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Kh-25ML/MLT/MR
(NATO reporting name: AS-10 'Karen')
Kh-25MP (AS-12 'Kegler')
Kh-25ML.jpg
Kh-25ML
Type tactical air-to-surface missile
anti-radar missile (Kh-25MP)
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1975-current
Used by Russia
Production history
Designed 1971-1975
Manufacturer Zvezda-Strela
Specifications
Weight Kh-25ML :299 kg (659 lb)[1]
Kh-25MP :315 kg (694 lb)[2]
Length Kh-25ML :370.5 cm (12 ft 2 in)[1]
Kh-25MP 1VP :425.5 cm (167.5 in)[2]
Kh-25MP 2VP :435.5 cm (171.5 in)[2]
Diameter 27.5 cm (10.8 in)[1]

Warhead High explosive, shell-forming
Warhead weight Kh-25MP :86 kg (190 lb)[2]

Wingspan 75.5 cm (29.7 in)[1]
Operational
range
Kh-25ML :10 km (5.4 nmi)[1]
Kh-25MP :up to 40 km (22 nmi)[2]
Speed Kh-25ML :1,370–2,410 km/h (850–1,500 mph)[1]
Kh-25MP :1,080–1,620 km/h (670–1,000 mph)[2]
Guidance
system
Laser, passive radar, TV, IR, satnav, active radar depending on variant
Launch
platform
MiG-21,[3] MiG-23/27,[3] MiG-29,[3] Su-17/20/22,[3] Su-24,[3] Su-25,[3] Su-27[3]
Kh-25MP : MiG-23/27,[4] Su-17/22,[4] Su-24,[4] Su-25[4]

The Kh-25/Kh-25M (Russian: Х-25; NATO:AS-10 'Karen') is a family of Russian lightweight air-to-ground missiles with a modular range of guidance systems and a range of 10 km.[1] The anti-radar variant (Kh-25MP) is known to NATO as the AS-12 'Kegler' and has a range up to 40 km.[2] Designed by Zvezda-Strela, the Kh-25 is derived from the laser-guided version of their Kh-23 (AS-7 'Kerry'). It has now been succeeded by the Kh-38 family, but the Kh-25 remains in widespread use.

Contents

Development

Based on an air-to-air missile, the beam-riding Kh-66 had been the Soviet Union's first air-to-ground missile for tactical aircraft, entering service in 1968.[5] However it proved difficult to use in practice as the launch aircraft had to dive towards the target. A version with radio-command guidance, the Kh-23, was first tested in 1968 but problems with the guidance system meant that it would not enter service for another five years.[6] So in 1971 work began on a version with a semi-active laser seeker, which became the Kh-25.[5] This was initially known in the West as the Kh-23L.[7] State testing began on 24 November 1974, and the Kh-25 entered production in 1975.[5]

Work began on an anti-radar missile derived from the Kh-66[4] in 1972, using a passive radar seeker and SUR-73 autopilot.[5] The long-range Kh-31 anti-radar missile came out of the same project.[5] The Kh-27 began state testing on a Mig-27 on 8 August 1975[5] but did not enter service until 2 September 1980.[5] It was assigned the NATO reporting name AS-12 'Kegler' and in effect it replaced the much heavier Kh-28 (AS-9 'Kyle').[4]

In 1973 Victor Bugaiskii was appointed head engineer of the bureau and he started work on combining the Kh-23M, Kh-25 and Kh-27 into a single modular system to reduce costs and improve tactical flexibility.[5] This was completed by the end of 1978,[5] resulting in the Kh-25MP (anti-radar), Kh-25ML (laser-guided) and Kh-25MR (radio-guided) family. NATO continued to refer to these as the AS-12 and AS-10 respectively, even though they could now be switched by a simple change of seeker head.

Design

The Kh-25 is very similar to the later version of the Kh-23, with cruciform canards and fins.

The Kh-25MP has two versions of its homing head, 1VP and 2VP, sensitive to different frequencies.[2]

Operational history

The original Kh-25 entered service with the Soviet Air Force between 1973-5, equipping the MiG-23, MiG-27 'Flogger' and Su-17M.[3] Since then it has been cleared for use on the MiG-21 'Fishbed', MiG-29 'Fulcrum', Sukhoi Su-17/20/22 'Fitter', Su-24 'Fencer', Su-25 'Frogfoot' and Su-27 'Flanker'.[3] It can also be carried by attack helicopters such as the Ka-50.

The Kh-25MP can be fitted to the MiG-23/27, Su-17/22, Su-24 and Su-25.[4]

Variants

NATO refers to all of the Kh-25 family as AS-10 'Karen' apart from the anti-radar variants. An "M" designation stands for "Modulnaya" - modular (seeker head).

  • Kh-25 (Izdeliye 71, Kh-23L) - original laser-guided variant
  • Kh-25ML - semi-active laser guidance with tandem warhead that can penetrate 1 metre (39 in) of concrete[8]
  • Kh-25MA - active radar guidance, first offered for export in 1999[3]
  • Kh-25MAE - Kh-25MA update announced for export in August 2005 with Ka-band seeker, probably Phazotron's PSM which can detect a tank at 4,000 m (4,370 yd) and which can also be used on the Kh-25MA[8]
  • Kh-25MS - satellite navigation (GPS or GLONASS)[3]
  • Kh-25MSE - export version of Kh-25MS, announced August 2005[8]
  • Kh-25MT - TV guidance[3]
  • Kh-25MTP - infra-red guidance[3]
  • Kh-25R/Kh-25MR - radio-command guidance[3]
  • Kh-27 (Kh-27/M, AS-12 'Kegler') - original anti-radiation missile
  • Kh-25MP (AS-12 'Kegler') - modular anti-radiation variant[4]
  • Kh-25MPU (AS-12 'Kegler') - Updated Kh-25MP[4]

Training rounds have "U" designations, so eg for the Kh-25ML there is :

  • Kh-25MUL - combat training Kh-25ML[1]
  • Kh-25ML-UD - functional training missile[1]
  • Kh-25ML-UR - sectional training missile[1]

Similar weapons

  • Kh-23M (AS-7 'Kerry') - predecessor to the Kh-25 had some technology "backported" from the Kh-25
  • Kh-29 (AS-14 'Kedge') - put the Kh-25 laser guidance on a heavier warhead
  • Kh-59 (AS-13 'Kingbolt') - longer range Kh-25, with heavier warhead and TV guidance
  • Kh-38 - successor to the Kh-25
  • AGM-65 Maverick - similar lightweight missile in US service which has seen numerous guidance and warhead variants
  • AGM-45 Shrike - US equivalent to the Kh-25MP anti-radar missile

External links

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Kh-25ML". Tactical Missiles Corporation. 2004. http://eng.ktrv.ru/production_eng/323/513/367/.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Kh-25MP". Tactical Missiles Corporation. 2004. http://eng.ktrv.ru/production_eng/323/511/369/.  
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Kh-25 (AS-10 'Karen')", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01, http://www.janes.com/extracts/extract/jalw/jalw2917.html, retrieved 2009-02-07  
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Kh-25MP, Kh-25MPU (AS-12 'Kegler')", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01, http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Air-Launched-Weapons/Kh-25MP-Kh-25MPU-AS-12-Kegler-Russian-Federation.html, retrieved 2009-02-07  
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i (Word 97 DOC) History of JSC Tactical Missile Corporation, pp. 4–6, http://eng.ktrv.ru/docs/history_eng.doc, retrieved 2009-02-26  
  6. ^ Friedman, Norman (1997), The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapons Systems, Naval Institute Press, p. 235, ISBN 9781557502681, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=l-DzknmTgDUC&pg=PA235&lpg=PA235  
  7. ^ "Kh-23, Kh-66 Grom (AS-7 'Kerry')", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01, http://www.janes.com/extracts/extract/jalw/jalw2915.html, retrieved 2009-02-07  
  8. ^ a b c Friedman, Norman (2006), The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems (5 ed.), Naval Institute Press, p. 838, ISBN 9781557502629, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=4S3h8j_NEmkC&pg=PA838  
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