The Full Wiki

More info on Kentucky

Kentucky: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Kentucky

Include this on your site/blog:

























Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Commonwealth of Kentucky
Flag of Kentucky State seal of Kentucky
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Bluegrass State
Motto(s): United we stand, divided we fall
before statehood, known as
the Kentucky County, Virginia
Map of the United States with Kentucky highlighted
Official language(s) English[1]
Demonym Kentuckian
Capital Frankfort
Largest city Louisville
Largest metro area Louisville Metro
Area  Ranked 37th in the US
 - Total 40,409 sq mi
(104,659 km2)
 - Width 140 miles (225 km)
 - Length 379 miles (610 km)
 - % water 1.7
 - Latitude 36° 30′ N to 39° 09′ N
 - Longitude 81° 58′ W to 89° 34′ W
Population  Ranked 26th in the US
 - Total 4,314,113 (2009 est.)[2]
4,041,769 (2000)
 - Density 101.7/sq mi  (39.28/km2)
Ranked 22nd in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Black Mountain[3]
4,145 ft  (1,263 m)
 - Mean 755 ft  (230 m)
 - Lowest point Mississippi River[3]
257 ft  (78 m)
Admission to Union  June 1, 1792 (15th)
Governor Steve Beshear (D)
Lieutenant Governor Daniel Mongiardo (D)
U.S. Senators Mitch McConnell (R)
Jim Bunning (R)
U.S. House delegation 4 Republicans, 2 Democrats (list)
Time zones  
 - eastern half Eastern: UTC-5/DST-4
 - western half Central: UTC-6/DST-5
Abbreviations KY US-KY
Website http://Kentucky.gov

The Commonwealth of Kentucky (Listeni /kɪnˈtʌki/) is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth (the others being Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts). Originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 it became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th largest state in terms of total area, the 36th largest in land area, and ranks 26th in population.

Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the fact that native bluegrass is present in many of the pastures throughout the state, based on the fertile soil. It made possible the breeding of high-quality livestock, especially thoroughbred racing horses. It is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park; the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the Lower 48 states; and the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. It is also home to the highest per capita number of deer and turkey in the United States, the largest free-ranging elk herd east of Montana, and the nation's most productive coalfield. Kentucky is also known for thoroughbred horses, horse racing, bourbon distilleries, bluegrass music, automobile manufacturing, tobacco, and college basketball.

Contents

Origin of name

Narrow country roads bounded by stone and wood plank fences are a fixture in the Kentucky Bluegrass region.

The origin of Kentucky's name (variously spelled Cane-tuck-ee, Cantucky, Kain-tuck-ee, and Kentuckee before its modern spelling was accepted)[4] does not have a consensus. It is unlikely to mean "dark and bloody ground", as is commonly believed, because no variation of the word is associated with that meaning in any known Native American language. It is not a combination of "cane" and "turkey".[5] The most likely etymology is that it comes from an Iroquoian word for "meadow" or "prairie"[4][6] (c.f. Mohawk kenhtà:ke, Seneca këhta'keh).[7] Other possibilities also exist: the suggestion of early Kentucky pioneer George Rogers Clark that the name means "the river of blood", related to 13th century wars in which the Iroquois pushed other tribes out of the area;[4] a Wyandot name meaning "land of tomorrow"; a Shawnee term possibly referring to the head of a river;[8] or the Algonquian word, kenten (river bottom).[5]

Geography

Kentucky

Kentucky is considered to be situated in the Upland South. It is infrequently also included in the Midwest.[9][10] A significant portion of Kentucky is part of Appalachia.

Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west, Illinois and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast. Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more states.

Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River; however, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. In several places, the border does not follow the current course of the appropriate river. Northbound travelers on US 41 from Henderson, upon crossing the Ohio River, will find themselves still in Kentucky until they travel about a half-mile (800 m) farther north. A horse-racing track, Ellis Park, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Indiana and Kentucky.[11]

Kentucky is the only U.S. state to have a non-contiguous part exist as an exclave surrounded by other states. Fulton County, in the far west corner of the state, includes a small part of land, Kentucky Bend, on the Mississippi River bordered by Missouri and accessible via Tennessee, created by the New Madrid Earthquake.[12]

Regions

Kentucky's regions (click on image for color coding information.)

Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is commonly divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles (145 km) around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the Northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short, steep, and very narrow hills.

Climate

Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa). Monthly average temperatures in Kentucky range from a summer daytime high of 87 °F (31 °C) to a winter low of 23 °F (−5 °C). The average precipitation is 46 inches (1,200 mm) a year.[13] Kentucky experiences all four seasons, usually with striking variations in the severity of summer and winter from year to year.[14]

Event Death Toll
Louisville Tornado of 1890 est. 76–120+
April 3, 1974 Tornado Outbreak 72
April 7, 1977 Flooding (Cumberland River toppled Pineville floodwall)  ?
March 1, 1997 Flooding 18
2008 Super Tuesday tornado outbreak 7
January 2009 ice storm 24+

Major weather events that have affected Kentucky include:

Monthly Average High and Low Temperatures For Various Kentucky Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Lexington 40/24 45/28 55/36 65/44 74/54 82/62 86/66 85/65 78/58 67/46 54/37 44/28
Louisville 41/25 47/28 57/37 67/46 75/56 83/65 87/70 86/68 79/61 68/48 56/39 45/30
Paducah 42/24 48/28 58/37 68/46 77/55 85/64 89/68 87/65 81/57 71/45 57/36 46/28
Pikeville 46/23 50/25 60/32 69/39 77/49 84/58 87/63 86/62 80/56 71/42 60/33 49/26
Ashland 42/19 47/21 57/29 68/37 77/47 84/56 88/61 87/59 80/52 69/40 57/31 46/23

Lakes and rivers

Lake Cumberland is the largest artificial lake, in terms of volume, east of the Mississippi River.

Kentucky's 90,000 miles (140,000 km) of streams provides one of the most expansive and complex stream systems in the nation. Kentucky has both the largest artificial lake east of the Mississippi in water volume (Lake Cumberland) and surface area (Kentucky Lake). It is the only U.S. state to be bordered on three sides by rivers—the Mississippi River to the west, the Ohio River to the north, and the Big Sandy River and Tug Fork to the east.[15] Its major internal rivers include the Kentucky River, Tennessee River, Cumberland River, Green River and Licking River.

Though it has only three major natural lakes,[16] the state is home to many artificial lakes. Kentucky also has more navigable miles of water than any other state in the union, other than Alaska.[17]

Natural environment and conservation

Once an industrial wasteland, Louisville's reclaimed waterfront now features thousands of trees and miles of walking trails

Kentucky has an expansive park system which includes one national park, two National Recreation areas, two National Historic Parks, two national forests, 45 state parks, 37,696 acres (153 km2) of state forest, and 82 Wildlife Management Areas.

Kentucky has been part of two of the most successful wildlife reintroduction projects in United States history. In the winter of 1997, the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources began to re-stock elk in the state's eastern counties, which had been extinct from the area for over 150 years. As of 2009, the herd had reached the project goal of 10,000 animals, making it the largest herd east of the Mississippi River.[18]

The state also stocked wild turkeys in the 1950s. Once extinct there, today Kentucky has more turkeys than any other eastern state. Hunters telechecked a record 29,006 birds during the 23-day season in Spring 2009.[19]

Significant natural attractions

Red River Gorge is one of Kentucky's most visited places

History

Abraham Lincoln Birthplace near Hodgenville
Both Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis were born in Kentucky.

Although inhabited by Native Americans from at least 1000 BCE to about 1650 CE, when European and colonial explorers and settlers began entering Kentucky in greater number in the mid-1700s, there were no major Native American settlements in the region. The Shawnees from the north and Cherokees from the south sent parties into the area regularly for hunting. As more settlers entered the area, warfare broke out because the American Indians saw settlers' attempts to own land to be encroachment on their traditional hunting grounds.[24]

According to a 1790 U.S. government report, 1,500 Kentucky settlers had been killed in Indian raids since the end of the Revolutionary War.[25] In an attempt to end these raids, Clark led an expedition of 1,200 drafted men against Shawnee towns on the Wabash River in 1786, one of the first actions of the Northwest Indian War.[26]

After the American Revolution, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County.[27] Eventually, the residents of Kentucky County petitioned for a separation from Virginia. Ten constitutional conventions were held in the Constitution Square Courthouse in Danville between 1784 and 1792. In 1790, Kentucky's delegates accepted Virginia's terms of separation, and a state constitution was drafted at the final convention in April 1792. On June 1, 1792, Kentucky became the fifteenth state to be admitted to the union. Isaac Shelby, a military veteran from Virginia, was elected the first Governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.[28]

Kentucky was a border state during the American Civil War.[29] Although frequently described as never having seceded, representatives from several counties met at Russellville calling themselves the "Convention of the People of Kentucky" and passed an Ordinance of Secession on November 20, 1861.[30] They established a Confederate government of Kentucky with its capital in Bowling Green.[31] Though Kentucky was represented by the central star on the Confederate battle flag,[32] the Russellville Convention did not represent the majority of residents. A year earlier, philosopher Karl Marx wrote to Friedrich Engels that the result of a vote deciding how Kentucky would be represented at a convention of the border states was "100,000 for the Union ticket, only a few thousand for secession."[33] Kentucky officially remained "neutral" throughout the war due to Union sympathies of many of the Commonwealth's citizens. Confederate Memorial Day is observed by some in Kentucky on Confederate President Jefferson Davis' birthday, June 3.[34]

Designed by the Washington Monument's architect Robert Mills in 1845, the U.S. Marine Hospital in Louisville is considered the best remaining antebellum hospital in the United States

The Black Patch Tobacco Wars, a vigilante action, occurred in the area in the early 1900s. As result of the tobacco industry monopoly, tobacco farmers in the area were forced to sell their tobacco at low prices. Many local farmers and activists united to refuse to sell tobacco to the tobacco industry. A vigilante wing, the "Night Riders", terrorized farmers who sold their tobacco at the low prices demanded by the tobacco corporations. They burned several tobacco warehouses, notably in Hopkinsville and Princeton. In the later period of their operation, they were known to physically assault farmers in the middle of the night who broke the boycott. The Governor declared martial law and deployed the Kentucky Militia to end the Black Patch Tobacco Wars.

On January 30, 1900, Governor William Goebel, flanked by two bodyguards and walking to the State Capitol in downtown Frankfort, was mortally wounded by an assassin. Goebel was contesting the election of 1899, which William S. Taylor was initially believed to have won. For several months, J. C. W. Beckham, Goebel's running mate, and Taylor fought over who was the legal governor, until the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in May in favor of Beckham. After fleeing to Indiana, Taylor was indicted as a co-conspirator in Goebel's assassination. Goebel is the only governor of a U.S. state to have been assassinated while in office.[35]

Law and government

Kentucky is one of four U.S. states to officially use the term commonwealth, which it inherited from Virginia. Kentucky is also one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years (the others are Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Virginia). Kentucky holds elections for these offices every 4 years in the years preceding Presidential election years. Thus, the last year when Kentucky elected a Governor was 2007; the next gubernatorial election will occur in 2011, with future gubernatorial elections to take place in 2015, 2019, 2023, etc.

Executive Branch
The governor's mansion in Frankfort, Kentucky

The executive branch is headed by the governor who serves as both head of state and head of government. The lieutenant governor may or may not have executive authority depending on whether the person is a member of the Governor's cabinet. Under the current Kentucky Constitution, the lieutenant governor assumes the duties of the governor only if the governor is incapacitated. (Prior to 1992, the lieutenant governor assumed power any time the governor was out of the state.) The governor and lieutenant governor usually run on a single ticket (also per a 1992 constitutional amendment), and are elected to four-year terms. Currently, the governor and lieutenant governor are Democrats Steve Beshear and Daniel Mongiardo.

The commonwealth's chief prosecutor, law enforcement officer, and law officer is the attorney general. The attorney general is elected to a four-year term and may serve two consecutive terms under the current Kentucky Constitution. The current Kentucky attorney general is Democrat Jack Conway.

Legislative Branch

Kentucky's legislative branch consists of a bicameral body known as the Kentucky General Assembly.

The Senate is considered the upper house. It has 38 members, and is led by the President of the Senate, currently Republican David L. Williams.

The House of Representatives has 100 members, and is led by the Speaker of the House, currently Democrat Greg Stumbo.

Judicial Branch

The judicial branch of Kentucky is called the Kentucky Court of Justice and comprises courts of limited jurisdiction called District Courts; courts of general jurisdiction called Circuit Courts; specialty courts such as Drug Court, Family Court; an intermediate appellate court, the Kentucky Court of Appeals; and a court of last resort, the Kentucky Supreme Court.

The Kentucky Court of Justice is headed by the Chief Justice of the Commonwealth.

Unlike federal judges, who are usually appointed, justices serving on Kentucky state courts are chosen by the state's populace in non-partisan elections.

Federal representation

Kentucky's two Senators are Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell and Jim Bunning, both Republicans. The state is divided into six Congressional Districts, represented by Republicans Ed Whitfield (1st), Brett Guthrie (2nd), Geoff Davis (4th), and Hal Rogers (5th), and Democrats John Yarmuth (3rd) and Ben Chandler (6th).

A map showing Kentucky's six congressional districts

Judicially, Kentucky is split into two Federal court districts: the Kentucky Eastern District and the Kentucky Western District. Appeals are heard in the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals based in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Law

Kentucky's body of laws, known as the Kentucky Revised Statutes (KRS), were enacted in 1942 to better organize and clarify the whole of Kentucky law.[36] The statutes are enforced by local police, sheriffs and deputy sheriffs, and constables and deputy constables. Unless they have completed a police academy elsewhere, these officers are required to complete training at the Kentucky Department of Criminal Justice Training Center on the campus of Eastern Kentucky University.[37] Additionally, in 1948, the Kentucky General Assembly established the Kentucky State Police, making it the 38th state to create a force whose jurisdiction extends throughout the given state.[38]

Kentucky is one of 36 states in the United States that sanctions the death penalty for certain crimes. Those convicted of capital crimes after March 31, 1998 are always executed by lethal injection; those convicted before this date may opt for the electric chair.[39] Only three people have been executed in Kentucky since the U.S. Supreme Court reinstituted the practice in 1976. The most notable execution in Kentucky, however, was that of Rainey Bethea on August 14, 1936. Bethea was publicly hanged in Owensboro for the rape and murder of Lischia Edwards.[40] Irregularities with the execution led to this becoming the last public execution in the United States.[41]

Kentucky has been on the front lines of the debate over displaying the Ten Commandments on public property. In the 2005 case of McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the decision of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals that a display of the Ten Commandments in the Whitley City courthouse of McCreary County was unconstitutional.[42] Later that year, Judge Richard Fred Suhrheinrich, writing for the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals in the case of ACLU of Kentucky v. Mercer County, wrote that a display including the Mayflower Compact, the Declaration of Independence, the Ten Commandments, the Magna Carta, The Star-Spangled Banner, and the national motto could be erected in the Mercer County courthouse.[43]

Kentucky has also been know to have unusually high political candidacy age laws, esspecially compared to surrounding states. The origin of this is unknown, but it has been suggested it has to do with the commonwealth tradition. Despite that theory, there are recent efforts to change age laws for political candidacy ages to suit the rest of the country.[44]

Politics

Presidential elections results[45]
Year Republicans Democrats
2008 57.37% 1,048,462 41.15% 751,985
2004 59.55% 1,069,439 39.69% 712,733
2000 56.50% 872,492 41.37% 638,898
1996 44.88% 623,283 45.84% 636,614
1992 41.34% 617,178 44.55% 665,104
1988 55.52% 734,281 43.88% 580,368
1984 60.04% 822,782 39.37% 539,589
1980 49.07% 635,274 47.61% 616,417
1976 45.57% 531,852 52.75% 615,717
1972 63.37% 676,446 34.77% 371,159
1968 43.79% 462,411 37.65% 397,541
1964 35.65% 372,977 64.01% 669,659
1960 53.59% 602,607 46.41% 521,855

Where politics are concerned, Kentucky historically has been very hard fought and leaned slightly toward the Democratic Party, although it was never included among the "Solid South." In 2006, 57.05% of the state's voters were officially registered as Democrats, 36.55% registered Republican, and 6.39% registered with some other political party.[46]

From 1964 through 2004, Kentucky voted with the winner of the election for President of the United States. In the 2008 election, however, the state lost its bellwether status when John McCain, who won Kentucky, lost the national popular and electoral vote to Barack Obama (McCain carried Kentucky 57 to 41%). The Commonwealth supported the previous three Democratic candidates elected to the White House, all elected from Southern states: Lyndon B. Johnson (Texas) in 1964, Jimmy Carter (Georgia) in 1976, and Bill Clinton (Arkansas) in 1992 and 1996.

Demographics

Kentucky Population Density Map.
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 73,677
1800 220,955 199.9%
1810 406,511 84.0%
1820 564,317 38.8%
1830 687,917 21.9%
1840 779,828 13.4%
1850 982,405 26.0%
1860 1,155,684 17.6%
1870 1,321,011 14.3%
1880 1,648,690 24.8%
1890 1,858,635 12.7%
1900 2,147,174 15.5%
1910 2,289,905 6.6%
1920 2,416,630 5.5%
1930 2,614,589 8.2%
1940 2,845,627 8.8%
1950 2,944,806 3.5%
1960 3,038,156 3.2%
1970 3,218,706 5.9%
1980 3,660,777 13.7%
1990 3,685,296 0.7%
2000 4,041,769 9.7%
Est. 2009 4,314,113 [2] 6.7%
http://ukcc.uky.edu/census/21.txt

As of July 1, 2006, Kentucky has an estimated population of 4,206,074, which is an increase of 33,466, or 0.8%, from the prior year and an increase of 164,586, or 4.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 77,156 people (that is 287,222 births minus 210,066 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 59,604 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 27,435 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 32,169 people. As of 2004, Kentucky's population included about 95,000 foreign-born (2.3%). The population density of the state is 101.7 people per square mile.[47]

Kentucky's total population has grown during every decade since records began. However, during most decades of the 20th century there was also net out-migration from Kentucky. Since 1900, rural Kentucky counties have experienced a net loss of over 1 million people from migration, while urban areas have experienced a slight net gain.[48]

The center of population of Kentucky is located in Washington County, in the city of Willisburg.[49]

Race and ancestry

The five largest ancestries in the commonwealth are: American (20.9%), German (12.7%), Irish (10.5%), English (9.7%), African American (7.8%).[50] Only eight Kentucky counties list an ancestry other than "American" as the county's largest, those being Christian and Fulton, where African American is the largest reported ancestry, and the state's most urban counties of Jefferson, Oldham, Fayette, Boone, Kenton, and Campbell, where German is the largest reported ancestry.[50] Southeastern Kentucky was populated by a large group of Native Americans of mixed heritage, also known as Melungeons, in the early 19th century. Groups like the Ridgetop Shawnee are organizing the descendants of those early Native American settlers.

African Americans, who made up one-fourth of Kentucky's population prior to the Civil War, declined in number as many moved to the industrial North in the Great Migration. Today 44.2% of Kentucky's African American population is in Jefferson County and 52% are in the Louisville Metro Area. Other areas with high concentrations, besides Christian and Fulton Counties, are the city of Paducah, the Bluegrass, and the city of Lexington. Many mining communities in far Southeastern Kentucky also have populations between five and 10 percent African American.

Demographics of Kentucky (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 91.53% 7.76% 0.61% 0.92% 0.08%
2000 (Hispanic only) 1.35% 0.10% 0.04% 0.02% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 91.27% 7.98% 0.58% 1.10% 0.08%
2005 (Hispanic only) 1.80% 0.12% 0.04% 0.03% 0.01%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 2.97% 6.16% -2.21% 23.46% 9.78%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 2.44% 5.94% -3.28% 23.07% 7.98%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 37.97% 22.34% 13.51% 38.48% 19.80%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Religion

Lexington Theological Seminary (then College of the Bible), 1904.

In 2000, The Association of Religion Data Archives reported[51] that of Kentucky's 4,041,769 residents:

Today Kentucky is home to several seminaries. Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville is the principal seminary for the Southern Baptist Convention. Louisville is also the home of the Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Lexington has two seminaries, Lexington Theological Seminary, and the Baptist Seminary of Kentucky. Asbury Theological Seminary is located in nearby Wilmore. In addition to seminaries, there are several colleges affiliated with denominations. Transylvania in Lexington is affiliated with the Disciples of Christ. Pikeville College in Pikeville, Kentucky is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church. In Louisville, Bellarmine and Spalding are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. In Owensboro, Kentucky, Kentucky Wesleyan College is associated with the Methodist Church and Brescia University is associated with the Roman Catholic Church. Wilmore is home to Asbury College (a separate institution from the seminary), which is associated with the Christian College Consortium. The University of the Cumberlands, located in Williamsburg, Campbellsville University in Campbellsville, Georgetown College in Georgetown and Mid-Continent University in Mayfield all have connections with the Southern Baptist Convention. Louisville is also home to the headquarters of the Presbyterian Church (USA) and their printing press. Louisville is also home to a sizable Muslim[52] and Jewish population.

Economy

Kentucky quarter, reverse side, 2001.jpg
The best selling car in the United States, the Toyota Camry, is manufactured in Georgetown, Kentucky.
The best selling truck in the United States, the Ford F-Series, is manufactured in Louisville, Kentucky.

The total gross state product for 2006 was US$146 billion, 27th in the nation. Its per-capita personal income was US$28,513, 43rd in the nation.[53] Kentucky's agricultural outputs are horses, cattle, tobacco, dairy products, hogs, soybeans, and corn. Its industrial outputs are transportation equipment, chemical products, electric equipment, machinery, food processing, tobacco products, coal, and tourism. The Eastern Kentucky Coal Fields are recognized as being among the most productive in the nation.

Kentucky ranks 4th among U.S. states in the number of automobiles and trucks assembled.[54] The Chevrolet Corvette, Cadillac XLR, Ford Explorer, Ford Super Duty trucks, Toyota Camry, Toyota Avalon, Toyota Solara, and Toyota Venza are assembled in Kentucky.

Unlike many bordering states which developed a widespread industrial economy, much of rural Kentucky has maintained a farm based economy, with cattle, corn, and soybeans being the main crops. The area immediately outside Lexington is also the leading region for breeding Thoroughbred racing horses, due to the high calcium content in the soil (from the underlying limestone) making the pastures especially productive. Despite being the 14th smallest state in terms of land area, Kentucky still ranks 5th in the total number of farms, with more farms per square mile than any other U.S. state.[55] The average farm size in Kentucky is only 153 acres (0.6 km2).[56]

Kentucky ranks 5th nationally in goat farming, 8th in beef cattle production,[57] and 14th in corn production.[58]

Taxation

There are 5 income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 6% of personal income.[59] The sales tax rate in Kentucky is 6%.[60] Kentucky has a broadly based classified property tax system. All classes of property, unless exempted by the Constitution, are taxed by the state, although at widely varying rates.[61] Many of these classes are exempted from taxation by local government. Of the classes that are subject to local taxation, three have special rates set by the General Assembly, one by the Kentucky Supreme Court and the remaining classes are subject to the full local rate, which includes the tax rate set by the local taxing bodies plus all voted levies. Real property is assessed on 100% of the fair market value and property taxes are due by December 31. Once the primary source of state and local government revenue, property taxes now account for only about 6% of the Kentucky's annual General Fund revenues.[62]

Until January 1, 2006, Kentucky imposed a tax on intangible personal property held by a taxpayer on January 1 of each year. The Kentucky intangible tax was repealed under House Bill 272.[63] Intangible property consisted of any property or investment which represents evidence of value or the right to value. Some types of intangible property included: bonds, notes, retail repurchase agreements, accounts receivable, trusts, enforceable contracts sale of real estate (land contracts), money in hand, money in safe deposit boxes, annuities, interests in estates, loans to stockholders, and commercial paper.

"Unbridled Spirit"

Kentucky state welcome sign

To boost Kentucky's image, give it a consistent reach, and help Kentucky "stand out from the crowd", former Governor Ernie Fletcher launched a comprehensive branding campaign with the hope of making its $12 – $14 million advertising budget more effective. The "Unbridled Spirit" brand was the result of a $500,000 contract with New West, a Kentucky-based public relations advertising and marketing firm to develop a viable brand and tag line. The Fletcher administration aggressively marketed the brand in both the public and private sectors. The "Welcome to Kentucky" signs at border areas have Unbridled Spirit's symbol on them.

The previous campaign was neither a failure nor a success. Kentucky's "It's that friendly" slogan hoped to draw more people into the state based on the idea of southern hospitality. Though it was meant to embrace southern values, most Kentuckians rejected it as cheesy and ineffective. It was quickly seen that it was also not an image that encouraged tourism as much as initially hoped for. Therefore it was necessary to reconfigure a slogan to embrace Kentucky as a whole while also encouraging more people to visit the Bluegrass.[64]

Transportation

Main article: Transportation in Kentucky.

Roads

At 464 miles (747 km) long, Kentucky Route 80 is the longest route in Kentucky, pictured here west of Somerset.
The current state license plate design, introduced in 2005.

Kentucky is served by five major interstate highways (I-75, I-71, I-64, I-65, I-24), nine parkways, and three bypasses and spurs. The parkways were originally toll roads, but on November 22, 2006, Governor Ernie Fletcher ended the toll charges on the William H. Natcher Parkway and the Audubon Parkway, the last two parkways in Kentucky to charge tolls for access.[65] The related toll booths have been demolished.[66]

Ending the tolls some seven months ahead of schedule was generally agreed to have been a positive economic development for transportation in Kentucky. In June 2007, a law went into effect raising the speed limit on rural portions of Kentucky Interstates from 65 to 70 miles per hour (105 to 113 km/h).[67]

Greyhound provides bus service to most major towns in the state.

Rails

High Bridge over the Kentucky River was the tallest rail bridge in the world when it was completed in 1877.

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Ashland, South Portsmouth Maysville, Kentucky and Fulton, Kentucky. The Cardinal, Trains 50 and 51, is the line that offers Amtrak service to Ashland, South Shore, Maysville and South Portsmouth. Amtrak Trains 58 and 59, the City of New Orleans, serve Fulton. The Northern Kentucky area, is served by the Cardinal at the Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal. The Museum Center is just across the Ohio River in Cincinnati.

As of 2004, there were approximately 2,640 miles (4,250 km) of railways in Kentucky, with about 65% of those being operated by CSX Transportation. Coal was by far the most common cargo, accounting for 76% of cargo loaded and 61% of cargo delivered.[68]

Bardstown features a tourist attraction known as My Old Kentucky Dinner Train. Run along a 20-mile (30 km) stretch of rail purchased from CSX in 1987, guests are served a four-course meal as they make a two-and-a-half hour round-trip between Bardstown and Limestone Springs.[69] The Kentucky Railway Museum is located in nearby New Haven.[70]

Other areas in Kentucky are reclaiming old railways in rail trail projects. One such project is Louisville's Big Four Bridge. If completed, the Big Four Bridge rail trail will contain the second longest pedestrian-only bridge in the world.[71] The longest pedestrian-only bridge is also found in Kentucky—the Newport Southbank Bridge, popularly known as the "Purple People Bridge", connecting Newport to Cincinnati, Ohio.[72]

Air

Kentucky's primary airports include Louisville International Airport (Standiford Field), Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG), and Blue Grass Airport in Lexington. Louisville International Airport is home to UPS's Worldport, its international air-sorting hub.[73] There are also a number of regional airports scattered across the state.

On August 27, 2006, Kentucky's Blue Grass Airport in Lexington was the site of a crash that killed 47 passengers and 2 crew members aboard a Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet designated Comair Flight 191, or Delta Air Lines Flight 5191, sometimes mistakenly identified by the press as Comair Flight 5191.[74] The lone survivor was the flight's first officer, James Polehinke, who doctors determined to be brain damaged and unable to recall the crash at all.[75]

Water

A barge hauling coal in the Louisville and Portland Canal, the only man made section of the Ohio River

Being bounded by the two largest rivers in North America, water transportation has historically played a major role in Kentucky's economy. Most barge traffic on Kentucky waterways consists of coal that is shipped from both the Eastern and Western Coalfields, about half of which is used locally to power many power plants located directly off the Ohio River, with the rest being exported to other countries, most notably Japan.

Many of the largest ports in the United States are located in or adjacent to Kentucky, including:

  • Huntington/Tri-State (includes Ashland, KY), largest inland port and 7th largest overall
  • Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky, 5th largest inland port and 43rd overall
  • Louisville-Southern Indiana, 7th largest inland port and 55th overall

As a state, Kentucky ranks 10th overall in port tonnage.[76][77]

The only natural obstacle along the entire length of the Ohio River was the Falls of the Ohio, located just west of Downtown Louisville.

Subdivisions and settlements

Counties

Kentucky is subdivided into 120 counties, the largest being Pike County, Kentucky at 787.6 square miles, and the most populous being Jefferson County, Kentucky (the county containing Louisville Metro) with 693,604 residents as of 2000.[78]

County government, under the Kentucky Constitution of 1891, is vested in the County Judge/Executive), (formerly called the County Judge) who serves as the executive head of the county, and a legislature called a Fiscal Court. Despite the unusual name, the Fiscal Court no longer has judicial functions.

Consolidated city-county governments

Kentucky's two most populous counties, Jefferson and Fayette, have their governments consolidated with the governments of their largest cities. Louisville-Jefferson County Government (Louisville Metro) and Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government (Lexington Metro) are unique in that their city councils and county Fiscal Court structures have been merged into a single entity with a single chief executive, the Metro Mayor and Urban County Mayor, respectively. Although the counties still exist as subdivisions of the state, in reference the names Louisville and Lexington are used to refer to the entire area coextensive with the former cities and counties. Somewhat incongruously, when entering Lexington-Fayette the highway signs read "Fayette County" while most signs leading into Louisville-Jefferson simply read "Welcome to Louisville Metro."

Cities and towns

Rank City 2008 Pop 2000 Pop Δ Pop
1 Louisville 557,224 551,299 A263+1.13%
2 Lexington 282,114 260,512 A232+7.76%
3 Owensboro 55,516 54,067 A223+2.72%
4 Bowling Green 55,097 49,296 A037+10.63%
5 Covington 42,235 43,370 A268-2.72%
6 Richmond 32,895 27,152 +17.56%
7 Hopkinsville 32,076 30,089 +5.20%
8 Henderson 27,933 27,373 +2.11%
9 Florence 27,745 23,551 +15.22%
10 Frankfort 27,322 27,741 -1.62%
11 Nicholasville 26,444 19,680 +25.68%
12 Jeffersontown 26,226 26,633 -1.63%
13 Paducah 25,521 26,307 -3.09%
14 Elizabethtown 24,144 22,542 +6.74%
15 Radcliff 22,013 21,961 +0.34%

The Greater Louisville Metro Area has a 2006 estimated population of 554,496, while the Louisville Combined Statistical Area (CSA) has a population of 1,356,798; including 1,003,025 in Kentucky, which is nearly 1/4 of the state's population. Since 2000 over 1/3 of the state's population growth has occurred in the Louisville CSA. In addition, the top 28 wealthiest places in Kentucky are in Jefferson County and seven of the 15 wealthiest counties in the state are located in the Louisville CSA.[79]

The second largest city is Lexington with a 2006 census estimated population of 270,789 and its CSA, which includes the Frankfort and Richmond statistical areas, having a population of 645,006. The Northern Kentucky area (the seven Kentucky counties in the Cincinnati MSA) had an estimated population of 408,783 in 2006. The metropolitan areas of Louisville, Lexington, and Northern Kentucky have a combined population of 2,169,394 as of 2006, which is 51.5% of the state's total population.

The two other fast growing urban areas in Kentucky are the Bowling Green area and the "Tri Cities Region" of southeastern Kentucky, comprising Somerset, London, and Corbin.

Although only one town in the "Tri Cities", namely Somerset, currently has more than 10,000 people, the area has been experiencing heightened population and job growth since the 1990s. Growth has been especially rapid in Laurel County, which outgrew areas such as Scott and Jessamine counties around Lexington or Shelby and Nelson Counties around Louisville. London is currently on pace to double its population in the 2000s from 5,692 in 2000 to 10,879 in 2010. London also landed a Wal-Mart distribution center in 1997, bringing thousands of jobs to the community.

In northeast Kentucky, the greater Ashland area is an important transportation, manufacturing, and medical center. Iron and petroleum production, as well as the transport of coal by rail and barge, have been historical pillars of the region's economy. Due to a decline in the area's industrial base, Ashland has seen a sizable reduction in its population since 1990. The population of the area has since stabilized, however, with the medical service industry taking a greater role in the local economy. The Ashland area, including the counties of Boyd and Greenup, are part of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). As of the 2000 census, the MSA had a population of 288,649. About 20,000 of those people reside within the city limits of Ashland.

The largest county in Kentucky is Pike, which contains Pikeville, home of Hillbilly Days. It also contains the small towns of Elkhorn City, South Williamson and Coal Run. Pike County contains nearly 70,000 people.

Only three U.S. states have capitals with smaller populations than Kentucky's Frankfort (pop. 27,408), those being Augusta, Maine (pop. 18,560), Pierre, South Dakota (pop. 13,876), and Montpelier, Vermont (pop. 8,035).

Education

The University of Kentucky is Kentucky's flagship university
The University of Louisville is Kentucky's urban research university

Kentucky maintains eight public four-year universities. There are two general tiers: major research institutions (the University of Kentucky and the University of Louisville) and regional universities, which encompasses the remaining 6 schools. The regional schools have specific target counties that many of their programs are targeted towards (such as Forestry at Eastern Kentucky University or Cave Management at Western Kentucky University), however most of their curriculum varies little from any other public university. "UK" and "U of L" have the highest academic rankings and admissions standards although the regional schools aren't without their national recognized departments - examples being Western Kentucky University's nationally ranked Journalism Department or Morehead State offering one of the nation's only Space Science degrees. "UK" is the flagship and land grant of the system and has agriculture extension services in every county. The two research schools split duties related to the medical field, "UK" handles all medical outreach programs in the eastern half of the state while "U of L" does all medical outreach in the state's western half.

The state's sixteen public two-year colleges have been governed by the Kentucky Community and Technical College System since the passage of the Postsecondary Education Improvement Act of 1997, commonly referred to as House Bill 1.[80] Prior to the passage of House Bill 1, most of these colleges were under the control of the University of Kentucky.

Berea College, located at the extreme southern edge of the Bluegrass below the Cumberland Plateau, was the first coeducational college in the South to admit both black and white students, doing so from its very establishment in 1855.[81] This policy was successfully challenged in the United States Supreme Court in the case of Berea College v. Kentucky in 1908.[82] This decision effectively segregated Berea until the landmark Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.

Kentucky has been the site of much educational reform over the past two decades. In 1989, the Kentucky Supreme Court ruled that the state's education system was unconstitutional.[83] The response of the General Assembly was passage of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) the following year. Years later, Kentucky has shown progress, but most agree that further reform is needed.[84]

Culture

Old Louisville is the largest Victorian Historic neighborhood in the United States.

Although Kentucky's culture is generally considered to be Southern, it is unique in that it is also influenced by the Midwest and Southern Appalachia in certain areas of the state. The state is known for bourbon and whiskey distilling, tobacco, horse racing, and college basketball. Kentucky is more similar to the Upper South in terms of ancestry which is predominantly American.[85] Nevertheless, during the 19th century, Kentucky did receive a substantial number of German immigrants, who settled mostly in the Midwest, along the Ohio River primarily in Louisville, Covington and Newport.[86] Only Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia have higher German ancestry percentages than Kentucky among Census-defined Southern states, although Kentucky's percentage is closer to Virginia's than the previously named state's percentages.[87] Kentucky was a slave state, and blacks once comprised over one-quarter of its population. However, it lacked the cotton plantation system and never had the same high percentage of African Americans as most other slave states. With less than 8% of its current population being black, Kentucky is rarely included in modern-day definitions of the Black Belt, despite a relatively significant rural African American population in the Central and Western areas of the state.[88][89][90] Kentucky adopted the Jim Crow system of racial segregation in most public spheres after the Civil War, but the state never disenfranchised African American citizens to the level of the Deep South states, and it peacefully integrated its schools after the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education verdict, later adopting the first state civil rights act in the South in 1966.[91]

The biggest day in horse racing, the Kentucky Derby, is preceded by the two-week Kentucky Derby Festival[92] in Louisville. Louisville also plays host to the Kentucky State Fair,[93] the Kentucky Shakespeare Festival,[94] and Southern gospel's annual highlight, the National Quartet Convention.[95] Owensboro, Kentucky's third largest city, gives credence to its nickname of "Barbecue Capital of the World" by hosting the annual International Bar-B-Q Festival.[96] Bowling Green, Kentucky's fourth (and soon to be third) largest city and home to the only assembly plant in the world that manufactures the Chevrolet Corvette,[97] opened the National Corvette Museum in 1994.[98]

Old Louisville, the largest historic preservation district in the United States featuring Victorian architecture and the third largest overall,[99] hosts the St. James Court Art Show, the largest outdoor art show in the United States.[100] The neighborhood was also home to the Southern Exposition (1883–1887), which featured the first public display of Thomas Edison's light bulb,[101] and was the setting of Alice Hegan Rice's novel, Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch and Fontaine Fox's comic strip, the "Toonerville Trolley.[102]

The more rural communities are not without traditions of their own, however. Hodgenville, the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln, hosts the annual Lincoln Days Celebration, and will also host the kick-off for the National Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Celebration in February 2008. Bardstown celebrates its heritage as a major bourbon-producing region with the Kentucky Bourbon Festival.[103] (Legend holds that Baptist minister Elijah Craig invented bourbon with his black slave in Georgetown, but some dispute this claim.)[104] Glasgow mimics Glasgow, Scotland by hosting the Glasgow Highland Games, its own version of the Highland Games,[105] and Sturgis hosts "Little Sturgis", a mini version of Sturgis, South Dakota's annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally.[106] The residents of tiny Benton even pay tribute to their favorite tuber, the sweet potato, by hosting Tater Day.[107] Residents of Clarkson in Grayson County celebrate their city's ties to the honey industry by celebrating the Clarkson Honeyfest.[108] The Clarkson Honeyfest is held the last Thursday, Friday and Saturday in September, and is the "Official State Honey Festival of Kentucky."

Music

The breadth of music in Kentucky is indeed wide, stretching from the Purchase to the eastern mountains.

Renfro Valley, Kentucky is home to Renfro Valley Entertainment Center and the Kentucky Music Hall of Fame and is known as "Kentucky's Country Music Capital," a designation given it by the Kentucky State Legislature in the late 1980s. The Renfro Valley Barn Dance was where Renfro Valley's musical heritage began, in 1939, and influential country music luminaries like Red Foley, Homer & Jethro, Lily May Ledford & the Original Coon Creek Girls, Martha Carson, and many others have performed as regular members of the shows there over the years. The Renfro Valley Gatherin' is today America's second oldest continually broadcast radio program of any kind. It is broadcast on local radio station WRVK and a syndicated network of nearly 200 other stations across the United States and Canada every week.

Contemporary Christian music star Steven Curtis Chapman is a Paducah native, and Rock and Roll Hall of Famers The Everly Brothers are closely connected with Muhlenberg County, where older brother Don was born. Kentucky was also home to Mildred and Patty Hill, the Louisville sisters credited with composing the tune to the ditty Happy Birthday to You in 1893; Loretta Lynn (Johnson County), and Billy Ray Cyrus (Flatwoods). However, its depth lies in its signature sound—Bluegrass music. Bill Monroe, "The Father of Bluegrass", was born in the small Ohio County town of Rosine, while Ricky Skaggs, Keith Whitley, David "Stringbean" Akeman, Louis Marshall "Grandpa" Jones, Sonny and Bobby Osborne, and Sam Bush (who has been compared to Monroe) all hail from Kentucky. The International Bluegrass Music Museum is located in Owensboro,[109] while the annual Festival of the Bluegrass is held in Lexington.[110]

Kentucky is also home to famed jazz musician and pioneer, Lionel Hampton (although this has been disputed in recent years).[111] Blues legend W.C. Handy and R&B singer Wilson Pickett also spent considerable time in Kentucky. The pop bands Midnight Star and Nappy Roots were both formed in Kentucky, as were country acts The Kentucky Headhunters, Montgomery Gentry and Halfway to Hazard, The Judds, as well as Dove Award-winning Christian groups Audio Adrenaline (rock) and Bride (metal). Indie rock band "My Morning Jacket" with lead singer and guitarist Jim James also originated out of Louisville, on the local independent music Scene. Rock band Cage the Elephant is also from Bowling Green.

Cuisine

Kentucky's cuisine is generally similar to traditional southern cooking. Although in some areas of the state it can blend elements of both the South and Midwest.[112][113] One original Kentucky dish is called the Hot Brown, a dish normally layered in this order: toasted bread, turkey, bacon, tomatoes and topped with mornay sauce. It was developed at the Brown Hotel in Louisville.[114] The Pendennis Club in Louisville is the birthplace of the Old Fashioned cocktail. Also, western Kentucky is known for its own regional style of barbecue.

Harland Sanders originated Kentucky Fried Chicken at his service station in Corbin, Kentucky, though the first franchised KFC was located in South Salt Lake City, Utah [115]

Sports

Kentucky's Churchill Downs hosts the Kentucky Derby.

Kentucky is the home of several sports teams such as Minor League Baseball's Class A Lexington Legends and AAA Louisville Bats. They are also home to the Frontier Leagues Florence Freedom and several teams in the MCFL. The Lexington Horsemen and Louisville Fire of the af2 appear to be interested in making a move up to the "major league" Arena Football League. Major league teams in nearby cities, typically have strong fan support depending on the part of the state, with Nashville teams having strong fan support in South Central and most of Western Kentucky, Nashville and St. Louis teams competing for loyalties in the Purchase, Indianapolis, Cincinnati and Chicago teams predominating in the Louisville area, and Cincinnati teams having strong support in Central and Eastern Kentucky.[citation needed] The northern part of the state lies across the Ohio River from Cincinnati, which is home to a National Football League team, the Bengals, and a Major League Baseball team, the Reds. It is not uncommon for fans to park in the city of Newport and use the Newport Southbank Pedestrian Bridge, locally known as the "Purple People Bridge," to walk to these games in Cincinnati. Many restaurants and stores in Newport rely on business from these fans.[citation needed] Also, Georgetown College in Georgetown is the location for the Bengals' summer training camp.[116]

As in many states, especially those without major league professional sport teams, college athletics are very important. This is especially true of the state's three Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) programs, including the Kentucky Wildcats, the Western Kentucky University Hilltoppers, and the Louisville Cardinals. The Wildcats, Hilltoppers, and Cardinals are among the most tradition-rich college basketball teams in the United States, combining for nine championships and 22 NCAA Final Fours; and all three are on the lists of total all-time wins, wins per season, and average wins per season. The Kentucky Wildcats are particularly notable, leading all Division I programs in all time wins, win percentage, NCAA tournament appearances, and being second only to UCLA in NCAA championships. Louisville has also stepped onto the football scene in recent years, with eight straight bowl games, including the 2007 Orange Bowl. Western Kentucky, the 2002 national champion in Division I-AA football (now Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS), is currently transitioning to Division I FBS football.

Ohio Valley Wrestling in Louisville was the primary location for training and rehab for WWE professional wrestlers from 2000 until February 2008, when WWE ended its relationship with OVW and moved all of its contracted talent to Florida Championship Wrestling.

State symbols

Insignia Symbol Binomial nomenclature Year Adopted[117]
Official State Bird Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis 1926
Official State Butterfly Viceroy Butterfly Limenitis archippus 1990
Official State Dance Clogging 2001
Official State Beverage Milk 2005
Official State Fish Kentucky Spotted Bass Micropterus punctulatus 2005
Official State Fossil Brachiopod undetermined 1986
Official State Flower Goldenrod Soldiago gigantea 1926
Official State Fruit Blackberry Rubus allegheniensis 2004
Official State Gemstone Freshwater Pearl 1986
State Grass Kentucky Bluegrass Poa pratensis Traditional
Official State Latin Motto "Deo gratiam habeamus"

("Let us be grateful to God")

2002
Official State Horse Thoroughbred Equus caballus 1996
Official State Mineral Coal 1998
Official State Outdoor Musical "The Stephen Foster Story" (now called "Stephen Foster - The Musical") 2002
Official State Instrument Appalachian Dulcimer 2001
State Nickname "The Bluegrass State" Traditional
Official State Rock Kentucky Agate 2000
Official State Slogan "Kentucky: Unbridled Spirit" 2004[118]
Official State Soil Crider Soil Series 1990
Official State Tree Tulip Poplar Liriodendron tulipifera 1994
Official Wild Animal Game Species Gray Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis 1968
Official State Song "My Old Kentucky Home"

(revised version)

1986
Official State Silverware Pattern Old Kentucky Blue Grass: The Georgetown Pattern 1996
Official State Music Bluegrass music 2007[119]

Official state places and events

Unless otherwise specified, all state symbol information is taken from Kentucky State Symbols.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Kentucky State Symbols". Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. http://kdla.ky.gov/resources/KYSymbols.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  2. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-12-30. 
  3. ^ a b c "Science In Your Backyard: Kentucky". United States Geological Survey. http://www.usgs.gov/state/state.asp?State=KY). Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  4. ^ a b c "State Symbols". Encyclopedia of Kentucky. New York, New York: Somerset Publishers. 1987. ISBN 0403099811. 
  5. ^ a b John E. Kleber (ed.), ed (1992). "Place Names". The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813117720. 
  6. ^ "Kentucky". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwsFPWo1. Retrieved 2007-02-25. 
  7. ^ "Comments by Michael McCafferty on "Readers' Feedback (page 4)"". The KryssTal. Archived from the original on 2006-10-31. http://web.archive.org/web/20061031125041/http://www.krysstal.com/feedback/display_feedback.php?ftype=Borrow&fblock=4. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  8. ^ "Kentucky". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Kentucky. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  9. ^ ed. in chief Frederick C. Mish (2003). Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). Merriam–Webster. p. 1562. ISBN 9780877798095. http://books.google.com/books?id=O78rzaI2XmUC&pg=RA1-PA1562. 
  10. ^ The North American Midwest: A Regional Geography. New York, New York: Wiley Publishers. 1955. ISBN 0901411931. 
  11. ^ "Map of [1494-1557] Waterworks Rd Evansville, IN". http://www.mapquest.com/maps/map.adp?formtype=address&addtohistory=&address=%5b1494%2d1557%5d%20Waterworks%20Rd&city=Evansville&state=IN&zipcode=47713&country=US&location=sx5PfJLyNGOdfPC4XlmsmD4sYz8%2fcM%2f9UzxNAshApmBL3N63w0vZEKUJ7ZFErueQQVVT7jNm9im%2frMyLwvsq1tX3B0QnxqQNsp3LVvDC22VDK3WLmnQ83dOStm4oo36rfS7%2fgXA9L8%2b8CqYgeWZpmK5YKDtojM0V&ambiguity=1. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  12. ^ "Life on the Mississippi". Kentucky Educational Television. 2002-01-28. http://www.ket.org/kentuckylife/800s/kylife804.html. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  13. ^ "The Geography of Kentucky - Climate". NetState.com. 2006-06-15. http://www.netstate.com/states/geography/ky_geography.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  14. ^ "Geographical Configuration". Encyclopedia of Kentucky. New York, New York: Somerset Publishers. 1987. ISBN 0403099811. 
  15. ^ Kleber, John E., ed (1992). "Rivers". The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Associate editors: Thomas D. Clark, Lowell H. Harrison, and James C. Klotter. Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813117720. 
  16. ^ Kleber, John E., ed (1992). "Lakes". The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Associate editors: Thomas D. Clark, Lowell H. Harrison, and James C. Klotter. Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813117720. 
  17. ^ "Corbin, Kentucky: A Fisherman's Paradise". Corbin, Kentucky Economic Development. http://www.corbinkentucky.us/fishing.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  18. ^ "Elk Restoration Update and Hunting Information". Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources. Archived from the original on 2006-09-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20060926064155/http://fw.ky.gov/elkinfo.asp?lid=1653&NavPath=C117C147C301C547. Retrieved 2006-12-09. 
  19. ^ "Hunters Take Record Number of Spring Turkey". http://fw.ky.gov/newsrelease.asp?nid=542. 
  20. ^ "Cumberland Falls State Resort Park". Kentucky Department of Parks. 2005-10-19. Archived from the original on 2006-10-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20061005015537/http://parks.ky.gov/resortparks/cf/. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  21. ^ "Mammoth Cave National Park". National Park Service. 2006-10-12. http://www.nps.gov/maca/. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  22. ^ "Bad Branch State Nature Preserve". Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission. http://www.naturepreserves.ky.gov/stewardship/badbranch.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  23. ^ "Jefferson Memorial Forest". http://www.memorialforest.com/. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  24. ^ "The Presence". History of Native Americans in Central Kentucky. Mercer County Online. http://www.merceronline.com/Native/native01.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  25. ^ James, James Alton (1928). The Life of George Rogers Clark. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0404035493. 
  26. ^ Harrison, Lowell H (1976; Reprinted 2001). George Rogers Clark and the War in the West. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-9014-2. 
  27. ^ "About Kentucky". Ezilon Search. http://search.ezilon.com/about-kentucky.html. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  28. ^ "Constitution Square State Historic Site". Danville-Boyle County Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20071011230008/http://danville-ky.com/attractions2.php?category=History+and+Museums. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  29. ^ "Border States in the Civil War". CivilWarHome.com. 2002-02-15. http://www.civilwarhome.com/borderstates.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  30. ^ "Ordinances of Secession". Historical Text Archive. http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=170. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  31. ^ "Civil War Sites - Bowling Green, KY". WMTH Corporation. http://www.trailsrus.com/monuments/reg3/bowling_green.html. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  32. ^ Irby, Jr., Richard E.. "A Concise History of the Flags of the Confederate States of America and the Sovereign State of Georgia". About North Georgia. Golden Ink. http://ngeorgia.com/history/flagsofga.html. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  33. ^ Marx, Karl (1861-07-05). "Marx To Engels In Manchester". Marxists Internet Archive. http://marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1861/letters/61_07_05.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  34. ^ "KRS 2.110 Public Holidays" (PDF). Kentucky General Assembly. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/KRS/002-00/110.PDF. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  35. ^ "The Old State Capitol". Kentucky Historical Society. http://history.ky.gov/sub.php?pageid=23&sectionid=8. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  36. ^ "Reviser of Statutes Office - History and Functions". Kentucky Legislative Research Commission. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/statrev/revoff.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  37. ^ "History of the DOCJT". Kentucky Department of Criminal Justice. http://docjt.jus.state.ky.us/history.html. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  38. ^ "History of the Kentucky State Police". Kentucky State Police. http://www.kentuckystatepolice.org/history.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  39. ^ "Authorized Methods of Execution by State". Death Penalty Information Center. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/methods-execution#state. Retrieved 2006-12-28. 
  40. ^ Long, Paul A (2001-06-11). "'The Last Public Execution in America'". The Kentucky Post (E. W. Scripps Company). Archived from the original on 2006-01-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20060117233210/http://www.kypost.com/2001/jun/11/bethea061101.html. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  41. ^ Montagne, Renee (2001-05-01). "The Last Public Execution in America". NPR. http://www.npr.org/programs/morning/features/2001/apr/010430.execution.html. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  42. ^ "McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky". Cornell University Law School. http://straylight.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/03-1693.ZS.html. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  43. ^ "Text of decision in ACLU of Kentucky v. Mercer County" (PDF). http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/05a0477p-06.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  44. ^ Political Candidacy Age Petition Citizents Petition 2009
  45. ^ Leip, David. "Presidential General Election Results Comparison - Kentucky". US Election Atlas. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2008&fips=21&f=1&off=0&elect=0&type=state. Retrieved December 31, 2009. 
  46. ^ "2006 General Election Registration Figures Set". Kentucky Secretary of State. 2006-10-19. Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071212043450/http://kentucky.gov/Newsroom/sos/article61.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-30. 
  47. ^ John W. Wright, ed (2007). The New York Times 2008 Almanac. pp. 178. 
  48. ^ Price, Michael. "Migration in Kentucky: Will the Circle Be Unbroken?". Exploring the Frontier of the Future: How Kentucky Will Live, Learn and Work. University of Louisville. pp. 5–10. http://www.kltprc.net/books/exploring/Chpt_3.htm. Retrieved 30 April 2007. 
  49. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000" (TXT). U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  50. ^ a b Census 2000 Map - Top U.S. Ancestries by County
  51. ^ "State Membership Report". The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2000. http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/state/21_2000.asp. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  52. ^ Muslims in Louisville
  53. ^ Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development - Kentucky Economy
  54. ^ Strong, Marvin. "Kentucky: In the Middle of Auto Alley". Trade and Industry Development. http://www.tradeandindustrydev.com/issues/article.asp?ID=66. Retrieved August 10, 2007. 
  55. ^ U.S. Department of Agriculture 2002 Census of Agriculture
  56. ^ dead link] "Kentucky Farm Numbers Increase" (PDF). Kentucky Agri-News 22 (5). March 2003. http://web.archive.org/web/20070809020718/http://www.nass.usda.gov/ky/AgriNews/mar122.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-03. 
  57. ^ "2007 Rankings of States and Counties". bamabeef.org. http://www.bamabeef.org/NewStateandCountyrankings05.htm. Retrieved 1 M a y 2007. 
  58. ^ "Corn Production Detective" (PDF). National Council on Economic Education. Archived from the original on 2007-06-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20070605025350/http://www.econedlink.org/lessons/EM453/docs/em453_Corn_Production_Det_Answers.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-03. 
  59. ^ "Kentucky Income Tax Rates". salary. com. http://swz.salary.com/salarywizard/layouthtmls/swzl_statetaxrate_KY.html. Retrieved May 1, 2007. 
  60. ^ "Sales & Use Tax". Kentucky Department of Revenue. http://revenue.ky.gov/business/salesanduse.htm. Retrieved May 1, 2007. 
  61. ^ "Property Tax". Kentucky Department of Revenue. http://revenue.ky.gov/business/proptax.htm. Retrieved May 1, 2007. 
  62. ^ "State Taxes - Kentucky - Overview". bankrate.com. http://www.bankrate.com/yho/itax/edit/state/profiles/state_tax_Ky.asp. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  63. ^ "Text of the House Bill 272". State of Kentucky. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/record/05rs/HB272.htm. Retrieved August 10, 2007. 
  64. ^ "Unbridled Spirit→Information". State of Kentucky. http://kentucky.gov/Pages/unbridledspirit.aspx. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  65. ^ Stinnett, Chuck. "Fletcher:Tolls to end November 22". Archived from the original on 2006-10-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20061008233115/http://www.kctcs.net/todaysnews/index.cfm?tn_date=2006-09-28#6693. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  66. ^ Stinnett, Chuck (2006-11-22). "Onlookers Cheer Booth Destruction at Ceremony". Courier Press. http://www.courierpress.com/news/2006/nov/22/onlookers-cheer-booth-destruction-at-ceremony/. Retrieved August 10, 2007. 
  67. ^ Steitzer, Stephanie (2007-06-26). "Many new laws go on books today". Courier-Journal. http://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2007706260437. 
  68. ^ "Railroad Service in Kentucky" (PDF). Association of American Railroads. http://www.aar.org/PubCommon/Documents/AboutTheIndustry/RRState_KY.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-01.  Also, Norfolk Southern's main north-south line runs through central and southern Kentucky, starting in Cincinnati. Formerly the CNO&TP subsidiary of Southern Railway, it is NS's most profitable line.
  69. ^ Knight, Andy. "On the Right Track - Kentucky Dinner Train serves up railroad nostalgia". Cincinnati.com. http://www.cincinnati.com/visitorsguide/stories/071100_dinnertrain.html. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  70. ^ "Kentucky Railway Museum". http://www.kyrail.org/. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  71. ^ Shafer, Sheldon (2007-03-05). "Bridges money may be shifted". Courier-Journal. 
  72. ^ Crowley, Patrick (April 23, 2003). "Meet the Purple People Bridge". Cincinnati Enquirer. http://www.enquirer.com/editions/2003/04/20/loc_purplebridge20.html. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  73. ^ "Fast Facts". Louisville International Airport. http://www.flylouisville.com/About-the-Airport/About-the-Airport.aspx. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  74. ^ Crash Kills 49
  75. ^ "Comair Crash Survivor Leaves Hospital". CBS. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/10/03/national/main2059120.shtml. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  76. ^ Top 20 Inland U.S. Ports for 2003
  77. ^ CY 2001 Tonnage for Selected U.S. Ports by Port Tons
  78. ^ Kentucky Counties, University of Kentucky
  79. ^ "Kentucky State Data Center". Ksdc.louisville.edu. http://ksdc.louisville.edu/. Retrieved 2009-08-04. 
  80. ^ "Postsecondary Education Improvement Act of 1997". State of Kentucky. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/recarch/97ss/HB1/bill.doc. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  81. ^ "Berea College:Learning, Labor, and Service". Diversity Web. http://www.diversityweb.org/digest/vol10no1/mendel.cfm. Retrieved 2007-05-01.  Berea College: Learning, Labor, and Service
  82. ^ Berea College v. Kentucky
  83. ^ "A Guide to the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990". Education Resources Information Center. http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED327352&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&objectId=0900000b8004b71c. Retrieved 2007-05-01. [Abstract of A Guide to the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990 - provided by Education Resources Information Center (ERIC)]
  84. ^ Roeder, Phillip. "Education Reform and Equitable Excellence: The Kentucky Experiment". http://www.kltprc.net/foresight/Chpt_37.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  85. ^ Brittingham, Angela & de la Cruz, G. Patricia (June 2004). "Ancestry 2000: Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/c2kbr-35.pdf. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  86. ^ http://kygermanscw.yolasite.com/the-story.php
  87. ^ "2000 Census: Percent Reporting Any German Ancestry". http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/maps/map.asp?state=101&variable=494. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  88. ^ Beale, Calvin (21 July 2004). "High Poverty in the Rural U.S. and South: Progress and Persistence in the 1990s" (PowerPoint). http://srdc.msstate.edu/poverty/ppts/cromartie.ppt. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  89. ^ Womack, Veronica L. (23 July 2004). "The American Black Belt Region: A Forgotten Place" (PowerPoint). http://srdc.msstate.edu/poverty/ppts/womack.ppt. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  90. ^ Unknown. "Identifying the "Black Belt" of Cash-Crop Production" (JPEG Image). Bowdoin College. http://www.bowdoin.edu/~prael/branch/ex1/m4-black-belt.jpg. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  91. ^ "Civil Rights and Women's Rights". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/query?id=1257023200764917. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  92. ^ "Kentucky Derby Festival Home Page". http://www.kdf.org/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  93. ^ "Kentucky State Fair". http://www.kystatefair.org/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  94. ^ "Kentucky Shakespeare Festival Home Page". http://www.kyshakes.org/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  95. ^ "National Quartet Convention Home Page". http://www.natqc.com/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  96. ^ "Home Page of the International Barbecue Festival". http://www.bbqfest.com/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  97. ^ "National Corvette Museum press release". Archived from the original on 2007-12-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20071227111243/http://bg.ky.net/Corvette/newera.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  98. ^ "National Corvette Museum Home Page". http://www.corvettemuseum.com/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  99. ^ "Stately Mansions Grace Old Louisville". Atlanta Journal Constitution. http://www.ajc.com/travel/content/travel/southeast/ky_stories/0305/09lvgetaway.html. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  100. ^ "St. James Court Art Show Home Page". http://www.stjamescourtartshow.com/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  101. ^ "The Heart Line" (PDF). Kentucky Commission on Community Volunteerism and Service. http://chfs.ky.gov/NR/rdonlyres/6AD56B4B-7551-4E34-AE5B-E067472C503E/0/October_2004.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  102. ^ "Old Louisville and Literature". http://www.oldlouisville.com/literature/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  103. ^ "Kentucky Bourbon Festival Home Page". http://www.kybourbonfestival.com/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  104. ^ "How Bourbon Whiskey Really Got Its Famous Name". http://www.straightbourbon.com/articles/ccname.html. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  105. ^ "Glasgow, Kentucky Highland Games Home Page". http://www.glasgowhighlandgames.com/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  106. ^ "Little Sturgis Rally Home Page". http://www.littlesturgisrally.net/. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  107. ^ "Tater Day Festival A Local Legacy". http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/es/ky/tater_1. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  108. ^ "Clarkson Honeyfest home page". http://www.honeyfest.com/. Retrieved 2007-05-12. 
  109. ^ "International Bluegrass Music Museum". http://www.bluegrass-museum.org/. Retrieved 2006-11-30. 
  110. ^ "Festival of the Bluegrass Home Page". http://www.festivalofthebluegrass.com/. Retrieved 2006-11-30. 
  111. ^ Voce, Steve (2002-09-02). "Obituary: Lionel Hampton". The Independent. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20020902/ai_n12639955/pg_5. Retrieved 2007-06-03. 
  112. ^ "Southern Recipes - Southern Food and Recipes". Southernfood.about.com. 2009-06-17. http://southernfood.about.com/od/southernregionalfood/Southern_Recipes_and_Regional_Specialties.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-04. 
  113. ^ "International Institute of Culinary Arts". Archived from the original on 2008-01-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080106091226/www.iicaculinary.com/iica-curr.htm#ac303. 
  114. ^ "Hot Brown Recipe". Brown Hotel. http://www.brownhotel.com/dining/hot-brown.html. Retrieved 2006-12-18. 
  115. ^ Jenifer K. Nii (2004). "Colonel's landmark KFC is mashed". Deseret Morning News. http://www.deseretnews.com/article/1,5143,595057690,00.html. Retrieved on October 28, 2007.
  116. ^ "About the camp". BengalsCamp.com. http://www.bengalscamp.com. Retrieved 2006-12-18. 
  117. ^ "Kentucky's State Symbols". Kentucky Department of Libraries and Archives. http://kdla.ky.gov/resources/KYSymbols.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-18. 
  118. ^ "Unbridled Spirit Information". Kentucky.gov. 2006-11-20. http://www.kentucky.gov/unbridledspirit/info.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-18. 
  119. ^ "HB71: An act designating bluegrass music as the official state music of Kentucky" (DOC). Legislative Research Commission. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/RECORD/07RS/HB71/bill.doc. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  120. ^ "KRS 2.099 - State Honey Festival" (PDF). Kentucky General Assembly. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/KRS/002-00/099.PDF. Retrieved 2006-12-18. 

Bibliography

Politics

History

Surveys and reference

  • Bodley, Temple and Samuel M. Wilson. History of Kentucky 4 vols. (1928).
  • Caudill, Harry M., Night Comes to the Cumberlands (1963). ISBN 0-316-13212-8
  • Channing, Steven. Kentucky: A Bicentennial History (1977).
  • Clark, Thomas Dionysius. A History of Kentucky (many editions, 1937–1992).
  • Collins, Lewis. History of Kentucky (1880).
  • Harrison, Lowell H. and James C. Klotter. A New History of Kentucky (1997).
  • Kleber, John E. et al. The Kentucky Encyclopedia (1992), standard reference history.
  • Klotter, James C. Our Kentucky: A Study of the Bluegrass State (2000), high school text
  • Lucas, Marion Brunson and Wright, George C. A History of Blacks in Kentucky 2 vols. (1992).
  • Notable Kentucky African Americans http://www.uky.edu/Subject/aakyall.html
  • Share, Allen J. Cities in the Commonwealth: Two Centuries of Urban Life in Kentucky (1982).
  • Wallis, Frederick A. and Hambleton Tapp. A Sesqui-Centennial History of Kentucky 4 vols. (1945).
  • Ward, William S., A Literary History of Kentucky (1988) (ISBN 0-87049-578-X).
  • WPA, Kentucky: A Guide to the Bluegrass State (1939), classic guide.
  • Yater, George H. (1987). Two Hundred Years at the Fall of the Ohio: A History of Louisville and Jefferson County (2nd ed.). Filson Club, Incorporated. ISBN 0-9601072-3-1. 

Specialized scholarly studies

External links


Preceded by
Vermont
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on June 1, 1792 (15th)
Succeeded by
Tennessee

Coordinates: 37°30′N 85°00′W / 37.5°N 85°W / 37.5; -85


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Kentucky [1] is a mideastern state of the United States. Its state capital is Frankfort. Attractions include horse racing and beautiful lakes. Kentucky is also culturally part of the American South. It is home to famous food, (Kentucky Fried Chicken) and music, (bluegrass) traditions.

Bluegrass Country
Caves and Lakes
Daniel Boone Country
Kentucky Appalachians
Kentucky Derby Region
Northern Ohio River Region
Southern Lakes
Western Waterlands

Get in

By car

Kentucky is accessible by five interstates:

  • I-71 and I-75 both enter the state from the north at Cincinnati. The two roads split in the Kentucky suburbs, with I-71 going to its southern end in Louisville and I-75 to Lexington, continuing past Richmond, Berea, and London.
  • I-64 runs from Ashland in the east to Louisville in the west, passing by Lexington and Frankfort on the way.
  • I-65 runs from Louisville to Bowling Green, continuing to the Tennessee state line.
  • I-24 from Paducah to Hopkinsville and the Fort Campbell area.
  • In addition, two more interstates are slated to go through Kentucky in the future. I-66, not connected to the existing highway of that number in Virginia, is proposed to be routed through the southern half of the state. The currently existing I-69 will be extended through Kentucky.

The state is also served by major controlled-access roads called "Parkways" administered by the state. These roads were all built as toll roads but have since become freeways, although the portions of these roads that will become part of the new I-66 and I-69 may become tolled again in the future. Nine roads make up the parkway system. All except the Audubon officially bear the names of Kentucky:politicians, but the full names are listed here because most Kentuckians will not use the politicians' names when describing the roads or giving directions.

  • The Audubon Parkway, the shortest road in the system, connects Henderson and Owensboro.
  • The Martha Layne Collins Bluegrass Parkway runs from I-65 on the north side of Elizabethtown to Versailles, just west of Lexington.
  • The Louie B. Nunn Cumberland Parkway runs along the southern tier of the state from I-65 east of Bowling Green to Somerset, near the Lake Cumberland resort region. It has been designated as part of the future I-66.
  • The Hal Rogers Parkway (formerly the Daniel Boone Parkway), mainly a two-lane road with frequent passing lanes for heavy trucks, connects London with Hazard in the eastern third of the state. The future I-66 will parallel this road, although on a mostly new route.
  • The Bert T. Combs Mountain Parkway connects I-64 in Winchester to eastern Kentucky near Prestonsburg. Note that the eastern half of this road, past Campton, is two lanes.
  • The William F. Natcher Parkway (formerly the Green River Parkway) connects Owensboro with Bowling Green. The southern half of the highway (Bowling Green to the Western Kentucky Parkway) has also been designated as part of the future I-66.
  • The Edward T. Breathitt Pennyrile Parkway runs from Henderson to Hopkinsville. The section from Henderson to the Western Kentucky Parkway has been designated as part of the future I-69.
  • The Julian M. Carroll Purchase Parkway runs diagonally through the Jackson Purchase region (the region west of the Tennessee River), starting at the Tennessee state line in Fulton and ending at I-24 at Calvert City near Kentucky Lake. It will also be part of the future I-69.
  • The Wendell Ford Western Kentucky Parkway, the longest road in the system, runs from I-65 on the south side of Elizabethtown to I-24 near Eddyville and Lake Barkley. Between Eddyville and the Pennyrile Parkway, this road will be part of both I-66 and I-69; from the Pennyrile to the Natcher, it will be part of I-66.

By air

There are three large airports in the state. Louisville International Airport is served by several major airlines, including Southwest, Frontier, Delta/Delta Connection, US Express, United Express, American Airlines/American Eagle, Continental Express, Midwest Connect, and Northwest/Northwest Airlink. Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport, located off of I-275 near Hebron, is a major hub for Delta, and is also served by American Eagle, United Express, US Airways Express, Continental Connection/Continental Express, Comair, Northwest Airlink, and USA 3000. Lexington's Blue Grass Field offers flights to several cities in the mid western and eastern parts of the country via American Eagle, US Express, United Express, NWA airlink, Delta Connection, and Continental Connection/Express. The two smaller commercial airports in Kentucky are Barkley Regional (serving Paducah), served by Northwest Airlink, and Owensboro-Daviess County Airport, served by Great Lakes Aviation. The Ashland area is served by Tri-State Airport near Huntington, West Virginia. There are many other smaller, general aviation airports throughout the state.

Get around

Along with the interstates and parkways, Kentucky is served by many state and US routes:

  • KY 80 crosses the southern part of the state, linking Mayfield, Hopkinsville, Bowling Green, London and Pikeville.
  • US 27 runs from Covington south to Somerset.
  • US 127, also from Covington, runs through Frankfort, Danville and the Lake Cumberland area.
  • US 150 offers a connection between Louisville and I-75 between Lexington and Tennessee.
  • US 23 (Country Music Highway) connects Ashland with Virginia south of Pikeville.
  • US 60 bisects the state from the Mississippi River to Ashland, passing through Paducah, Henderson, Owensboro and Louisville before following I-64 the rest of its route.
  • US 68 runs mostly east-to-west, starting just to the east of Paducah and passing through Hopkinsville, Bowling Green, Harrodsburg, and Lexington.
This article or section does not match our manual of style or needs other editing. Please plunge forward, give it your attention and help it improve!
  • My Old Kentucky Home State Park: Completed in 1818, the home is furnished with heirlooms and old portraits. It is belived that Stephen Foster wrote "My Old Kentucky Home" here while visiting in 1852. Tours are conducted by guides daily. Located in Bardstown on US 150.
  • General Motors Bowling Green Assembly Plant: Located in Bowling Green off of I-65 exit 28 at Louisville Rd. and Corvette Dr. Bowling Green is the only production site for the clasic American sports car, the Chevrolet Corvette and the two-seat Cadillac XLR. Every Corvette produced since 1982 was manufactured at the Bowling Green plant. The plant offers a 1 hour guided walking tours of portions of the assembly area.
  • National Corvette Museum: Located in Bowling Green off of I-65 exit 28 across from the GM Assembly Plant. The museum houses more than 75 Corvettes including one of the original 1953 Corvettes, the only 1983 Corvette in existence, the millionth Corvette produced and many other rare 'Vettes. Also displayed are photographs, advertisments, television commercials, and Corvette memorabilia.
  • Lost River Cave & Valley: Located in Bowling Green at jct. US 31W and Dishman Ln. The Lost River Cave & Valley offers a 45-minute underground boat and walking tour of a cave discovered by Indians 10,000 years ago. The cave, which is a constant 56 F, was a shelter for Indians, the site of a 19th-century water-powered mill, a campsite used by both sides during the Civil War, a hiding place for the outlaw Jesse James, and a popular 1930s night club. During the summer a butterfly exhibit can be viewed.
  • Crystal Onyx Cave: Located in Cave City, off of I-65 exit 53 then 2 mi. e. on SR 90 to 363 Prewitts Knob Rd. This cave contains rare onyx formations, a lake and cave dwelling wildlife. An Indian burial site dated back to 680 B.C. may also be viewed. Guided 1 hour tours are conducted daily.
  • Mammoth Cave National Park: Located Northeast of Bowling Green, Northwest of Park City, and 10 miles west of Cave City. Mammoth Cave National Park occupies 52,830 acres. Within the park is Mammoth Cave, which is the worlds longest known cave system. It contains 365 miles of underground passages charted on five levels. Guided tours that range from 1.25 to 6 hours and vary in degree of difficulty are conducted daily.
  • Schmidt Museum of Coca-Cola Memorabilia: Located in Elizabethtown at 1030 N. Mulberry St. The museum displays more than 1,000 items of Coca-Cola memorabilia, including trays, calendars, vending machines, coolers, soda fountains, and promotional items.
  • Swope's Cars of Yesteryear Museum: Located in Elizabethtown at 1100 N. Dixie Ave. Among the restored vintage automobiles displayed in the museum are such luxury cars from the 1920s and '30s as Packards, Pierce Arrows, Hupmobiles and a 1939 Rolls Royce. Cars on display from later decades include several '60s Chevrolet Impalas, a 1956 Ford Thunderbird, and a 1961 Metropolitan. Also this museum is free.
  • Patton Museum of Cavalry and Armor: Located on Fort Knox army base the museum is named for WWII General George Patton. Displays include German and Japanese war artifacts, an extensive collection of US and foreign tanks and weapons, and mementos of Patton's military career, including his wartime caravan truck and the sedan in which he was fatally injured in 1945.
  • US Bullion Depository: The 100-square-foot, 1937 treasure house is bombproof; its walls and roof are faced with huge granite blocks. At different times the vault has also held the British Crown Jewels, the Magna Carta, the US Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. The depository is closed to the public but can be viewed when driving on US 31W.
  • Maker's Mark Distillery: Located in Loretto off of SR 52. The distillery began operations in 1805. The former master distiller's home, built in the 1840s, is now the visitor center and the starting point for the 50 minute guided tour. Highlights of the tour include the still house, the fermenting room, warehouses, and the bottling house.
  • Jim Beam's American Outpost: Located in Clermont about 2 miles east of I-65 on SR 245. A film about the burbon making process is shown in the tourist center, a replica of an old tobacco barn. The historic Beam family home and rackhouses where the bourbon is aged in oak barrels also can be seen.
  • Chruchill Downs: Located in Louisville on 700 Central Ave., is the historic racetrack where the Kentucky Derby is run. Racing seasons aer late April through early July and late October to November. A 30 minute guided tour is available through the Kentucky Derby Museum.
  • Kentucky Derby Museum: Located adjacent to Gate 1 of Churchill Downs. The museum showcases the Thoroughbred industry and the Kentucky Derby. Two floors of racing artifacts, interactive exhibits, and fine art relate the tradition of Derby Day.
  • Louisville Slugger Museum: Located in downtown Louisville on the corner of 8th and Main Sts. The entrance to the museum is distinguished by the 120 foot, 68,000 pound steel bat. Visitors can view collections of baseball memorabilia before moving on to the guided tour of the manufacturing facility where you can see the bats being made.

Get out

Kentucky is bordered by seven other states.

  • Missouri - To the west of Kentucky, Missouri can boast of having St Louis, home of the Gateway Arch and Union Station.
  • Illinois - Located to the northwest of Kentucky, Illinois is also the home of Abraham Lincoln in Springfield.
  • Indiana - Kentucky's northern neighbor, Indiana has several caves to visit and is rich in covered bridges.
  • Ohio - Another northern neighbor, an easy day-trip from Kentucky is the city of Cincinnati, home of Kings Island and the Bengals (NFL) and Reds (MLB).
  • West Virginia - Located east of Kentucky, West Virginia has the New River Gorge Bridge, one of the highest in the eastern US.
  • Virginia - To the east of Kentucky (and south of West Virginia), Virginia has the Blue Ridge Mountains and Shenandoah National Park.
  • Tennessee - Tennessee shares Kentucky's southern border. Here you'll find the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the music city of Nashville and Elvis' home in Memphis.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Map of US highlighting Kentucky

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

EB1911A-pict1.png This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this word, please add it to the page as described here.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Kentucky

Plural
-

Kentucky

  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Frankfort. Formally known as the Commonwealth of Kentucky, one of four such states known as Commonwealths.
  2. A village on the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Commonwealth of Kentucky
Flag of Kentucky State seal of Kentucky
Flag of Kentucky SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Bluegrass State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: United we stand
Map of the United States with Kentucky highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English[1]
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Frankfort
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Louisville
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 37thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 40,444 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(104,749 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 140 miles (225 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 379 miles (610 km)
 - % water 1.7
 - Latitude 36° 30′ N to 39° 09′ N
 - Longitude 81° 58′ W to 89° 34′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 26thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 4,173,405
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 101.7/sq mi 
39.28/km² (23rd)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Black Mountain[2]
4,145 ft  (1,263 m)
 - Mean 755 ft  (230 m)
 - Lowest point Mississippi River[2]
257 ft  (78 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  June 1, 1792 (15th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Ernie Fletcher (R)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Mitch McConnell (R)
Jim Bunning (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zonesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - eastern half Eastern: UTC-5/DST-4
 - western half Central: UTC-6/DST-5
Abbreviations KYImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-KYImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.kentucky.gov


The Commonwealth of Kentucky (IPA: /kənˈtʌki/) is a state located in the East Central United States of America. Kentucky is normally included in the group of Southern states (in particular the Upland South), but it is sometimes included, geographically and culturally, in the Midwest.[3] Kentucky is one of four U.S. states to be officially known as a commonwealth. Originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 it became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th largest state in terms of land area, and ranks 26th in population.

Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State," a nickname based on the fact that bluegrass is present in many of the lawns and pastures throughout the state. It is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, the most miles of navigable waterways and streams in the Lower 48 states, and the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. It is also home to the highest per capita number of deer and turkey in the United States, and the nation's most productive coalfield. Kentucky is also known for thoroughbred horses, horse racing, bourbon distilleries, bluegrass music, automobile manufacturing (including the best selling car, truck, and SUV in the U.S. market), tobacco, and college basketball.

Contents

Origin of name

Narrow country roads bounded by stone and wood plank fences are a fixture in the Kentucky Bluegrass.

The origin of Kentucky's name (variously spelled Cane-tuck-ee, Cantucky, Kain-tuck-ee, and Kentuckee before its modern spelling was accepted)[4] or an Algonquian word for a river bottom.[5]

Geography

See also: List of Kentucky counties
Kentucky
Kentucky's regions (click on image for color coding information.)

Kentucky borders states of both the Midwest and the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west, Illinois and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River, its western border by the Mississippi River.

Kentucky is the only U.S. state to have a non-contiguous part exist as an exclave surrounded by other states. Fulton County, in the far west corner of the state, includes a small part of land, Kentucky Bend, on the Mississippi River bordered by Missouri and accessible via Tennessee, created by the New Madrid Earthquake.[6]

Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is commonly divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass — the encircling 90 miles (145 km) around Lexington — and the Outer Bluegrass, the region that contains most of the Northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short, steep, and very narrow hills.

Kentucky has 120 counties, third in the U.S. behind Texas' 254 and Georgia's 159.[7] Later, however, politics began to play a part, with citizens who disagreed with the present county government simply petitioning the state to create a new county. The 1891 Kentucky Constitution placed stricter limits on county creation, stipulating that a new county:

  • must have a land area of at least 400 square miles (1,000 km2);
  • must have a population of at least 12,000 people;
  • must not by its creation reduce the land area of an existing county to less than 400 square miles (1,000 km2);
  • must not by its creation reduce the population of an existing county to less than 12,000 people;
  • must not create a county boundary line that passes within 10 miles (20 km) of an existing county seat.

These regulations have reined in the proliferation of counties in Kentucky. Since the 1891 Constitution, only McCreary County has been created.Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag

Event Death Toll
Louisville Tornado of 1890 est. 76–120+
April 3, 1974 Tornado Outbreak 72
March 1, 1997 Flooding 18

Major weather events that have affected Kentucky include:

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Kentucky Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Lexington 40/24 45/28 55/36 65/44 74/54 82/62 86/66 85/65 78/58 67/46 54/37 44/28
Louisville 41/25 47/28 57/37 67/46 75/56 83/65 87/70 86/68 79/61 68/48 56/39 45/30
Paducah 42/24 48/28 58/37 68/46 77/55 85/64 89/68 87/65 81/57 71/45 57/36 46/28
Pikeville 46/23 50/25 60/32 69/39 77/49 84/58 87/63 86/62 80/56 71/42 60/33 49/26
Ashland 42/19 47/21 57/29 68/37 77/47 84/56 88/61 87/59 80/52 69/40 57/31 46/23
[5]

Lakes and rivers

Lake Cumberland is the largest artificial lake, in terms of volume, east of the Mississippi River.

Kentucky’s 90,000 miles (140,000 km) of streams provides one of the most expansive and complex stream systems in the nation. Kentucky has both the largest artificial lake east of the Mississippi in water volume (Lake Cumberland) and surface area (Kentucky Lake). It is the only U.S. state to be bordered on three sides by rivers — the Mississippi River to the west, the Ohio River to the north, and the Big Sandy River and Tug Fork to the east.[8] Its major internal rivers include the Kentucky River, Tennessee River, Cumberland River, Green River, and Licking River.

Though it has only three major natural lakes,[9]

Natural environment and conservation

Kentucky has an expansive park system which includes one national park, two National Recreation areas, two National Historic Parks, two national forests, 45 state parks, 37,696 acres (153 km2) of state forest, and 82 Wildlife Management Areas.

Kentucky has been part of two of the most successful wildlife reintroduction projects in United States history. In the winter of 1997, the state's eastern counties began to re-stock elk, which had been extinct from the area for over 150 years. As of 2006, the state's herd was estimated at 5,700 animals, the largest herd east of the Mississippi River.[10]

The state also stocked wild turkeys in the 1950s. Once extinct in the state, today Kentucky has more turkeys per capita than any other eastern state.

Top tourist attractions in Kentucky

Place Visitors per year
City of Louisville 7 million
Lake Cumberland 5 million[11]
Land Between the Lakes 4 million[12]
Mammoth Cave National Park 2 million[13]
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area 2 million
Red River Gorge / Natural Bridge 1.5 million

Significant natural attractions

History

Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers through the Cumberland Gap (George Caleb Bingham, oil on canvas, 1851–52).
Both Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis were born in Kentucky.
Main article: History of Kentucky
See also: Kentucky in the American Civil War, Kentucky Historical Society, and Hatfield-McCoy feud

Although inhabited by Native Americans in prehistoric times, when explorers and settlers began entering Kentucky in the mid-1700s, there were no major Native American settlements in the region.[19] Instead, the country was used as hunting grounds by Shawnees from the north and Cherokees from the south. Much of what is now Kentucky was purchased from Native Americans in the treaties of Fort Stanwix (1768) and Sycamore Shoals (1775).[20] Thereafter, Kentucky grew rapidly as the first settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains were founded, with settlers (primarily from Virginia, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania) entering the region via the Cumberland Gap and the Ohio River. The most famous of these early explorers and settlers was Daniel Boone, traditionally considered one of the founders of the state.[21] Shawnees north of the Ohio River, however, were unhappy about the settlement of Kentucky, and allied themselves with the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).[22] Kentucky was a battleground during the war; the Battle of Blue Licks, one of the last major battles of the Revolution, was fought in Kentucky.[23]

After the American Revolution, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County.[24] Eventually, the residents of Kentucky County petitioned for a separation from Virginia. Ten constitutional conventions were held in the Constitution Square Courthouse in Danville between 1784 and 1792. In 1790, Kentucky's delegates accepted Virginia's terms of separation, and a state constitution was drafted at the final convention in April 1792. On June 1, 1792, Kentucky became the fifteenth state to be admitted to the union and Isaac Shelby, a military veteran from Virginia, was elected the first Governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.[25]

Kentucky was a border state during the American Civil War.[26]

Designed by the Washington Monument's architect Robert Mills in 1845, the U.S. Marine Hospital in Louisville is considered the best remaining antebellum hospital in the United States

On January 30, 1900, Governor William Goebel was mortally wounded by an assailant while in the process of contesting the election of 1899, initially assumed to be won by William S. Taylor. For several months, J. C. W. Beckham, Goebel's running mate, and Taylor fought over who was the real governor until the Supreme Court of the United States decided in May that Beckham was the rightful governor. Taylor fled to Indiana and was later indicted as a co-conspirator in Goebel's assassination. Goebel remains the only governor of a U.S. state to have been assassinated while in office.[27]

Law and government

Government

Kentucky is one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd numbered years (The others are Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Virginia). Kentucky holds elections for these offices every 4 years in the years preceding Presidential election years. Thus, the last year when Kentucky elected a Governor was 2007; the next gubernatorial election will occur in 2011, with future gubernatorial elections to take place in 2015, 2019, 2023, etc.

State government

Kentucky's legislative branch consists of a bicameral body known as the Kentucky General Assembly. The Senate is considered the upper house. It has 38 members, and is led by the President of the Senate, currently Republican David L. Williams. The House of Representatives has 100 members, and is led by the Speaker of the House, currently Democrat Jody Richards.

The executive branch is headed by the governor and lieutenant governor. Under the current Kentucky Constitution, the lieutenant governor assumes the duties of the governor only if the governor is incapacitated. (Prior to 1992, the lieutenant governor assumed power any time the governor was out of the state.) The governor and lieutenant governor usually run on a single ticket (also per a 1992 constitutional amendment), and are elected to four-year terms. Currently, the governor and lieutenant governor are Republicans Ernie Fletcher and Steve Pence; however, on December 11, Democrats Steve Beshear and Daniel Mongiardo, who defeated Fletcher and his running mate Robbie Rudolph in the 2007 election, will be sworn in as their successors.

The judicial branch of Kentucky is made up of courts of limited jurisdiction called District Courts; courts of general jurisdiction called Circuit Courts; an intermediate appellate court, the Kentucky Court of Appeals; and a court of last resort, the Kentucky Supreme Court. Unlike federal judges, who are usually appointed, justices serving on Kentucky state courts are chosen by the state's populace in non-partisan elections.

The state's chief prosecutor, law enforcement officer, and law officer is the attorney general. The attorney general is elected to a four-year term and may serve two consecutive terms under the current Kentucky Constitution. Currently, the Kentucky attorney general is Democrat Greg Stumbo, with fellow Democrat Jack Conway to take his place on December 11.

Federal representation

A map showing Kentucky's six congressional districts

Kentucky's two Senators are Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell and Jim Bunning, both Republicans. The state is divided into six Congressional Districts, represented by Republicans Ed Whitfield (1st), Ron Lewis (2nd), Geoff Davis (4th), and Hal Rogers (5th), and Democrats John Yarmuth (3rd) and Ben Chandler (6th).

Judicially, Kentucky is split into two Federal court districts: the Kentucky Eastern District and the Kentucky Western District. Appeals are heard in the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals based in Cincinnati.

Political leanings

Where politics are concerned, Kentucky historically has been very hard fought and leaned slightly toward the Democratic Party, although it was never included among the "Solid South." In 2006, 57.05% of the state's voters were officially registered as Democrats, 36.55% registered Republican, and 6.39% registered with some other political party.[28]

Kentucky has voted Republican in five of the last seven presidential elections but has supported the Democratic candidates of the South. The Commonwealth supported Democrats Jimmy Carter in 1976, and Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996, but Republican George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004. Bush won the state's 8 electoral votes overwhelmingly in 2004 by a margin of 20 percentage points and 59.6% of the vote.[29]

Law

Kentucky's body of laws, known as the Kentucky Revised Statutes (KRS), were enacted in 1942 to better organize and clarify the whole of Kentucky law.[30] The statutes are enforced by local police, sheriffs, and sheriff's deputies. Unless they have completed a police academy elsewhere, these officers are required to complete training at the Kentucky Department of Criminal Justice Training Center on the campus of Eastern Kentucky University.[31] Additionally, in 1948, the Kentucky General Assembly established the Kentucky State Police, making it the 38th state to create a force whose jurisdiction extends throughout the given state.[32]

Kentucky is one of 38 states in the United States that sanctions the death penalty for certain crimes. Criminals convicted after March 31, 1998 are always executed by lethal injection; those convicted before this date may opt for the electric chair.[33] Only two people have been executed in Kentucky since the U.S. Supreme Court reinstituted the practice in 1976. The most notable execution in Kentucky, however, was that of Rainey Bethea on August 14, 1936. Bethea was publicly hanged in Owensboro for the rape and murder of Lischia Edwards.[34]

Kentucky has been on the front lines of the debate over displaying the Ten Commandments on public property. In the 2005 case of McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the decision of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals that a display of the Ten Commandments in the Whitley City courthouse of McCreary County was unconstitutional.[35]

Demographics

Kentucky Population Density Map.


As of July 1, 2006, Kentucky has an estimated population of 4,206,074, which is an increase of 33,466, or 0.8%, from the prior year and an increase of 164,586, or 4.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 77,156 people (that is 287,222 births minus 210,066 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 59,604 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 27,435 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 32,169 people. As of 2004, Kentucky's population included about 95,000 foreign-born (2.3%).

Since 1900, rural Kentucky counties have experienced a net loss of over 1 million people, while urban areas have experienced a slight net gain in population.[36]

The center of population of Kentucky is located in Washington County, in the city of Willisburg.[37]

Race and ancestry

The five largest ancestries in the commonwealth are: American (20.9%) (Mostly of British ancestry), German (12.7%), Irish (10.5%) (Most actually of Scots-Irish descent), English (9.7%), African American (7.8%). Only eight Kentucky counties have a majority ancestry listed that is not 'American', those being Christian and Fulton, where African American is the largest reported ancestry, and the state's most urban counties of Jefferson, Jefferson, Oldham, Fayette, Boone, Kenton, and Campbell, where German is the largest reported ancestry.[38]

African Americans, who made up one-fourth of Kentucky's population prior to the Civil War, declined in number as many moved to the industrial North in the Great Migration. Today 44.2% of Kentucky's African American population is in Jefferson County and 52% are in the Louisville Metro Area. Other areas with high concentrations, besides Christian and Fulton Counties, are the city of Paducah, the Bluegrass, and the city of Lexington. Many mining communities in far Southeastern Kentucky also have populations between five and 10 percent African American.

{{US DemogTable|Kentucky|03-21.csv|= | 91.53| 7.76| 0.61| 0.92| 0.08|= | 1.35| 0.10| 0.04| 0.02| 0.01|= | 91.27| 7.98| 0.58| 1.10| 0.08|= | 1.80| 0.12| 0.04| 0.03| 0.01|= | 2.97| 6.16| -2.21| 23.46| 9.78|= | 2.44| 5.94| -3.28| 23.07| 7.98|= | 37.97| 22.34| 13.51| 38.48| 19.80}}

Religion

Lexington Theological Seminary (then College of the Bible), 1904.

In 2000, The Association of Religion Data Archives reported[39] that of Kentucky's 4,041,769 residents:

Today Kentucky is home to several seminaries. Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville is the principal seminary for the Southern Baptist Convention. Louisville is also the home of the Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Lexington has two seminaries, Lexington Theological Seminary, and the Baptist Seminary of Kentucky. Asbury Theological Seminary is located in nearby Wilmore. In addition to seminaries, there are several colleges affiliated with denominations. Transylvania in Lexington is affiliated with the Disciples of Christ. In Louisville, Bellarmine and Spalding are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. Louisville is also home to the headquarters of the Presbyterian Church and their printing press. Louisville is also home to a sizable Jewish population.

Religious movements

Religious movements were important in the early history of Kentucky. Perhaps the most famous event was the interdenominational revival in August 1801 at the Cane Ridge Meeting house in Bourbon County. As part of what is now known as the "Western Revival", thousands began meeting around a Presbyterian communion service on August 6, 1801, and ended six days later on August 12, 1801 when both humans and horses ran out of food.[40] Some claim that the Cane Ridge revival was propagated from an earlier camp meeting at Red River Meeting House in Logan County.[41]

Economy

The best selling car in the United States, the Toyota Camry, is manufactured in Georgetown.
The best selling truck in the United States, the Ford F-Series, is manufactured in Louisville.

The total gross state product for 2005 was US$140.4 billion, 27th in the nation. Its per-capita personal income was US$28,513, 43rd in the nation.[42] Kentucky's agricultural outputs are horses, cattle, tobacco, dairy products, hogs, soybeans, and corn. Its industrial outputs are transportation equipment, chemical products, electric equipment, machinery, food processing, tobacco products, coal, and tourism. The Eastern Kentucky Coal Fields are recognized as being among the most productive in the nation.

Kentucky ranks 4th among U.S. states in the number of automobiles and trucks assembled.[43] The Chevrolet Corvette, Cadillac XLR, Ford Explorer, Ford Super Duty trucks, Toyota Camry, Toyota Avalon, and Toyota Solara are assembled in Kentucky.

Unlike many bordering states which developed a widespread industrial economy, much of rural Kentucky has maintained a farm based economy, with cattle, corn, and soybeans being the main crops. The area immediately outside Lexington is also the leading region for breeding Thoroughbred racing horses, due to the high calcium content in the soil. Despite being the 14th smallest state in terms of land area, Kentucky still ranks 5th in the total number of farms, with more farms per square mile than any other U.S. state.[44] The average farm size in Kentucky is only 153 acres (0.6 km2).[45]

Kentucky ranks 5th nationally in goat farming, 8th in beef cattle production[46] , and 14th in corn production.[47]

State taxes

There are 5 income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 6% of personal income.[48] The sales tax rate in Kentucky is 6%.[49] Kentucky has a broadly based classified property tax system. All classes of property, unless exempted by the Constitution, are taxed by the state, although at widely varying rates.[50] Many of these classes are exempted from taxation by local government. Of the classes that are subject to local taxation, three have special rates set by the General Assembly, one by the Kentucky Supreme Court and the remaining classes are subject to the full local rate, which includes the tax rate set by the local taxing bodies plus all voted levies. Real property is assessed on 100% of the fair market value and property taxes are due by December 31. Once the primary source of state and local government revenue, property taxes now account for only about 6% of the Kentucky's annual General Fund revenues.[51]

Until January 1, 2006, Kentucky imposed a tax on intangible personal property held by a taxpayer on January 1 of each year. The Kentucky intangible tax was repealed under House Bill 272.[52] Intangible property consisted of any property or investment which represents evidence of value or the right to value. Some types of intangible property included: bonds, notes, retail repurchase agreements, accounts receivable, trusts, enforceable contracts sale of real estate (land contracts), money in hand, money in safe deposit boxes, annuities, interests in estates, loans to stockholders, and commercial paper.

"Unbridled Spirit"

To boost Kentucky’s image, give it a consistent reach, and help Kentucky stand out from the crowd" the Fletcher administration launched a comprehensive branding campaign with the hope of making its $12 - $14 million advertising budget more effective. The "Unbridled Spirit" brand was the result of a $500,000 contract with New West, a Kentucky-based public relations, advertising and marketing firm to develop a viable brand and tag line. The administration has been aggressively marketing the brand in both the public and private sectors. The "Welcome to Kentucky" signs at border areas have Unbridled Spirit's symbol on them.

The previous campaign was neither a failure nor a success. Kentucky's "It's that friendly" slogan hoped to draw more people into the state based of the idea of southern hospitality. Though most Kentuckians liked the slogan, as it embraced southern values, it was also not an image that encouraged tourism as much as initially hoped for. Therefore it was necessary to reconfigure a slogan to embrace Kentucky as a whole while also encouraging more people to visit the Bluegrass.[53]

Transportation

Roads

At 464 miles long, Kentucky Route 80 is the longest route in Kentucky, pictured here west of Somerset.
See also: List of Kentucky State Highways

Kentucky is served by five major interstate highways (I-75, I-71, I-64, I-65, I-24), nine parkways, and three bypasses and spurs. The parkways were originally toll roads, but on November 22, 2006, Governor Ernie Fletcher ended the toll charges on the William H. Natcher Parkway and the Audubon Parkway, the last two parkways in Kentucky to charge tolls for access.[54] The related toll booths have been demolished.[55]

Ending the tolls some seven months ahead of schedule was generally agreed to have been a positive economic development for transportation in Kentucky. In June 2007, a law went into effect raising the speed limit on rural portions of Kentucky Interstates from 65 to 70 miles per hour, with signs expected to be changed by mid-July.[56]

Rails

High Bridge over the Kentucky River was the tallest rail bridge in the world when it was completed in 1877.
See also: List of Kentucky railroads

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Ashland, South Portsmouth and Fulton. The Cardinal, Trains 50 and 51, is the line that offers Amtrak service to Ashland and South Portsmouth. Amtrak Trains 58 and 59, the City of New Orleans serves Fulton. The Northern Kentucky area, is served by the Cardinal at the Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal. The Museum Center is just across the Ohio River in Cincinnati.

As of 2004, there were approximately 2,640 miles (4,250.4 km) of railways in Kentucky, with about 65% of those being operated by CSX Transportation. Coal was by far the most common cargo, accounting for 76% of cargo loaded and 61% of cargo delivered.[57]

Bardstown features a tourist attraction known as My Old Kentucky Dinner Train. Run along a 20-mile (30 km) stretch of rail purchased from CSX in 1987, guests are served a four-course meal as they make a two-and-a-half hour round-trip between Bardstown and Limestone Springs.[58] The Kentucky Railway Museum is located in nearby New Haven.[59]

Other areas in Kentucky are reclaiming old railways in rail trail projects. One such project is Louisville's Big Four Bridge. If completed, the Big Four Bridge rail trail will contain the second longest pedestrian-only bridge in the world.[60] The longest pedestrian-only bridge is also found in Kentucky — the Newport Southbank Bridge, popularly known as the "Purple People Bridge", connecting Newport to Cincinnati.[61]

Air

See also: List of airports in Kentucky

Kentucky's primary airports include Louisville International Airport (Standiford Field), Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, and Blue Grass Airport. Louisville International Airport is home to UPS's Worldport, its international air-sorting hub.[62] There are also a number of regional airports scattered across the state.

On August 27, 2006, Kentucky's Blue Grass Airport in Lexington was the site of a crash that killed 47 passengers and 2 crew members aboard a Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet designated Comair Flight 5191.[63] The lone survivor was the flight's first officer, James Polehinke, who doctors determined to be brain damaged and unable to recall the crash at all.[64] The NTSB's report has not yet been released, but reports state that the air traffic controller on duty at the time of the crash was working on approximately two hours of sleep[65] with outdated charts of the airport.[66] According to FAA rules, should have been working alongside another controller, which he was not.[67]

Water

A barge hauling coal in the Louisville and Portland Canal, the only man made section of the Ohio River

Being bounded by the two largest rivers in North America, water transportation has historically played a major role in Kentucky's economy. Most barge traffic on Kentucky waterways consists of coal that is shipped from both the Eastern and Western Coalfields, about half of which is used locally to power many power plants located directly off the Ohio River, with the rest being exported to other countries, most notably Japan.

Many of the largest ports in the United States are located in or adjacent to Kentucky, including

  • Huntington-Ashland, largest inland port and 7th largest overall
  • Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky, 5th largest inland port and 43rd overall
  • Louisville-Southern Indiana, 7th largest inland port and 55th overall

As a state, Kentucky ranks 10th overall in port tonage.[68][69]

The only natural obstacle along the entire length of the Ohio River was the Falls of the Ohio, located just west of Downtown Louisville.

Counties

See also: List of counties in Kentucky and Fiscal Court

Kentucky is subdivided into 120 counties, the largest being Pike County at 787.6 square miles, and the most populous being Jefferson County (the county containing Louisville Metro) with 693,604 residents as of 2000.[70]

County government, under the Kentucky Constitution of 1891, is vested in a County Judge (later renamed County Judge/Executive), who serves as the executive head of the county, and a legislature called a Fiscal Court. Despite the unusual name, the Fiscal Court no longer has judicial functions.

Cities and towns

15 Largest Cities[71][72] 2006 Population
Louisville 554,496
Lexington 270,789
Owensboro 55,525
Bowling Green 53,176
Covington 42,797
Richmond 31,431
Henderson 27,915
Hopkinsville 27,415
Frankfort 27,077
Florence 26,929
Jeffersontown 25,907
Paducah 25,661
Nicholasville 24,791
Elizabethtown 23,406
Ashland 21,570
See also: List of cities in Kentucky

The Greater Louisville Metro Area holds a very disproportionate share of Kentucky's population, growth and wealth, and is by definition Kentucky's primate city. The city has a 2006 estimated population of 554,496, while the Louisville Combined Statistical Area (CSA) has a population of 1,356,798; including 1,003,025 in Kentucky, which is nearly 1/4 of the state's population. Since 2000 over 1/3 of the state's population growth has occurred in the Louisville CSA. In addition, the top 28 wealthiest places in Kentucky are in Jefferson County and seven of the 15 wealthiest counties in the state are located in the Louisville CSA.[73]

The second largest city is Lexington with a 2006 census estimated population of 270,789 and its CSA having a population of 645,006. The Northern Kentucky area (the seven Kentucky counties in the Cincinnati CSA) had an estimated population of 408,783 in 2006. The metropolitan areas of Louisville, Lexington, and Northern Kentucky have a combined population of 2,169,394 as of 2006, which is 51.5% of the state's total population.

The two other fast growing urban areas in Kentucky are the Bowling Green area and the "Tri Cities Region" of southeastern Kentucky, comprised of Somerset, London, and Corbin.

Although only one town in the "Tri Cities", namely Somerset, currently has more than 10,000 people, the area has been experiencing heightened population and job growth since the 1990s. Growth has been especially rapid in Laurel County, which outgrew areas such as Scott and Jessamine counties around Lexington or Shelby and Nelson Counties around Louisville. London is currently on pace to double its population in the 2000s from 5,692 in 2000 to 10,879 in 2010. London also landed a Wal-Mart distribution center in 1997, bringing thousands of jobs to the community.

In northeast Kentucky, the greater Ashland area is an important transportation and manufacturing center. Iron and petroleum production, as well as the transport of coal by rail and barge, have been historical pillars of the region's economy. Due to a decline in the area's industrial base, Ashland has seen a sizable reduction in its population since 1990. The population of the area has since stabilized, however, with the medical service industry taking a greater role in the local economy. The Ashland area, including the Kentucky counties of Boyd and Greenup, is a part of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). As of the 2000 census, the MSA had a population of 288,649. About 20,000 of those people reside within the city limits of Ashland.

Education

The University of Louisville is Kentucky's urban research univesrity
The University of Kentucky is Kentucky's flagship university
Main article: Education in Kentucky
See also: List of colleges and universities in Kentucky, List of high schools in Kentucky, and List of school districts in Kentucky

Kentucky maintains eight public four-year colleges and universities. The two major research institutions are the University of Kentucky, which is the land grant system, and the University of Louisville. Both combine for over 99% of endowment in the system and rank first or second in academic rankings and average ACT scores in the state system. The other six colleges in the state system are regional universities.

The state's sixteen public two-year colleges have been governed by the Kentucky Community and Technical College System since the passage of the Postsecondary Education Improvement Act of 1997, commonly referred to as House Bill 1.[74] Prior to the passage of House Bill 1, most of these colleges were under the control of the University of Kentucky.

Berea College, located at the extreme southern edge of the Bluegrass below the Cumberland Plateau, was the first coeducational college in the South to admit both black and white students, doing so from its very establishment in 1855.[75] This policy was successfully challenged in the United State Supreme Court in the case of Berea College v. Kentucky in 1908.[76] This decision effectively segregated Berea until the landmark Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.

Kentucky has been the site of much educational reform over the past two decades. In 1989, the Kentucky Supreme Court ruled that the state's education system was unconstitutional.[77] The response of the General Assembly was passage of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) the following year. Years later, Kentucky has shown progress, but most agree that further reform is needed.[78]

Culture

Old Louisville is the largest Victorian Historic neighborhood in the United States.
See also: Theater in Kentucky

Although Kentucky's culture is generally considered to be Southern, it is unique and also influenced by the Midwest and Appalachia. The state is known for bourbon and whiskey distiling, horse racing, and gambling. Kentucky is more similar to the Upper South in terms of ancestry which is predominantly American.[79] Neveretheless, during the 19th century, the state Kentucky did receive a substantial number of German and Irish immigrants, who settled primarily in the Midwest. Only Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia, and Oklahoma, all also border states, have higher German ancestry percentages than Kentucky among Census-defined Southern states.[80] Kentucky was a slave state, and blacks once comprised over one-quarter of its population. However, it lacked the cotton plantation system and never had the same high percentage of African Americans as most other slave states. With less than 8% of its current population being black, Kentucky is rarely included in modern-day definitions of the Black Belt, despite a relatively significant rural African American population in the Central and Western areas of the state.[81][82][83] Kentucky adopted the Jim Crow system of racial segregation in most public spheres after the Civil War, but the state never disenfranchised African American citizens to the level of the Deep South states, and it peacefully integrated its schools after the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education verdict, later adopting the first state civil rights act in the South in 1966.[84]

The biggest day in horse racing, the Kentucky Derby, is preceded by the two-week Kentucky Derby Festival[85] in Louisville. Louisville also plays host to the Kentucky State Fair,[86] the Kentucky Shakespeare Festival,[87] and Southern gospel's annual highlight, the National Quartet Convention.[88] Owensboro, Kentucky's third largest city, gives credence to its nickname of "Barbecue Capital of the World" by hosting the annual International Bar-B-Q Festival.[89] Bowling Green, Kentucky's fifth largest city and home to the only assembly plant in the world that manufactures the Chevrolet Corvette,[90] opened the National Corvette Museum in 1994.[91]

Old Louisville, the largest historic preservation district in the United States featuring Victorian architecture and the third largest overall,[92]

The more rural communities are not without traditions of their own, however. Hodgenville, the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln, hosts the annual Lincoln Days Celebration, and will also host the kick-off for the National Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Celebration in February 2008. Bardstown celebrates its heritage as a major bourbon-producing region with the Kentucky Bourbon Festival.[93] (Legend holds that Baptist minister Elijah Craig invented bourbon with his black slave in Georgetown, but some dispute this claim.)[94] Glasgow mimics Glasgow, Scotland by hosting the Glasgow Highland Games, its own version of the Highland Games,[95] and Sturgis hosts "Little Sturgis", a mini version of Sturgis's annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally.[96] The residents of tiny Benton even pay tribute to their favorite tuber, the sweet potato, by hosting Tater Day.[97] Residents of Clarkson in Grayson County celebrate their city's ties to the honey industry by celebrating the Clarkson Honeyfest.[98] The Clarkson Honeyfest is held the last Thursday, Friday and Saturday in September, and is the "Official State Honey Festival of Kentucky."

Music

Main article: Music of Kentucky
See also: Category:Kentucky musicians

The breadth of music in Kentucky is indeed wide, stretching from the Purchase to the eastern mountains. Contemporary Christian music star Steven Curtis Chapman is a Paducah native, and Rock and Roll Hall of Famers The Everly Brothers are closely connected with Muhlenberg County, where older brother Don was born. Kentucky was also home to Mildred and Patty Hill, the Louisville sisters credited with composing the tune to the ditty Happy Birthday to You; Loretta Lynn (Johnson County), and Billy Ray Cyrus (Flatwoods). However, its depth lies in its signature sound — Bluegrass music. Bill Monroe, "The Father of Bluegrass", was born in the small Ohio County town of Rosine, while Ricky Skaggs, Keith Whitley, David "Stringbean" Akeman, Louis Marshall "Grandpa" Jones, Sonny and Bobby Osborne, and Sam Bush (who has been compared to Monroe) all hail from Kentucky. The International Bluegrass Music Museum is located in Owensboro,[99] while the annual Festival of the Bluegrass is held in Lexington.[100]

Kentucky is also home to famed jazz musician and pioneer, Lionel Hampton (although this has been disputed in recent years).[101] Blues legend W.C. Handy and R&B singer Wilson Pickett also spent considerable time in Kentucky. The pop bands Midnight Star and Nappy Roots were both formed in Kentucky, as were country acts The Kentucky Headhunters and Montgomery Gentry, as well as Dove Award-winning Christian groups Audio Adrenaline (rock) and Bride (metal).

Cuisine

Main article: Cuisine of Kentucky

Kentucky's cuisine, like much of the state's culture, is unique and is considered to blend elements of both the South and Midwest, given its location between the two regions.[102][103] One original Kentucky dish is called the Hot Brown, a layered dish normally in this order: bread, tomatoes, turkey, bacon, and topped with melted cheese. It was developed at the Brown Hotel in Louisville.[104] The Pendennis Club in Louisville is the Birthplace of the drink The Old Fashioned.

Sports

Kentucky's Churchill Downs hosts the Kentucky Derby.
Main article: Sports in Kentucky

Kentucky is the home of several sports teams such as Minor League Baseballs Class A Lexington Legends and AAA Louisville Bats. They are also home to the Frontier Leagues Florence Freedom and several teams in the MCFL. They are also the home of the Louisville Fire of the af2 who appear to be interested in making a move up to the "major league" Arena Football League Major league teams in nearby cities, typically have strong fan support depending on the part of the state, with Nashville teams having strong fan support in South Central and most of Western Kentucky, Nashville and St. Louis teams competing for loyalties in the Purchase, Indianapolis and Chicago teams predominating in the Louisville area, and Cincinnati teams having strong support in Central and Eastern Kentucky. The northern part of the state lies across the Ohio River from Cincinnati, which is home to a National Football League team, the Bengals, and a Major League Baseball team, the Reds. It is not uncommon for fans to park in the city of Newport and use the Newport Southbank Pedestrian Bridge, locally known as the "Purple People Bridge," to walk to these games in Cincinnati. Many restaurants and stores in Newport rely on business from these fans. Also, Georgetown College in Georgetown is the location for the Bengals' summer training camp.[105]

As in many states, especially those without major league professional sport teams, college athletics are very important. This is especially true of the state's three Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) programs, including the Kentucky Wildcats, the Western Kentucky University Hilltoppers, and the Louisville Cardinals. The Wildcats, Hilltoppers, and Cardinals are among the most tradition-rich college basketball teams in the United States, combining for nine championships and 22 NCAA Final Fours; and all three are on the lists of total all-time wins, wins per season, and average wins per season. Louisville has also stepped onto the football scene in recent years, with eight straight bowl games, including the 2007 Orange Bowl. Western Kentucky, the 2002 national champion in Division I-AA football (now Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS), is currently transitioning to Division I FBS football.

State symbols

Main article: List of Kentucky state insignia
See also: Flag of Kentucky and Seal of Kentucky
Insignia Symbol Binomial nomenclature Year Adopted[106]
Official State Bird Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis 1926
Official State Butterfly Viceroy Butterfly Limenitis archippus 1990
Official State Dance Clogging 2001
Official State Beverage Milk 2005
Official State Fish Kentucky Spotted Bass Micropterus punctulatus 2005
Official State Fossil Brachiopod undetermined 1985
Official State Flower Goldenrod Soldiago gigantea 1926
Official State Fruit Blackberry Rubus allegheniensis 2004
Official State Gemstone Freshwater Pearl 1986
State Grass Kentucky Bluegrass Poa pratensis Traditional
Official State Latin Motto "Deo gratiam habeamus"

("With gratitude to God")

2002
Official State Horse Thoroughbred Equus caballus 1996
Official State Mineral Coal 1998
Official State Outdoor Musical "The Stephen Foster Story" (now called "Stephen Foster - The Musical") 2002
Official State Instrument Appalachian Dulcimer 2001
State Nickname "The Bluegrass State" Traditional
Official State Rock Kentucky Agate 2000
Official State Slogan "Kentucky: Unbridled Spirit" 2004[107]
Official State Soil Crider Soil Series 1990
Official State Tree Tulip Poplar Liriodendron tulipifera 1994
Official Wild Animal Game Species Gray Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis 1968
Official State Song "My Old Kentucky Home"

(revised version)

1986
Official State Silverware Pattern Old Kentucky Blue Grass:

The Georgetown Pattern

1996
Official State Music Bluegrass music 2007[108]

Official state places and events



Unless otherwise specified, all state symbol information is taken from Kentucky State Symbols.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Kentucky State Symbols. Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  2. ^ a b c Science In Your Backyard: Kentucky. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  3. ^ {{cite book |title=The North American Midwest: A Regional Geography|publisher=Wiley Publishers |location=[[New York, New York|]]
  4. ^ {{cite book |title=Encyclopedia of Kentucky |chapter=State Symbols |publisher=Somerset Publishers |location=[[Online Etymology Dictionary|]]
  5. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named kenten
  6. ^ {{cite web | title=Life on the Mississippi | publisher=[[2002-01-28|]]
  7. ^ How Many Counties are in Your State?. Click and Learn. Retrieved on 2006-11-29. [[Thomas D. Clark|]]
  8. ^ {{cite book |editor=Kleber, John E. |others=Associate editors: [[Lexington, Kentucky|]]
  9. ^ {{cite book |editor=Kleber, John E. |others=Associate editors: [[Lexington, Kentucky|]]
  10. ^ Elk Restoration Update and Hunting Information. Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources. Retrieved on 2006-12-09.
  11. ^ Wolf Creek Dam: Major Rehabilitation. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  12. ^ Land Between the Lakes
  13. ^ Smith, Darren. Mammoth Cave National Park. about. com. Retrieved on 4-30 2007.
  14. ^ {{cite web | title=Cumberland Falls State Resort Park | date=[[2005-10-19|]]
  15. ^ {{cite web | title=Mammoth Cave National Park | date=[[2006-10-12|]]
  16. ^ Bernheim Research Forest 1. University of Louisville. Retrieved on 4-30, 2007.
  17. ^ Bad Branch State Nature Preserve. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  18. ^ Jefferson Memorial Forest. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  19. ^ The Presence. History of Native Americans in Central Kentucky. Mercer County Online. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  20. ^ Skinner, Constance. The Dark and Bloody Hunting Ground. Pioneers of the Old Southwest. WebBooks.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  21. ^ >Book Description for The Life of Daniel Boone: The Founder of the State of Kentucky and Colonel's Boone Autobiography. Amazon.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  22. ^ Dilger, Dr. Robert Jay. Monongalia County History. West Virginia University. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  23. ^ The Battle of Blue Licks. EarlyAmerica.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  24. ^ About Kentucky. Ezilon Search. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  25. ^ Constitution Square State Historic Site. Danville-Boyle County Convention and Visitors Bureau. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  26. ^ {{cite web | title=Border States in the Civil War | date=[[Kentucky General Assembly|]]
  27. ^ {{cite web | title=The Old State Capitol | publisher=[[Kentucky Historical Society|]]
  28. ^ 2006 General Election Registration Figures Set. Kentucky Secretary of State (2006-10-19). Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  29. ^ Election Results for Kentucky. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  30. ^ Reviser of Statutes Office - History and Functions. Kentucky Legislative Research Commission. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  31. ^ History of the DOCJT. Kentucky Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  32. ^ History of the Kentucky State Police. Kentucky State Police. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  33. ^ Authorized Methods of Execution by State. Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  34. ^ {{cite web |url=http://www.kypost.com/2001/jun/11/bethea061101.html |title=The Last Public Execution in America |publisher=The Kentucky Post |last=Long |first=Paul A. |date=[[2001-05-01|]]
  35. ^ {{cite web |url=http://straylight.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/03-1693.ZS.html |title=McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky |publisher=[[Cornell University|]]
  36. ^ Price, Michael. Migration in Kentucky: Will the Circle Be Unbroken?. Exploring the Frontier of the Future: How Kentucky Will Live, Learn and Work pp. 5–10. University of Louisville. Retrieved on 4-30, 2007.
  37. ^ Population and Population Centers by State: 2000 (TXT). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  38. ^ [1]
  39. ^ State Membership Report. The Association of Religion Data Archives (2000). Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  40. ^ See E. Michael Rusten, The One Year Book of Christian History, Tyndale House, 2003, pp. 438–439. ISBN 0842355073.
  41. ^ Kentucky Revival - Red River to Cane Ridge. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  42. ^ Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development - Kentucky Economy
  43. ^ Strong, Marvin. Kentucky: In the Middle of Auto Alley. Trade and Industry Development. Retrieved on August, 2007. Retrieved on 10 2007.
  44. ^ U.S. Department of Agriculture 2002 Census of Agriculture
  45. ^ (March 2003) "Kentucky Farm Numbers Increase". Kentucky Agri-News 22 (5). Retrieved on 2007-05-03. 
  46. ^ 2007 Rankings of States and Counties. bamabeef.org. Retrieved on May, 2007. Retrieved on 1 2007.
  47. ^ Corn Production Detective (PDF). National Council on Economic Education. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  48. ^ Kentucky Income Tax Rates. salary. com. Retrieved on May 1, 2007.
  49. ^ Sales & Use Tax. Kentucky Department of Revenue. Retrieved on May 1, 2007.
  50. ^ Property Tax. Kentucky Department of Revenue. Retrieved on May 1, 2007.
  51. ^ State Taxes - Kentucky - Overview. bankrate.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  52. ^ Text of the House Bill 272. State of Kentucky. Retrieved on August, 2007. Retrieved on 10 2007.
  53. ^ Unbridled Spirit→Information. State of Kentucky. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  54. ^ Stinnett, Chuck. Fletcher:Tolls to end November 22. Henderson Gleaner. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  55. ^ Stinnett, Chuck (11-22-2006). Onlookers Cheer Booth Destruction at Ceremony. Courier Press. Retrieved on August, 2007. Retrieved on 10 2007.
  56. ^ {{cite web|url=http://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2007706260437|publisher=[[Courier-Journal|]]
  57. ^ Railroad Service in Kentucky. Association of American Railroads. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  58. ^ Knight, Andy. On the Right Track - Kentucky Dinner Train serves up railroad nostalgia. Cincinnati.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  59. ^ Kentucky Railway Museum. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  60. ^ Shafer, Sheldon. "Bridges money may be shifted", Courier-Journal, 2007-03-05. 
  61. ^ Crowley, Patrick (April 23, 2003). Meet the Purple People Bridge. Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  62. ^ Fast Facts. Louisville International Airport. Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
  63. ^ Crash Kills 49
  64. ^ Comair Crash Survivor Leaves Hospital. CBS. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  65. ^ NTSB: LEX Controller Had Two Hours Of Sleep Prior To Accident Shift. Aero-News.Net. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  66. ^ Pilots' charts of airport were out of date. Retrieved on 2007-05-01. Pilots' charts of airport were out of date
  67. ^ Ahlers, Michael (August 30, 2006). FAA: Tower staffing during plane crash violated rules. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  68. ^ [2]
  69. ^ [3]
  70. ^ Kentucky Counties, University of Kentucky
  71. ^ Census Population Estimates for 2006 - Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000. US Census. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
  72. ^ Census Population Estimates for 2006 - Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Kentucky. US Census. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
  73. ^ [4]
  74. ^ Postsecondary Education Improvement Act of 1997. State of Kentucky. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  75. ^ Berea College:Learning, Labor, and Service. Diversity Web. Retrieved on 2007-05-01. Berea College: Learning, Labor, and Service
  76. ^ Berea College v. Kentucky
  77. ^ A Guide to the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990. Education Resources Information Center. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.[Abstract of A Guide to the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990 - provided by Education Resources Information Center (ERIC)]
  78. ^ Roeder, Phillip. Education Reform and Equitable Excellence: The Kentucky Experiment. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  79. ^ Brittingham, Angela & de la Cruz, G. Patricia (June 2004). Ancestry 2000: Census 2000 Brief (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 28 June 2007.
  80. ^ 2000 Census: Percent Reporting Any German Ancestry. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  81. ^ Beale, Calvin (21 July 2004). High Poverty in the Rural U.S. and South: Progress and Persistence in the 1990s (PowerPoint). Retrieved on 28 June 2007.
  82. ^ Womack, Veronica L. (23 July 2004). The American Black Belt Region: A Forgotten Place (PowerPoint). Retrieved on 28 June 2007.
  83. ^ Unknown. Identifying the "Black Belt" of Cash-Crop Production (JPEG Image). Bowdoin College. Retrieved on 28 June 2007.
  84. ^ Civil Rights and Women’s Rights. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  85. ^ Kentucky Derby Festival Home Page. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  86. ^ Kentucky State Fair. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  87. ^ Kentucky Shakespeare Festival Home Page. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  88. ^ National Quartet Convention Home Page. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  89. ^ Home Page of the International Barbecue Festival. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  90. ^ National Corvette Museum press release. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  91. ^ National Corvette Museum Home Page. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  92. ^ {{cite web |url=http://www.ajc.com/travel/content/travel/southeast/ky_stories/0305/09lvgetaway.html |title=Stately Mansions Grace Old Louisville |publisher=[[Atlanta Journal Constitution|]]
  93. ^ Kentucky Bourbon Festival Home Page. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  94. ^ How Bourbon Whiskey Really Got Its Famous Name. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  95. ^ Glasgow, Kentucky Highland Games Home Page. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  96. ^ Little Sturgis Rally Home Page. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  97. ^ Tater Day Festival A Local Legacy. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  98. ^ Clarkson Honeyfest home page. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  99. ^ International Bluegrass Music Museum. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  100. ^ Festival of the Bluegrass Home Page. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  101. ^ {{cite web |last = Voce |first = Steve |title = Obituary: Lionel Hampton |publisher=[[The Independent|]]
  102. ^ http://southernfood.about.com/od/southernregionalfood/Southern_Recipes_and_Regional_Specialties.htm
  103. ^ http://www.iicaculinary.com/iica-ye2-sem1.htm#ac303
  104. ^ {{cite web |url=http://www.brownhotel.com/dining/hot-brown.html |title=Hot Brown Recipe |publisher=[[Brown Hotel|]]
  105. ^ About the camp. BengalsCamp.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-18.
  106. ^ Kentucky's State Symbols. Kentucky Department of Libraries and Archives. Retrieved on 2006-12-18.
  107. ^ {{cite web |url=http://www.kentucky.gov/unbridledspirit/info.htm |title=Unbridled Spirit Information |publisher=Kentucky.gov |accessdate=2006-12-18 |date=[[2006-11-20|]]
  108. ^ HB71: An act designating bluegrass music as the official state music of Kentucky (DOC). Legislative Research Commission. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  109. ^ {{cite web |url=http://www.lrc.ky.gov/KRS/002-00/099.PDF |title=KRS 2.099 - State Honey Festival |publisher=[[Kentucky General Assembly|]]

Bibliography

Politics

History

Surveys and reference

  • Bodley, Temple and Samuel M. Wilson. History of Kentucky 4 vols. (1928).
  • Caudill, Harry M., Night Comes to the Cumberlands (1963). ISBN 0-316-13212-8
  • Channing, Steven. Kentucky: A Bicentennial History (1977).
  • Clark, Thomas Dionysius. A History of Kentucky (many editions, 1937–1992).
  • Collins, Lewis. History of Kentucky (1880).
  • Harrison, Lowell H. and James C. Klotter. A New History of Kentucky (1997).
  • Kleber, John E. et al The Kentucky Encyclopedia (1992), standard reference history.
  • Klotter, James C. Our Kentucky: A Study of the Bluegrass State (2000), high school text
  • Lucas, Marion Brunson and Wright, George C. A History of Blacks in Kentucky 2 vols. (1992).
  • Notable Kentucky African Americans http://www.uky.edu/Subject/aakyall.html
  • Share, Allen J. Cities in the Commonwealth: Two Centuries of Urban Life in Kentucky (1982).
  • Wallis, Frederick A. and Hambleton Tapp. A Sesqui-Centennial History of Kentucky 4 vols. (1945).
  • Ward, William S., A Literary History of Kentucky (1988) (ISBN 0-87049-578-X).
  • WPA, Kentucky: A Guide to the Bluegrass State (1939), classic guide.
  • Yater, George H. (1987). Two Hundred Years at the Fall of the Ohio: A History of Louisville and Jefferson County, 2nd edition, Filson Club, Incorporated. ISBN 0-9601072-3-1. 

Specialized scholarly studies

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Kentucky


Preceded by
Vermont
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on June 1, 1792 (15th)
Succeeded by
Tennessee

CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 37.5° N 85° W

<span class="FA" id="genealogy_wikia_de" style="display:none;" />


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Kentucky. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about KentuckyRDF feed
Subdivision of country United States  +

This article uses material from the "Kentucky" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Commonwealth of Kentucky
File:Flag of [[File:|100px|State seal of Kentucky]]
Flag of Kentucky Seal of Kentucky
Also called: Bluegrass State
Saying(s): United we stand, divided we fall
Official language(s) English[1]
Capital Frankfort
Largest city Louisville
Area  Ranked 37th
 - Total 40,444 sq mi
(104,749 km²)
 - Width 140 miles (225 km)
 - Length 379 miles (610 km)
 - % water 1.7
 - Latitude 36°30'N to 39°9'N
 - Longitude 81°58'W to 89°34'W
Number of people  Ranked 26th
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (23rd)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Black Mountain[2]
4,145 ft  (1,263 m)
 - Average 755 ft  (230 m)
 - Lowest point Mississippi River[2]
257 ft  (78 m)
Became part of the U.S.  June 1, 1792 (15th)
Governor Steve Beshear (D)
U.S. Senators Mitch McConnell (R)
Jim Bunning (R)
Time zones  
 - eastern half Eastern: UTC-5/DST-4
 - western half Central: UTC-6/DST-5
Abbreviations KY US-KY
Web site www.kentucky.gov
Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

Kentucky is a state in the United States. Its capital is Frankfort.

Some people call it the Bluegrass State, because of a special kind of grass that grows there. It is also famous for its horse farms. The Kentucky Derby, a well-known horse race, is held in the city of Louisville, which is also the largest city in the state. Other well-known places are Fort Knox, The Cumberland Gap, Cumberland Falls, Mammoth Cave, Red River gorge, and Land Between the Lakes.

Some well-known towns and cities are Louisville, Lexington, Owensboro, Bowling Green, Covington, Florence, Maysville, Georgetown, Paducah, Murray, Bardstown, Morehead, Midway, Berea, Richmond, Danville, Versailles, Elizabethtown, Radcliff, Corbin, Somerset, Ashland, and Middlesboro.

Hodgenville is famous for being the birthplace of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln.

References

  1. "Kentucky State Symbols". Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. http://kdla.ky.gov/resources/KYSymbols.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Science In Your Backyard: Kentucky". United States Geological Survey. http://www.usgs.gov/state/state.asp?State=KY). Retrieved 2006-11-29. 

frr:Kentucky








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message