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Kata
Iaido2.jpg
Solo training of kata is the primary form of practice in some martial arts, such as iaidō.
Japanese name
Kanji: 1. 型
2. 形
Hiragana: かた

Kata (型 or 形 literally: "form" ?) is a Japanese word describing detailed choreographed patterns of movements practiced either solo or in pairs. Kata are used in many traditional Japanese arts such as theater forms like kabuki and schools of tea ceremony (chadō), but are most commonly known for the presence in the martial arts. Kata are used by most traditional Japanese and Okinawan martial arts, such as aikidō, iaidō, jōdō, jūdō, jūjutsu, kenjutsu, kendō and karatedō. Other arts such as t'ai chi ch'uan and taekwondo feature the same kind of training, but use the respective Chinese and Korean words instead.

Contents

Japanese martial arts

In Japanese martial arts practice, kata is often seen as an essential partner to randori training with one complementing the other. However, the actual type and frequency of kata versus randori training varies from art to art. In iaidō, solo kata using the Japanese sword (katana) comprises almost all of the training. Whereas in judo, kata training is de-emphasized and usually only prepared for dan grading.

In kenjutsu, paired kata at the beginners level can appear to be stilted. At higher levels serious injury is prevented only by a high sensitivity of both participants to important concepts being taught and trained for. These include timing and distance, with the kata practiced at high speed. This adjustability of kata training is found in other Japanese arts with roles of attacker and defender often interchanging within the sequence.

Many martial arts use kata for public demonstrations and in competitions, awarding points for such aspects of technique as style, balance, timing, and verisimilitude (appearance of being real).

2005 junior French karate champ Emmanuelle Fumonde, Sainte-Suzanne (Réunion)

Karate

The most popular image associated with kata is that of a karate practitioner performing a series of punches and kicks in the air. The kata are executed as a specified series of approximately 20 to 70 moves, generally with stepping and turning, while attempting to maintain perfect form. There are perhaps 100 kata across the various forms of karate, each with many minor variations. The number of moves in a kata may be referred to in the name of the kata, e.g., Gojūshiho, which means "54 steps." The number of moves may also have links with Buddhist spirituality. The number 108 is significant in Buddhism, and kata with 54, 36, or 27 moves (divisors of 108) are common. The practitioner is generally counselled to visualize the enemy attacks, and his responses, as actually occurring, and karateka are often told to "read" a kata, to explain the imagined events. The study of the meaning of the movements is referred to as the bunkai, meaning analysis, of the kata.

One explanation of the use of kata is as a reference guide for a set of moves. Not to be used following that "set" pattern but to keep the movements "filed". After learning these kata, this set of learned skills can then be used in a sparring scenario (particularly without points). The main objective here is to try out different combinations of techniques in a safe, practice environment to ultimately find out how to defeat your opponent.

Nathan Johnson claims that most antique karate kata were developed for use with weapons rather than as open hand techniques.[1]

Also, in kata, the blocking movements are often performed while moving forward, which wouldn't be practical during the 'Bunkai'. These blocking movements would be performed during a Tai sabaki (体捌き), stepping-back action, where the opponent's attack would be avoided and the block would be a mere cover. These kata were performed in this backward/incorrect way as it left the true intentions of the movements elusive to spying onlookers. The true kata can be performed by advanced students who have a good feel for taisabaki and the dynamics of evasion.

Koshiki-no-kata by Kano(l) and Yamashita(r)

Judo

Judo has several kata, mostly created in the late 19th century by Kano Jigoro, the founder of judo. The judo kata involve two participants. Judo kata preserve a number of techniques that are not permitted in competition or in randori, including punches, kicks, and the use of the katana and other weapons. The study of kata is usually begun typically at around the green belt level. The most commonly studied judo kata is Nage-no-kata, which consists of fifteen throwing techniques. The Katame-no-kata is composed of pinning techniques, chokes, and joint locks. Kime-no-kata is a long kata consisting of self-defense techniques against both unarmed attacks, and attacks with swords and knives.

Aka with stick (4 Winds)

Non-Japanese martial arts

In Burmese martial arts, there are many akas. Bando practitioners (Bandoist) need to understand various types of body structure first. There are nine "Bando basic forms" in the Bando system (Hanthawaddy bando system) and 9 animal forms.

A defensive form in the "point-form" (bando)

In Korean martial arts such as taekwondo and tangsudo, the Korean word hyung is usually employed, though in some cases other words are used. The International Taekwondo Federation uses the Korean word tul, while the World Taekwondo Federation uses the word poomsae or simply the English translations "pattern" or "form." Aside from the first two patterns taught to white belts, these patterns are known as "Taeguks" for patterns below black belt and range from one to eight. They are the basis for certain taekwondo competitions, based on the quality of the subject's pattern execution, and are a key element of gradings.

In Vietnamese martial arts, e.g., vovinam viet vo dao the Vietnamese word quyen is used.

In Chinese martial arts, forms are known as taolu. Modern forms are used in wushu competitions.

In Indonesian martial arts, mainly Silat and Pencak Silat, forms with the upper body are knows as djurus, forms with the lower body are known as langkah, and forms with the whole body are known as dasar pasang.

Outside of martial arts

Kata also has application in many aspects of life. A kata can refer to any basic form, routine, or pattern of behavior.[2] In Japanese language, kata is a frequently-used word meaning “way of doing things,” with emphasis on the form and order of the process. Other meanings are “training method” and “formal exercise.” The goal of a painter’s practicing, for example, is to merge his consciousness with his brush; the potter’s with his clay; the garden designer’s with the materials of the garden. Once such mastery is achieved, the theory goes, the doing of a thing perfectly is as easy as thinking it.[3]

One of the things that characterizes an organization’s culture is its kata - its patterns of thinking and practice - and understanding organization culture, and how to change it, is an important skill for leaders. Edgar Schein suggests an organization's culture helps it cope with its environment[4], while one meaning of kata is a way to "keep two things in sync or harmony with one another." A task for leaders and managers striving to achieve desired outcomes is to create and maintain the organizational culture through role modeling, teaching, and coaching. This is in many ways analogous to how martial-arts kata are taught.

References

  1. ^ Johnson, Nathan (2006). The Great Karate Myth. The Wykeham Press. ISBN 0954960939.  
  2. ^ Shook, John. Managing to Learn. Lean Enterprise Institute, 2008, p. 32
  3. ^ DeMenthe, Boye Lafayette. Kata, The Key to Understanding and Dealing with the Japanese! Tuttle Publishing, 2003, pp. 1-3
  4. ^ Schein, Edgar. Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View. Jossey-Bass, 1985, p. 57

External links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Kata Yai Beach article)

From Wikitravel

Kata Yai Beach (หาดกะตะใหญ่ Hat Kata Yai) is on the west coast of Phuket, south of Karon Beach and north of Kata Noi Beach. It is sometimes called simply Kata Beach (หาดกะตะ Hat Kata).

Understand

Situated 20 kilometres from town, beautiful Kata is a scenic gem, its clear water flanked by hills, and picturesque Pu Island sits offshore. Kata retains a village feel at its northern and southern ends and is perhaps more family-oriented, its one-kilometer long beach more peaceful than Patong.

The main road runs from Kata center at the end near Karon Beach all the way to Kata Noi Beach. In Kata center you can find many shops that sell tourist gifts. These shops can be grouped into Gift, Suit, Music and Massage. Restaurants are well priced and food is good. Bars start further on down the road towards Kata beach.

There are more hotels than meet the eye and walking around for a couple of days you will find even more guest houses. This does not mean that Kata is packed with tall hotels.

Kata beach has safe swimming and does not have any dropoffs. It is safe for children and non-swimmers. But always take notice of the flags that fly, they will let you know if it is not safe to swim. There is a coral reef on the right hand side of the beach that goes out to Poo (crab) Island. Sitting on the beach and looking right you may see local fishermen on the rocks trying to catch their supper.

There are some great waves for simply body surfing on.. lot's of fun..

Get around

Taxi and Tuk Tuk cost around the same price.

See

The local market which is on Thursdays just off the main Kata road. Here you will find the locals buying their fish and spices. A very interesting place for the first time traveler to Thailand. Beware the shrimp paste. At one end of the market near the main road to Chalong you might just see an old man shelling coconuts with a very old, and dangerous looking machine.

Try and find the sauna in the jungle. It has an old copper water boiler that looks like a kettle, there is a cafe there and a plunge pool. They put tree bark in the water to make the steam smell like menthol sometimes. The sauna can be found on the right, about 10 minutes walk at the south end of Kata along the road that takes you to Chalong Bay.

  • Diving and Snorkeling There is a great shallow snorkeling and diving location on the North side of the bay. Information and equipment is available from Phuket-Diver. They also provide SNUBA diving, which lets people try diving without much time or expense and it is reportedly safer than scuba diving.
  • Fantastic surfing. In the rainy season.
  • Ratri Jazztaurant Kata Hill, (0 76333538-9) www.ratrijazztaurant.com
  • Cafe del Sol, patak road 9/11-13 soi 10 kata, 076333102, [1]. A wonderful restaurant with an excellent breakfast served by friendly staff in a truly lovely open-air restaurant. Superb menu items include; fresh Italian spaghetti and pizza, Thai food – seafood and ice cream. Enjoy a relaxing cocktail in our lounge cocktail bar. (7.8291690130093015,98.30257415771484) edit

Drink

There are many bars along the road from Kata centre to Kata Noi. No doubt you will hear the words "Hello Welcome" in most of them as you walk by.

  • Alpina Phuket Nalina Resort & Spa, Kata Beach (อัลพีน่า ภูเก็ต นาลีนา รีสอร์ท แอนด์ สปา)

7/1 Ket Khwan Road,Karon,Phuket 83000, (Tel: 0 76370999 Fax: 0 76370900 www.phuketnalinal.com), 140 rooms: 3,700-25,000 baht

  • Andaman Cannacia Resort & Spa (อันดามัน คาเนเซีย รีสอร์ท แอนด์ สปา) 113/16-18 Patak Road, Tambon Karon (Tel: 0 7628 4211-4 www.phuket-cannacia.com), 113 rooms: 2,500-6,000 baht
  • Bell Bungalow 1/2 Patak Road (Tel: 0 7633 0858, 0 7633 0111),16 rooms: 100-300 baht
  • Boat House Inn (โบ๊ตเฮาส์อินน์) 2/2 Patak Road (Tel: 0 7633 0015-7, Fax: 0 7633 0561, Bangkok Tel: 0 22464121 www.boathousephuket.com), 36 rooms: 8,000-15,000 baht
  • Bougain Villaea Terrace House (โบแกน วิลเลีย เทอเรส เฮาส์) 117/1 Patak Road (Tel: 0 7633 0087, 0 7633 0139-40, Fax: 0 7633 0463), 35 rooms: 1,750-4,200 baht
  • Club Med Phuket.
  • Kata Palm Resort, just off the main road. Has two large swimming pools. There are rooms in the new section that have steps into the pool, very nice !
  • Kata beach hotel is right on the beach.
  • Peach Hill Hotel, 13 Karon Road, Kata Beach, [2], on a small hill between Karon and Kata Yai beaches, 400 metres from Kata Yai beach.
  • Boomerang Village Cottages Kata Beah, patak road 9/11-13 soi 10 Kata 83100, 076284480, [3]. checkin: 13.00; checkout: 12.00. Located in the suggestive surroundings of Kata Beach, Phuket, the Boomerang Village Cottages hotel offers a warm welcoming as well as an attentive service to all its guests, so as to make them enjoy a holiday full of emotions and experience unforgettable sights. Externally similar to mountain chalets, the newly built cottages are furnished in Thai style, offering a very congenial and relaxing ambience. The property boasts panoramic views of Kata Beach and is located approximately 80 metres above sea level,the beach is about 750/800 mt. away (10 minutes),being virtually dipped in the nature of a tropical garden. 1,380-3,220 bath. (7.8291690130093015,98.30257415771484) edit
  • Boomerang Village Cottages, patak road 9/11-13 soi 10 kata 83100 (patak road), 076284480, [4]. checkin: 13.00; checkout: 12.00. Located in the suggestive surroundings of Kata Beach, Phuket, the Boomerang Village Cottages hotel offers a warm welcoming as well as an attentive service to all its guests, so as to make them enjoy a holiday full of emotions and experience unforgettable sights. Externally similar to mountain chalets, the newly built cottages are furnished in Thai style, offering a very congenial and relaxing ambience. The property boasts panoramic views of Kata Beach and is located approximately 80 metres above sea level,the beach is about 750/800 mt. away (10 minutes),being virtually dipped in the nature of a tropical garden. 1,380-3,220 baht. (7.8291690130093015,98.30257415771484) edit
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also kata

Contents

Croatian

Etymology

Shortened form of Katarina.

Proper noun

Káta f.

  1. A female given name

Finnish

Proper noun

Kata

  1. A female given name, a rare short form of Katariina.

Declension


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|300px|A student doing kata with a stick known as a bo]] Kata (型, 形 means: "the form") is a Japanese word which is used in some martial arts and theatre (as kabuki). In karate, this word describes a simulation of combat—the sequence of movements—which is given in detail and is trained individually or in group. Before learning it, the martial artist has to try the training of basic technique called kihon.

Such simulation represents a sequence of movements, the attack and the defence in an imagined combat. Every attack must be made as if there were an opponent in front of the karateka (the karate fighter) in order to reach him, and every defence must be made as if the opponent attacked in a real situation of danger. Every movement has an interpretation. The karateka has to show the consideration for its timing and ability to use it.

The goal of the kata is help in the development of the qualities and the abilities both psychological and of the body. These abilities are necessary for the real combat.


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