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Kazan (English)
Казань (Russian)
Казан, Qazan  (Tatar)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Kazan collage.jpg
Kazan.
Map of Russia - Republic of Tatarstan (2008-03).svg
Location of the Republic of Tatarstan on the map of Russia
Kazan is located in Tatarstan
Location of Kazan on the map of the Republic of Tatarstan
Coordinates: 55°47′N 49°10′E / 55.783°N 49.167°E / 55.783; 49.167Coordinates: 55°47′N 49°10′E / 55.783°N 49.167°E / 55.783; 49.167
Coat of Arms of Kazan (Tatarstan) (2004).png
Coat of arms
Flag of Kazan (Tatarstan).png
Flag
Holiday August 30[1]
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Republic of Tatarstan[2]
Capital of Republic of Tatarstan[2]
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
Mayor[3] Ilsur Metshin[3]
Representative body City Duma[3]
Statistics
Area 425.3 km2 (164.2 sq mi)[4]
Population (2002 Census) 1,105,289 inhabitants[5]
Rank 8th
- Density 2,599 /km2 (6,700/sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded ~1005[4]
Postal code(s) 420xxx[7]
Dialing code(s) +7 843[8]
Official website http://www.kzn.ru/

Kazan (Russian: Каза́нь; Tatar: Казан, Qazan) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. The eighth largest city of Russia, it lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia. The Kazan Kremlin is a World Heritage Site. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the right to brand itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia.

Contents

Name

The origin of the name is uncertain. The Tatar word qazan means 'boiler' or 'cauldron'. Alternately, it may have been derived from the Tatar qazğan, 'dug' (with reference to ditches). Qazan is originally a name for a special cooking pan, similar to the wok, but heavier. The belief that the city of Kazan is named after this object comes from the terrain's similarity to a qazan: the city is situated in a U-shaped lowland. Another, more romantic legend tells a story of a Tatar princess Söyembikä, who dropped a golden dish (golden qazan) into the river while washing it, and that the city was founded at that site. Additionally, legends of the Chuvash people refer to the Bulgarian Prince Khusan (Хусан) (this being the Chuvash rendering of the Muslim name Hasan) and that is the Chuvash name for the city.

History

Kremlin Tower with the Qolsharif Mosque in the background.

Main dates

  • End of the Xth — beginning of the XIth century - the city was founded
  • End of the XIVth — beginning of the XVth century Kazan becomes a capital of Kazan khanate
  • 1408 - starts to mint own coins
  • 1552 Kazan was seized by Ivan IV Grozny and Kazan khanate became a part of Russian state
  • 1556 - construction of modern Kremlin
  • Since 1708 - centre of Kazan province
  • 1759 - the first provincial classical school was opened
  • 1771 - two madrasahs were opened (Akhun and Apanay)
  • 1791 - first theatre was opened
  • 1804 - Kazan State University was opened
  • 1874 - gas lighting in Kazan
  • 1896 - was built railroad to Moscow
  • 1899 - electrical tram and urban water supply started to work
  • 1920 - Kazan is a capital of Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialistic Republic (and then Tatarstan)
  • 1979 - population is over 1 million inhabitants
  • 2005 - Kazan Metro was opened

Descriptive

There is a long-running dispute as to whether Kazan was founded by the Volga Bulgars in the early Middle Ages or by the Tatars of the Golden Horde in the mid-fifteenth century, as written records before the latter period are sparse. If there were a Bulgar city on the site, estimates of the date of its foundation range from the early 11th century to the late 13th century (see Iske Qazan). It was a border post between Volga Bulgaria and two Finnic tribes, the (Mari and the Udmurt). Another vexatious question is where the citadel was built originally. Archaeological explorations have produced evidence of urban settlement in three parts of the modern city: in the Kremlin; in Bişbalta at the site of the modern Zilantaw monastery; and near the Qaban lake. The oldest of these seems to be the Kremlin.

If Kazan existed in the 11th and 12th centuries, it could have been a stop on a Volga trade route from Scandinavia to Iran. It was a trade center, and possibly a major city for Bulgar settlers in the Kazan region, although their capital was further south at the city of Bolğar.

After the Mongols devastated the Bolğar and Bilär areas in the 13th century, migrants resettled Kazan. Kazan became a center of a duchy which was a dependency of the Golden Horde. Two centuries later, in the 1430s, Hordian Tatars (such as Ghiasetdin of Kazan) usurped power from its Bolghar dynasty.

Some Tatars also went to Lithuania, brought by Vytautas the Great.

In 1438, after the destruction of the Golden Horde, Kazan became the capital of the powerful Khanate of Kazan. The city bazaar, Taş Ayaq (Stone Leg)' became the most important trade center in the region, especially for furniture. The citadel and Bolaq channel were reconstructed, giving the city a strong defensive capacity. The Russians managed to occupy the city briefly several times.

As a result of the Siege of Kazan (1552) Russia under Ivan the Terrible conquered the city for good and the majority of the population was massacred. During the governorship of Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky, most of the khanates's Tatar residents were killed or forcibly Christianized. Mosques and palaces were ruined. The surviving Tatar population was moved to a place 50 kilometres (31 mi) away from the city and this place was forcibly settled by Russian farmers and soldiers. Tatars in the Russian service were settled in the Tatar Bistäse settlement near the city's wall. Later Tatar merchants and handicraft masters also settled there. During this period, Kazan was largely destroyed as a result of several great fires. After one of them in 1579, the icon Our Lady of Kazan was discovered in the city.

In the early 1600's, at the beginning of the Time of Troubles in Russia, the Kazan Khanate declared independence with the help of the Russian population, but this independence was suppressed by Kuzma Minin in 1612.

In 1708, the Khanate of Kazan was abolished, and Kazan became the center of a guberniya. After Peter the Great's visit, the city became a center of shipbuilding for the Caspian fleet.

The major Russian poet Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin was born in Kazan in 1743, the son of a poor country squire of Tatar ancestry though himself having a thoroughly Russian identity.

Kazan was largely destroyed in 1774 as a result of the Pugachev revolt, a revolt by border troops and peasants led by the Don Cossack ataman (captain) Yemelyan Pugachev, but was rebuilt soon afterwards, during the reign of Catherine the Great. Catherine also decreed that mosques could again be built in Kazan, the first being Marjani Mosque. But discrimination against the Tatars continued.

In the beginning of the 19th century Kazan State University and printing press were founded by Alexander I. It became an important center for Oriental Studies in Russia. The Qur'an was first printed in Kazan in 1801. Kazan became an industrial center and peasants migrated there to join its industrial workforce. In 1875, a horse tramway appeared; 1899 saw the installation of a tramway.

After the Russian Revolution of 1905, Tatars were allowed to revive Kazan as a Tatar cultural center. The first Tatar theater and the first Tatar newspaper appeared.

In 1917 1917 Kazan Gunpowder Plant fire occurred in Kazan. In 1918, Kazan was a capital of the Idel-Ural State, which was suppressed by the Bolshevist government. In the Kazan Operation of August 1918, it was briefly occupied by White Czechs. In 1920 (after the October Revolution), Kazan became the center of Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In the 1920s and 1930s, most of the city's mosques and churches were destroyed, as occurred elsewhere in the USSR.

During World War II, many industrial plants and factories to the west were relocated in Kazan, making the city a center of the military industry, producing tanks and planes.

In the late 1980s and in the 1990s, after the dissolution of the USSR, Kazan again became the center of Tatar culture, and separatist tendencies intensified. Since 2000, the city has been undergoing a total renovation. The historical center, including its Kremlin, has been rebuilt. A single-line metro opened on 27 August 2005. The Kazan Metro has six stations and there are plans to extend it.

Kazan celebrated its millennium in 2005, although the date of the "millennium", was fixed rather arbitrarily. During the millennium celebrations, the largest mosque in Russia, Qolsharif, was inaugurated in the Kazan Kremlin, the holiest copy of Our Lady of Kazan was returned to the city, and the "Millennium Bridge" was also inaugurated that year.[9]

Historical naming

See also: Iske Qazan

  • Tatar (now, 1928–1939): Qazan;
  • (1939–2000): Казан;
  • (1918–1928): قازان ;
  • (1918–1922), Arab: قزان ;
  • Russian: Каза́нь [Kazan];
  • Arab (hist.): Bulgar al-Jadid (in Tatar transliteration:Bolğar âl-Cädid) - New Bolğar;
  • German: Kasan, Latin: Casan, French: Kazan, Polish: Kazań, Latvian: Kazaņa,
  • Finnish: (Old) Kasaani (New) Kasani

Demographics

All Religions Temple. A building and cultural center built by the local artist Ildar Khanov
Roman Catholic church in Kazan
Population of Kazan since 1800

Ethnicity and religion

The city's population consists almost entirely composed of either Tatars (about 52 percent) and Russians (about 43 percent). The remainder consists of Chuvash, Ukranians, Azeri, and Jews. Major religions in Kazan city are Sunni Islam and Eastern Orthodoxy. Atheism is also popular. Minor religions are Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism, Krishnaism, and Bahá'í.

Languages

Russian and Tatar languages are widely spoken in the city. Russian is understood by practically all the population, apart from some older Tatars. Tatar is widely spoken mainly by Tatars. The derogatory term Mankurt (Mañqort) is used for Tatars who are ashamed of their own culture and language.

Population

Population of Kazan city (01.01.2009)[10]:

  • 1,130,717 resident population (7th in Russia)
  • 1,180,238 registred population
  • 1,432,000 greater Kazan
Year Population
1550 50,000
1557 7,000
1800 40,000
1830 43,900
1839 51,600
1859 60,600
1862 63,100
1883 140,000
1897 130,000
1917 206,600
1926 179,000
1939 398,000
1959 667,000
1979 989,000
1989 1,094,400
1997 1,076,000
2000 1,089,500
2002 1,105,289 (census)
2008 1,120,200
2009 1,130,717

Climate

Kazan has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with long cold winters and warm, often hot dry summers. The warmest month is July with daily mean temperature near 20 °C (68 °F), coldest - January −12 °C (10.4 °F).

Weather data for Kazan (1971 - 2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 3.8
(39)
5.2
(41)
11.0
(52)
29.5
(85)
33.8
(93)
37.5
(100)
37.9
(100)
37.7
(100)
32.3
(90)
23.4
(74)
15.0
(59)
6.1
(43)
37.9
(100)
Average high °C (°F) -8.2
(17)
-7.2
(19)
-0.6
(31)
9.8
(50)
18.9
(66)
23.5
(74)
25.0
(77)
22.4
(72)
15.8
(60)
7.2
(45)
-1.5
(29)
-5.7
(22)
8.3
(47)
Average low °C (°F) -14.9
(5)
-14.0
(7)
-7.9
(18)
1.4
(35)
7.9
(46)
13.1
(56)
15.0
(59)
12.8
(55)
7.6
(46)
1.4
(35)
-6.3
(21)
-11.6
(11)
0.4
(33)
Record low °C (°F) -46.8
(-52)
-39.9
(-40)
-31.7
(-25)
-25.6
(-14)
-6.5
(20)
-1.4
(29)
2.6
(37)
1.6
(35)
-5.4
(22)
-23.4
(-10)
-36.6
(-34)
-43.9
(-47)
-46.8
(-52)
Precipitation mm (inches) 35
(1.38)
30
(1.18)
25
(0.98)
34
(1.34)
38
(1.5)
70
(2.76)
66
(2.6)
59
(2.32)
55
(2.17)
54
(2.13)
44
(1.73)
38
(1.5)
548
(21.57)
Source: [11] 22/03/2009

Central Kazan

Kremlin

The view of the Kazan Kremlin

The city has a beautiful citadel (Russian: kreml, or, sometimes, Tatar: kirman), which was declared the World Heritage Site in 2000. Major monuments in the kremlin are the 5-domed 6-columned Annunciation Cathedral (1561-62) and the mysterious leaning Soyembika Tower, named after the last queen of Kazan and regarded as the city's most conspicuous landmark.

Also of interest are the towers and walls, erected in the 16th and 17th centuries but later reconstructed; the Qol-Şarif mosque, which is already rebuilt inside the citadel; remains of the Saviour Monastery (its splendid 16th-century cathedral having been demolished by the Bolsheviks) with the Spasskaya Tower; and the Governor's House (1843-53), designed by Konstantin Thon, now the Palace of the President of Tatarstan.

Next door, the ornate baroque Sts-Peter-and-Paul's Cathedral on Qawi Nacmi Street and Marcani mosque on Qayum Nasiri Street date back to the 18th century.

Bistä or Posad

Central Kazan is divided into two districts by the Bolaq canal and Lake Qaban. The first district (Qazan Bistäse or Kazanskiy Posad), historically Russian, is situated on the hill, the second (İske Tatar Bistäse or Staro-Tatarskaya Sloboda), historically Tatar, is situated between the Bolaq and the Volga. Mosques, such as Nurullah, Soltan, Bornay, Apanay, Äcem, Märcani, İske Taş, Zäñgär are in the Tatar district. Churches, such as Blagoveschenskaya, Varvarinskaya, Nikol'skaya, Tikhvinskaya, are mostly in the Russian part of the city. The main city-centre streets are Bauman, Kreml, Dzerjinski, Tuqay, Puşkin, Butlerov, Gorkiy, Karl Marx and Märcani.

An old legend says that in 1552, before the Russian invasion, wealthy Tatars (baylar) hid gold and silver in Lake Qaban.

Wooden Kazan

In the beginning of 1990s most of Central Kazan was covered by wooden buildings, usually consisting of two floors. There was a historical environment of Kazan citizens, but not the best place to live in. During the Republican programme "The liquidation of ramshackle apartments" most of them (unlike other Russian cities), especially in Central Kazan, where the land isn't cheap, were destroyed and their population was moved to new areas at the suburb of the city (Azino, Azino-2, Quartal 39). Nearly 100,000 citizens resettled by this programme.

Other major buildings

Another significant building in central Kazan is the former "Smolentzev and Shmelev" tea house and hotel, now the Shalyapin Palace Hotel. It is located at 7/80 Universitetskaya Street, at the corner of Universitetskaya and Bauman. A major landmark of late-19th and early-20th century commercial architecture, it consists of two portions. The original portion, built for a merchant named Usmanov in the 1860s, was bought by the inter-related families of Efim Smolentzev and Pavel and Nikolai Shmelev in 1899.[12] They operated a store selling, among other things, tea. In 1910, the Smolentevs and Shmelevs constructed another portion, designed by architect Vasili Trifonov, and operated a hotel there.[13] After the Russian Revolution, the building eventually became the Hotel Soviet and after 2000 it was heavily renovated to reopen as the Shalyapin Palace Hotel.

Cityscape

A panoramic view of Kazan Kremlin, Vernicle temple and Kazanka river right bank
Kazanka right bank

Education and science

Primary and secondary education

Primary and secondary education system of Kazan includes:

  • 282 kindergartens, most of them are municipal
  • 178 schools, 2 of them are private
  • 28 vocational technical schools
  • 15 colleges
  • 10 special colleges

There are also 49 music schools, 10 fine-arts schools and 43 sports schools.

Higher education

Main building of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences

There are 55 institutes of higher education in Kazan, including branches of universities from other cities. Most prominent of them are:

  • Kazan State University was founded in 1804 and has had several prominent students, including Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky, Leo Tolstoy and Vladimir Lenin. The University is famous for outstanding scietific discoveries, including Non-Euclidean geometry (Lobachevsky), the element Ruthenium (Karl Klauss), theory of chemical structure (Butlerov), and electron paramagnetic resonance (Zavoisky). KSU includes 14 faculties, four institutes, and two branches (in Naberezhnie Chelny and Zelenodolsk). There are 16,000 students and 615 aspirants in KSU.
  • Kazan State Technological University (KCTI) is one of the largest educational institutions in Russia. The school began on July 14, 1890 as a joint secondary chemical and technological school and primary technical school with vocational training in mechanics, chemistry and construction. KCTI represents the beginning of technical education in Russia and Tatarstan. There are more than 27,000 students studying in the 11 faculties of KSTU (KCTI).
  • Kazan State Technical University (KAI) was established in 1932. Today the University is one of the leading institutions in the development of aircraft and rocket engineering, engine- and instrument-production, computer science, and radio engineering. There are more than 16,000 students studying in KTSU's nine faculties (KAI).
  • Kazan State Medical University is one of leading medical universities of Russia.
  • Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute trains economists for finance and credit system and industry.
  • Kazan State Energetics University trains engineers for energetics sector. There are more than 12,000 students in KSEU.
  • Kazan State Conservatory.

Science

Kazan is one of the biggest scientific centres of Russia. City hosts:

  • scientific centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, since 1945. It includes 5 academical institutions.
  • Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, since 1991. It includes 7 local departments with 13 academical institutions (also, 21 organisations are under the guidance of TAS) and one branch in Ulyanovsk[14].

Government and administration

Administrative division

Kazan districts map.jpg
Kazan town hall
Cabinet of Ministers

Kazan is divided into seven districts:

No. District Population[15] Area (km²)
1 Aviastroitelny 109,582 38.91
2 Vakhitovsky 93,083 25.82
3 Kirovsky 110,465 108.79
4 Moskovsky 132,400 38.81
5 Novo-Savinovsky 196,783 20.66
6 Privolzhsky 222,602 115.77
7 Sovetsky 240,374 76.87

Mayor

Mayor is the head of the city. İlsur Metşin has been the mayor of Kazan since November 17, 2005

City Duma

Kazan City Duma is a representative body of the city, elected every four years.

Executive committee

Executive committee is a municipal body of the executive organs. Committee's head is Rafis Burganov, since January 17, 2008.

Tatarstan government

Kazan hosts Tatarstan President's residence and administration (in Kremlin), Tatarstan's Cabinet of Ministers and Council of State (on Freedom square).

Economy

Kazan is one of the largest industrial and financial centres of Russia, and a leading city of the Volga economic region in construction and accumulated investment.[16] Total banking capital of Kazan banks is third in Russia.[17] The main industries of the city are: mechanical engineering, chemical, petrochemical, light and food industries. An innovative economy is represented by the largest IT-park in Russia which is one of the largest of its kind amongst Eastern Europe science parks.[18][19] Kazan ranks 174th (highest in Russia) in Mercer’s Worldwide Quality of Living Survey.[20]

Macroeconomics

Main indicators of 2008[21][22]
Indicator Value Gross to 2007
Total output volume, rub 123,6 bln. 107,4 %
Employed, inh. 565 000
GRP, rub 271,3 bln 105 %
Average income, rub 17 300 [23] 134 %
Retailing turnover, rub 211 bln 120,5 %
Investions, rub 102 bln [24]
Expenditure, rub 18,361 bln
Revenue, rub 17,76 bln
Deficit, rub 0,601 bln

Plant facilities

Several Top-500 Russian companies[25] are headquartered within city boundaries:

  • TAIF (192,10 bln rub. annual receipt)
  • Tatenergo (47,13 bln rub.)
  • Kazanorgsintez (21,19 bln rub.)
  • Transtechservice (14,87 bln rub)
  • Vamin (9,7 bln rub.)

There are 151 large- and middle-scale enterprises in Kazan city, 98 of them are JSCs. Main industries are: machinery construction, chemicals and petrochemicals, light and food industries. Factory shipments in 2008 year total 94,8 bln rub.

Main enterprises of the city:

"Kazanorgsintez" JSC produces 38 % of Russian polyethylene. It also produces a large variety of petrochemical and chemical products.

  • Kazan State Powder Mill

Founded in 1788.

  • Kazan helicopters plant

Produces "Mi" helicopters.

KAPO currently produces the Tu-214 passenger plane and the Tu-160 strategic bomber. There are also plans to start producing Tu-334 regional airliners and Tu-330 freighters.

  • Kazan optical mechanics plant
  • Kazan motors building production association
  • "NEFIS-cosmetics" JSC (Kazan chemical complex)

Produces a large variety of cleaning agents

  • Kazan brewery

Is a proper of EFES group.

  • Kazan medical apparatus plant
  • Kazan rubber plant ("KVART" JSC)
  • Kazan heat devices plant
  • Kazan artificial leather plant

Banks

Largest banks of Kazan city are:

  • Ak Bars Bank — net wealth for 01.10.08 — 190 bln rub.[26]
  • Tatfondbank — 40 bln rub.
  • "Kazansky" bank — 10 bln rub.
  • "Spurt" bank — 9,4 bln rub.
  • Energobank — 9,0 bln rub.
  • Intechbank — 5,6 bln rub.
  • "Ipoteka-invest" — 3,6 bln rub.
  • "Zarechye"
  • Tatecobank
  • Tatinvestbank
  • Akibank
  • BTA-Kazan
  • Alfabank

Tourism

A unique combination of historic city and modern megalopolis attracts tourists to Kazan. 345,000 tourists visited Kazan in 2004, 550,000 in 2005 and 800,000 in 2007.[27] Kazan Kremlin attracts more than 200,000 tourists per year [28]. There are more than 40 hotels in the city, including:

Riviera
Grand Hotel
Stars Hotel name
* * * * * Mirage
* * * * Bon Ami
* * * * Grand Hotel
* * * * Giuseppe
* * * * Korston
* * * * Riviera
* * * * Suleiman Palace
* * * * Shalyapin Palace
* * * Ryan Johnson
* * * Amax-Safar
* * * Bulgar
* * * Volga
Stars Hotel name
* * * Gulfstream
* * * Derbyshky
* * * Dusliq
* * * Ibis
* * * Kolvy
* * * Novinka
* * * Teatral'naya mansion
* * * Premium
* * * Prestige House
* * * Polyot
* * * Regina (network)
* * * Hayall

Construction

Apartment house construction (thousands m²)[29]
Year Value
2000 541,8
2003 611,3
2004 874,7
2005 632,0
2006 729,6
2007 742,3
2008 901,5 [30]

Transport

Kazan International Airport

Night aerial view of Kazan
"Prospect Pobedy" metro station
City bus

Kazan International Airport is located 26 kilometers from the city centre. It is a hub for Tatarstan Airlines and hosts 11 air companies. Airport is connected with city by bus route #97. There is also the Kazan Borisoglebskoye airfield which contains a major aircraft factory.

Railways

Kazan is connected with Moscow, Ulyanovsk, Yoshkar-Ola and Yekaterinburg by railways.

Main railway station "Kazan passazhirsky" is located in the city centre and includes main building (built in 1896), commuter trains terminal, ticket office building and some other technical buildings. Station serves 36 intercity trains and more than 8 million passengers per annum [31].

There is a second terminal in the northern part of city, it serves only one intercity train. Reconstruction of the Northern terminal is freezed.

Kazan city has also 19 platforms for commuter trains

Riverside station

Station serves intercity ships and commuter boats. Pneumocushion boats are used in winter time. Daily passenger turnover reaches 6 thousands.

Bus station

Bus station is situated in Devyataeva street. Bus routes connect Kazan with all districts of Tatarstan, Ufa, Sterlitamak, Samara, Tolyatti, Ulyanovsk, Baki, Aktobe.

Highways

There are highway connections to Samara, Orenburg, Ufa, Cheboksary, Naberezhnye Chelny (Yar Çallı), Almetyevsk (Älmät), Bugulma (Bögelmä), and Chistopol (Çístay).

There are five bridges across the Kazanka (Qazansu) river in the city, and one bridge connecting Kazan with the opposite bank of the Volga.

Public transit

  • A single-line Kazan Metro, the north-southeast Central Line, opened on 27 August 2005. The Kazan Metro has six stations, but there are plans to extend the line in both directions and is due to cross the Kazanka river with the station "Kozya Sloboda" in 2010. Single ticket - 12 rub.
  • The Kazan tram system was fouded in 1899. 8 routes use 187 km of lines and 197 tramcars[32]. Single ticket - 12 rub. Rolling stock: LM-99, 71-608, 71-605.
  • The Kazan trolleybus system was founded in 1948. 355 km of lines are used for 14 routes [33]. Single ticket - 12 rub. Vehicles: ZIU-682, Trolza-5275-05 "Optima", VMZ-5298.01-50 "Avangard".
  • The Kazan bus system was totally renovated in 2007. 91 routes have an aggregate length of 1981 km. All 1444 buses have are colored red. The price of a single ticket is 15 rub. Buses are produced by "Golden Dragon", "Higer", "NefAZ", "MAZ", "Yutong", "Hyundai", "Bogdan-Isuzu"

Sports

"Basket-hall"

Men's teams:

Famous athletes

Infrastructure

Important events

  • Kazan is the host city for the 2013 Summer Universiade.
  • 2005 Bandy World Championships
  • 2008 ice hockey juniors world championship
  • 2008 boxing students world championship
  • 2007 field hockey Europe championship
  • Kazan will host 2011 weightlifting Europe championship
  • Bandy World Championships again in 2011

International relations

Consulates

Two consulates general are found in Kazan.[35]

  • Iran Consulate-General of Iran.
  • Turkey Consulate-General of Turkey.

Twin towns — Sister cities

Kazan is twinned with:

International organisations membership

Kazan has an Alliance française centre.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://kgmu.kcn.ru/english/about_kazan.html
  2. ^ a b The city of Kazan official portal
  3. ^ a b c The city of Kazan official portal
  4. ^ a b Investment Passport of Kazan
  5. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-19.  
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  7. ^ Kazan Russia — a thousand-year Russian city
  8. ^ Current local time in Kazan
  9. ^ Putin joins Tatarstan festivities BBC News 2005-08-26
  10. ^ Численность населения по городам и районам Республики Татарстан на начало 2009 года
  11. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/27595.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-22.  
  12. ^ "ИЗДАНИЯ ЦБС "Прогулки по городу"". http://www.cbs-kazan.ru/izdania-progulki-baumana3.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-20.  
  13. ^ "До тысячелетия Казани осталось 36 дней. Гостиница "Совет"". http://info.tatcenter.ru/photo/29350.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-20.  
  14. ^ Структура АНРТ
  15. ^ 2002 Census
  16. ^ Основные социально-экономические показатели городов 2008
  17. ^ Расстановка точек над столицами
  18. ^ В строительство IT-парка вложили 3 миллиарда
  19. ^ Инновационный технопарк Идея
  20. ^ NZ cities excel in quality of living - Mercer worldwide survey finds
  21. ^ (in Russian) Отчёт мэрии Казани за 2008 год
  22. ^ (in Russian) Об основных итогах социально-экономического развития г. Казани за 2008 год и перспективах на 2009 год
  23. ^ (in Russian)Среднемесячная зарплата в Казани в 2008 году достигла 17,3 тысячи рублей
  24. ^ (in Russian)Комитет экономического развития
  25. ^ Топ-500 крупнейших компаний России
  26. ^ (In Russian)Рейтинг РБК: крупнейшие банки
  27. ^ (RUS)Миллион туристов в год посещают Казань
  28. ^ (RUS)Депутаты Казани признали программу развития туризма на 2006—2007 гг. выполненной
  29. ^ (RUS)ВВОД В ДЕЙСТВИЕ ЖИЛЫХ ДОМОВ ПО СТОЛИЦАМ РЕСПУБЛИК, КРАЕВЫМ, ОБЛАСТНЫМ ЦЕНТРАМ
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ ГЖД в 2006 году больше всего пассажиров отправила со станции Горький-Московский
  32. ^ Выступление А. К. Абдулхакова на аппаратном совещании 09.02.2009 «Об итогах работы городского пассажирского транспорта за 2008 год»
  33. ^ В 2008 году в Казани всеми видами городского транспорта перевезено 319,9 млн пассажиров
  34. ^ Video from their 1st Russian Cup victory against Yenisey from Krasnoyarsk in the final. http://bandynet.ru/node/7273
  35. ^ Offices in Kazan
  36. ^ Visiting card of Kazan city (in Russian)

Further reading

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Kazan (Каза́нь, Казан) [1] is the capital of Russia's republic of Tatarstan

Kazan train station
Kazan train station

Kazan is easiest to reach by train, as it is a major station stop for several west-east trains. Depending on the train, travel from Moscow's Kazan Station can be as short as 11 hours. A direct train from St. Petersburg's Moscow Station takes 25 hours. Kazan's train station is located close to the city center, with several hotels, restaurants, and the Kremlin within walking distance of the train station. Note that the ticketing office is not in the main (historic red brick) building, but in the more modern building with a clock tower next door; as one faces the main building from the street, the ticket office is to the left.

The airport in Kazan (IATA: KZN) is the headquarters for Tatarstan Airlines, which serves several cities in Russia and flies some charter flights to destinations like Turkey and Egypt. In addition to Tatarstan Airlines, Aeroflot, S7, SkyExpress, and UTAir fly between Kazan and Moscow, and Rossiya Airlines also flies to Kazan from St. Petersburg. Lufthansa and Turkish Airlines are the two international carriers which currently have scheduled flights to Kazan.

Travelers should note that the international airport is southeast of the city and far from the city center. A taxi from the train station to the airport takes about 90 minutes and can cost 1000 Rubles or more. Public transportation to and from the airport is complicated, as there is no direct bus service between the airport and the city center. Public bus 97 runs from the airport via MEGA shopping mall to the "39 Kvartal" bus station in the Aviastroitelniy Rayon (north of the city center and across the Kazanka River). From 39 Kvartal, one must change buses to Bus 15 or 35a to reach the Kremlin, and then possibly make a third connection from there to travel elsewhere in the city.

Kazan also has a riverboat terminal on the Volga River and can be reached by river cruise as well.

Get around

Much of the city center is walkable, and the main attractions for tourists (the Kremlin and Bauman Street) are closed to all but pedestrian traffic.

Public buses are abundant and cheap, but one must have some knowledge of Russian to read the signs or ask where the buses are headed. Bus system maps are apparently hard to come by.

Taxis are available and operate mostly an on-call service, rather than plying the streets for fares. They also congregate at a few taxi stands in predictable places such as the train station.

A Metro system is being developed, with 4 stations on the red line in operation as of early 2008, running between Tukai Square and Gorkiy Station a few km to the south east. Later the fifth station was built, close to the Kremlin.

A commercial company publishes a free map that is distributed at the reception of several hotels, and the Mirage Hotel also publishes their own free map.

See

Kazan celebrated its 1000-year anniversary in 2005, for which the city got a major facelift. Visitors today will be able to see many of the reconstructed or newly-constructed sites from the anniversary celebration.

Kazan Kremlin
Kazan Kremlin

Kazan Kremlin

Once a Tatar fortress, it was largely destroyed by Ivan the Terrible. During the 16th and 17th Centuries, Russians reconstructed the Kremlin with new fortifications and Russian institutions (such as the Annunciation Cathedral). Many of the features of the Kremlin reflect Russian influence of that era, and the construction of the parapets and watchtowers is particularly reminiscent of other dominant Russian cities of the time, such as Pskov and Novgorod. Entry to the Kremlin is through the white clock tower (the Spasskaya Tower) at the end of Bauman Street. Entry costs 300 Rubles with a guided tour, or 20 Rubles to explore the grounds on one's own. There are several interesting things to see inside the Kremlin, including:

  • Suyumbike Tower

The legend of the Suyumbike Tower is that the Tatar Princess Suyumbike was betrothed to Ivan the Terrible, but she consented to marry him only if he could build the highest tower in Kazan in seven days. Ivan accomplished the task, but Suyumbike, rather than subjugating herself and the Tatar people to the Russian ruler, climbed to the top of the tower and jumped to her death. Locals do not seem to believe that the legend is true, but they appreciate the romanticism of it. At present, the tower is not open to climb the stairs.

Suyumbike Tower
Suyumbike Tower
  • Kul-Sharif Mosque

Named after the 16th-century Tatar imam who died defending Kazan from Ivan the Terrible's army, the Kul-Sharif Mosque was completed in 2005 after ten years of construction. It is located within the Kremlin walls, making the Kremlin facility now a symbol of multicultural harmony in multiethnic Tatarstan. Entry to the mosque is free, although visitors must pay 3 Rubles for plastic slip-covers for their shoes in order to keep the floors clean. Visitors who climb the stairs to the third floor observation balcony do not need to remove their shoes. The prayer hall on the ground floor is only open to men going to pray, and the second floor balcony is for Muslim women to pray. All women, though, should cover their heads in all parts of the mosque.

From the observation balcony, visitors can appreciate the beauty of the mosque, which is built in a modern design not unlike modern Turkish mosques. The dome in the shape of a lotus flower and the many windows give the prayer hall a bright and airy atmosphere. One uniquely local feature in the mosque is the malachite columns on the minbar (the free-standing pulpit). Some of the 99 names of God are inscribed on the inside of the upper dome and on the window glass, and the name Mohammed is written in a blue disk at the front of the prayer hall. Verses from the Koran, including an incantation against envy, are written on tile in the four corners of the hall, and the names on disks suspended lower in the hall are those of the four rightly-guided caliphs and some of the early prophets.

An interesting Museum of Islam is located below the ground floor of the mosque. Entrance is free, and a tour in English may be available if the English-speaking docent is on duty. The museum also has a booklet in English that explains the exhibits that can be helpful. Some of the exhibits include displays regarding the status of Tatar language in the Soviet era, some history of the building of the mosque (note the photo of prayers being held outdoors in the 1990s before the mosque was built), and on the lower sublevel is a history of Islam in Tatarstan which makes mention of Empress Elizabeth's attempt to convert Tatars to Christianity and Catherine the Great's edict allowing mosques to be constructed.

Kul Sharif Mosque
Kul Sharif Mosque
  • Annunciation Cathedral
  • State Hermitage Museum in Kazan

Affiliated with the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, this museum sometimes has special exhibits of interest.

  • State Museum of the Tatar State and the Republic of Tatarstan

The museum was one of several projects completed for the 1000-year anniversary celebration, and it is located on the former site of the Tatar sultan's mosque, which was destroyed by Ivan's army and a residence (?) was built in its place. The building fell into disrepair over the years and a Turkish company completed the renovations for the 2005 museum opening. One must first enter on the ground floor (located just to the left of the Suyumbike Tower) and pay the 20-Ruble entry fee. A group of energetic and chatty old ladies staff the museum, although none speak much English. The ground floor section of the museum is filled with gifts to Tatarstan from foreign dignitaries on the occasion of the 1000-year anniversary, as well as a reproduction of the sultan's throne (note the gold dome of the Koran case, which is meant to hold the Koran higher than the sultan's chair) and a reproduction of the mausoleum of the sultans, the original of which is said to be underground nearby: a small square monument marks the spot in the square outside the museum. To reach the second story of the museum, one must go outside and around the corner and climb the stairs in the courtyard near the Suyumbike Tower. There is no cashier on the second floor, so visitors much go to the ground floor section first. The second floor includes a narrative history of Tatarstan, from the early settlement of the Volga-Bulgars to the early Tatar state to Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to Tatarstan in the Russian Federation. The guide will insist that visitors also visit a small room on the side where medals and decorations given to the president are displayed.

Bauman Street

The pedestrian zone that stretches between the Kremlin and Tokai Square and the Hotel Tatarstan. This is Kazan's Arbat, with boutiques, souvenir shops and kiosks, cafes, bars, and plenty of opportunities for people-watching. The statuary (such as a bronze carriage) is especially interesting.

Eat

Bauman Street has the largest collection of restaurants, cafes, and bars in the city. They range from acceptable to tourist traps. Places to eat off Bauman Street include:

  • Bilyar An inexpensive restaurant serving Tatar and Russian food. The rustic interior is designed to look like the interior of a Tatar log cabin, and even the salad bar looks like a well. Main courses are 50-200 Rubles, try the chak-chak for dessert. 4 locations in the city: Ulitsa Butlerova 31 (up the hill behind the Tatarstan Hotel), Ulitsa Bolshaya Krasnaya 48 (near the National Library), Ulitsa Vishevskovo 15 and Prospekt Pobedi 50a (the latter two are a little farther from the center).
  • Priyut Kholostyaka A trendy restaurant with an eclectic menu of European and Russian dishes. Main courses 300-500 Rubles. Clean, quiet, and a bit off the tourist path, this is a good place for relaxing and having tea. Although its name means Bachelor's Refuge which makes it sound like a strip club or something, it is nothing of the sort. Ulitsa Chernishevskovo 27a.

Self-caterers can find a large supermarket (one of the Bakhetle chain) in the TsUM bulding across from the Mirage Hotel. The bakery across from the Milena Hotel on Tazi Gizzata Street has excellent bread and a few groceries.

  • Bulgaru Hostel, (It takes 20 min by bus to reach the hostel from the center), (843) 267-18-80 (), [2]. 1 bed in day 450 rub, holiday 550 rub.  edit
  • Mirage hotel, (It's location is excellent, directly across from the Kremlin), (843) 278-05-05 (), [3]. Easily the most expensive hotel in Kazan, but in a prime location with the greatest number of amenities. rack rate starting at over 6000 Rubles.  edit
  • Shalyapin Palace, (Bauman Street), (843) 238-28-00 (), [4]. Well situated on Bauman Street and is well within international standards of service and comfort. starting at 2600 Rubles per person.  edit
  • Suleiman Palace, Peterburgskaya Street 55, (843) 278-16-16 (), [5]. Comparable in class of service to the Shalyapin Palace, but a bit further away from the city center. The Kremlin is not walkable from here, but it can be reached by a short taxi ride or bus. Rooms start at about 2500 Rubles.  edit
  • Milena Hotel, Tazi Gizzata Street 19 (From the train station, make an immediate right, walk one block, and turn left at the gas station), (843) 292-99-92 (), [6]. A new, clean, quiet hotel within walking distance from the train station, and also easy walking distance from Bauman Street and the Kremlin. Note that there is no elevator in the building, so request a first-floor room if that is important to you. Rooms start at 600 Rubles.  edit
  • Hotel Shushma, Narimanova Street 19, (843) 292-98-21, [7]. Next door to the Milena hotel, and quite comparable to it.  edit
  • Hotel Volga, 1 Said-Galeeva (A short walk north of the train station), (843) 292 14 69. Don't necessarily belive them if they say there are no cheap rooms available! clean and basic single rooms from 750 roubles.  edit

Contact

Internet cafes and restaurants with WiFi are found throughout the city. Probably the most useful internet cafe for travelers is a small one across from the train station. From the main station building, cross through the park and cross the main street. It is at the corner to one's left, but hidden behind a newspaper stand and some kiosks.

The post office in Kremlyovskaya St. has seven computers with internet access, for around 36 rub./hour. Pay in advance at the register. Your unspent minutes will be refunded.

Get out

The Raifa Monestary is about 30km outside the city and can be reached by bus, according to its website. [8].

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Kazan discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

See also kazan

English

Proper noun

Kazan

  1. City in Russia, capital of Tatarstan, Russia.

Translations


Simple English

Kazan
Kazan's symbol is Zilant
[[File:]]
Languages Tatar, Russian
Mayor İlsur Metşin
Coordinates 55°47′N 49°10′E
Area 425.2 km²
Population 1,180,000
Founded by Volga Bulgarians
~ 1005
Time zone UTC +3
City Day 30 August
Dialling code +7 843
Religion Sunni Islam
Russian Orthodox
others

Kazan (Tatar Qazan, Казан, Russian Казань) is the capital city of Tatarstan and one of Russia's largest cities. It is a major industrial, commercial and cultural center, and remains the most important center of Tatar culture. Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga (İdel) and Kazanka (Qazansu) rivers in central European Russia.

Name

The origin of the name is unclear. The literal translation of Tatar qazan is a boiler or cauldron. Alternately, it may have been derived from qazğan, Tatar for dug [ditch].

"Qazan" is originally a name for a special cooking pan, a variant of a wok, but more solid and heavier. It was believed that the city of Kazan is named after this object because of its geographical similarity with a "qazan"-pan; namely the city is situated in a U - shape lowland.

Another, a more romantic legend tells a story of a Tatar princess Söyembikä, who dropped a golden dish (golden qazan) in to the river on which the city is located while washing it.

Nevertheless, Chuvash legends refer to Bulgarian prince Khusan (Chuvash rendering of Muslim name Hassan) and Chuvashes call this city Хусан after the name of this prince.

Images

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