Katipunan: Wikis


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Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan[1]

Flag of the Katipunan in 1897
Abbreviation K.K.K.
Motto See the Kartilya ng Katipunan
Formation July 7, 1892 (1892-07-07) (117 years ago)
Extinction May 10, 1897
Type Secret militant society
Legal status Defunct
Purpose/focus See Katipunan aims
Membership Masonic
Official languages Tagalog, regional languages
President Deodato Arellano (1892-1893)
Ramon Basa (1893-1895)
Andrés Bonifacio (1895-1897)
Main organ Kalayaan (dated January 1896, published March 1896)

The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, which aimed primarily to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night of July 7, when Filipino writer José Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan. Initially, Katipunan was a secret organization until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of Philippine Revolution.

The word "katipunan", literally means association, comes from the root word "tipon", an indigenous Tagalog word, meaning "society" or "gather together".[2] Its official revolutionary name is Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan[1] (English: High and Honorable Society of the Children of the Nation, Spanish: Suprema y Venerable Asociación de los Hijos del Pueblo). Katipunan is also known by its acronym, K.K.K..

Being a secret organization, its members are subjected to utmost secrecy and are expected to abide with the rules established by the society.[2] Aspirant applicants were given standard initiation rites to become members of the society. At first, Katipunan was only open for male Filipinos; later, women were accepted in the society. The Katipunan had its own publication, Kalayaan (Liberty) that had its first and last print on March 1896. Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society, and Philippine literature were expanded by its some prominent members.

In planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted Rizal for its full-pledged support for the Katipunan in exchange of promising Rizal's liberty from detainment by rescuing him. On May 1896, a delegation was sent to the Emperor of Japan to solicit funds and military arms. Katipunan's existence was revealed to the Spanish authorities after a member named Teodoro Patiño confessed Katipunan's illegal activities to his sister, and finally to the mother portress of Mandaluyong Orphanage. Seven days after the Spanish authorities learned the existence of such secret society, on August 26, 1896, Bonifacio and his men tore their cedúlas during the infamous Cry of Balintawak that started the Philippine Revolution.



Influence of the Propaganda Movement

A late 19th century photograph of leaders of the Propaganda Movement: José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce.

The Katipunan and the Cuerpo de Compromisarios were, effectively, successor organizations of La Liga Filipina, founded by José Rizal, as part of the late 19th century Propaganda Movement in the Philippines. Katipunan founders Andrés Bonifacio, Ladislao Diwa, and Teodoro Plata were all members of La Liga and were influenced by the nationalistic ideals of the Propaganda Movement in Spain.[3]

Marcelo H. del Pilar, another leader of the Propaganda Movement in Spain, also influenced the formation of the Katipunan. Modern-day historians believe that he had a direct hand in its organization because of his role in the Propaganda Movement and his eminent position in Philippine Masonry. Most of the founders of the Katipunan were freemasons. The Katipunan had initiation ceremonies that were copied from masonic rites. It also had an order of rank, similar to that of freemasonry. Rizal's Spanish biographer Wenceslao Retaña and Filipino biographer Juan Raymundo Lumawag saw the formation of the Katipunan as Del Pilar's victory over Rizal: "La Liga dies, and the Katipunan rises in its place. Del Pilar's plan wins over that of Rizal. Del Pilar and Rizal had the same end, even if each took a different road to it."

Founding of the Katipunan

Captured Katipunan members (also known as Katipuneros), who were also members of La Liga, revealed to the Spanish colonial authorities that there was a difference of opinion among members of La Liga. One group insisted on La Liga's principle of a peaceful reformation while the other espoused armed revolution.

An Early flag of the Katipunan.

On the night of July 7, 1892, when Rizal was banished and exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao, Andrés Bonifacio, a member of the La Liga Filipina, founded the Katipunan in a house in Tondo, Manila.[4] Bonifacio did established the Katipunan when it was become apparent to anti-Spanish Filipinos that societies like the La Liga Filipina would be suppressed by colonial authorities.[5] He was assisted by his two friends, Teodoro Plata (brother-in-law) and Ladislao Diwa, plus Valentín Díaz and Deodato Arellano.[6] The Katipunan was founded along Azcarraga St. (now Claro M. Recto Avenue) near Elcano St. in Tondo, Manila.[7] Despite their reservations about the peaceable reformation that Rizal espoused, they named Rizal honorary president without his knowledge. The Katipunan, established as a secret brotherhood organization, went under the name Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan (Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation)[8]

The Katipunan had three aims, namely:

  • to unite Filipinos into one solid nation;
  • to win Philippine independence by means of an armed conflict (or revolution);[9]
  • to establish a communist republic after independence.[10]

The rise of the Katipunan signalized the end of the crusade to secure reforms from Spain by means of a peaceful campaign. The Propaganda Movement led by Rizal, del Pilar, Jaena and others had failed its mission; hence, Bonifacio started the militant movement for independence.


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The Katipunan was governed by the Supreme Council (Tagalog: Kataastaasang Sanggunian).[11] The first Supreme Council of the Katipunan was formed around August 1892, a month followed after the founding of the society. The Supreme Council was headed by an elected president (Pangulo), followed by the secretary/secretaries (Kalihim); the treasurer (Tagaingat-yaman) and the fiscal (Tagausig).[12] The Supreme Council also had its councilors (Kasanguni); the number varied through presidencies.[12] To distinguish from presidents of lower sanggunian or councils (below) the president of the Supreme Council was called the Supreme President (Tagalog: Kataastaasang Pangulo; Spanish: Presidente Supremo). Initially, the Supreme Council was headed by Deodato Arellano, and the following as officials:[13]

In February 1893, the Supreme Council was reorganized, with Ramon Basa as Supreme President and Bonifacio as the fiscal. In January 1895, Bonifacio assumed the Supreme Presidency of the Katipunan. At the outbreak of the 1896 revolution, the Council was further reorganized into a 'cabinet' which the Katipunan regarded as a genuine revolutionary government, de-facto and de-jure.[14]

  • Andrés Bonifacio, President
  • Emilio Jacinto, Secretary of State
  • Teodoro Plata, Secretary of War
  • Briccio Pantas, Secretary of Justice
  • Aguedo del Rosario, Secretary of the Interior
  • Enrique Pacheco, Secretary of Finance
  • Marina Dizon, head of women's division

In each province where there were Katipunan members, a provincial council called Sangguniang Bayan was established and in each town was an organized popular council called Sangguniang Balangay. Each Bayan and Balangay had its own set of elected officials: Pangulo (president); Kalihim (secretary); Tagausig (fiscal); Tagaingat-yaman (treasurer); Pangalawang Pangulo (vice president); Pangalawang Kalihim (vice secretary); mga kasanguni (councilors); Mabalasig (terrible brother); Taliba (guard); Maniningil (collector/auditor); Tagapamahala ng Basahan ng Bayan(custodian of the People’s Library); Tagapangasiwa (administrator); Manunulat (clerk); Tagatulong sa Pagsulat (assistant clerk); Tagalaan (warden); and Tagalibot (patroller).[12] Each Balangay were given a chance to expand their own spheres of influence, through triangle system in order to elevate their status to Sangguniang Bayan.[12] Every Balangay that did not gain Sanggunian Bayan status were dissolved and annexed by greater provincial or popular councils.[12]

The towns which supported the Katipunan cause were given symbolic names, such as Magdiwang (To celebrate) for Noveleta; Magdalo (To come) for Kawit; Magwagi (To win) for Naic; Magtagumpay (To succeed) for Maragondon; Walangtinag (Never-diminished) for Indang and Haligue (Aggregate) for Imus–all are in the province of Cavite.[15]

Within the society functioned a secret chamber, which was presided over by Bonifacio, Jacinto, and Dr. Pío Valenzuela. This mysterious chamber passed judgment upon those who had turned traitors to their oath and those accused of certain offenses penalized by Katipunan laws. Every katipunero stood in a fearful awe of this chamber. According to Jose P. Santos, throughout the existence of the secret chamber, about five katipuneros were convicted and sentenced to die be by the chamber. The death sentence was handed down in the figure of a cup with a serpent coiled around it.[16]

History of administration

In 1892, after the Katipunan was founded, the members of the Supreme Council consisted of Arellano as president, Bonifacio as comptroller, Diwa as fiscal, Plata as secretary and Díaz as treasurer.[17]

In 1893, the Supreme Council comprised Ramon Basa as president, Bonifacio as fiscal, José Turiano Santiago as secretary, Vicente Molina as treasurer and Restituto Javier, Briccio Pantas, Teodoro Gonzales. Teodoro Gonzalez, Plata and Diwa were councilors.[17] It was during Basa's term that the society organized a women's auxiliary section. Two of its initial members were Gregoria de Jesus, whom Bonifacio had just married, and Marina Dizon, daughter of José Dizon. It was also in 1893 when Basa and Diwa organized the provincial council of Cavite, which would later be the most successful council of the society.

The Filipino scholar Maximo Kalaw reports that Basa yielded the presidency to Bonifacio in 1894 because of a dispute over the usefulness of the initiation rites and Bonifacio's handling of the society's funds. Basa contested Bonifacio's practice of lending their funds to needy members, complete with promissory notes.[18] Moreover, Basa refused to induct his son into the organization.

It was also in 1894 when Emilio Jacinto, a nephew of Dizon who was studying law at the University of Santo Tomas, joined the Katipunan. He intellectualized the society's aims and formulated the principles of the society as embodied in its primer, called Kartilla. It was written in Tagalog and all recruits were required to commit it to heart before they were initiated. Jacinto would later be called the Brains of the Katipunan.

At the same time, Jacinto also edited Kalayaan (Freedom), the society's official organ, but only one edition of the paper was issued; a second was prepared but never printed due to the discovery of the society. Kalayaan was published through the printing press of the Spanish newspaper Diario de Manila. This printing press and its workers would later play an important role in the outbreak of the revolution.

In 1895, José Turiano Santiago, a close personal friend of Bonifacio, was expelled because a coded message of the Katipunan fell into the hands of a Spanish priest teaching at the University of Santo Tomas. Since the priest was a friend of Santiago's sister, he and his half-brother Restituto Javier were suspected of betrayal, but the two would remain loyal to the Katipunan and Santiago would even join the Philippine revolutionary forces in the Philippine-American War. Jacinto replaced Santiago as secretary.

A Katipunan officer's sword.

In early 1895, Bonifacio called a meeting of the society and deposed Basa in an election that installed Bonifacio as president, Jacinto as Fiscal, Santiago as secretary, Molina as secretary, Pío Valenzuela and Pantaleon Torres as physicians, and Aguedo del Rosario and Doreteo Trinidad as councilors.[19]

On December 31, 1895, another election named Bonafacio as president, Jacinto as Fiscal, Santiago as secretary, Molina as secretary, Pío Valenzuela and Pantaleon Torres as physicians, and Aguedo del Rosario and Doreteo Trinidad as councilors.[20]

The members of the Supreme Council in 1895 were Bonifacio as president, Valenzuela as fiscal and physician, Jacinto as secretary, and Molina as treasurer. Enrico Pacheco, Pantaleon Torres, Balbino Florentino, Francisco Carreon and Hermenegildo Reyes were named councilers.[20]

Eight months later, in August 1896, the fifth and last supreme council was elected to renamed offices. Bonifacio was named Supremo, Jacinto Sectretary of State, Plata Secretary of War, Bricco Pantas Secretary of Justice, Aguedo del Rosario Secretary of Interior and Enrice Pacheco Secretary of Finance.[20]


A late 19th century photograph of armed Filipino rebels, known as the Katipuneros.

Over the next four years, the Katipunan founders would recruit new members. By the time the society was uncovered, the American writer James Le Roy estimated the strength of the Katipunan at 100,000 to 400,000 members. Historian Teodoro Agoncillo estimated that the membership had increased to around 30,000 by 1896.[21] The Ilocano writer Isabelo de los Reyes estimated membership at 15,000 to 50,000.

Aside from Manila, the Katipunan also had sizeable chapters in Batangas, Laguna, Cavite, Rizal, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija. There were also smaller chapters in Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan and the Bicol region. The Katipunan founders spent their free time recruiting members. For example, Diwa, who was a clerk at a judicial court, was assigned to the office of a justice of the peace in Pampanga. He initiated members in that province as well as Bulacan, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija. Most of the Katipuneros were plebeian although several wealthy patriots joined the society and submitted themselves to the leadership of Bonifacio.

Katipunero (plural, mga Katipunero) is the demonym of a male member of the Katipunan. Katipunera (plural, mga Katipunera) refers to female members.

Triangle system and grades

It was the original plan of Bonifacio to increase the membership of the Katipunan by means of sistemang patatsulok or triangle system. He formed his first triangle with his two comrades, Teodoro Plata and Ladislao Diwa. Each of them re-instituted Katipunan thoughts into another two new converts. The founder of the triangle knew the other two members, but the latter did not know each other. On December 1892 the system was abolished after proving it to be clumsy and complicated.[22] A new system of initiation, modelled after the Masonic rites was then adopted.[23]

When the Katipunan had expanded to more than a hundred members, Bonifacio divided the members into three grades: the Katipon (literally: Associate) which is the lowest rank, the Kawal (soldier), and the Bayani (Hero or Patriot). In the meeting of the society, Katipon wore a black hood with a triangle of white ribbon having the letters "Z. Ll. B.", corresponding to the roman "A. ng̃ B.", meaning Anak ng̃ Bayan (Son of the People, see below). Kawal wore a green hood with a triangle having white lines and the letters "Z. LL. B." at the three angles of the triangle, and also wore a green ribbon with a medal with the letter Baybayin Ka.svg (ka) in Baybayin script above a depiction of a crossed sword and flag. The password was Gom-Bur-Za, taken from the names of the three martyrs Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora. Bayani (Hero) wore a red mask and a sash with green borders, symbolizing courage and hope. The front of the mask had white borders that formed a triangle with three Ks arranged as if occupying the angles of a triangle within a triangle, and with the letters "Z. Ll. B." below. Another password was Rizal. Countersigns enabled members to recognize one another on the street. A member meeting another member placed the palm of his right hand on his breast and, as he passed the other member, he closed the hands to bring the right index finger and thumb together.[24]

Color designations:

  •       Katipon. First degree members. Other symbols: Black hood, revolver and/or bolo.
  •       Kawal. Second degree members. Other symbols: green ribboned-medallion with Malayan K inscription.
  •             Bayani. Third degree members. Other symbols: Red hood and sash, with green borders.

Katipun could graduate to Kawal class by bringing several new members into the society. A Kawal could become a Bayani upon being elected an officer of the society.[25]


Any person who wished to join the Katipunan was subjected to certain initiation rites, resembling those of Masonic rites, to test his courage, patriotism, and loyalty.[26] New recruits underwent the initiation rite three at a time so that no member knew more than two other members of the society. The neophyte was first blindfolded and then led into a dimly-lighted room with black curtains where his folded cloth was removed from his eyes. An admonition, in Tagalog, was posted at the entrance to the room:

If you have strength and valor, you can proceed!
If what has brought you here is only curiosity–go away!
If you cannot control your passions, retire. Never shall the doors of the Supreme and Venerable Society of the Sons of the People be opened to you.

Inside the candle-lit room, they would be brought to a table adorned with a skull and a bolo. There, they would condemn the abuses of the Spanish government and vow to fight colonial oppression:

  • 1. ¿Ano ang kalagayan nitong Katagalugan nang unang panahun? (In what condition did the Spaniards find the Filipino people when they came?)
(Expected answer) "When the Spaniards came to the Philippine shores on March 16, 1521, the Filipinos were already in a civilized state. They had freedom of government; they had artillery; they had silk dresses; they had carried on commerce with Asia; they had their own religion and their own alphabet. In short, they had liberty and independence."
  • 2. ¿Ano ang kalagayan sa ngayon? (In what condition do they find themselves now?)
(Expected answer) "The friars have not really civilized the Filipinos, since enlightenment was contrary to their interests. The Filipinos were merely superficially taught formulas of Catechism for which they paid numerous costly fiestas for the benefit of the friars."
  • 3. ¿Ano ang magiging kalagayan sa darating na panahun? (What hopes do they have for the future?)
(Expected answer) "With faith, valor, and perseverance, these evils will be remedied."[27]

The next step in the initiation ceremony was the lecture given by the master of ceremonies, called Mabalasig/Mabalasik (terrible brother), who informed the neophyte to withdraw if he lacked courage since he would be out of place in the patriotic society. If the neophyte persisted, he was presented to the assembly of the brethren, who subjected him to various ordeals such as blindfolding him and making him shoot a supposedly a revolver at a person, or forcing him to jump a supposedly hot flame. After the ordeals came to final rite–the pacto de sangre or blood compact–in which the neophyte signed the oath with blood taken from his arm. He was then accepted as a full-pledged member, with a symbolic name by which he was be known within Katipunan circles. Bonifacio's symbolic name was Maypagasa; Jacinto was Pingkian; Emilio Aguinaldo was Magdalo and Artemio Ricarte was Vibora.

Admission of women to the society

Part of the Philippine Revolution
Philippine revolution flag kkk1.svg
Flag of the Katipunan, 1892
Events Various revolts and uprisings
Key organizations Propaganda Movement
La Liga Filipina
Objects Noli me Tangere
El filibusterismo
La Solidaridad
Founders Andrés Bonifacio
Ladislao Diwa
Teodoro Plata
Deodato Arellano
Valentín Díaz
José Dizon
Members Pío Valenzuela
Emilio Jacinto
Artemio Ricarte
Daniel Tirona
José Santiago
Manuel Tinio
Hermenegildo Flores
León Kilat
Arcadio Maxilom


Women-members Gregoria de Jesus
Division Magdalo
Support Melchora Aquino

At first, Katipunan was purely a patriotic society for men. Owing to the growing suspicion of the women regarding nocturnal absences of their husbands, the reduction of their monthly earnings and "long hours of work", Bonifacio had to bring them into the realms of the KKK. A section for women was established in the society: to become admitted, one must be a wife, a daughter, or a sister of a male katipunero. It was estimated that from 20 to 50 women had become members of the society.[28]

The first woman to become member of the Katipunan was Gregoria de Jesus, wife of Bonifacio.[28] She was called the Lakambini ng Katipunan (Princess of the Katipunan).[29] Initially, there were 29 women were admitted to the Katipunan: Gregoria de Jesus, Marina Dizon, president of the women's section; Josefa and Trinidad Rizal, sisters of Dr. José Rizal; Angelica Lopez and Delfina Herbosa Natividad, close relatives of Dr. Rizal; Carmén de Rodriguez; Marina Hizon; Benita Rodriguez; Semiona de Rémigio; Gregoria Montoya; Agueda Kahabagan, the "Joan of Arc of the Philippines"[30]; Teresa Magbanua, the "Joan of Arc of Visayas"[30]; Trinidad Tecson, rendered as "Mother of Biak-na-Bato"[30]; Nazaria Lagos; Patronica Gamboa; Marcela Agoncillo; Melchora Aquino, the "Grand Old Woman of Balintawak"[30]; Marta Saldaña and Macaria Pañgilinan.[31]

The women rendered valuable services to the Katipunan.[32] They guarded the secret papers and documents of the society. Whenever the Katipunan held sessions in a certain house, they usually made merry, singing and dancing with some of the men in the living room so that the civil guard were led that there was nothing but a harmless social party within.[28]

Though women are considered to be members of the Katipunan, information regarding the women's section were scarce and sometimes conflicting.[12] Teodoro Agoncillo, for example, disregarded Marina Dizon and concluded that Josefa Rizal was the only president of the said section.[33] Gregorio Zaide, on the other hand, mentioned Dizon's presidency in his 1939 publication History of the Katipunan[34] but changed his mind when he adopted Dr. Pío Valenzuela's notion that women-members did not elect officers, hence there is no room for president.[35]

Notable Katipuneros


  • Melchora Aquino (1812-1919) - also known as Tandang Sora (Old Sora) and nicknamed as the Grand Woman of the revolution as well as Mother of Balintawak, she has been notable for her heroic contribution to wounded and ailing Katipuneros during revolution.

Literature of the society

Written works

During Katipunan's existence, literature flourished through prominent writers of the Katipunan: Andrés Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto and Dr. Pío Valenzuela. Each of the three's works were stirring literature of patriotism and are aimed to spread the revolutionary thoughts and ideals of the society.[36]

  • Bonifacio works. Probably one of the best works done inside the Katipunan was written by Andrés Bonifacio, the Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa (Love of Fatherland),[37] a poem of sincere patriotic sentiment. Pag-ibig was published in the Kalayaan only issue of January 1896 under his nom-de-plume Agapito Bagumbayan. According to Manuel Artigas y Cuerva, the name Agapito Bagumbayan was a corruption of combination agap-ito, bagum-bayan, which, if translated from Tagalog to English word by word, means "the new nation is here, and ready".[38][39] There is no known original source of Pag-ibig, especially that there is no surviving Kalayaan issue. The two available texts accessible reprinted through books is the one published by Jose P. Santos in 1935. The other one, with familiar discrepancies to Santos' print, was archived in military annals of Madrid.[38]
After Rizal's execution at Bagumbayan on December 30, 1896, Bonifacio wrote the first Tagalog translation of the former's Mi último adiós (Final Farewell), in which he gave the name Pahimakas (Farewell). He also wrote the prose Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Z. Ll. B. (Duties of the Sons of the People), that was never published because he believed that Jacinto's Kartilya was superior than his.[40] Bonifacio also wrote Ang Dapat Mabatid ng Mga Tagalog (What the Tagalogs Should Know), which is a politic-historical essay.
  • Jacinto works. Emilio Jacinto is considered the Brains of the Katipunan, later the Revolution. His poetical masterpiece, written in Laguna on October 8, 1897, was A la Patría (To My Fatherland), with an inspiring melody paralleled from Rizal's Mi último adiós[41] He also wrote a touching ode entitled A mí Madre (To My Mother). His masterpiece in prose, the Kartilla (Kartilya, Primer) became the Bible of the Katipunan.[41](see below) His other prose writing was Liwanag at Dilim (Light and Darkness), a series of articles on human rights, liberty, equality, labor, government, and love of country. His nom-de-plume was Dimas-Ilaw.
  • Valenzuela works. Dr. Pío Valenzuela was a medical doctor by profession. In 1896, during the first publication of Kalayaan, Valenzuela assisted Bonifacio and Jacinto in editing the newspaper. He also wrote Catuiran? (Is it Fair?), which described the cruelties of the Spanish priest and civil guards of San Francisco del Monte (now in Quezon City) on a helpless village lieutenant.[42] He also collaborated with Bonifacio in writing the article Sa Mga Kababayan (To my Countrymen), an essay addresses to the motherland. His nom-de-plume was Madlang-Away[41]
During the infamous Cry of Balintawak, Valenzuela had the position as physician-general of the Katipunan.[43]


Kalayaan (Liberty/Freedom) was the official organ and newspaper of the Katipunan. It was first published March 1896 (even though its masthead was dated January 1896.)[44] The first Kalayaan issue has never been followed.

In 1895, the Katipunan bought an old hand-press with the money generously donated by two Visayan co-patriots Francisco del Castillo and Candido Iban–who returned to the country after working as shell and pearl divers in Australia and had some money from a lottery win.[44][45] They bought the press and a small quantity of types from Antonio Salazar’s "Bazar el Cisne" on Calle Carriedo, and Del Castillo transported it to the house of Andrés Bonifacio in Santa Cruz, Manila.[44] On January 1, 1896, Valenzuela accepted the position as the Katipunan fiscal in exchange of Bonifacio's consent to send the printing press on his house in Calle de Lavezares, San Nicolas, Manila, "so that he could assist and edit a monthly publication which would be the Katipunan's main organ".[44] Bonifacio agreed, and on mid-January, the press was delivered in San Nicolas.

The name Kalayaan was suggested by Dr. Pío Valenzuela, which was agreed both by Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto.[42] Even though Valenzuela was chosen to become the editor of the organ, they all decided to use the name of Marcelo H. del Pilar as its editor. To fool the Spanish authorities, the Kalayaan was also decided to carry a false masthead stating that it was being printed in Yokohama, Japan.[46]

That very same month, January 1896, the publication of Kalayaan was started. Valenzuela expected it to finish at the end of the month, so they dated it as January.[44] The existence of the press was kept in utmost secrecy. Under the supervision of Valenzuela, two printers, Faustino Duque, a student from Colegio de San Juan de Letran, and Ulpiano Fernández, a part-time printer at El Comercio, printed the revolutionary literature of the society and Kalayaan.

When Valenzuela was appointed as the physician-general of the Katipunan, he dropped his obligation as the editor and passed it to Emilio Jacinto. Jacinto took the job, editing articles after his pre-law classes in University of Santo Tomas. Since the press was in Germanized alphabet, there are no Tagalog letters such as "k", "w", "h" and "y". To solve this problem, Jacinto obliged his mother, Josefa Dizon, to buy types that resembles such letters.[44] The types used in printing were purchased from publisher Isabelo de los Reyes, but many were taken surreptitiously from the press of the Diario de Manila by Filipino employees who were also members of the Katipunan.[47]

According to Valenzuela, the printing process is so laborious that setting eight pages of typesets require two months to complete.[44] For weeks, Jacinto, Duque and Fernández (and sometimes Valenzuela) took turns at preparing the pages of the Kalayaan, which was approximately nine by twelve inches in size.[42] On March 1896, first copies were issued (dated January 1896), and about 2,000 prints had been circulated in secret, according to Valenzuela.[48] According to Epifanio de los Santos, only 1,000 copies were printed: 700 was distributed by Bonifacio, 300 by Aguinaldo, and some 100 by Valenzuela himself.[44][49]

The first issue contained a supposed editorial work done by del Pilar, which, in fact, was done by Jacinto himself. It also includes Bonifacio's Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa, Valenzuela's Catuiran? and several works that exposed Spanish abuses and promoting patriotism.[42] Copies spread to nearby Manila provinces, including Cavite, Morong (now Rizal), Kalookan, and Malabon. Surprised by this initial success, Jacinto decided to print a second issue that would contain nothing but his only works.[42]

On August 1896, the second issue was prepared. It was during this time when Spanish authorities began to grow suspicious about anti-government activities and supposition that a subversive periodical is in circulation (see below), raided the place where Kalayaan is being printed, at No. 6 Clavel Street, San Nicolas, Manila.[42] Fortunately, the printers, Duque and Fernández, warned in time, had destroyed the incriminating molds and escaped. Therefore, Spanish authorities never found any evidence of the Kalayaan.[47]

Kartilya ng Katipunan

The teachings of the Katipunan were embodied in a document entitled Kartilya ng Katipunan,[50] a pamphlet printed in Tagalog language. Copies of which were distributed among the members of the society.

Kartilya was written by Emilio Jacinto and consists of thirteen teachings (though other sources like the one provided by Philippine Centennial Commission has listed only twelve. The term kartilya was derived from Spanish cartilla, which was a primer for grade school students before going to school at that time.[51]

Language and alphabet

According to Filipino writer and historian Hermenegildo Flores, the official language of the Katipunan is Tagalog, and uses an alphabet nearly-similar to Spanish alphabet but has different meaning and the way it was read was changed. Diacritics were added, to emphasize the existence of ng and mga on Tagalog orthography. The following is an excerpt from Flores' Kartilyang Makabayan: Mga Tanong at Sagot Ukol Kay Andrés Bonifacio at sa KKK (English: Nationalist Primer: Questions and Answers about Andres Bonifacio and KKK, Manila, 1922):[1]

30. Anong wika ang ginagamit ng̃ mg̃á kasapi sa "Katipunan"?

Ang tagalog; n͠guni't ang kahulugan ng̃ ilang titik ng̃ abakadang kastilà ay iniba sa kanilang pagsulat ng̃ mg̃á kasulatan at gayon din sa paglagdá ng̃ kanilang mg̃á sagisag. Ang titik na "a" ay ginawang "z", ang "c" at "q" ay ginawang "k", ang "i" ay "n", ang "l" at "ll" ay "j" ang "m" ay "v", ang "n" ay "ll", ang "o" ay "c" at ang "u" ay "x". Ang f, j, v, x at z ng̃ abakadang kastilà ay itinakwil pagka't hindi kailan͠gan. Sa maliwanag na ulat ay ganitó ang Abakadá (alfabeto) ng̃ "Katipunan" kung itutulad sa abakada ng̃ wikang kastilà.
  • Rough translation:
30. What is the language used by the members of the "Katipunan"?
Tagalog; however, the meanings of some letters from the Spanish alphabet have been changed. The letter "a" becomes "z", "c" and "q" become "k", the letter "i" is "n", the letters "l" and "ll" are "j" letter "m" is "v", letter "n" is "ll", letter "o" is "c" and letter "u" is "x". The letters f, j, v, x at z are not not needed, and unused.

Presented below is the Katipunan alphabet, when compared to the Spanish alphabet.

Abakada ng̃ kastilà (Spanish alphabet)
Abakada ng̃ "Katipunan" ("Katipunan" alphabet)
Z B K D Q - G H N - K J V LL C P K R S T X - W - Y -

Preparation for the revolution

Attempt to seek Rizal's support

It should be remembered that the night when Dr. José Rizal was condemned to be exiled in Dapitan by Governor-General Eulogio Despujol y Dusay,[52] Katipunan was founded.

In a secret meeting of the Katipunan at a little river called Bitukang Manok near Pasig on May 2, 1896, Bonifacio and his councilors decided to enlist Rizal's support for the revolution. Bonifacio named Dr. Pío Valenzuela, an old friend of Rizal, to be Katipunan's emissary to Dapitan. This was done in order to inform Rizal of Katipunan's plan to launch a revolution and, if possible, a war against Spain.[52]

On June 15, 1896, Dr. Valenzuela left Manila aboard the steamer Venus. To disguise his real mission, he brought with him a blind man named Raymundo Mata and a guide, going to Dapitan to seek Rizal's expert medical service. (at the time, Rizal was renowned across the country for his achievements in ophthalmology.)[52]

Valenzuela arrived in Dapitan on June 21, where Rizal welcomed him. After supper, Valenzuela told him the real reason why he went to Dapitan and the necessity of securing Rizal's support.[53] According to Valenzuela, Rizal only answered, "Huwag, huwag! Iya'y makasasama sa bayang Pilipino!" (No, no! That will harm the Filipino nation!)[53]

Rizal objected to Bonifacio's audacious project to plunge the country into a bloody revolution. He was of the sincere belief that it was premature, for two reasons:[52]

  1. the people are not ready for a massive revolution; and
  2. arms and funds must first be collected before raising the cry of revolution.

Because of this notion, Valenzuela gave another proposal to Rizal: to rescue him. Rizal disapproved of this plan, because he had given his word of honor to the Spanish authorities, and he did not want to break it.[52] Instead, Rizal advised Valenzuela to persuade wealthy Filipinos, so that they can solicit funds, where he recommended an elite army officer name Antonio Luna to be Katipunan's war general, should a revolution break out.[54] According to Valenzuela's statement to the Spanish authorities, they almost quarreled over the matter and Valenzuela left the following day instead of staying for a month as originally planned.[55]

When Valenzuela returned to Manila and informed the Katipunan of his failure to secure Rizal's sanction. Bonifacio, furious, warned Valenzuela not to tell anyone of Rizal's refusal to support the impending uprising. However, Valenzuela had already spread the word, so that much fund proposals to the society were canceled.[56] Despite Rizal's rejection, the Katipunan was already trying to address its arms supply problem and had taken steps to smuggle in weapons from abroad.[57]

At his trial, Rizal will eventually deny that he knew Valenzuela. He will only say that he met him first at Dapitan, and he considered him a good friend because of what Valenzuela showed to him, and his appreciation of medical tools Valenzuela gave to him. He will also say that it was also the last time they met.[58]

Attempt to solicit Japan's aid

Despite Rizal's rejection of an armed revolution, Bonifacio continued to plan for an armed conflict with Spain. The Katipunan cast its eyes on Japan, which loomed then as the probable champion of Asian liberties against Western oppression at the time. In May 1896, after Valenzuela's visit to Rizal, a delegation of Katipunan members, headed by Jacinto and Bonifacio, conferred with a visiting Japanese naval officer and captain of a Japanese ship, named Kongo, and the Japanese consul at a Japanese bazaar in Manila.[59] The interpreter, a friend of Valenzuela, was José Moritaro Tagawa who was married to a Filipino woman of Bocaue, Bulacan..[57]

After the usual exchange of courtesies, Jacinto submitted the Katipunan memorial for the Emperor of Japan in which the Filipinos prayed for Japanese aid in their projected revolutiion, "so that the light of liberty that illuminates Japan may also shed its rays over the Philippines."[60]

It was with good reason that the Katipunan solicited Japan's aid and alliance. Japan had been friendly to the Filipinos since the Spanish colonial era. Many Filipinos who had fled from Spanish persecution had been welcomed there and given full protection of Japanese laws. Bonifacio tried to purchase arms and ammunition from Japan, but failed due to lack of funds.[61]


As the Katipunan was busy preparing for the revolution, various denuinciations regarding its existence reached the Spanish authorities. On July 5, 1896, Manuél Sityar, a Spanish lieutenant of the guardia civíl stationed at Pasig, reported to Governor-General Ramón Blanco y Erenas the mysterious activities of certain Filipinos who had been gathering arms and recruiting men for some unknown purposes.[62] On August 13, 1896, Fr. Agustín Fernández, an Augustinian curate of San Pedro Makati, wrote to Don Manuél Luengo, Civil Governor of Manila, denouncing anti-Spanish meetings in his parish.[62]

The Katipunan was finally discovered by the Spanish authorities six days after Fernández's letter to Luengo. On early August 1896, two Katipuneros, namely Teodoro Patiño and Apolonio de la Cruz, who were working for the Diario de Manila printing press (leading newspaper during those times) had undergone misunderstanding regarding wages.[63] Press foreman de la Cruz and typesetter Patiño fought over salary increase of two pesos, and de la Cruz tried to blame Patiño for the loss of the printing supplies that were used for the Kalayaan. As an action against de la Cruz, Patiño revealed the secrets of the society to his sister, Honoria Patiño, an inmate nun at the Mandaluyong Orphanage. That afternoon, on August 19, 1896, Honoria grew shocked and very upset to the revelation. The mother portress of the Orphanage, Sor Teresa de Jesus saw Honoria crying so she approached her. Honoria told everything she heard from her brother. At around 6:15 pm that day, Sor Teresa called Teodoro Patiño and advised him to tell everything he knew about the Katipunan through confession to Father Mariano Gíl.[64]

Controlled by his fear of Hell, Teodoro went to Father Mariano Gíl, an Augustinian parish curate of the Tondo convent. Though he is willed to tell anything about the Katipunan, Teodoro confessed to Father Gíl that a lithographic stone was hidden in the press-room of Diario de Manila, which was used by the society for printing receipts. He also said that aside from the stone, there were also documents of membership (that uses member’s blood for signing) hidden, together with a picture of Dr. José Rizal and several daggers that was made for the katipunero-employees of the newspaper.[64]

Alarmed by the stunning truth of existence of a secret society, Father Gíl, accompanied by local Spanish authorities, searched the printing office of Diario de Manila and found the incriminating evidence. [64] They also found Apolonio de la Cruz in possession of a dagger used in Katipunan initiation rites and some list of new accepted members.[65] After the arrest, Father Gíl rushed to Governor-General Blanco to denounce the revolutionary plot of the Katipunan.[66] The Spanish unleashed a crackdown and arrested dozens of people, where many innocent citizens were forced to go to Fort Santiago.[54]

Patiño's alleged betrayal has become the standard version of how the revolution broke out in 1896. In the 1920s, however, the Philippine National Library commissioned a group of former Katipuneros to confirm the truth of the story. José Turiano Santiago, Bonifacio's close friend who was expelled in 1895, denied the story. He claimed that Bonifacio himself ordered Patiño to divulge the society's existence to hasten the Philippine revolution and preempt any objection from members.[67]

Historian Teodoro Agoncillo gives a differing version of events, writing that Patiño revealed the secrets of the society to his sister, Honoria, following on a misunderstanding with Apolonio de la Cruz, another society member who worked with him in the Spanish-owned Diario de Manila periodical. Honoria, an orphanage inmate, was upset at the news and informed Sor Teresa, the orphanage madre portera, who suggested that Patiño tell all to Father Mariano Gil. On August 19, Patiño told Father Mariano what he knew of the secret society. Father Mariano and the owner of the Diario de Manila searched the printing shop, discovering the lithographic stone used to print pring Katipunan receipts. After this discovery the locker of Policarpio Turla, whose signature appeared on the receipts, was forced open and found to contain a dagger, the rules of the society, and other pertinent documents. These were turned over to the police, leading to the arrest and conviction on charges of illegal association and treason of some 500 prominent men.[68]

First Filipino republic

From August 24, 1896, the Katipunan became an open insurgent government, and regarded themselves as a genuine government.[14] Even though the society did have a unified structure, own laws and a centralized leadership, it turned to be working only when the revolution began.[69]


Cry of Pugad Lawin Monument, Quezon City.

When the Katipunan leaders learned of the arrests, Bonifacio called an assembly of all provincial councils to decide the start of the armed uprising. The meeting was held at the house of Apolonio Samson at a place called Kangkong in Balintawak. About 1,000 Katipuneros attended the meeting but they were not able to settle the issue.

They met again at another place in Balintawak the following day. Historians are still debating whether this event took place at the yard of Melchora Aquino or at the house of her son Juan Ramos. The meeting took place either on August 23 or August 24. It was at this second meeting where the Katipuneros in attendance decided to start the armed uprising and they tore their cedulas (residence certificates and identity papers) as a sign of their commitment to the revolution. The Katipuneros also agreed to attack Manila on August 29.

But Spanish civil guards discovered the meeting and the first battle occurred with the Battle of Pasong Tamo. While the Katipunan initially had the upper hand, the Spanish civil guards turned the fight around. Bonifacio and his men retreated toward Marikina via Balara (now in Quezon City). They then proceeded to San Mateo (in the province now called Rizal) and took the town. The Spanish, however, regained it three days later. After regrouping, the Katipuneros decided not to attack Manila directly but agreed to take the Spanish powder magazine and garrison at San Juan.

Typical Katipunero bolo.

On August 30, the Katipunan attacked the 100 Spanish soldiers defending the powder magazine in the Battle of Pinaglabanan. About 153 Katipuneros were killed in the battle, but the Katipunan had to withdraw upon the arrival of Spanish reinforcements. More than 200 were taken prisoner. At about the same time, Katipuneros in other suburban Manila areas, like Caloocan, San Pedro de Tunasan (now Makati City), Pateros and Taguig, rose up in arms. In the afternoon of the same day, the Spanish Gov. Gen. Camilo de Polavieja declared martial law in Manila and the provinces of Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija. The Philippine Revolution had begun.

In Bulacan, the Bulacan Revolutionary Movement were attacked by the strongest artillery forces ever converged in the capital town of Bulacan. This subsequently led to the Battle of San Rafael, where Gen. Anacleto Enriquez and his men were surrounded and attacked in the Church of San Rafael.

Spanish response

Even before the discovery of the Katipunan, Rizal applied for a position as doctor in the Spanish army in Cuba in a bid to persuade the Spanish authorities of his loyalty to Spain. His application was accepted and he arrived in Manila to board a ship for Spain in August 1896, shortly before the secret society was exposed. But while Rizal was enroute to Spain, the Katipunan was unmasked and a telegram overtook the steamer at Port Said, recalling him to the Philippines to face charges that he was the mastermind of the uprising. He was later executed by musketry on December 30, 1896 at the field of Bagumbayan (now known as Luneta).

While Rizal was being tried by a military court for treason, the prisoners taken in the Battle of Pinaglabanan—Sancho Valenzuela, Ramón Peralta, Modesto Sarmiento, and Eugenio Silvestre—were executed by musketry on September 6, 1896 at Bagumbayan.

Six days later, they also executed by musketry the Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite at Fort San Felipe Fort in Cavite.

The Spanish colonial authorities also pressed the prosecution of those who were arrested after the raid on the Diario de Manila printing press, where they found evidence incriminating not only common folk but also wealthy Filipino society leaders.

The Bicol Martyrs were executed by musketry on January 4, 1897 at Bagumbayan. They were Manuel Abella, Domingo Abella, priests Inocencio Herrera, Gabriel Prieto and Severino Díaz, Camio Jacob, Tomas Prieto, Florencio Lerma, Macario Valentin, Cornelio Mercado and Mariano Melgarejo.

They arrested and seized the properties of prominent businessmen Francisco Roxas, Telesforo Chuidian and Jacinto Limjap. While there may be circumstantial evidence pointing to Chuidian and Limjap as financiers of the revolution, the record showed no evidence against Roxas except that he was involved in funding the Propaganda Movement. Even Mariano Ponce, another leader of the Propaganda Movement, said the arrest of Roxas was a "fatal mistake". Nonetheless, Roxas was found guilty of treason and executed by musketry on January 11, 1897 at Bagumbayan.

Roxas was executed with Numeriano Adriano, José Dizon, Domingo Franco, Moises Salvador, Luis Enciso Villareal, Braulio Rivera, Antonio Salazar, Ramon P. Padilla, Faustino Villaruel and Eustaquio Mañalak. Also executed with the group were Lt. Benedicto Nijaga and Corporal Geronimo Medina, both of the Spanish army.

On February 6, 1897, Apolonio de la Cruz, Roman Basa, Teodoro Plata, Vicente Molina, Hermenegildo de los Reyes, Joes Trinidad, Pedro Nicodemus, Feliciano del Rosarioo, Gervasio Samson and Doroteo Domínguez were also executed by musketry at Bagumbayan.

But the executions, especially Rizal's, only added fuel to the rebellion, with the Katipuneros shouting battle cries: Mabuhay ang Katagalugan! (Long Live Katagalugan!--Katagalugan being the Katipunan term for the Philippines) and Mabuhay si Dr. José Rizal! (Long Live Dr. José Rizal!). To the Katipuneros, José Rizal is the Honorary President of the Katipunan.

Schism and disestablishment

In the course of the revolution against Spain, a split developed between the Magdiwang faction (led by Gen. Mariano Álvarez) and the Magdalo faction (led by Gen. Baldomero Aguinaldo, cousin of General Emilio Aguinaldo), both situated in Cavite.

At a convention in Tejeros, Cavite, the revolutionaries assembled to form a revolutionary government. There, Bonifacio lost his bid for the presidency of the revolutionary government to Emilio Aguinaldo and instead was elected Secretary of the Interior. When members of the Magdalo faction tried to discredit him as uneducated and unfit for the position, Bonifacio declared the results of the convention as null and void, speaking as the Supremo of the Katipunan. Bonifacio was later arrested upon orders of Gen. Aguinaldo and executed on May 10, 1897. Thus ended the existence of the Katipunan, replaced by Aguinaldo's revolutionary government.

See also



  1. ^ a b c Cruz November 16, 1922
  2. ^ a b Woods 2006, p. 43
  3. ^ St. Clair 1902, pp. 37-39
  4. ^ Diwa December 24, 1926, p. 3
  5. ^ Guererro, Milagros; Encarnacion, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramon (1996). "Andres Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution". Sulyap Kultura (National Commission for Culture and the Arts) 1 (2): 3-12. http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?i=5&subcat=1.  
  6. ^ Epifanio 1918, p. 38
  7. ^ Epifanio 1918, p. 41
  8. ^ Gregorio Zaide translated as Highest and Most Respected Association of the Sons of the Country.
  9. ^ Fernandez 1926, p. 15
  10. ^ Isabelo de los Reyes 1899, p. 27
  11. ^ Kalaw 1925, p. 87
  12. ^ a b c d e f Richardson, Jim (February 2007). "Studies on the Katipunan: Notes on the Katipunan in Manila, 1892-96". http://kasaysayan-kkk.info/studies.kkk.mla.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-19.  
  13. ^ Ricarte 1926, p. 24-25
  14. ^ a b Ricarte 1926, p. 27
  15. ^ Zaide 1984, pp. 158-162
  16. ^ Santos 1930, pp. 17-21
  17. ^ a b Agoncillo 1990, p. 151
  18. ^ Borromeo-Buehler 1998, pp. 169, 171
  19. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 151-152
  20. ^ a b c Agoncillo 1990, p. 152
  21. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 166
  22. ^ Artigas y Cuerva 1911, p. 30
  23. ^ Artigas y Cuerva 1911, pp. 30-31
  24. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 152-153
  25. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 153
  26. ^ Artigas y Cuerva 1911, pp. 32-33
  27. ^ Artigas y Cuerva 1911, pp. 45-49
  28. ^ a b c Zaide 1957, p. 157
  29. ^ Gregoria de Jesus 1932
  30. ^ a b c d Rojas, Jean. "Filipino Women Warriors". http://jeanrojas.tripod.com/id13.html. Retrieved 2009-08-19.  
  31. ^ Fernandez 1930
  32. ^ Zaide November 26, 1932
  33. ^ Agoncillo 1956, p. 55
  34. ^ Zaide 1939, p. 21
  35. ^ Zaide 1973, p. 44
  36. ^ Zaide 1957, p. 156
  37. ^ In other sources, this was titled as Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Bayan. They are both equivalent to English title Love of Fatherland.
  38. ^ a b "Documents of the Katipunan: Andrés Bonifacio (attrib.) “Pagibig sa Tinubuang Bayan”". http://kasaysayan-kkk.info/docs.ab.pagibig.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-20.  
  39. ^ Artigas y Cuerva 1911, p. 403
  40. ^ "Documents of the Katipunan: Andrés Bonifacio: Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Z. Ll. B.". http://kasaysayan-kkk.info/docs.ab.katungkulang.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-20.  
  41. ^ a b c Zaide 1957, p. 156
  42. ^ a b c d e f "Kalayaan: The Katipunan Newspaper". Filipino.biz.ph. http://filipino.biz.ph/history/kalayaan.html. Retrieved 2009-08-22.  
  43. ^ Richardson, Jim (October 2005). "Roster of Katipuneros at Balintawak, August 1896". http://kasaysayan-kkk.info/studies.balintawak.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-22.  
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h Rihardson, Jim (November 2005). "Notes on Kalayaan, the Katipunan paper". http://kasaysayan-kkk.info/studies.kalayaan.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-22.  
  45. ^ Zaide October 25, 1930
  46. ^ Zaide 1957, p. 158
  47. ^ a b Zaide 1957, p. 158
  48. ^ Woods 2006, p. 44
  49. ^ Epifanio 1918, p. 79
  50. ^ May be transliterated as Cartilla, Kartilla, or Cartilya depending on the speaker and user.
  51. ^ "The Teachings of the Katipunan". http://filipino.biz.ph/history/kartilya.html. Retrieved 2009-10-20.  
  52. ^ a b c d e Zaide 1992, p. 203
  53. ^ a b Dr. Pío Valenzuela, Memoirs, Unpublished manuscript.
  54. ^ a b "The Revolution". http://www.scribd.com/doc/8786641/The-Revolution-1. Retrieved 2009-08-22.  
  55. ^ De la Costa 1961, p. 108
  56. ^ Alejandro 1971, p. 70
  57. ^ a b Zaide 1957, p. 159
  58. ^ De la Costa 1961, p. 98
  59. ^ Retana 1897, pp. 348-350
  60. ^ Retana 1897, p. 351
  61. ^ Zaide 1957, p. 160
  62. ^ a b Zaide 1957, p. 160
  63. ^ "Katipunan". http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=20&url=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.anipint87.multiply.com%2Fattachment%2F0%2FR4mtyQoKCEIAAEC0CpY1%2FChapter%25208.doc%3Fnmid%3D77355719&ei=ZJqOSsTvC4WCkQXQtdy7Cg&rct=j&q=discovery+of+the+katipunan+teodoro&usg=AFQjCNFENMFgjz10szHRRrxKYdqnlZoXSg. Retrieved 2009-08-22.  
  64. ^ a b c Zaide 1957, p. 161
  65. ^ "Amice, Ascende Superius!". http://boscotech.multiply.com/journal/item/110. Retrieved 2009-08-21.  
  66. ^ Zaide 1931, pp. 32-58
  67. ^ National Historical Institute 1989, p. 476
  68. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 170
  69. ^ Guerrero 1996

Published works

Further reading

  • Retaña, Wenceslao. Vida y Escritorios de Dr. Jose Rizal. Madrid: 1907.

External links

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