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Kharoṣṭhī
Type Abugida
Spoken languages Gandhari
Prakrit
Tocharian
kuchean
Time period 4th century BCE - 3rd century CE
Parent systems
Sister systems Brāhmī
Nabataean
Syriac
Palmyrenean
Mandaic
Pahlavi
Sogdian
Unicode range U+10A00—U+10A5F
ISO 15924 Khar
Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.

The Kharoṣṭhī script, is an ancient abugida (or "alphasyllabary") used by the Gandhara culture, nestled in the historic northwest South Asia to write the Gāndhārī and Sanskrit languages. It was in use from the middle of the 3rd century BCE until it died out in its homeland around the 3rd century CE. It was also in use in Kushan, Sogdiana (see Issyk kurgan) and along the Silk Road where there is some evidence it may have survived until the 7th century in the remote way stations of Khotan and Niya. Kharoṣṭhī is encoded in the Unicode range U+10A00—U+10A5F, from version 4.1.0.

Contents

Form

Kharoṣṭhī is mostly written right to left (type A), but some inscriptions (type B) already show the left to right direction that was to become universal for the later South Asian scripts.

Each syllable includes the short a sound by default, with other vowels being indicated by diacritic marks. Recent epigraphical evidence highlighted by Professor Richard Salomon of the University of Washington has shown that the order of letters in the Kharoṣṭhī script follows what has become known as the Arapacana Alphabet. As preserved in Sanskrit documents the alphabet runs:

a ra pa ca na la da ba ḍa ṣa va ta ya ṣṭa ka sa ma ga stha ja śva dha śa kha kṣa sta jñā rtha (or ha) bha cha sma hva tsa gha ṭha ṇa pha ska ysa śca ṭa ḍha

Some variations in both the number and order of syllables occur in extant texts.

Kharoṣṭhī includes only one standalone vowel sign which is used for initial vowels in words. Other initial vowels use the a character modified by diacritics. Using epigraphic evidence Salomon has established that the vowel order is a e i o u, rather than the usual vowel order for Indic scripts a i u e o. This is the same as the Semitic vowel order. Also, there is no differentiation between long and short vowels in kharoshti. Both are marked using the same vowel markers

The alphabet was used by Buddhists as a mnemonic for remembering a series of verses relating to the nature of phenomena. In Tantric Buddhism this list was incorporated into ritual practices, and later became enshrined in mantras.

Alphabet

Kharosthi a.svg a Kharosthi i.svg i Kharosthi u.svg u Kharosthi e.svg e Kharosthi o.svg o Kharosthi ri.svg
Kharosthi k.svg k Kharosthi kh.svg kh Kharosthi g.svg g Kharosthi gh.svg gh
Kharosthi c1.svg c Kharosthi ch.svg ch Kharosthi j.svg j Kharosthi ny.svg ñ
Kharosthi tt.svg Kharosthi tth.svg ṭh Kharosthi dd.svg Kharosthi ddh.svg ḍh Kharosthi nn.svg
Kharosthi t.svg t Kharosthi th.svg th Kharosthi d.svg d Kharosthi dh.svg dh Kharosthi n.svg n
Kharosthi p.svg p Kharosthi ph.svg ph Kharosthi b.svg b Kharosthi bh.svg bh Kharosthi m.svg m
Kharosthi y.svg y Kharosthi r.svg r Kharosthi l.svg l Kharosthi v.svg v
Kharosthi sh.svg ś Kharosthi ss.svg Kharosthi s.svg s Kharosthi h.svg h
Kharosthi kk.svg Kharosthi ttth.svg ṭ́h

Numerals

Kharoṣṭhī numerals
I II III X IX IIX IIIX XX IXX
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
 
Ȝ ੭Ȝ ȜȜ ੭ȜȜ ȜȜȜ ੭ȜȜȜ  
10 20 30 40 50 60 70  
 
ʎI ʎII  
100 200  

Kharoṣṭhī included a set of numerals that are reminiscent of Roman numerals. The symbols were I for the unit, X for four (perhaps representative of four lines or directions), for ten (doubled for twenty), and ʎ for the hundreds multiplier. The system is based on an additive and a multiplicative principle, but does not have the substractive feature used in the Roman number system.[1]

Kharosthi 1a.svg 1 Kharosthi 2a.svg 2 Kharosthi 3a.svg 3 Kharosthi 4a.svg 4 Kharosthi 10.svg 10 Kharosthi 20.svg 20 Kharosthi 100.svg 100 Kharosthi 1000.svg 1000

Note that the table beside reads right-to-left, just like the Kharoṣṭhī abugida itself and the displayed numbers.

The numerals are encoded by Unicode at codepoints U+10A40 to U+10A47:

10A40
𐩀
One
10A41
𐩁
Two
10A42
𐩂
Three
10A43
𐩃
Four
10A44
𐩄
Ten
10A45
𐩅
Twenty
10A46
𐩆
One Hundred
10A47
𐩇
One Thousand

History

The Indo-Greek Hashtnagar Pedestal symbolizes Bodhisattva and ancient Kharoṣṭhī script. Dated to 384 of unknown era. Found near Rajar in Gandhara, Pakistan. Original is exhibited at the British Museum.
Wooden Tablet Inscribed with Kharosthi Characters(2nd - 3rd century AD), Excavated at the site of the Niya Ruins in the Xinjiang, Collection of the Xinjiang Museum

The Kharoṣṭhī script was deciphered by James Prinsep (1799–1840), using the bilingual coins of the Indo-Greeks (Obverse in Greek, reverse in Pāli, using the Kharoṣṭhī script). This in turn led to the reading of the Edicts of Ashoka, some of which, from the northwest of the Asian subcontinent, were written in the Kharoṣṭhī script.

Paper strip with writing in Kharoṣṭhī. 2-5th century CE, Yingpan, Eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Museum.

Scholars are not in agreement as to whether the Kharoṣṭhī script evolved gradually, or was the deliberate work of a single inventor. An analysis of the script forms shows a clear dependency on the Aramaic alphabet but with extensive modifications to support the sounds found in Indic languages. One model is that the Aramaic script arrived with the Achaemenid conquest of the region of northwest India in 500 BCE and evolved over the next 200+ years to reach its final form by the 3rd century BCE where it appears in some of the Edicts of Ashoka found in northwestern part of the Asian subcontinent, notably Pakistan and Afghanistan. However, no intermediate forms have yet been found to confirm this evolutionary model, and rock and coin inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE onward show a unified and standard form.

The study of the Kharoṣṭhī script was recently invigorated by the discovery of the Gandharan Buddhist Texts, a set of birch-bark manuscripts written in Kharoṣṭhī, discovered near the Afghani city of Hadda just west of the Khyber Pass in Pakistan. The manuscripts were donated to the British Library in 1994. The entire set of manuscripts are dated to the 1st century CE, making them the oldest Buddhist manuscripts yet discovered.

Tocharian languages

Wooden plate with inscription in a Tocharian language. Kucha, 5th-8th century. Tokyo National Museum.

In the early 20th century inscriptions and documents in two new related (but mutually unintelligible) languages were discovered at various sites in the Tarim Basin written in Karosthi script. It was soon found that they belonged to the Indo-European family of languages. Our only records of the now-extinct "Tokharian A" (from the region of Turfan and Karashahr), and "Tokharian B" (mainly from the region of Kucha, but also found elsewhere), are of relatively late date – 6th to 8th century CE, when written records appear; but it is likely they arrived in the region much earlier. They are now extinct, and scholars are still trying to piece together a fuller picture of these languages, their origins, history and connections, etc.[2]

Kharosthi alphabet in Unicode

10A00
𐨀
A
10A01
𐨁
Vowel Sign I
10A02
𐨂
Vowel Sign U
10A03
𐨃
Vowel Sign Vocalic R
10A05
𐨅
Vowel Sign E
10A06
𐨆
Vowel Sign O
10A0C
𐨌
Vowel Length Mark
10A0D
𐨍
Sign Double Ring Below
10A0E
𐨎
Sign Anusvara
10A0F
𐨏
Sign Visarga
10A10
𐨐
Ka
10A11
𐨑
Kha
10A12
𐨒
Ga
10A13
𐨓
Gha
10A15
𐨕
Ca
10A16
𐨖
Cha
10A17
𐨗
Ja
10A19
𐨙
Nya
10A1A
𐨚
Tta
10A1B
𐨛
Ttha
10A1C
𐨜
Dda
10A1D
𐨝
Ddha
10A1E
𐨞
Nna
10A1F
𐨟
Ta
10A20
𐨠
Tha
10A21
𐨡
Da
10A22
𐨢
Dha
10A23
𐨣
Na
10A24
𐨤
Pa
10A25
𐨥
Pha
10A26
𐨦
Ba
10A27
𐨧
Bha
10A28
𐨨
Ma
10A29
𐨩
Ya
10A2A
𐨪
Ra
10A2B
𐨫
La
10A2C
𐨬
Va
10A2D
𐨭
Sha
10A2E
𐨮
Ssa
10A2F
𐨯
Sa
10A30
𐨰
Za
10A31
𐨱
Ha
10A32
𐨲
Kka
10A33
𐨳
Tttha
10A38
𐨸
Sign Bar Above
10A39
𐨹
Sign Cauda
10A3A
𐨺
Sign Dot Below
10A3F
𐨿
Virama
10A40
𐩀
One
10A41
𐩁
Two
10A42
𐩂
Three
10A43
𐩃
Four
10A44
𐩄
Ten
10A45
𐩅
Twenty
10A46
𐩆
One Hundred
10A47
𐩇
One Thousand
10A50
𐩐
Dot
10A51
𐩑
Small Circle
10A52
𐩒
Circle
10A53
𐩓
Crescent Bar
10A54
𐩔
Mangalam
10A55
𐩕
Lotus
10A56
𐩖
Danda
10A57
𐩗
Double Danda
10A58
𐩘
Lines

See also

References

  1. ^ Graham Flegg, Numbers: Their History and Meaning, Courier Dover Publications, 2002, ISBN 9780486421650, p. 67f.
  2. ^ The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, pp. 270-296, 333-334. (2000). J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair. Thames & Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-05101-1.
  • Dani, Ahmad Hassan. Kharoshthi Primer, Lahore Museum Publication Series - 16, Lahore, 1979
  • Falk, Harry. Schrift im alten Indien: Ein Forschungsbericht mit Anmerkungen, Gunter Narr Verlag, 1993 (in German)
  • Fussman's, Gérard. Les premiers systèmes d'écriture en Inde, in Annuaire du Collège de France 1988-1989 (in French)
  • Hinüber, Oscar von. Der Beginn der Schrift und frühe Schriftlichkeit in Indien, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1990 (in German)
  • Nasim Khan, M. Kharoshthi Manuscripts from Gandhara (2nd ed.): 2009. First published in 2008.
  • Norman, Kenneth R. The Development of Writing in India and its Effect upon the Pâli Canon, in Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens (36), 1993
  • Salomon, Richard. New evidence for a Ganghari origin of the arapacana syllabary. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Apr-Jun 1990, Vol.110 (2), p.255-273.
  • Salomon, Richard. An additional note on arapacana. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 1993, Vol.113 (2), p.275-6.
  • Salomon, Richard. Kharoṣṭhī syllables used as location markers in Gāndhāran stūpa architecture. Pierfrancesco Callieri, ed., Architetti, Capomastri, Artigiani: L’organizzazione dei cantieri e della produzione artistica nell’asia ellenistica. Studi offerti a Domenico Faccenna nel suo ottantesimo compleanno. (Serie Orientale Rome 100; Rome: Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente, 2006), pp. 181-224.

External links

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