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Ahmadiyya Islam


Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Prophecies · Claims · Writings

Views & Belief
Five Pillars of Islam  · Qur'an  · Sunnah  · Hadith  · Jesus  · Prophethood  · Jihad  · Caliphate

Khalifatul Masih
of the
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
Hakeem Noor-ud-Din · Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad · Mirza Nasir Ahmad · Mirza Tahir Ahmad · Mirza Masroor Ahmad
see also:
Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement

Literature
Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya  · The Philosophy of the Teachings of Islam  · Jesus in India  · Noor-ul-Haq  · Victory of Islam  · Commentary on Surah Al-Fateha  · Malfoozat  · Tafseer-e-Kabeer  ·

Buildings and Structures
White Minaret · Mubarak Mosque  · Baitul Futuh · Baitun Nur · Basharat Mosque · Fazl Mosque · Khadija Mosque · Mahmood Mosque (Kababir) · Mahmood Mosque (Zürich) · Noor Mosque

Khalifatul Masih ("Successor of the Messiah") sometimes simply referred to as Khalifah or Caliph is the elected spiritual leader of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and is the successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian. The Khalifatul Masih is believed by the Ahmadiyya Community to be divinely guided, continuing the same divine communion which the founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is said to have enjoyed. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement however does not subscribe to this belief.[1] The Khalifatul Masih is also referred to by members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community as Amir al-Muminin. The current Khalifatul Masih is Mirza Masroor Ahmad.

After the death of Ghulam Ahmad, his successors directed the Ahmadiyya Community from Qadian which remained the headquarters of the community until 1947 with the creation of Pakistan. From this time on the headquarters remained in Rabwah, a land bought in Pakistan by the community. In 1984 the Ordinance XX was promulgated by the government of Pakistan which rendered the Khalifa unable to perform his duties and put the very institution of the Ahmadiyya Caliphate in jeopardy. Due to these circumstances the fourth Khalifah left Pakistan and migrated to London, England, provisionally changing the headquarters to the Fazl Mosque.[2]

Contents

Overview

The members of the community believe that the Ahmadiyya Caliphate is the continuation of the Islamic Caliphate, first being the Rashidun (rightly guided) Caliphate (of Righteous Caliphs). This is believed to have been suspended with Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad and reestablished with the appearance of Ghulam Ahmad whom Ahmadis believe was the Promised Messiah and Mahdi.

Ahmadi Muslims believe that God has assured them that this Khalifat will endure to the end of time, depending on their righteousness and faith in God. The Khalifat provides unity, security and progress for the Jama’at-i-Ahmadiyya. It is required that the Khalifa carry out his duties through consultation and taking into consideration the views of the members of the Shura (consultative body). However, it is not incumbent upon him to always accept the views and recommendations of the members. The Khalifatul Masih has overall authority for all religious and organisational matters and is bound to decide and act in accordance with the Qur'an and Hadith. According to Ahmadiyya thought, it is not essential for a Caliph to be the head of a state, rather the spiritual and religious significance of the Caliphate is emphasised.

Quranic reference

There are two kinds of Khalifa (pl. Khulafā) mentioned in the Quran, one which is directly appointed by God i.e. a prophet and vicegerent of God, (like Adam and David who have been called God’s vicegerent in the Quran.[Qur'an 2:30] and [Qur'an 38:26]). The other is one who succeeds a prophet and is a vicegerent of a prophet, referred to in the verse:

وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُم فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَى لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّن بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْناً يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئاً وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

Allah has promised to those among you who believe and do good works that He will, surely, make them successors in the earth, as He made Successors from among those who were before them; and that He will, surely, establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them; and that He will, surely, give them in exchange security and peace after their fear; They will worship Me and they will not associate anything with Me. Then whoso disbelieves after that, they will be the rebellious.

[Qur'an 24:55]

Reestablishment of the Rashidun Caliphate

Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih V

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believes that their Caliphate is the second era and re-establishment of the first Caliphate, that of the Rashidun. As is stated in the Hadith:

Huzaifa narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: Prophethood will remain among you as long as Allah wills. Then khilafat on the lines of Prophethood shall commence, and remain as long as Allah wills. Then corrupt/erosive monarchy would take place, and it will remain as long as Allah wills. After that, despotic kingship would emerge, and it will remain as long as Allah wills. Then, the khilafat shall come once again based on the precept of Prophethood.”

Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Mishkat, chapter Al-Anzar wal Tahzir

The fist era of Caliphate mentioned in the above saying of Muhammad is commonly accepted by Muslims as that of the Rashidun. The second era mentioned is thought by Ahmadis to be that of the Ahmadiyya Caliphate.

Qudrat-e-Sānia (The second Manifestation of God’s power)

The Khilafat is believed by the Ahmadiyya Musilm Community to be the second manifestation of God’s power that was promised by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad to be witnessed by his patient and true followers after his demise. Ghulam Ahmad wrote in his last testemant Al-Wassiyyat (The Will)

So, dear friends! Since it is the way of Allah, from time immemorial, that God Almighty shows two Manifestations so that the two false joys of the opponents be put to an end, it is not possible now that God should relinquish his practice of old. So do not grieve over what I have said to you; nor should your hearts be distressed. For it is essential for you to witness the second Manifestation. Also, and its coming is better for you because it is everlasting, the continuity of which will not end till the day of Judgement. And that second Manifestation cannot come unless I depart but when I depart, God will send that second Manifestation for you… Our God is He who keeps His promise and is Faithful and is the Truthful God. He shall show you all that He has promised. Though these days are the last days of this world and there are many a disaster waiting to happen, yet it is necessary that this world continues to exist until all those things about which God has prophesied come to pass. I came from God as a Manifestation of Divine providence, and I am a personification of his power. And after I am gone there will be some other persons who will be the manifestation of the second power (of God).

System of election

The Ahmadiyya Muslim community holds that the Khilafat is a holy trust entrusted to a person on account of his piety, righteousness and ability through election and that the Khilafat is not hereditary, even though all the Khulafā of the Ahmadiyya community from the Khalifatul Masih II have been related. The Khalifa is elected to the office by voting of the members of the Electoral College, which was established for this purpose by Mirza Mahmood Ahmad. During the life of a Khalifa, the Electoral College works under his supervision. However, after the demise of a Khalifa, the Electoral College becomes completely independent and elects the next Khalifatul Masih. During the election, names are proposed and seconded by the members of the Electoral College, and then they vote for the proposed names by raising their hands. Though the Khalifa is elected, it is God however, who is believed to guide the members towards election of a righteous and able person as the Khalifatul Masih. Thus it is believed that it is God who chooses the Khalifa.

List of Ahmadiyya Caliphs

Name Picture Lifespan Caliphate Notes
Khalifatul Masih I.

Hakeem Noor-ud-Din

Khalifatul MasihI.jpg 1841-1914 1908-1914 Renowned physician of India, close companion of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, he sent the first Ahmadiyya Muslim missionaries to the UK, and successfully dealt with internal dissensions within the community.
Khalifatul Masih II.

Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad

Khalifatul Masih II.JPG 1889-1965 1914-1965 Son of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, was elected as Khalifa at the young age of 25, considered to be the 'promised son'. He established the entire organisational structure of the community, and is known for extensive missionary activity outside the subcontinent of India.
Khalifatul Masih III.

Mirza Nasir Ahmad

Mīrza Nāsir Ahmad.jpg 1909-1982 1965-1982 Spoke himself for the Ahmadiyya community at the National Assembly of Pakistan, laid the foundation of the first mosque in Spain after 750 years. He oversaw the compilation of the dreams, visions, and revelations and the dialogues of the founder, Ghulam Ahmad.
Khalifatul Masih IV.

Mirza Tahir Ahmad

Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad.jpg 1928-2003 1982-2003 Led the community through periods of severe persecution, provisionally changed the Ahmadiyya headquarters from Rabwah to London and launched the first Muslim satellite TV channel by the name of Muslim Television Ahmadiyya.
Khalifatul Masih V.

Mirza Masroor Ahmad

Khalifah V.jpg 1950-present 2003-present Presently guiding the community through a period of global skepticism towards Islam, regularly holds peace conferences.

See also

References


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