Keith Jarrett: Wikis


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Keith Jarrett
Born May 8, 1945 (1945-05-08) (age 64)
Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Genres Free jazz, Mainstream jazz, Avant-garde jazz, Jazz fusion, Post bop, Western classical music, Free Improvisation, Contemporary jazz
Occupations Pianist
Instruments Piano
Soprano Saxophone
Years active 1966–present
Labels Atlantic Records
Impulse! Records
ECM/Universal Classics

Keith Jarrett (born May 8, 1945, in Allentown, Pennsylvania) is an American jazz and classical pianist and composer.

Jarrett started his career with Art Blakey, moving on to play with Charles Lloyd and Miles Davis. Since the early 1970s he has enjoyed a great deal of success in both jazz and classical music, as a group leader and a solo performer. His improvisations draw not only from the traditions of jazz, but from other genres as well, especially Western classical music, gospel, blues, and ethnic folk music.

In 2003, Jarrett received the Polar Music Prize, the first (and to this day only) recipient not to share the prize with a co-recipient,[1] and in 2004 he received the Léonie Sonning Music Prize.

In 2008, he was inducted into the Down Beat Hall of Fame by the Down Beat 73rd Annual Jazz Readers' Poll.


Early years

Jarrett, who is partly of Hungarian ancestry, grew up in suburban Allentown, Pennsylvania, with significant early exposure to music. He possessed absolute pitch, and he displayed prodigious musical talents as a young child. He began piano lessons just before his third birthday, and at age five he appeared on a TV talent program hosted by the swing bandleader Paul Whiteman.[2] The young Jarrett gave his first formal piano recital at the age of seven, playing works by composers including Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, and Saint-Saëns, and ending with two of his own compositions.[3] Encouraged especially by his mother, Jarrett took intensive classical piano lessons with a series of teachers. In his teens, as a student at Emmaus High School in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, he learned jazz and quickly became proficient in it. In his early teens, he developed a strong interest in the contemporary jazz scene; a Dave Brubeck performance was an early inspiration. At one point, he had an offer to study classical composition in Paris with the famed teacher Nadia Boulanger—an opportunity that pleased Jarrett's mother but that Jarrett, already leaning toward jazz, decided to turn down.[4]

Following his graduation from Emmaus High School in 1963,[5] Jarrett moved from Allentown to Boston, Massachusetts, where he attended the Berklee College of Music and played cocktail piano in local clubs. After a year he moved to New York City, where he played at the Village Vanguard.

In New York, Art Blakey hired Jarrett to play with the Jazz Messengers, and he subsequently became a member of the Charles Lloyd Quartet—a group that included Jack DeJohnette, who would become a frequent musical partner throughout Jarrett's career. The quartet's 1966 album Forest Flower was one of the most successful jazz recordings of the mid-1960s. Jarrett also started to record as a leader at this time, in a trio with Charlie Haden and Paul Motian. Jarrett's first album as a leader, Life Between the Exit Signs (1967), was released on the Vortex label, to be followed by Restoration Ruin (1968), which is easily the most bizarre entry in the Jarrett catalog. Not only does Jarrett barely touch the piano, but he plays all the other instruments on what is essentially a folk-rock album, and even sings. Another trio album with Haden and Motian, titled Somewhere Before, followed later in 1968, this one recorded live for Atlantic Records.

Miles Davis

This version of the Charles Lloyd Quartet came to an end in 1969 because of disputes over money as well as artistic differences.[6] Jarrett was asked to join the Miles Davis group after Miles heard him in a New York City club. During his tenure with Davis, he played both Fender Contempo electronic organ and Fender Rhodes electric piano, alternating with Chick Corea; after Corea left in 1970, Jarrett often played the two simultaneously. Despite his dislike of amplified music and electric instruments, he continued with the group out of respect for Davis and because of his desire to work with Jack DeJohnette. Jarrett is heard on several Davis albums: Miles Davis at Fillmore: Live at the Fillmore East, The Cellar Door Sessions (recorded December 16–19, 1970, at the Cellar Door club in Washington, DC), and Live-Evil, which is largely composed of heavily edited Cellar Door recordings. The extended sessions from these recordings can be heard on The Complete Cellar Door Sessions. Jarrett also plays electric organ on Get Up With It; the song he is featured on, "Honky Tonk", is an abridged version of a track available in its entirety on The Complete Jack Johnson Sessions. In addition, part of a track called "Konda" (recorded May 21, 1970) was released during Davis's late-1970s retirement on a compilation album called Directions (1980). The track, which features an extended Fender-Rhodes piano introduction by Jarrett, was released in full on 2003's The Complete Jack Johnson Sessions.[7]

Jarrett appears on these officially released Miles Davis recordings:

  • At Fillmore (1970), a double LP recorded on four consecutive nights at New York's Fillmore East in June 1970
  • Live-Evil (1970)
  • Get Up With It (1974)
  • Directions (1980), a release of previously unavailable recordings
  • The Columbia Years: 1955–1985 (1990), mainly a collection of previously issued recordings, including some of the Jack Johnson outtakes cited above
  • Miles Electric: A Different Kind of Blue (2004), a 1970 performance at the Isle of Wight festival, released on DVD
  • The Cellar Door Sessions (2005), complete recordings of the live sessions that produced the live segments of Live-Evil

1970s quartets

From 1971 to 1976, Jarrett added saxophonist Dewey Redman to the existing trio with Haden and Motian. The so-called American quartet was often supplemented by an extra percussionist, such as Danny Johnson, Guilherme Franco, or Airto Moreira, and occasionally by guitarist Sam Brown. The quartet members played various instruments, with Jarrett often being heard on soprano saxophone and percussion as well as piano; Redman on musette, a Chinese double-reed instrument; and Motian and Haden on a variety of percussion. Haden also produced a variety of unusual plucked and percussive sounds with his acoustic bass, even running it through a wah-wah pedal for one track ("Mortgage on My Soul," on the album Birth). The group recorded for Atlantic Records, Columbia Records, Impulse! Records, and ECM.

The group's recordings include:

The last two albums, both recorded for Impulse!, feature mainly the compositions of the other band members, as opposed to Jarrett's own, which dominated the previous albums.

Jarrett's compositions and the strong musical identities of the group members gave this ensemble a very distinctive sound. The quartet's music is an amalgam of free jazz, straight-ahead post-bop, gospel music, and exotic, Middle-Eastern-sounding improvisations.

In the mid- and late 1970s Jarrett led a "European quartet" concurrently with the American quartet, which was recorded by ECM. This combo consisted of saxophonist Jan Garbarek, bassist Palle Danielsson, and drummer Jon Christensen.

Albums recorded by this group include the following:

This ensemble played in a style similar to that of the American quartet, but with many of the avant-garde and Americana elements replaced by the European folk influences that characterized the work of ECM artists at the time.

Jarrett became involved in a legal wrangle following the release of the album Gaucho in 1980 by the U.S. rock band Steely Dan. The album's title track, credited to Donald Fagen and Walter Becker, bore an undeniable resemblance to Jarrett's "Long As You Know You're Living Yours," from the Belonging album. When a Musician magazine interviewer pointed out the similarity, Becker admitted that he loved the Jarrett composition and Fagen said they had been influenced by it. After their comments were published, Jarrett sued, and Becker and Fagen were forced to add his name to the credits and to include him in the royalties.[8]

Solo piano

Jarrett's first album for ECM, Facing You (1971), was a solo piano date recorded in the studio. He has continued to record solo piano albums in the studio intermittently throughout his career, including Staircase (1976), The Moth and the Flame (1981), and The Melody at Night, with You (1999). Book of Ways (1986) is a studio recording of clavichord solos.

The studio albums are modestly successful entries in the Jarrett catalog, but in 1973, Jarrett also began playing totally improvised solo concerts, and it is the popularity of these voluminous concert recordings that has made him one of the best-selling jazz artists in history. Albums recorded at these concerts include:

  • Solo Concerts: Bremen/Lausanne (1973), recorded in Bremen and Lausanne, originally released as a three-LP set
  • The Köln Concert (1975), the best-selling solo jazz album of all time[9]
  • Sun Bear Concerts (1976), five complete Japanese concert recordings, originally released as a ten-LP set
  • Concerts (Bregenz/München) (1981), originally released as a three-LP set; only the Bregenz concert is included on the single CD release. The München concert (more than an hour and a half long) has not yet been reissued on CD, apart from a ten-minute section on the :rarum collection, which was compiled by Jarrett himself. According to the ECM web site, however, a reissue is in the works.
  • Dark Intervals (1988), recorded in Japan, the first of Jarrett's live solo albums to feature shorter, more concise improvised pieces rather than the more familiar extended improvisations of his earlier solo albums
  • Paris Concert (1990), featuring a 38-minute improvisation, a composition ("The Wind"), and a blues
  • Vienna Concert (1991), which Jarrett has called his finest solo concert recording[citation needed]
  • La Scala (1997), which was the first ever non-classical concert in Milan's La Scala Opera House
  • Radiance (2005), recorded in Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, October 27 and 30, 2002
  • The Carnegie Hall Concert (2006)
  • Paris / London: Testament (2009), released as a three-CD set

Jarrett has commented that his best performances have been when he has had only the slightest notion of what he was going to play at the next moment.[citation needed] An apocryphal account of one such performance had Jarrett staring at the piano for several minutes without playing; as the audience grew increasingly uncomfortable, one member shouted to Jarrett, "D sharp!", to which the pianist responded, "Thank you!", and launched into an improvisation.[citation needed]

Jarrett's 100th solo performance in Japan was captured on video at Suntory Hall Tokyo on April 14, 1987, and released the same year. The recording was titled Solo Tribute.

Another video recording, titled Last Solo, was released in 1987 from a live solo concert at Kan-i Hoken hall, Tokyo, Japan, recorded January 25, 1984.

Both Solo Tribute and Last Solo were reissued on Image Entertainment DVD in 2002.

Another of Jarrett's solo concerts, Dark Intervals (1987, Tokyo), had less of a free-form improvisation feel to it because of the brevity of the pieces. Sounding more like a set of short compositions, these pieces are nonetheless entirely improvised. In addition to the shorter form, they lack the jazzy feel associated with Jarrett's more typical solo concerts.

In the late 1990s, Jarrett was diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and was unable to leave his home for long periods of time. It was during this period that he recorded The Melody at Night, with You, a solo piano effort consisting of jazz standards presented with very little of the reinterpretation he usually employs. The album had originally been a Christmas gift to his second wife, Rose Anne.

By 2000, Jarrett had returned to touring, both solo and with the Standards Trio. Two 2002 solo concerts in Japan, Jarrett's first solo piano concerts following his illness, were released on the 2005 CD Radiance (a complete concert in Osaka, and excerpts from one in Tokyo), and the 2006 DVD Tokyo Solo (the entire Tokyo performance). In contrast with previous concerts (which were generally a pair of continuous improvisations 30–40 minutes long), the 2002 concerts consist of a linked series of shorter improvisations (some as short as a minute and a half, a few of fifteen or twenty minutes).

In September 2005 at Carnegie Hall, Jarrett performed his first solo concert in North America in more than ten years, released a year later as a double-CD set (The Carnegie Hall Concert).

On November 26, 2008, he performed solo in the Salle Pleyel in Paris, and a few days later, on December 1, at London's Royal Festival Hall, marking the first time Jarrett had played in London in seventeen years. These concerts were released in October 2009 on the album Paris / London: Testament.

The Standards Trio

In 1983, at the suggestion of ECM head Manfred Eicher,[10] Jarrett asked bassist Gary Peacock and drummer Jack DeJohnette, with whom he had worked on Peacock's 1977 album Tales of Another, to record an album of jazz standards, simply titled Standards, Volume 1. Two more albums, Standards, Volume 2 and Changes, both recorded at the same session, followed soon after. The success of these albums and the group's ensuing tour, which came as traditional acoustic post-bop was enjoying an upswing in the early 1980s, led to this new Standards Trio becoming one of the premier working groups in jazz, and certainly one of the most enduring, continuing to record and tour for more than twenty-five years.

The trio has recorded numerous live and studio albums consisting primarily of jazz repertory material. The trio members each cite Ahmad Jamal as a major influence in their musical development for his use of both melodic and multi-tonal lines.[citation needed] The albums are as follows:

  • Standards, Vol. 1 (January 1983; studio recording)
  • Standards, Vol. 2 (January 1983; studio recording)
  • Changes (January 1983; studio recording)
  • Standards Live (July 1985; live recording)
  • Still Live (July 1986; live recording)
  • Changeless (October 1987; live recording), a record of free improvisation
  • Standards in Sweden (October 1989; live recording)
  • Standards in Norway (October 1989; live recording)
  • Tribute (October 1989; live recording), which consists of songs played in tribute to various jazz figures associated with them
  • The Cure (recorded live at Town Hall, New York City, April 1990; released 1991)
  • Bye Bye Blackbird (recorded 1991, released 1993), a tribute to Miles Davis
  • At the Deer Head Inn (1992; live recording), on which Paul Motian replaces Jack DeJohnette
  • At the Blue Note (June 1994; live recording), a six-disc boxed set that documents three nights (six sets) at the famed New York City nightclub
  • Tokyo '96 (March 1996; live recording, released 1998)
  • Whisper Not — Live in Paris 1999 (July 1999; live recording)
  • Inside Out (recorded live in London July 2000; released 2001), a record of free improvisation
  • Always Let Me Go (April 2001; live recording), a double album of free improvisation
  • The Out-of-Towners (July 2001; live recording)
  • Up for It: Live in Juan-les-Pins, July 2002 (July 2002; live recording)
  • My Foolish Heart: Live at Montreux (July 2001; a double album of a live recording, Montreux Jazz Festival 2001)
  • Setting Standards: New York Sessions (2008; a three-CD set of the first three albums by the trio: Standards Vol. 1, Standards Vol. 2, and Changes from 1983)
  • Yesterdays (2009)

The trio has also released videos of performances in Japan, available on DVD, including:

  • Standards (February 1985; live recording)
  • Standards II (October 1986; live recording)
  • Live at Open Theater East (July 1993; live recording)
  • Tokyo 1996 (March 1996; live recording), a video document of the concert released on CD as Tokyo '96

The Jarrett-Peacock-DeJohnette trio also produced recordings that consist largely of challenging original material, most notably 1987's Changeless. (These recordings are noted above.) Several of the standards albums contain an original track or two, some attributed to Jarrett but mostly group improvisations. The live recordings Inside Out and Always Let Me Go (both released in 2001) marked a renewed interest by the trio in wholly improvised free jazz. By this point in their history, the musical communication among these three men had become nothing short of telepathic, and their group improvisations frequently take on a complexity that sounds almost composed. The Standards Trio undertakes frequent world tours of recital halls (the only venues in which Jarrett, a notorious stickler for acoustics, will play these days) and is one of the few truly successful jazz groups to play both straight-ahead (as opposed to smooth) and free jazz.

A related recording, At the Deer Head Inn (1992), is a live album of standards recorded with Paul Motian replacing DeJohnette, at the venue in Delaware Water Gap, Pennsylvania, 40 miles from Jarrett's hometown, where he had his first job as a jazz pianist. It was the first time Jarrett and Motian had played together since the demise of the American quartet sixteen years earlier.

Classical music

Since the early 1970s, Jarrett's success as a jazz musician has enabled him to maintain a parallel career as a classical composer and pianist, recording almost exclusively for ECM Records.

In The Light, an album made in 1973, consists of short pieces for solo piano, strings, and various chamber ensembles, including a string quartet and a brass quintet, and a piece for cellos and trombones. This collection demonstrates a young composer's affinity for a variety of classical styles, with varying degrees of success.

Luminessence (1974) and Arbour Zena (1975) both combine composed pieces for strings with improvising jazz musicians, including Jan Garbarek and Charlie Haden. The strings here have a moody, contemplative feel that is characteristic of the "ECM sound" of the 1970s, and is also particularly well-suited to Garbarek's keening saxophone improvisations. From an academic standpoint, these compositions are dismissed by many classical music aficionados as lightweight, but Jarrett appeared to be working more towards a synthesis between composed and improvised music at this time, rather than the production of formal classical works. From this point on, however, his classical work would adhere to more conventional disciplines.

Ritual (1977) is a composed solo piano piece recorded by Dennis Russell Davies that is somewhat reminiscent of Jarrett's own solo piano recordings.

The Celestial Hawk (1980) is a piece for orchestra, percussion, and piano that Jarrett performed and recorded with the Syracuse Symphony under Christopher Keene. This piece is the largest and longest of Jarrett's efforts as a classical composer.

Bridge of Light (1993) is the last recording of classical compositions to appear under Jarrett's name. The album contains three pieces written for a soloist with orchestra, and one for violin and piano. The pieces date from 1984 and 1990.

In 1988 New World Records released the CD Lou Harrison: Piano Concerto and Suite for Violin, Piano, and Small Orchestra, featuring Jarrett on piano, with Naoto Otomo conducting the piano concerto with the New Japan Philharmonic. Robert Hughes conducted the Suite for Violin, Piano, and Small Orchestra. In 1992 came the release of Jarrett's performance of Peggy Glanville-Hicks's Etruscan Concerto, with Dennis Russell Davies conducting the Brooklyn Philharmonic Orchestra. This was released on Music Masters Classics, with pieces by Lou Harrison and Terry Riley. In 1995 the record label Music Masters Jazz released a CD on which one track featured Jarrett performing the exquisite solo piano part in Lousadzak, a 17-minute piano concerto by American composer Alan Hovhaness. The conductor again was Dennis Russell Davies. Most of Jarrett's classical recordings are of older repertoire, but Jarrett may have been introduced to this modern work by his one-time manager George Avakian, who was a friend of the composer.

In addition to his classical work as a composer, Jarrett has also performed and recorded classical music for ECM New Series since the mid-1980s, including the following:

In 2004, Jarrett was awarded the Léonie Sonning Music Prize. The prestigious award usually associated with classical musicians and composers has only previously been given to one other jazz musician—Miles Davis. The first person to receive the award was Igor Stravinsky, in 1959.

Other works

Jarrett also plays harpsichord, clavichord, organ, soprano saxophone, drums, and many other instruments. He often played saxophone and various forms of percussion in the American quartet, though his recordings since the breakup of that group have rarely featured these instruments. On the majority of his recordings in the last twenty years, he has played acoustic piano only. He has spoken with some regret of his decision to give up playing the saxophone, in particular. Jarrett's other albums, many of which contain examples of his instrumental diversity, include the following:

  • Gary Burton and Keith Jarrett (1971), Burton receives top billing on this early date, but all of the compositions except one are Jarrett's. Jarrett plays some electric piano.
  • Ruta and Daitya (1972), an album of duets with Jack DeJohnette, both fresh from Miles Davis's band and demonstrating his influence. In addition to acoustic piano, Jarrett plays electric piano and organ, the only time he has done so on an ECM recording.
  • Hymns/Spheres (1976), improvisations recorded on the 18th-century pipe organ at the Ottobeuren Abbey, a Benedictine abbey in Germany
  • Invocations/The Moth and the Flame (1981), partially recorded on the same organ used for Hymns/Spheres and also featuring Jarrett improvising on saxophone in the extraordinarily resonant abbey
  • Spirits (1986), a collection of "back to basics" multitracked home recordings, performed mainly on a variety of wind instruments
  • Spheres (1986), a shortened, one-disc re-release of Hymns/Spheres

There are several compilations and collections covering various aspects of Jarrett's career:

  • Foundations, a two-CD compilation of early work, from the Jazz Messengers and Charles Lloyd to the trio with Charlie Haden and Paul Motian
  • The Impulse Years, 1973–1974, a compilation of the albums Fort Yawuh, Treasure Island, Death and the Flower, and Backhand, with outtakes
  • Mysteries: The Impulse Years, 1975–1976, which includes the albums Shades, Mysteries, Byablue, and Bop-Be, with outtakes
  • Silence (1977), a CD reissue of the Byablue and Bop-Be albums, with three tracks omitted to fit the work on a single CD
  • Works, an ECM compilation covering the years 1972–1981
  • :rarum, a two-CD ECM compilation, assembled by Jarrett himself, and intended to highlight aspects of his ECM catalog (Spirits, Book of Ways, the organ improvisations) that he felt had been neglected, as well as his better-known work with the European quartet and the Standards Trio, and as a solo pianist

After leaving Miles Davis, Jarrett did not often work as a sideman, but he did appear on a few other musicians' albums, including the following:

  • Paul Motian: Conception Vessel (1972)
  • Airto: Free (1972)
  • Freddie Hubbard: Sky Dive (1972)
  • Kenny Wheeler: Gnu High (1975)
  • Charlie Haden: Closeness (1976)
  • Scott Jarrett: Without Rhyme or Reason

On April 15, 1978, Jarrett was the musical guest on Saturday Night Live. His music has also been used on many television shows, including The Sopranos on HBO. The 2001 German film Bella Martha (English title: Mostly Martha), whose music consultant was ECM founder and head Manfred Eicher, features Jarrett's "Country," from the 1974 European quartet album Belonging.[11]


One of Jarrett's trademarks is his frequent, highly audible vocalization (grunting, groaning, and tuneless singing), similar to that of Glenn Gould, Thelonious Monk, Erroll Garner, Oscar Peterson, and Cecil Taylor. Jarrett is also physically active while playing, writhing, gyrating, and almost dancing on the piano bench. These behaviors occur in his jazz and improvised solo performances, but are for the most part absent whenever he plays classical repertory. Jarrett has noted his vocalizations are based on involvement, not content, and are more of an interaction than a reaction.[12]

Jarrett is notoriously intolerant of audience noise, including coughing and other involuntary sounds, especially during solo improvised performances. He feels that extraneous noise affects his musical inspiration. As a result, cough drops are routinely supplied to Jarrett's audiences in cold weather, and he has even been known to stop playing and lead the crowd in a group cough. This intolerance was made clear during a concert on October 31, 2006, at the restored Salle Pleyel in Paris. After making an impassioned plea to the audience to stop coughing, Jarrett walked out of the concert during the first half, refusing at first to continue, although he did subsequently return to the stage to finish the first half, and also the second. A further solo concert three days later went undisturbed, following an official announcement beforehand urging the audience to minimize extraneous noise. In 2008, during the first half of another Paris concert, Jarrett complained to the audience about the quality of the piano that he had been given, walking off between solos and remonstrating with staff at the venue. Following an extended interval, the piano was replaced. In 2007, in concert in Perugia during the Umbria Jazz Festival, angered by photographers Jarrett implored the audience: "I do not speak Italian, so someone who speaks English can tell all these assholes with cameras to turn them fucking off right now. Right now! No more photographs, including that red light right there. If we see any more lights, I reserve the right (and I think the privilege is yours to hear us), but I reserve the right and Jack and Gary reserve the right to stop playing and leave the goddamn city!" This caused the organizers of the Festival to declare that they will never invite him again.[13]

Jarrett is also extremely protective of the quality of recordings of his concerts. In 1992, a trio concert at the Royal Festival Hall in London was temporarily stopped as he thought he had identified someone in the audience with a recording device. It turned out to be a light on the mixing desk and the concert resumed after an apology.[citation needed]

Jarrett has been known for many years to be strongly opposed to electronic instruments and equipment. His liner notes for the 1973 album Solo Concerts: Bremen/Lausanne states: "I am, and have been, carrying on an anti-electric-music crusade of which this is an exhibit for the prosecution. Electricity goes through all of us and is not to be relegated to wires." He has largely eschewed electric or electronic instruments since his time with Miles Davis.

Jarrett has been known to write disdainful letters to critics who have negatively reviewed his music.[citation needed]

For many years he has been a follower of the teachings of metaphysician and mystic G. I. Gurdjieff. In 1980 he recorded an album of Gurdjieff's compositions, called Sacred Hymns, for ECM.


Jarrett lives in an 18th-century farmhouse in Oxford Township, New Jersey, in rural Warren County, with his second wife, Rose Anne (née Colavito). (His first marriage, to Margot Erney, ended in divorce.) He uses a converted barn on his property as a recording studio.[14]

Jarrett has four brothers, all younger, two of whom are involved in music. Chris Jarrett is also a pianist, and Scott Jarrett is a producer and songwriter. Keith's son Noah Jarrett, one of two sons from his first marriage, is a bassist and composer.


  1. ^ Retrieved Jan. 19, 2010.
  2. ^ Carr, Ian. Keith Jarrett: The Man and His Music (New York: Da Capo, 1992), p. 8.
  3. ^ Carr, Ian. Keith Jarrett, p. 7.
  4. ^ Carr, Ian. Keith Jarrett, p. 17.
  5. ^,0,4716330.story?page=2.
  6. ^ Carr, Ian. Keith Jarrett, pp. 38–39.
  7. ^ Davis, Miles. The Complete Jack Johnson Sessions. Columbia/Legacy, 2003.
  8. ^ Don't Mess with Steely Dan; Brian Sweet, Steely Dan: Reelin' in the Years (London: Omnibus Press, 1994), p. 144.
  9. ^ [1]. Retrieved Jan. 21, 2010.
  10. ^ Smith, Steve. "40 Years Old, a Musical House Without Walls". New York Times, Dec. 23, 2009
  11. ^ Retrieved Jan. 16, 2010.
  12. ^ Jarrett, Keith. The Art of Improvisation. (DVD). Euroarts, 2005
  13. ^ Keith Jarrett Officially Banned from Umbria Jazz Festival After Outburst, JazzTimes Magazine, July 16, 2007. [2]
  14. ^ "A One-of-a-Kind Artist Prepares for His Solo". The Wall Street Journal. 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 


  • Carr, Ian. Keith Jarrett: The Man and His Music. 1992 ISBN 0586092196
  • Ian Carr, Digby Fairweather, Brian Priestley. 'The Rough Guide to Jazz'. 2003 ISBN 1-84353-256-5

External links



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