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Khatris
Manmohansingh04052007.jpg Raj Kapoor.jpg
Manmohan Singh • G.L. Nanda • Raj Kapoor
Languages

HindiPunjabi

Related ethnic groups

Indo-Aryan peoples • Mohyal[1] • Aroras • Jats/Jatts • Bhatia • Saini • Ramgarhias • Kamboj • Gujjar • Rajput • Lohana

Khatri (Punjabi: ਖੱਤਰੀ, Hindi: खत्री) is the Punjabi adaptation of Sanskrit or Pali word Kshatriya (Hindi: क्षत्रिय, Kşhatriya). [2][3][4], a warrior tribe from the northern Indian subcontinent. As administrators and rulers, Kshatriya were assigned with protecting dharma, and serving humanity and the world. In course of time, however, as a result of economic and political exigencies, the Khatri also expanded into other occupations[5].

The Khatri community traces its origins to the Taxila, Potohar and Majha regions of the Punjab. These regions are historically connected with the composition of the Vedas, the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas as well as more modern religious texts such as the Guru Granth Sahib.

Historically, Khatris were found throughout the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, although there had been some migration to nother and eastern India a few centuries ago. However, after the partition of India, Khatris migrated from Punjab, Pakistan to Punjab, India. They are also found in several other north Indian states, particularly Chandigarh, Haryana, Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. Well integrated into India, from historical times to modern times, the Khatris have played a significant role in the Indian economy, as businessmen, civil and government administrators, landlords and military officials/generals.[5]

Khatris, along with other Punjabi tribes like, historically bore the brunt of all invasions into India. These warrior tribes mostly comprise of Hindus. Census of India, 1901. In Pakistan there are significant Muslim communities with a Khatri background who have preserved their unique identity. Hindu and Sikh Khatris have had a historic presence in Afghanistan (Kabul, Herat) where they have been involved mostly in the mercantile business, although they have also served as administrators in the past.

Khatris have a significant role in shaping the Punjabi culture. All throughout their history Punjab has been their homeland.

Contents

Origin and distribution

The Khatris are a prominent Indian community originally from the Potohar and Majha region of north-western Indian subcontinent, now largely in Punjab in Pakistan. This region is of considerable historical significance in the development of the Indian culture since the composition of the Vedas and classics like the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas.

According to Ramayana[6], Taksha and Pushkala, the sons of Bharata, the brother of Lord Rama founded Taxila and Pushkalavati in this region. According to Bichitra Natak (about AD 1696) of Guru Gobind Singh, Lava and Kusha, the sons of Lord Rama founded Lahore and Kasur, and the descendants of Lava and Kusha form the Khatri Bedi and Sodhi clans[7]. An empty temple dedicated to Lava still exists in the Lahore fort[8].

The region was ruled by Hindu kings until 1013 AD. King Bhimapala[9], the son of Trilochanapala has his capital at Nandana in the Salt Range region, where many temples and archaeological relics from their period are still present. Katas Raj remained a major pilgrimage center until the partition of India. Khatris encountered hardships after the conquest of the region, but stubbornly clung to their heritage. Because of high levels of education and scholarship, they were able to survive even in difficult times[5] .

The Khatris, along with Aroras and Lohanas engaged in trade in Central Asia.[10][11] The Hindu temples of Kabul and the Hindu Fire Temple of Baku built and maintained by them still exist.

Khatris are now present in all the states of India, although the major concentration remains in Punjab and Delhi region. Khatris, along with the Aroras, are collectively of Aryan origin.

Many Khatris have performed military service, such as the present Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army General Deepak Kapoor, General Joginder Jaswant Singh, and General Nirmal Chander Vij.

Prominent historical Khatris

One of the most important characters of famous Punjabi legend Raja Rasalu is minister Mahita Chopra,[12][13] Most scholars agree that Raja Rasalu ruled from Sialkot and lived sometime between 400 to 500 AD.[14]

Many prominent historical figures have emerged from the Khatri. All ten Sikh Gurus were Khatri. The four gots of Sikh gurus existed at least since 15th century AD: As also the names of most Khatris included the word 'Dev', such as Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Angad Dev Ji etc.

Sangam Rai Kapoor, was the founder of the house of Maharajas of Burdwan, founded in 1657. The family continued as rulers of Burdwan until feudal estates were abolished by the government of India in 1955/56.

Raja Fateh Chand was a Maini Khatri chieftain of Bihar who served Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji with dedication during his visit in 1665. Raja Fateh Chand and his wife converted their house into a dharamsala for the sangat or devotees to assemble in holy congregation. The place came to be known as Maini Sangat. On the site now stands Gurdwara Bal Lila Maini Sangat.

Haqiqat Rai was a Puri Khatri whose martyrdom was celebrated on Basant Panchami in Lahore until independence. Hari Singh Nalwa,[15] Maharaja Ranjit Singh's most feared general was an Uppal Khatri. The father and son pair of the Diwans Sawan Mal and Mul Raj Chopra were successive governors of Multan under Ranjit Singh.

Khatris and sun worship

Raja Vanvihari Kapoor has written that major Khatri clans are named after Lord Sun.[16] are mentioned below.

  • Sahasrakar Sahgal Priests: Mohile
  • Kripakar Kapur Priests: Pambu
  • Shankan Khanna Priests: Jhingana
  • Martanada Tandon Priests: Jhingana
  • Mitra Mehra Priests: Jetali
  • Shreshtha Seth
  • Mahendra Mahindru
  • Bahukar Bahora (Vohra)
  • Chakravali Chaupada (Chopra)
  • Karalagni Kakkar Priests: Kumadiye
  • Surya Suri
  • The Royal Treasurer (Bhandari)

According to the Bhavishya Purana, Punjab indeed was an ancient center of Sun worship.

Sanatan Khatris

A majority of Khatris are Sanatan Hindus.[17] As noted in the introduction, the Khatri community have been positioned in roles of administration, rule and warfare within Punjab. The Khatris were the patrons ('yajamansas' or in Punjabi 'jajmani') of the Saraswat Brahmins.[16] The Khatris are among the very few non-Brahmin communities that have traditionally studied the Vedas.[18] Additionally, Saraswat Brahmins accept both Kachcha and Pakka food from Khatri's. Hindu Khatris constitute 9% of the total population of Delhi.[19]

Arya Samaj Khatris

Swami Dayanand was invited to Punjab to counter the missionaries by prominent individuals who also founded the Singh Sabha. He established Arya Samaj in Lahore in 1877, which was against casteism, rituals, idol worship and promoted strict monotheism, which he claimed was the essential message of the Vedas. Arya Samaj became popular among Punjabi Hindus, especially Khatris[20] who were attracted to a similar message by the Sikh Gurus earlier.[21] Arya Samaj inspired individuals like Swami Shraddhanand and institutions like Dayanand Anglo-Vedic Schools System started by Lala Hansraj.[22]

Sikh Khatris

A portion of the Khatris are Sikh.[23] All the Ten Sikh Gurus were Khatris from the Sodhi, Bedi, Trehan and Bhalla clans which like other Khatri clans, claim Suryavanshi Kshatriya, descent according to the autobiographical Bichitra Natak by Guru Gobind Singh.[24] During the lifetime of the Gurus, most of their major supporters and Sikhs were Khatris. A list of this is provided by Bhai Gurdas in Varan Bhai Gurdas, a contemporary of the Sikh Gurus.[25]

The martial development by the Sikh Gurus is well documented, with the first master (Guru Nanak Dev) Ji, calling upon Sikhs to make a "ball of their head" to play the game of love. The second Guru (Guru Angad Dev) Ji encouraged physical activities of Sikhs by encouraging wrestling bouts and Kabaddi. The 6th Guru (Guru Hargobind Dev) Ji took up the sword and fought many battles against neighboring Rajputs and Mughals. The 9th Guru Guru Teg Bahadhur Dev Ji fought many battles like the 6th Guru and was an accomplished martial artist. The 10th master Guru Gobind Singh Ji, was proficient in the art of warfare as well as an accomplished swordsman, marksman and equestrian. The tenth Guru's maternal side of the family was accomplished warriors and fighters in their own right. Guru Gobind Singh Ji's maternal uncle, Kirpal Chand Ji served as a General in Guru Hargobind Ji army and guided Guru Gobind Singh ji from an early age.

The sacred sections of the Khatris :-There are four sacred sections among the Khatris, whose position must be touched upon, These are the:- Bedi (Guru Nanak Dev Ji) of the Dharman or Chota Sarin sub group.
Sodhi (Last seven Gurus) of the Chota Sarin sub-Group.
Trehan (Guru Angad Dev Ji) of the Bara Sarin sub group
Bhalla (Guru Amar Das Ji) of the Bara Sarin sub group.
These four sections became sanctified by the births of the various Sikh Gurus to them[26]

Sahib Singh Bedi (1756-1834), was tenth in direct descent from Guru Nanak Dev Ji, and much revered in Sikh times for his piety as well as for his martial prowess. He was born at Dera Baba Nanak, Gurdaspur district. At the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's coronation at Lahore on April 11, 1801, Baba Sahib Singh Bedi placed the tilak or mark of sovereignty on Ranjit Singh's forehead anoiting him Maharaja of Punjab.

Bhai Binod Singh, was a Khatri of the Trehan clan and a direct descendent of the second Sikh Guru Guru Angad Dev Ji. Bhai Binod Singh was a devoted disciple of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, and was one of the few Sikhs to accompany the tenth master to the South in 1708. Bhai Binod Singh fought many battles as a Commander and was leader of the Tatt Khalsa, (True Khalsa). It was Bhai Binod Singh whose Tatt Khalsa declared the official Sikh Warcry to be Sat Sri Akal.

Bhai Daya Singh- Was a Khatri of the Sobti clan and the "first" of the Panj Pyare
. In the historic divan in the Keshgarh Fort at Anandpur on 30 March 1699, Bhai Daya Singh was the first to rise at the Guru's call and offer his head.

During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Misl that was always ahead of other Misls and continuously moving ahead and helping other Sikh Misls was the Dallewalia Misl, founded and led by Gulab Singh Dallewalia a Khatri Sikh.

One head of the family Baba Tikka Baba Harbhajan Singh Bedi is based in Chandigarh, India. Tikka Baba Harbhajan Singh Bedi is the 16th Descendent in the bloodline starting from Guru Nanak Dev Ji with two sons Tikka Surjinder Singh Bedi and Kunwar Arvinder Singh Bedi. Arvinder Singh Bedi is blessed with two sons Tikka Nain Noor Singh Bedi and Kunwar Gagandeep Singh Bedi making the 18th current bloodline starting from Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Many Hindu Khatri families raised at least one Sikh son after the formation of the Khalsa in 1699. This resulted in Khatri clan names being present in both Hindu and Sikh communities worldwide.

Jain Khatris

The number of Khatris who are Jain is very small. However, one of the best known Jain munis in recent times is Acharya Atmaram (also known as Shri Vijayanandsuri. [27]

Muslims of Khatri origin

A Khattri nobleman, in Kitab-i tasrih al-aqvam by Col. James Skinner, aka Sikandar (1778-1841)

Some of the Khatris converted to Islam in the Mughal period. With the advent of Islam following invasions by Turkic tribes from Afghanistan and the North West Frontier Province from the 11th century onwards, there were conversions of Hindus to the faith from among various Punjabi communities, including Khatris. Generally they retained their tribal, clan or caste affiliations as has been the norm in the region. Similarly, the Khatris who converted to Islam, continue to retain a strong social identity.

Pakistan continues to have a prominent community of Khatris. Some Muslim Khatris like the Sahgal family, Aftab Ahmed Vohra, Najam Sethi, etc., of Pakistan are examples of well-known and successful Muslim Khatris.

When Khatri traders from the western districts of the Punjab like Sargodha, Jhang, Jehlum, Chakwal, Faisalabad accepted Islam called themselves Khawaja and adopted Shaikh as title. They are thus called Khawaja Sheikh. Some of them have also adopted Mian as title. In recent years traders from a small town of Chiniot,in the Chiniot District, became prominent due to their contribution in the industries of Pakistan. These traders are known as Chiniotis or Chinioti Shaikhs. The famous trading family of Sahgals, Sahgal Khatris of Chakwal, are known simply as Punjabi Shaikh instead of Khawaja Shaikh. They use Mian as title.

The first censuses of the Punjab were conducted by Denzil Ibbetson and Edward Maclagan in 1883 and 1892. According to their reports, the Khawajas of Bhera in Shahpur, Sargodha District were converted from Khatris, and those from Jhang were said to be converted from Arora. At Chiniot in Jhang District, Majority of the Khawajas are Khatris, while some are Arora. They reported the following sections (gotras) of Khatris from Chiniot:

Adal, Behrara, Churra, Maggun (or Maghoon), Sahgal, Wadhaun (or Vadhavan), Wihara, Talwar, Puri, Topra.

Only one section of Arora is reported from Chiniot:

Goruwala.

The sections of Khawajas from Bhera were reported as follows:

Vohra, Sahgal, Kapur, Sethi, Duggal, Nanda, Magun, Mehndru, Motali. These are all Khatri sections.

The Khawajas of Layyah, Punjab have following Khatri sections:

Kapur, Puri and Tandan .[28]

Khatri organizations

The sessions of Akhil Bhartiya Khatri Mahasabha were held in Lucknow in 1916, 1936, 1952 and 1980. Lucknow Khatri Sabha was established in 1927 and publication Khatri Hitashi was started in 1936. [29]

Divisions among the Khatris

There are social divisions within the community which includes the Dhai-Ghar (2 1/2 clan), Khukhrain (8 clan), Bara-Jati (12 clan), Bunjahi (52 clan) and Sarin (300 clan) Khatris. [17]

The Sarin Khatris include the Bedi and Sodhi clans, to which belonged the founders of the Sikh faith.[17]

Divisions recorded in the Ain-i-Akbari

Divisions among the Khatri groups were reported by Emperor Akbar's close adviser Abu'l Fazal in his book Ain-i-Akbari (compiled in 1590 AD).[30][31]

"The division into the Bara and Bunjahi groups is noticed in the Ain-i-Akbari:- "The Kshatriya (now called Khatris) form two races, the Surajbansi and Sombansi * * There are more than 500 tribes of these Kshatriyas, of whom 52 (Bawanjai) are pre-eminently distinguished and 12 (Baraghar) are of considerable importance"

[32]

There are several subdivisions within the Khatri clans. There are the Dhai Ghar (i.e., 2 1/2 houses - the number 3 being considered unlucky) grouping comprising of Mehra/Mehrotra/Mehrota/Malhotra, Khanna and Kapur/Kapoor.[33] Along with the Seth clan these four subdivisions form the Char Ghar (4 houses) grouping.[17]

Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and NWFP, by H.A. Rose, states that Chopra, Dhawan,Batta, Bandha, Kakar, Mahindru, Sahgal, Soni, Talwar, Tandon, Vohra, Wadhaun, and Wahi, form the Barah-Jati group of Khatris.[17]

Another group is called Bavanjai (52). [17]

Other regional clan groupings include the Sarin.

Regionally Abbhi, Basur, Nanda, Khullar, Jerath, Chopra and Vig/Vij were particularly connected with Ludhiana & Hoshiarpur; Bahl, Kapoor, Mehra, Seth, Beri, and Dhir with Jagraon; Sondhi with Machhiwara and Bahlolpur; and Thapar with Raikot; Gulla with Sahowala, Bhopalwala - Daska Gujranwala - Sialkot, Delhi & Ghaziabad and Had and Cham with Khanna[34]

From the Gazeteer Ludhiana by Government of Indian State of Punjab, India

Khatris. – Khatri is a popular variant of the Sanskrit word Kashtrya, which was used to describe the warrior caste among the Hindu according to the varanashram propounded by the Shastras. In course of time as a result of economic and political exigencies, however, the Khatris also resorted to mercantile occupations, which were originally adopted by the Vaisas, the trading classes.

Like Brahmans there are further sub-divisions amongst Khatris-Bannjais, Sarin, Dhaigharas, chargharas, etc., in the reign of Alaudin Khiliji widoe re-marriage was enforced. Fifty-two castes of Khatris are said to have submitted a memorandum, duly signed, to the Emperor. The signatory castes are called Banjais. Certain castes of eastern Punjab refused to sign the memorandum and were called Shari-Ain, later corrupted to that of Sarin. The Khokhrain baradari is said to consist of the descendants of certain families of Khatris who were believed to have joined the Khokhars in a rebellion and with them other Khatri families were loath to have matrimonial relations. The Bahri section of the descendants of Mehr Chand, Khan Chand and Kapur Chand, three Khatris who went to Delhi in attandance upon one of Akhar’s Rajput wives, and who thus separated from rest of the Khatri castes, married only within each other’s families.8 (8.These appear to be conjectural for the same division appears among the Brahmans of western plains.) the number of the members of this caste is fairly large. The more prominenty, however, in point of social rank are the Mehra or Mehrotra, Khanna, Kapur and the Seth sub-castes.
Prior to partition certain castes, such as churamani, Bandha,Batta, Nanda, Khullar, Jerath, Chopra and Vig were particularly associated with Ludhiana ; Bahl, Kapur, Mehra, Seth, Beri Sencher and Dhir with jagraon ; Batta, sondhi and Karir with Machhiwara and Nabha ; sehgal and Thapar with Rai kot and Had and Cham with Khanna. After partition different castes of Khatris have been widely dispersed with the result that it is very difficult to ascertain their numbers caste-wise, especially because compilation of statistics according to castes has been discontinued since 1947.
Khatris are generally mild in disposition. They are mostly literate and law abiding. Khatris in the district are a great commercial class. They have also made their mark in industry. In Payal sub-tahsil they are generally land-owners. They also engage themselves in Government or private service[35]

Source: Castes, People, GAZETTEER LUDHIANA, Department of Revenue, Government of Punjab (India)[36]

Khukhrain

Dr. Manmohan Singh with President of the United States George W. Bush
See detailed article Khukhrain

Khukhrain (also spelt Khokhran/Kukhrain/Kukhran) are a regional subcaste of Khatris[17] of eight clans of Punjab, originally from the town of Bhera in the Jech Doab (Jhelum - Chenab interfluve) region of Sargodha district of Pakistani Punjab. A significant number of Khukhrains, along with other major Khatri groups, adopted Sikhism during the 18th and 19th centuries. The names of the eight clans are: Anand, Bhasin, Chadha, Kohli, Sabharwal, Sahni/Sawhney, Sethi and Suri. Later three new subclans originated those were Chandok (Chandhoke, Chandhok, Chandiok), Gandhoke, and Ghai. The Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh is a Khukhrain of the Kohli clan.

Distinguished Khatris

In addition to three Indian prime ministers, many distinguished soldiers, administrators, writers, businessmen and artists have been Khatri.

See also

References

  1. ^ History of the Sikhs, Hari Ram Gupta, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1978
  2. ^ People, GAZETTEER LUDHIANA, Department of Revenue, Government of Punjab (India), Homepage: [1]
  3. ^ GAZETTEER AMRITSAR ,Department of Revenue, Government of Punjab (India) (First Edition 1976)
  4. ^ GAZETTEER OF INDIA PUNJAB FARIDKOT
  5. ^ a b c The Khatris, a socio-historical study. by Baij Nath Puri Published in 1988, M.N. Publishers and Distributors (New Delhi)
  6. ^ Ramayana, Romesh C. Dutt, Publisher Kessinger Publishing, 2004 ISBN 1419143875, 9781419143878
  7. ^ a b c The Cosmic Drama: Bichitra Natak, Author Gobind Singh, Publisher Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy of the U.S.A., 1989 ISBN 0893891169, 9780893891169
  8. ^ Lahore and its important monuments, Mohammad Waliullah Khan, Edition ,3 Publisher Dept. of Archaeology and Museums, Ministry of Education, Govt. of Pakistan, 1973
  9. ^ Bhimapala's descendants migrated to Kashmir and became prominent members of the court. They are referred to as "rajaputra" in Rajatarangini
  10. ^ Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India By R.V. Russell, R.B.H. Lal, Re-Published 1995, Asian Educational Services
  11. ^ The Indian Diaspora in Central Asia and Its Trade, 1550-1900 By Scott Cameron Levi, Published 2002 BRILL
  12. ^ The Legends of the Panjab By Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Reprint of the 1884-1900 ed. published by Education Society's Press, Bombay, ISBN 0405101287
  13. ^ Four Legends of King Rasalu of Sialkot, The Folk-Lore Journal, 1883 Folklore Enterprises, Ltd, p. 129-151
  14. ^ The adventures of the Panjab hero Raja Rasalu and other folk-tales of the Panjab By Charles Swynnerton, Published 1884 Original from Oxford University
  15. ^ Nalwa, V. (2009), Hari Singh Nalwa-Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar
  16. ^ a b Jwalaprasad Mishra, Jati Bhaskar, 1914
  17. ^ a b c d e f g M.A. Sherring, Hindu Castes and Tribes as represented in Banares, 1872.
  18. ^ Hindu Tribes and Castes By Matthew Atmore Sherring, Published 1872 Trubner and co[2]p 277
  19. ^ http://www.india-seminar.com/2004/534/534%20sanjay%20kumar.htm HT-CSDS 2003 Survey Estimates
  20. ^ <Political Elite and Society in the Punjab, By Puri, Nina Published 1985 Vikas
  21. ^ "Chowk: : The Amazing Khatris of Punjab". Chowk.com. http://www.chowk.com/articles/10040. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  22. ^ Mahatma Hansraj: Maker of the Modern Punjab By Sri Ram Sharma, Published 1941, Arya Pradeshik, Pratinidhi Sabha
  23. ^ Census of India, 1901 By India Census Commissioner, Sir Edward Albert Gait, Published 1903 Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India, Part 2 Tables, page 292.
  24. ^ "Sri Dasam Granth Sahib". Sridasam.org. http://www.sridasam.org/dasam?Action=Page&p=113. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  25. ^ "Vaaran Bhai Gurdas:VaarPauri:SearchGurbani.com". Searchgurbani.com. http://www.searchgurbani.com/main.php?book=bhai_gurdas_vaaran&action=intro. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  26. ^ Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1911 AD, Page 512, Vol II,
  27. ^ The Svetambar Murtipujak Jain Mendicant, by John E. Cort Man, 1991 Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.
  28. ^ Ibbetson, Denzil; Edward MacLagan and H.A. Rose. A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, vol. II, 1911, pp. 537-538.
  29. ^ The Indian Historical Review By Indian Council of Historical Research, Published 1982 Vikas Pub. House
  30. ^ Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1911 AD, Page 510, Vol II,
  31. ^ THE AÍN I AKBARI BY ABUL FAZLALLÁMI, TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL PERSIAN,BY H. BLOCHMANN, M.A.AND COLONEL H. S. JARRETT Volume 111 Page 114
  32. ^ Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1911 AD, Page 510, Vol II,
  33. ^ Punjab Revenue Castes and Religions of Punjab]
  34. ^ "Punjab District Gazeeters". Punjabrevenue.nic.in. http://punjabrevenue.nic.in/fdigs.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  35. ^ Castes, People, GAZETTEER LUDHIANA, Department of Revenue, Government of Punjab (India), Accessed on November 15, 2008; Homepage: [3]
  36. ^ Castes, People, GAZETTEER LUDHIANA, Department of Revenue, Government of Punjab (India), Accessed on November 15, 2008; Homepage: [4]

Notes

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Jwalaprasad Mishra, Jati Bhaskar, 1914.
  • M.A. Sherring, Hindu Castes and Tribes as represented in Banares, 1872.
  • Raja Vanvihari Kapur, The History of Khatris
  • The Khatris, a socio-historical study, Baij Nath Puri, M.N. Publishers, 1988.
  • Bhai Gurdas Ji, Varan Bhai Gurdas Ji, Vaar 8 - Pauri 10.
  • The Indian Diaspora in Central Asia and Its Trade, 1550-1900 by Scott Cameron Levi.
  • Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1911 AD, Page 501-526, Vol II,
  • Ibid, Page 537-538, Vol II.
  • Temple, R.C. "The Legends of The Panjab", 1884, Reprinted by Institute of Folk Heritage, Islamabd, 1981.
  • Khatris are Kshatryas http://punjabrevenue.nic.in/gaz_ldh8.htm
  • Mahan Kosh by Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha

Genealogy

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Synonym for Kshatriya/Shatriya, one of the five major castes in "Caste Hinduism".

Hindu family name. See article on Chowk

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