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Kenan Evren


In office
12 September 1980 – 9 November 1989
Preceded by Fahri Korutürk
Succeeded by Turgut Özal

Born July 17, 1917 (1917-07-17) (age 92)
Alaşehir, Manisa
Nationality Turkish
Spouse(s) Sakine Evren

Ahmet Kenan Evren (born 17 July 1917) was the seventh president of Turkey; a post he assumed by leading the 1980 military coup.

Contents

Biography

Kenan Evren was born in Alaşehir, Manisa.[1] After going to elementary school and middle school in Manisa, Balıkesir and Istanbul, he attended military high school in Maltepe, Ankara. In 1938, he graduated from army school and in 1949 from military academy as a staff officer.[1] From 1958 to 1959, he served in the Turkish Brigade in Korea. In 1964 he was made general. Evren served at various posts as Army Chief. He was the commander of Operation Gladio's Turkish branch; the Counter-Guerrilla. The Counter-Guerrilla was an anti-communist "stay-behind" guerrilla force set up with the support of NATO.[2] He became Chief of General Staff in March 1978.[1]

Military coup

The years leading to the coup were characterized as a fierce struggle between the rightists and leftists. Hoping to see a communist revolution, the left wingers rioted in the streets; on the other hand, the nationalist rightists fought back the left wingers and provoked religious arousal. Universities had taken sides and each became headquarters for either the leftists or rightists. The political leaders Suleyman Demirel and Bülent Ecevit were incapable of controlling the violence.

With the coup came the National Security Council as the ruling body. The council of 1980 was composed of the commanders Kenan Evren, the Chief of Staff and President of the State. The parliament was dissolved. The Central Intelligence Agency's Ankara bureau chief at the time, Paul B. Henze, received a call from the White House Situation Room saying "Paul, your guys have done it", while President Jimmy Carter was watching Fiddler on the Roof at the Kennedy Center.[3][4]

After the coup, in 1982, Kenan Evren was elected the President of Republic of Turkey on November 7 with the 90% approval of the new constitution that was submitted to a controversial referendum, replacing the older constitution which, according to him, had liberties "luxurious" for Turkey.[5] He suspended many forms of civil liberties and human rights on the grounds that it was necessary to establish stability. He professed great admiration for the founder of Turkey, Kemal Atatürk, however he shut down many institutions founded by Atatürk and is often accused of deforming the country's legal system against Atatürk's principles. During his military regime, many people were tortured and executed due to their political beliefs.

Evren took strong measures to ensure that the division between the political left and right would not turn into violence again; the new constitution limited the rights and depoliticized the youth.

According to a report on the Susurluk scandal of 1996, prepared by Prime Ministry Inspection Board Deputy Chairman Kutlu Savaş, quoted by the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, "Fascists had been released from prison in return for 'finishing some jobs' under Evren's rule after 12 September 1980".[6]

Responding to a journalist's question regarding the execution of 17-year-old Erdal Eren, he memorably responded "Should we feed him rather than hang him?"[7]

Post-presidency

After his retirement, he moved to the Turkish Mediterranean resort town of Armutalan, Marmaris and took up painting.[8] On 2 August 2006, a reported plan for assassinating Evren was thwarted when two men were apprehended and arrested in Muğla.[9] A previous attempt in 1996 had already been tracked down when two members of the assassination team spoke on a cellphone eavesdropped by the police, and the Islamic call to prayer (adhan) could be heard during their conversation. Since the timing of the adhan was 4–5 minutes after Istanbul, a point slightly more to the west by that time margin was sought and the team members were caught in Marmaris itself.[10]

In 2004, he revealed that his daughter, Şenay Gürvit, and son-in-law, Erkan Gürvit, are members of the National Intelligence Organization. His daughter presided over the reprisal operations against the militant Armenian organization, ASALA.[11]

After Bülent Ecevit's death, he expressed remorse over the arrest of political leaders after the September 12 coup,[8] but defended the coup itself and the 35 executions.[12] Civilian resentment exists, and there have been demands for his being called to account, following the Ergenekon investigation.[13][14]

Evren was hospitalized for massive gastrointestinal bleeding on August 3, 2009, in Yalıkavak, Bodrum, where his summer house is located.[15] A temporary artificial pacemaker was applied to Evren while in intensive care due to bradycardia.[16] His large intestine was removed a week later at GATA in Istanbul (Gülhane Military Medicine Academy) where he was transferred. [17] He was discharged on September 24, 2009.

Mor ve Ötesi's lead singer Harun Tekin criticized Evren for his judgement due to coup must be had before his death after sang their anti-coup song Darbe at the rock event Rock Tatili Foça.

References

  1. ^ a b c Biography, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
  2. ^ "NATO's Secret Armies: Chronology". Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP). ETH Zurich. http://www.php.isn.ethz.ch/collections/coll_gladio/chronology.cfm?navinfo=15301. Retrieved 2008-07-05.  
  3. ^ Koru, Fehmi (2008-01-10). "Never miss an opportunity to show your sympathy". Zaman. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/yazarDetay.do?haberno=131291. Retrieved 2008-07-05. "Jimmy Carter was in a concert at the Kennedy Center when Evren and his co-conspirators stepped in to take the reins of Turkey. President Carter was notified during the intermission about the coup by a night-duty CIA officer who happened to be an old-Turkish hand with the jubilant news: 'Our boys have done it!'"  
  4. ^ Karasapan, Ömer (Sep/Oct 1989). "Turkey and U.S. Strategy in the Age of Glasnost". Middle East Report (Middle East Research and Information Project) 160: 4–10. doi:10.2307/3013440. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3013440.  
  5. ^ Güçlü, Abbas (2003-09-25). "61 Anayasası Türkiye'ye büyük geldi" (in Turkish). Milliyet. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/2007/09/26/yazar/guclu.html. Retrieved 2008-07-05.  
  6. ^ 1998 Report from the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT), chapter II, "SUSURLUK SCANDAL: Counter-guerilla Affairs", p.39-86 (see p.47)
  7. ^ Oran, Baskın; Evren, Kenan (1989) (in Turkish). Kenan Evren'in yazılmamış anıları. Bilgi Yayınevi. p. 189. ISBN 9754940959. http://books.google.com/books?id=hedafr9aIYoC&q=%C5%9Eimdi+ben,+bunu+yakalad%C4%B1ktan+sonra+mahkemeye+verece%C4%9Fim+ve+ondan+sonra+da+idam+etmeyece%C4%9Fim,+%C3%B6m%C3%BCr+boyu+ona+bakaca%C4%9F%C4%B1m.+Bu+vatan+i%C3%A7in+kan%C4%B1n%C4%B1+ak%C4%B1tan,+bu+Mehmet%C3%A7iklere+silah+%C3%A7eken+o+haini+ben+senelerce+besleyece%C4%9Fim.+Buna+siz+raz%C4%B1+olur+musunuz%3F&dq=%C5%9Eimdi+ben,+bunu+yakalad%C4%B1ktan+sonra+mahkemeye+verece%C4%9Fim+ve+ondan+sonra+da+idam+etmeyece%C4%9Fim,+%C3%B6m%C3%BCr+boyu+ona+bakaca%C4%9F%C4%B1m.+Bu+vatan+i%C3%A7in+kan%C4%B1n%C4%B1+ak%C4%B1tan,+bu+Mehmet%C3%A7iklere+silah+%C3%A7eken+o+haini+ben+senelerce+besleyece%C4%9Fim.+Buna+siz+raz%C4%B1+olur+musunuz%3F&ei=COlvSKeVPJPgiQHoifiUBA. Retrieved 2008-07-05. "Şimdi ben, bunu yakaladıktan sonra mahkemeye vereceğim ve ondan sonra da idam etmeyeceğim, ömür boyu ona bakacağım. Bu vatan için kanını akıtan, bu Mehmetçiklere silah çeken o haini ben senelerce besleyeceğim. Buna siz razı olur musunuz?"   (3 October 1984 speech at Muş)
  8. ^ a b Sarıipek, Mustafa (2006-11-06). "Evren: Tutukladığım için üzgünüm" (in Turkish). Hürriyet. http://hurarsiv.hurriyet.com.tr/goster/haber.aspx?id=5384408&tarih=2006-11-06. Retrieved 2008-07-05.  
  9. ^ "Kenan Evren'e Suikast Yapacaklardı" (in Turkish). Aktif Haber. 2006-08-02. http://www.aktifhaber.com/news_detail.php?id=78372. Retrieved 2008-07-05.  
  10. ^ "Kenan Evren'i Olumden Ezan Kurtardi" (in Turkish). Haber Vitrini. 2004-05-25. http://www.habervitrini.com/haber.asp?id=131459. Retrieved 2008-07-05.  
  11. ^ "Evren: Kızım MİT'te çalışıyordu" (in Turkish). Sabah. 2004-09-08. http://www.sabah.com.tr/2004/09/08/siy112.html. Retrieved 2008-12-13.  
  12. ^ "Evren: Pişman değilim" (in Turkish). Radikal. Anadolu Agency, Dogan News Agency. 2006-03-03. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=180255. Retrieved 2008-10-08.  
  13. ^ "Evren de yargılansın netekim!" (in Turkish). Taraf. 2008-07-28. http://taraf.com.tr/haber.asp?id=13400. Retrieved 2008-07-28.  
  14. ^ Timur, Şafak (2008-09-12). "Debating justice for coup generals". Turkish Daily News. http://www.turkishdailynews.com.tr/article.php?enewsid=115118. Retrieved 2008-09-12.  
  15. ^ "Kenan Evren Hastaneye Kaldırıldı (Kenan Evren Hospitalized)" (in Turkish). haberler.com quoting Ankara Haber Ajansı. 2009-08-03. http://www.haberler.com/kenan-evren-hastaneye-kaldirildi-6-haberi/. Retrieved 2009-09-24.  
  16. ^ "Kenan Evren'e Geçici Kalp Pili Takıldı" (in Turkish). haberler.com quoting Cihan Haber Ajansı. 2009-08-03. http://www.haberler.com/kenan-evren-e-gecici-kalp-pili-takildi-haberi/. Retrieved 2009-09-24.  
  17. ^ "Kalınbağırsağı Alındı, Durumu İyi" (in Turkish). haberler.com. 2009-08-14. http://www.haberler.com/kalinbagirsagi-alindi-durumu-iyi-haberi/. Retrieved 2009-09-24.  
Military offices
Preceded by
Semih Sancar
Chief of the General Staff of Turkey
7 Mar 1978–1 Jul 1983
Succeeded by
Nurettin Ersin
Political offices
Preceded by
Fahri Korutürk
President of Turkey
12 Sept 1980–9 Nov 1989
Succeeded by
Turgut Özal

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Ahmet Kenan Evren (born July 17, 1918) was the seventh president of the Turkish Republic, an office he held from November 9, 1982 to November 9, 1989. Evren came to power from the 1980 Turkish military coup.

Sourced quotes

  • "All my trust in the politicians had been rubbed away."
    • On 17 September 1980, five days after the coup, Evren comments on the political leaders of the standing political parties.
    • From Turkey: Challenges of Continuity and Change by Meliha Benli Altunisik, (p. 43, Routledge, 2005).
  • "All freedoms provided by democracy are for those who believe in it. Can the rights and freedoms of millions of virtuous people who believe in democracy be safeguarded if those who seek to destroy it abuse rights and freedoms to achieve their goals?"
  • "Many axes are being kept under cover, waiting in ambush, ready to pounce, when we resign. Have no worries. We will deliver this homeland to you perfectly clean, as it was in Atatürk's time."
  • "Turkey serves as an anchor of democracy, freedom, and stability in a region in turmoil. Your own Thomas Paine once wrote, 'Those who, expect to reap the blessings of freedom must . . . undergo the fatigue of supporting it.' Let me say that in Turkey, we do not feel fatigued by our support of the Western allies because we know that by supporting the allies, we may all continue to reap the blessings of freedom."

External links

Wikipedia
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Simple English

Kenan Evren

7th President of the Republic of Turkey
In office
12 September 1980 – 9 November 1989
Preceded by Fahri Korutürk
Succeeded by Turgut Özal

Born July 17, 1918 (1918-07-17) (age 92)
Alaşehir, Manisa
Nationality Turkish
Spouse Sakine Evren

Ahmet Kenan Evren (born 17 July 1918 in Alaşehir, Manisa), was the 7th president of Turkey. He was a former Turkish general and the leader of the coup d'état on 12 September 1980.








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