Kendal: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 54°19′34″N 2°44′42″W / 54.326069°N 2.745048°W / 54.326069; -2.745048

Kendal
Auld Grey Town
Kendal roofscape.jpg
View over the rooftops of Kendal
Kendal is located in Cumbria
Kendal

 Kendal shown within Cumbria
Population 27,505 (2001)
OS grid reference SD515925
    - London  223 miles (358.9 km) SSE 
Parish Kendal
District South Lakeland
Shire county Cumbria
Region North West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town KENDAL
Postcode district LA9
Dialling code 01539
Police Cumbria
Fire Cumbria
Ambulance North West
EU Parliament North West England
UK Parliament Westmorland and Lonsdale
List of places: UK • England • Cumbria

Kendal is a market town and civil parish within the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England. It is 40 miles (64 km) south of Carlisle, on the River Kent, and has a total resident population of 27,505,[1] making it the third largest settlement in Cumbria (behind Carlisle and Barrow).

Historically a part of Westmorland, Kendal today is known largely as a centre for tourism, as the home of Kendal mint cake, and as a producer of pipe tobacco and tobacco snuff. Its buildings, mostly constructed with the local grey limestone, have earned it the nickname the Auld Grey Town.

Contents

History

Kendal is listed in the Domesday Book as part of Yorkshire with the name Cherchbi.[2] For many centuries it was called Kirkbie Kendal, meaning "village with a church in the valley of the River Kent". The earliest castle was a Norman motte and bailey (now located on the west side of the town) when the settlement went under the name of Kirkbie Strickland

A chartered market town, the centre of Kendal is structured around a high street with fortified alleyways (known locally as yards) off to either side which allowed the local population to seek shelter from the Anglo-Scottish raiding parties known as the Border Reivers. The main industry in these times was the manufacture of woollen goods, the importance of which is reflected in the town's coat of arms and in its Latin motto "Pannus mihi panis", meaning wool (literally 'cloth') is my bread. "Kendal Green" was hard-wearing wool-based fabric specific to the local manufacturing process, and was supposedly sported by the Kendalian archers who were instrumental in the English victory over the French at the Battle of Agincourt.

The site of several (ruined) castles, the most recent one constructed in the late-12th century, Kendal has a long history as a stronghold of one kind or another. Rumours still circulate that King Henry VIII's sixth wife Katherine Parr was born at Kendal Castle, but based on the evidence available this is very unlikely.

Advertisements

Kendal Mint Cake

Kendal mint cake with chocolate coating

Kendal is known for Kendal mint cake, a glucose-based type of confectionery reputedly discovered accidentally by Joseph Wiper during his search for a clear glacier mint.

Used on numerous expeditions to mountaintops (including Mount Everest and K2) and both poles of the Earth, its popularity is mainly due to the very astute decision of the original manufacturer's great nephew to market it as an energy food, and to supply Ernest Shackleton's 1914-17 Transarctic Expedition.

By the time the business was sold to competitor Romney's in 1987 there were several rival mint cake producers, many of which are still in business.

Tobacco and snuff

Snuff production in Kendal dates from 1792, when Kendalian Thomas Harrison returned from Glasgow, Scotland, where he had learned the art of snuff manufacture. He also brought with him 50 tons of second-hand equipment, all carried on horse back. Pipe tobacco and other tobacco products were subsequently added to the firm's production. Ownership of his firm passed eventually to his son-in-law, Samuel Gawith, whose eponymic firm, Samuel Gawith & Co., continues in business to this day. Following Samuel Gawith's death in 1865, the firm passed into the hands of his two eldest sons. During this time the business was administered initially by trustees, including Henry Hoggarth, and John Thomas Illingworth.

Illingworth left the firm in 1867 to start his own firm, which remained in business until the 1980s. The youngest son of Samuel Gawith the First subsequently teamed with Henry Hoggarth to form Gawith Hoggarth TT, Ltd. Both Samuel Gawith & Company and Gawith Hoggarth TT continue in business today in Kendal, producing snuffs and tobacco products enjoyed around the world. Samuel Gawith and Company also hold the distinction of employing the oldest piece of industrial equipment still in production use in the world, a device manufactured in the 1750s.

Governance

Civic history

The municipal borough of Kendal was created in 1835 and until 1894 the town was also an urban sanitary district. The borough boundaries were altered in 1935 by gaining a small part of South Westmorland Rural District under a County Review Order.

The civil parishes of Kirkland and Nether Graveship were abolished in 1908 and became part of Kendal Civil Parish whose boundaries were after that the same as the borough.

Kendal was, from 1888 to 1974, the administrative centre of the administrative county of Westmorland although Appleby is the traditional county town.

The borough of Kendal was abolished in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972 to become a part of South Lakeland district of Cumbria. The town was a successor parish, and thus kept its own town council.

Parliamentary representation

Kendal is part of the Westmorland and Lonsdale parliamentary constituency of which Tim Farron is the current MP representing the Liberal Democrats.[3]

Geography

Kendal stands on the River Kent, surrounded by low hills. It is near (but not in) the Lake District National Park. When the National Park was formed in 1951 the boundary was deliberately shaped to exclude Kendal. Although a relatively small town, it is an important commercial centre for a wide area thanks to its rural location. It is affectionately referred to as "The Gateway to The Lakes".

North: Burneside
West: Underbarrow and Bradleyfield Kendal East: Sedbergh
South: Oxenholme

Economy

Kendal's early prosperity was based largely on cloth manufacture. In the 19th century it became a centre for the manufacture of snuff and shoes; the K Shoes company remained a major employer in the town until its factory closed in 2003. [1] There are still a number of light industries based in the town. Though tourism is now one of the main employers, there is a significant IT and design sector in the town (this being non-geographic dependent) the increase of broadband availability has significantly increased this.

On February 26, 2003, Kendal was granted Fairtrade Town status.

Transport

A bridge over the old course of the Lancaster Canal, now used as a footpath

Kendal railway station is situated on the Windermere Branch Line and gives connections to Windermere railway station to the north, and Oxenholme Lake District railway station (on the West Coast Main Line) and Lancaster railway station to the south.

Kendal is around 8 miles (12 km) from the M6 motorway, and is bypassed on the west by the A591 road, linking it to Windermere, Keswick and the A590 leading to Barrow, as well as being the terminus of the A65 road to Kirkby Lonsdale and a destination on the A6 road to Penrith. Kendal is signposted off the M6 at Junctions 36 (A65, A590), Junction 37 (A684 road), Junction 38 (A685 road and Junction 39 (A6). The three-mile £1.9m A591 bypass opened on August 29 1971.

The Lancaster Canal was built as far as Kendal in 1819, but the northern section was rendered unnavigable by the construction of the M6. Part of this section was also drained and filled in to prevent leakage, and the course of the canal through Kendal has now been developed. The canal towpath, however, remains as a footpath through Kendal. A campaign is currently underway to restore the canal as far as Kendal.

Kendal is served by a long distance coach service from London (once per day) and local buses run from the bus station to destinations such as Ambleside and Barrow in Furness.

Education

The Queen Katherine School, on Appleby Road, is a Secondary Foundation School, with Technology College status.[4] The school also operates an outstanding Sixth Form.

Kirkbie Kendal School, formerly known as Kendal Grammar School, is a Secondary School Business and Enterprise College that serves the area around the town and rural countryside. Kirkbie Kendal School operates as a Foundation school; its previous students include the historian David Starkey and Clinical Psychologist Vanessa Jones.

There are numerous Primary Schools in the area, including Castle Park, Stramongate School, Heron Hill, Ghyllside, Vicarage Park, and Dean Gibson. In the nearby village of Natland, there is St Marks School.

Places of interest

Notable people

The following is a list of people who either were born in Kendal or have significant contacts with Kendal:

Kendal dialect

The Kendal dialect known as Kendalian, is a variant of the Cumbrian dialect spoken around the Kendal area.

Kendal Mountain Search & Rescue Team

Kendal has for many years maintained a voluntary Mountain Search & Rescue Team based at Busher Walk. They have performed numerous rescues around the Kendal area, and along with other local Mountain Rescue teams, helped at the Grayrigg derailment.

Twin towns

Kendal is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Parish Headcounts : South Lakeland Retrieved 2009-11-22
  2. ^ Mills, A.D., Dictionary of English Place Names, Oxford University Press, 1998
  3. ^ Tim Farren "TheyWorkForYou" listing
  4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/1400721.stm BBC NEWS | More schools get specialist status

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

There is more than one place called Kendal:

Europe

Asia

This article is a disambiguation page. If you arrived here by following a link from another page you can help by correcting it, so that it points to the appropriate disambiguated page.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

KENDAL, a market town and municipal borough in the Kendal parliamentary division of Westmorland, England, 251 m. N.N.W. from London on the Windermere branch of the London & North-Western railway. Pop. (1901), 14,183. The town, the full name of which is Kirkby-Kendal or Kirkby-in-Kendal, is the largest in the county. It is picturesquely placed on the river Kent, and is irregularly built. The white-walled houses with their blue-slated roofs, and the numerous trees, give it an attractive appearance. To the S.W. rises an abrupt limestone eminence, Scout Scar, which commands an extensive view towards Windermere and the southern mountains of the Lake District. The church of the Holy Trinity, the oldest part of which dates from about 1 200, is a Gothic building with five aisles and a square tower. In it is the helmet of Major Robert Philipson, who rode into the church during service in search of one of Cromwell's officers, Colonel Briggs, to do vengeance on him. This major was notorious as "Robin the Devil," and his story is told in Scott's Rokeby. Among the public buildings are the town hall, classic in style; the market house, and literary and scientific institution, with a museum containing a fossil collection from the limestone of the locality. Educational establishments include a free grammar school, in modern buildings, founded in 1525 and well endowed; a blue-coat school, science and art school, and green-coat Sunday school (1813). On an eminence east of the town are the ruins of Kendal castle, attributed to the first barons of Kendal. It was the birthplace of Catherine Parr, Henry VIII.'s last queen. On the Castlebrow Hill, an artificial mound probably of pre-Norman origin, an obelisk was raised in 1788 in memory of the revolution of 1688. The woollen manufactures of Kendal have been noted since 1331, when Edward III. is said to have granted letters of protection to John Kemp, a Flemish weaver who settled in the town; and, although the coarse cloth known to Shakespeare as "Kendal green" is no longer made, its place is more than supplied by active manufactures of tweeds, railway rugs, horse clothing, knitted woollen caps and jackets, worsted and woollen yarns, and similar goods. Other manufactures of Kendal are machine-made boots and shoes, cards for wool and cotton, agricultural and other machinery, paper, and, in the neighbourhood, gunpowder. There is a large weekly market for grain, and annual horse and cattle fairs. The town is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 2622 acres.

The outline of a Roman fort is traceable at Watercrook near Kendal. The barony and castle of Kendal or Kirkby-in-Kendal, held by Turold before the Conquest, were granted by William I. to No de Taillebois, but the barony was divided into three parts in the reign of Richard II., one part with the castle passing to Sir William Parr, knight, ancestor of Catherine Parr. After the death of her brother William Parr, marquess of Northampton, his share of the barony called Marquis Fee reverted to Queen Elizabeth. The castle, being evidently deserted, was in ruins in 1586. Kendal was plundered by the Scots in 1210, and was visited by the rebels in 1715 and again in 1745 when the Pretender was proclaimed king there. Burgesses in Kendal are mentioned in 1345, and the borough with "court housez" and the fee-farm of free tenants is included in a confirmation charter to Sir William Parr in 1472. Richard III. in 1484 granted the inhabitants of the barony freedom from toll, passage and pontage, and the town was incorporated in 1576 by Queen Elizabeth under the title of an alderman and 12 burgesses, but Charles I. in 1635 appointed a mayor, 12 aldermen and 20 capital burgesses. Under the Municipal Reform Act of 1835 the corporation was again altered. From 1832 to 1885 Kendal sent one member to parliament, but since the last date its representation has been merged in that of the southern division of the county. A weekly market on Saturday granted by Richard I. to Roger Fitz Reinfred was purchased by the corporation from the earl of Lonsdale and Captain Bagot, lords of the manor, in 1885 and 1886. Of the five fairs which are now held three are ancient, that now held on the 29th of April being granted to Marmaduke de Tweng and William de Rosin 1307, and those on the 8th and 9th of November to Christiana, widow of Ingelram de Gynes, in 1333 See Victoria County History, Westmorland; Cornelius Nicholson, The Annals of Kendal (1861).


<< William Hunter Kendal

Henry Clarence Kendall >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

Old English Kent + dæl "valley of the river Kent".

Proper noun

Singular
Kendal

Plural
-

Kendal

  1. A town in the Lake District.
  2. A habitational surname, also as a variant of Kendall.
  3. A male given name, transferred from the surname.
  4. A female given name of modern usage.

Derived terms

  • Kendal mint cake

Anagrams


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message