over Kashmir to the Jamu chief, securing his friendship while the British Government was administering the Punjab on behalf of the young maharaja.

^ Kashmir Liberation Cell Government News, articles, and information on atrocities by Indian troops from "Official Website of Government of Azad Jammu & Kashmir".

^ The Northern Areas, Azad Kashmir and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are administered by the federal government but enjoy considerable autonomy.
  • Maps of Pakistan 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC mapup.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gulab Singh was well prepared to make up the payment in default of which Kashmir was ceded to the British; and so, in consideration of his services in restoring peace, his independent sovereignty of the country made over to him was recognized, and he was admitted to a separate treaty.^ Ghulab Singh was well prepared to make up the payment in defect of which Kashmir was ceded to the British; and so, in consideration of his services in restoring peace, his independent sovereignty of the country made over to him was recognized, and he was admitted to a separate treaty.

^ Jammu and Kashmir(J&K * ) State is created under the Treaty of Amritsar between the East India company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu who buys Kashmir Valley from the East India Company for Rs.75,00,000 and adds it to Jammu and Ladakh already under his rule.
  • The J&K conflict: A Chronological Introduction - India Together 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kashmir emerged as one of the flashpoints between the two countries when its "then ruler, Maharaja Hari Singh, refused to accede to either nation, apparently in a bid to preserve Kashmir's independence.
  • Gendercide Watch - case studies: Kashmir/Punjab/The Delhi Massacre 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gulab Singh had already, after several extensions of territory east and west of Jammu, conquered Ladakh (a Buddhist country, and till then subject to Lhasa), and had then annexed Skardo, which was under independent Mahommedan rulers.^ Gulab Singh was a ruthless ruler.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ghulab Singh had already, after several extensions of territory east and west of Jamu, conquered Ladak (a Buddhist country, and till then subject to Lassa), and had then annexed Iskardo, which was under independent Mohammedan rulers.

^ Jammu and Kashmir(J&K * ) State is created under the Treaty of Amritsar between the East India company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu who buys Kashmir Valley from the East India Company for Rs.75,00,000 and adds it to Jammu and Ladakh already under his rule.
  • The J&K conflict: A Chronological Introduction - India Together 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He had thus by degrees half encircled Kashmir, and by this last addition his possessions attained nearly their present form and extent.^ He had thus by degrees half encircled Kashmir, and by this last addition his possessions attained nearly their present form and extent.

^ "Kashmir" for nearly one and a half decades has become a Scapegoat for both India & Pakistan.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . flashPOINT . Kashmir - A Troubled Paradise . PBS 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was due to the untiring efforts of Maharaja Gulab Singh Ji ( the founder of Dogra Hindu dynasty in Kashmir) that the State took its present shape and form in the 2nd half of the 19th century.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gulab Singh died in 1857, and was succeeded by his son, Ranbir Singh, who died in 1885. The next ruler, Maharaja Partab Singh, G.C.S.I. (b.^ Ghulab Singh died in 1857, and was succeeded by his son, Ranbir Singh.

^ He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gulab Singh was a ruthless ruler.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

1850), immediately on his accession inaugurated the settlement reforms already described. .His rule was remarkable for the reassertion of the Kashmir sovereignty over Gilgit (q.v.^ His rule was remarkable for the reassertion of the Kashmir sovereignty over Gilgit (q.v.

^ Inspite of all this the Karkota rule on the whole has been considered as the glorious and remarkable periods of ancient Kashmir.
  • An Outline of the History of Kashmir 15 September 2009 17:31 UTC www.koausa.org [Source type: Original source]

). Kashmir imperial service troops participated in the Black Mountain expedition of 1891, the Hunza Nagar operations of 1891, and the Tirah campaign of 1897-1898. The total revenue of the state is about f666,000.
.See Drew, Jammu and Kashmir (1875); M. A. Stein, Kalhana's Rajatarangini (1900); W.R. Lawrence, The Valley of Kashmir (1895) Colonel A. Durand, The Making of a Frontier (1899); R. Lydekker, "The Geology of the Kashmir and Chamba Territories," Records of the Geological Survey of India, vol.^ See Drew, Jammu and Kashmir (1875); M. A. Stein, Kalhana's Rajatarangini (1900); W.R. Lawrence, The Valley of Kashmir (1895) Colonel A. Durand , The Making of a Frontier (1899); R. Lydekker, "The Geology of the Kashmir and Chamba Territories," Records of the Geological Survey of India, vol.

^ The internal situation of Jammu and Kashmir is, by the will of its people, strictly Indias affair and there is no call for any international intervention.
  • A COMPREHENSIVE NOTE ON JAMMU & KASHMIR 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.asiapeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Indian area is divided into the following divisions: Ladakh, Jammu and the Kashmir Valley.
  • Kashmir Matters by Moin Ansari 15 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]

xxii. .(1883); J. Duke, Kashmir Handbook (1903).^ J. Duke, Kashmir Handbook (1903).

(T. H. H.*)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Kashmir
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  1. A region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, between India, Pakistan and China.

Translations


Simple English

Kashmir (Urdu: کشمیر, Kashmiri: کٔشِیر), also known as Cashmere, is a region in Central Asia. The term Kashmir historically was described as the valley just to the south of the western end of the Himalayan mountain range. Today, Kashmir refers to a much larger area that includes the regions of Kashmir Valley, Jammu region and Ladakh. The main "Valley of Kashmir" is a low fertile area surrounded by mountains and fed by many rivers. People like it for its natural beauty and simple lifestyle. Kashmir is also a Disputed Territory. Pakistan, India and China hold parts of this region.

Contents

Economy

Agriculture

The economy of the region is focused on agriculture. People grow rice there. In the Indian part they also grow corn, such as wheat and barley. Its climate is different from that of most of the Indian subcontinent: It is milder. Therefore, crops like artichoke, cauliflower, cabbage and certain kinds of beans are also grown.

Cashmere wool is well-known almost anywhere in the world. Cashmere wool is wool from Cashmere goats. Because of conflicts over the territory however, most Cashmere wool no longer comes from Kashmir.

Kashmir is home to the finest saffron in the world.

Tourism

, the 9th highest peak in the world and one of the most dangerous for climbers, is in the Northern Areas of the Kashmir Region, in Pakistan.]] Tourism has been important in Kashmir for many years. Many people call the region Paradise on Earth. Tourists visit Kashmir from all over the world irrespective of nationality and religion. In spite of a drop in footfalls due to terrorism in the last decade, Kashmir still remains one of the most sought after tourist destinations.

State symbols of the disputed territory of Kashmir
State animal Kashmir Stag
State bird Black-necked Crane
State tree Chinar tree
State flower Rhododendron
State sport Polo

The Kashmir conflict

What is known as the Kashmir conflict has existed since India and Pakistan became independent states. On October 20, 1947, tribesmen backed by Pakistan invaded Kashmir. The Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir initially fought back but on 27 October appealed for assistance to the Governor-General Louis Mountbatten, who agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. Once the papers of accession to India were signed, Indian soldiers entered Kashmir with orders to stop any further occupation, but they were not allowed to expel anyone from the state. India took the matter to the United Nations. The UN resolution asked Pakistan to vacate the areas it has occupied and asked India to assist the U.N. Plebiscite Commission to organize a plebiscite to determine the will of the people. Pakistan refused to vacate the occupied areas.

Today Kashmir is split, as follows:

Lines of conflict

India and Pakistan have fought several wars over Kashmir. In 1949 and 1972 they agreed on a border for most of the Territories (except for the Siachen Glacier). This demarcation line which marks the border between India and Pakistan is known as Line of Control. It is guarded by Indian and Pakistani troops.

The border between Aksai Chin, held by China, and Jammu and Kashmir, held by India is known as Line of Actual Control.

Water dispute

Another reason behind the dispute over Kashmir is water. Many rivers start in Kashmir. Some of them are tributaries of the Indus River basin, such as the Jhelum and Chenab River. These flow into Pakistan. Other rivers like the Ravi, Beas River and the Sutlej irrigate northern India. Pakistan has been apprehensive that in a dire need India under whose portion of Kashmir lies the origins and passage of the said rivers, would use its strategic advantage and withhold the flow and thus choke the agrarian economy of Pakistan.

One of the origins of the conflict is that with the Boundary Award of 1947, many of the Pakistani irrigation systems can be controlled from India, because some of them are now located in Indian territory. The Indus Waters Treaty signed in 1960 resolved most of these disputes over the sharing of water. It called both parties to co-operate in this regard. The treaty faced issues because India has since constructed dams which limit the water flow to the Pakistani side.

Map issues

As with other disputed territories, each government issues maps depicting their claims in Kashmir as part of their territory, regardless of actual control. It is illegal in India to exclude all or part of Kashmir in a map. It is also illegal in Pakistan not to include the state of Jammu and Kashmir as disputed territory, as permitted by the U.N. Non-participants often use the Line of Control and the Line of Actual Control as the depicted boundaries, as is done in the CIA World Factbook, and the region is often marked out in hashmarks, although the Indian government strictly opposes such practices. When Microsoft released a map in Windows 95 and MapPoint 2002, a controversy was raised because it did not show all of Kashmir as part of India as per Indian claim. However, all the neutral and Pakistani companies claim to follow UN's map and over 90% of all maps containing the territory of Kashmir show it as disputed territory.[1]

International responses

UN: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on the map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control of Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by the Republic of India and the Government of Pakistan since 1972. Both the parties have not yet agreed upon the final status of the region and nothing significant has been implemented since the peace process began in 2004. See UN map of Jammu and Kashmir, accepted by most countries of the world

Islamabad: The Government of Pakistan maintains un-provisionally and unconditionally stating that the informal "Accession of Jammu and Kashmir" to Pakistan or even to the Republic of India remains to be decided by UN plebiscite. It accepts UN's map of the territory.

London: Also the designations and the presentation of the Kashmir's regional map based on UNO practice, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Commonwealth Secretariat or the publishers concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. There is no intention to define the status Jammu and/or Kashmir, which has not yet been agreed upon by the parties.

New Delhi: The Government of India states that "the external artificial boundaries of India, especially concerning the Kashmir region under its jurisdiction created by a foreign body are neither correct nor authenticated".

Beijing: The Communist government of the People's Republic Of China maintains it control over what is known as the Chinese Kashmir, claimed and disputed by India, it is however recognized by Pakistan as part of China as per their claim, stating that the Line of Actual Control is not demarcated or boundary undefined.

Other pages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Kashmir, which are similar to those in the above article.








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