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Statue of Kaveh in Isfahan

Kāveh the Blacksmith, (Persian: کاوه آهنگر Kaveh Ahangar is a mythical figure in Iranian mythology who leads a popular uprising against a ruthless foreign ruler, Zahhāk. His story is narrated in the Epic of Shāhnāma, the national epic of Iran by the 10th century poet Ferdowsi Tousi. Based on Avestan tradition, Zahhāk, or more correctly Azhi Dahāka, is from Babylonia and more or less a demon, not human. Ferdowsi masterfully recasts this mythical character as an evil and tyrannical Arab king.

Kaveh is the most famous of Persian mythological characters in resistance against despotic foreign rule in Iran. After losing 18 of his sons to Zahhāk's serpents, he rebels against the foreign ruler of Persia and leads the people to overthrow the tyrant king. As a symbol of resistance and unity, he raises his leather apron on a spear, known as the Derafsh Kaviani. This flag is later decorated with precious jewels and becomes the symbol of Persian independence, resistance and resilience, as well as the revolutionary symbol of the masses in their fight against foreign invaders.

Kaveh is considered one of the national heroes of Persians in Persian mythology.

By the late Sassanid era (224–651), Kaveh's Derafš-e Kāvīāni had emerged as the standard of the Persian Sassanid dynasts. It was thus also representative of the Persian Sassanid state — Ērānshāhr, the "Kingdom of Iran" — and may so be considered to have been the first "national flag" of Iran

Jashn-e mehregan is the celeberation for the Fereydun's victory over Zahhāk; it is also the time when autumn rains begin to fall.

The dynasty Karen-Pahlav (also known as the House of Karen) claimed to be Kaveh's descendants.

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