|कॉशुर كأشُر kạ̄šur|
|Spoken in||Jammu and Kashmir (India)|
|Region||northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent|
|Total speakers||4.6 million|
|Writing system||Perso-Arabic script
Devanagari script (contemporary),
Sharada script (ancient/liturgical)
|Official language in||India |
|Regulated by||No official regulation|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.|
Kashmiri (कॉशुर, كأشُر Koshur) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan group of languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley, in the Indian Administered part of Jammu and Kashmir. There are approximately 5,554,496 speakers in India, according to the Census of 2001. Most of the 105,000 speakers or so in Pakistan are émigrés from the Kashmir Valley after the partition of India. They include only a few speakers residing in border villages in Neelum District as well as individuals who settled in the towns in the plains of West Punjab after the partition.
The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India,[9 ] and is a part of the Sixth Schedule in the constitution of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Along with other regional languages mentioned in the Sixth Schedule, as well as Hindi and Urdu, the Kashmiri language is to be developed in the state. Some Kashmiri speakers frequently use Hindi or English as a second language. Since November 2008, the Kashmiri language has been made a compulsory subject in all schools in the Valley up to the secondary level.
In 1919 George Abraham Grierson wrote that “Kashmiri is the only one of the Dardic languages that has a literature”. Kashmiri literature dates back to over 750 years, this is, more-or-less, the age of many a modern literature including modern English.
There are three orthographical systems used to write the Kashmiri language—these are the Perso-Arabic script, the Devanagari script, and the Sharada script; additionally, due to internet technology, the Roman script is sometimes used to write Kashmiri, especially online. The Kashmiri language was traditionally written in the Sharada script after the 8th Century A.D. This script however, is not in common use today, except for religious ceremonies of the Kashmiri Pandits. However, today, it is written in the Perso-Arabic (with some modifications) and Devanagari scripts. Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is one of the very few which regularly indicates all vowel sounds. This script has been in vogue since the Muslim conquest in India and has been used by both Muslims and Hindus for centuries, in the Kashmir Valley.[16 ] However, today, the Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script has come to be associated with Kashmiri Muslims, while the Kashmiri Devanagari script, has come to be associated with the Kashmiri Hindu community, who employ the latter script.[16 ]
Kashmiri is rich in Persian words, much as is the case with Urdu. In reference , Shashishekhar Toshkhani, a scholar on Kashmir's heritage, provides a detailed analysis where he shows extensive linguistic relationship between the Sanskrit language and the Kashmiri language, and presents detailed arguments contesting George Grierson's classification of the Kashmiri language as a member of the Dardic sub-group (of the Indo-Aryan group of languages.)
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Population 4,391,000 in Indian-administered Kashmir. Population includes including 4,370,000 Kashmiri, 21,000 Kishtwari (1997). Population total all countries: 4,611,000.
Alternate names Keshur, Kaschemiri, Cashmiri, Cashmeeree, Kacmiri
Dialects Bakawali, Bunjwali, Standard Kashmiri, Kishtwari (Kashtawari, Kistwali, Kashtwari, Kathiawari), Miraski, Poguli, Rambani, Riasi, Shah-Mansuri, Siraji of Doda, Siraji-Kashmiri, Zayoli, Zirak-Boli. Transitional dialects to Panjabi. Kashtawari dialect is standard, other dialects are influenced by Dogri.
Classification Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kashmiri Language use Official language. 80% in Urdu (85% male, 12% female over 35 years) (Koul and Schmidt). 83% prefer use of Kashmiri as medium in primary school, 48% in middle school (Koul and Schmidt). Some use English or Urdu as a second language.
Language development Literacy rate in first language: 88% male 12% female over 35 years of age (Koul and Schmidt). Literacy rate in second language: Men 36.3%, women 15.9%; rural 21.6%, urban 45.5% (1981 census). Persian-based script. Newspapers. Radio programs. Films. Grammar. Bible: 1899.
Comments Literature can be traced to the 1400s, and poetry is important. Not used in primary education. SVO. Mountain slope, valleys. 1,800 meters. Agriculturalists: rice, wheat, maize; craftsmen: weaving, carpets, carving, furniture, papier-mâché. Muslim.
Pakistan Language name Kashmiri Population 105,000 in Pakistan (1993). Region Azad Jammu and Kashmir, south of Shina. Alternate names Kaschemiri, Kacmiri, Keshuri, Cashmiri, Cashmeeree