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Khilij Dynasty

The Khiljis (or Khaljis; Persian: سلطنت خلجی - Sulṭanat-e Khaljī; Hindi: सलतनत ख़िलजी) were a dynasty of Turko-Afghan[1] Khalaj origin[2][3] who ruled large parts of South Asia from 1290 - 1320.[4] They were the second Muslim dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India.

Contents

History

This dynasty, like the previous Slave dynasty, was of Turkic[5] origin, though the Khalji tribe had long been settled in Afghanistan along with the Ghaznavids, who were originally of Qarluq origin.

The sultans of the Slave Dynasty were Turkic central Asians, but the members of the new dynasty, although they were also Turkic, had settled in Afghanistan and brought a new set of customs and culture to Delhi.[6]
The Khilji dynasty was named after a village in Afghanistan. Some historians feel that they were Afghans, but Bharani and Wolse Haig have mentioned in their accounts that the rulers from this dynasty who came to India had temporarily settled in Afghanistan, but were originally Turks.[7]
The Khiljis were a Turkish tribe but having been long domiciled in Afghanistan, and adopted some Afghan habits and customs. They were treated as Afghans in Delhi Court.[8]

The three kings of the Khaljis were noted for their faithlessness, their ferocity, and their penetration of the Indian south[9]. Although the kings were members of the Khalji tribes and therefore of Turkic origin, the court was of multi-ethnical background, filled with ministers, vezirs, poets, writers, teachers etc. of Persian, Indian, Arab, Turkic origin. The most elemental influence came from central Asia's Iranian population (Tajiks) and Iranized slaves, mostly Turks, brought by famous intellectuals, Sufis, scientists, physicians and noble families and noble warrior tribes (Daylamites, Assassines and Ayyars from Khorasan).

The term Khilji was their self-designation, (see also Ibn Batuta's and Ibn Khaldun's excessive quantity) meaning in Turkic languages "swordsman" or in Ottoman-Turkish "long arm" or "long fingers" and in Pashtu "thief"[10][11][12]. Originated from upper central Asia, they came in contact with the Iranian population of Khorasan and thus with the native ruling class, the Ghaznavids and later Ghurids, who islamized them in slavery and taught them the Khorasanian's urbane culture, language and civilization. During the Ghaznavid periode, the Khalji Turks were ruled for a short time by the Turkoman Seljuqs, who expanded their empire from anatolian Rum to Baluchistan, until they were droven out by the alliance of Ghurids[13]. Under the Ghurids, the Khaljis had still the slave-statue as before under the Ghaznavids and played a role in Ghurid's slave army, Bardagân-e Nezâmi[14], also called Ghilman[14].

Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji, one of the servants of Qutb-ud-din Aybak who was himself an ex-slave of the Ghurids and of Turkic background[15] and an Indo-Ghurid Shah (king) and founder of the Delhi Sultanat, conquered Bihar and Bengal regions of India in the late 12th century. From this time, the Khiljis became servants and vassals of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi. From 1266 to his death in 1290, the Sultan of Delhi was officially Ghiyas ud din Balban[16], another servant of Qutab-ud-din Aybak. Balban’s immediate successors, however, were unable to manage either the administration or the factional conflicts between the old Turkic nobility and the new forces, led by the Khaljis. After a struggle between the two factions, Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji was established by a noble faction of Turkic, Persian, Arabic and Indian-Muslim aristocrates on the collapse of the last feeble Slave king, Kay-Qubadh. Their rise to power was aided by impatient outsiders, some of them Indian-born Muslims[17], who might expect to enhance their positions if the hold of the followers of Balban and the Forty (members of the royal Loya Jirga) were broken[17]. Jalal-ud-din was already elderly, and for a time he was so unpopular, because his tribe was thought to be close to the nomadic Afghans, that he dared not to enter the capital. During his short reign (1290-96), some of Balban's officers revolted due to this assumption but Jalal-ud-din suppressed them, led an unsuccessful expedition against Ranthambhor, and defeated a substantial Mongol force on the banks of the Sind River in central India[17].

Ali Gurshap, his nephew and son-in-law was ordered by his father to lead an expedition with ca. 4000-7000 men into the Hindu Deccan where the conquered countries had refused obedience and to capture Ellichpur and it's treasure and possibly it was also his father's order to murder his uncle after his return in 1296. However, the prince is considered to be the greatest among the Khiljis, due to successfully repelling of two invasions from the Mongols.

With the title of Ala ud din Khilji, Ali Gurshap reigned for 20 years. He captured Ranthambhor (1301) and Chitor (1303), conquered Māndu (1305), and captured and annexed the wealthy Hindu kingdom of Devagiri[18]. He also repelled Mongol raids. Ala-ud-din’s lieutenant, Malik Kafur, a native Muslim Indian, was sent on a plundering expedition to the south in 1308, which led to the capture of Warangal, the overthrow of the Hoysala Dynasty south of the Krishna River, and the occupation of Madura in the extreme south[19]. Malik Kafur returned to Delhi in 1311, laden with spoils. Thereafter, the empire felt into a deep political and family decadence. The sultan died in early 1316. Malik Kafur’s attempted usurpation ended with his own death. The last Khalji, Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah, was murdered in 1320 by former Indian slave who was also chief minister and his friend, Khusraw Khan, who was in turn replaced by Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, the first ruler of the Turkic Tughluq dynasty. A remnant of the ruling house of the Khaljis ruled in Malwa from 1436 to 1530/31 until the Sultan of Gujarat cleansed their entire nobility.

To some extent then, the Khalji usurpation was a move toward the recognition of a shifting balance of power, attributable both to the developments outside the territory of the Delhi sultanate, in Central Asia and Iran, and to the changes that followed the establishment of Turkic rule in northern India.

In large measure, the dislocation in the regions beyond the northwest assured the establishment of an independent Delhi-Sultanate and its subsequent consolidation. The eastern steppe tribes’ movements to the west not only ended the threat to Delhi from the rival Turks and Iranians in Ghazna and Ghur but also forced a number of the Central Asian Muslims to migrate to northern India, a land that came to be known as Hindustan. Almost all the high nobles, including the famous Forty in the 13th century, were of Central Asian origin (mostly Iranians and Turks). Many of them were slaves purchased from the Central Asian bazaars. The same phenomenon also led to the destabilization of the core of the Turkic Mamluks. With the Mongol plunder of Central Asia and eastern Iran (modern Afghanistan, Samarkand, Bukhara, Gorgon, Khwarezm, Merv, Peshawar, Swat, Quetta... and borderlands), many more members of the political and religious elite of these regions were thrown into north India, where they were admitted into various levels of the military and administrative cadre by the early Delhi sultans[17].

The position of the Khiljis within the Turkic society of India

The Khalji Turks were not recognized by the older nobility as coming from a pure Turkic stock (although they were ethnic Turks)[20], since they were (unlike the Turks and their Turkic nobility who tried to intermerry only into Turkic families) assimilated into Non-Turks, mostly by Muslims of Indian, Afghan (Pashtun) and Arab (bedouines) origine, who populated the entire North-West India and near locations which cause that they were in terms of customs and manners different from the Turks. Although they had played a conspicuous role in the success of the Turkic armies in India, they had always been looked down upon by the leading Turks, the dominant group during the Slave dynasty. Sometimes, they were called as bastards, fake Turks or doll-witted by the Turkic noble families[21][22]. This tension between the Khaljis and other Turks, kept in check by Balban, came to the surface in the succeeding reign, and ended in the displacement of the Ilbari Turks.

Origin of the Khalji people

It seems, that the larger Khalji tribe was once member of the semi-nomadic Hephthalites of central Asia who also conquered -invaded- India. Originally, the Khaljis were mainly dwelling in Turkestan, except in some cases[23][24][25] or members of ancient Gökturks. In older scripts of Al-Biruni, Al-Khwarezmi, Masudi, in Juzjani's Hudud ul-'alam min al-mashriq ila al-maghrib and of Arab and Indian historians (Ibn Batuta, Ibn Khaldun or Vahara Mihira etc.) they are considered as one of the original (in the sense of real) members of the Hephtalite's confederation and of Turkic origin who are also found as nomads near Bactria, in Turfan (Turkestan) and east-ward of modern Ghazna in Afghanistan. Possibly, they have split themselves from these large area up and moved to Iran, Armenia, Iraq, Anatolia, Turkmenistan, India (particularly to Punjab) and modern Pakistan and Afghanistan, around the Sulaiman Mountains under the Ghaznavids[26] (see also on Ghalzais). In Iran they moved to Pars where they settled an isolated region which is called today as Khaljistan - Land of Khaljis. However, Persians of Iran use the term Khalji also to describe nomads of Turkic background in their country[26]. Also in in the Kohistan destrict of Pakistan, there is a place called after the Khaljis. The Khalji people of Iran and Afghanistan, the Ghalzai (also called Khaldjish) fraction of the Pashtuns, the Khaldji people of Bengal and Sindh are considered as descendants of ancient and middle-age Khalji (sub-)tribes. However, modern Khalji people are not more comparable to the past Khalji tribes who were of pure Turkic stock. For example in the case of India, modern Khalji people became ethnic Indians and lost their east-Asian features and their Turkic identity. In Iran, Afghanistan and Iraq, they are either of hybrid origin or in the case of Turkmen Khalji tribe they kept Turks but became cultural Iranians and Indians. Because of this fact, most of modern Khalji people and tribes have no more ties or any kind of an identity that trace them intentional to the Turks, except for the Khaljis of Iran and Afghanistan, who speak a Khalaj dialect of the Khalaj language group. One aspect of their life is still alive among the Khalji people around Asia. They all are still mostly of nomadic background.

Cultural achievements

The main court language of Khaljis became Persian[27], followed by Arabic[27] and their own native Turkoman language and some of north-Indian dialects. Even if it was not related with their nature as original nomads and had no ties with urbane cultures and civilizations, the Khalji of Delhi promoted Persian language to a high degree. Such a co-existence of different languages gave birth to the earliest and archaic version of Urdu.

Khalji Sultans of Delhi (1290-1320)

Khilji Sultans of Malwa (1436-1531)

  • Mahmud Khilji (1436-1469)
  • Ghiyas ud din Khilji (1469-1500)

See also

References and footnotes

  1. ^ South Asia: a historical narrative, By Mohammad Yunus, Aradhana Parmar, p.97.
  2. ^ M.J. Hanifi, ḠILZĪ, in Encyclopædia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "[...] Some Indian and Western historians and several nationalistically inspired Afghan writers have proposed that the Turkish Ḵaljī and the Lodī dynasties that ruled northern India during 689-720/1290-1320 and 855-932/1451-1526 respectively were Ḡalzī Pashtuns. However, the Ḡalzī Pahstuns speak Pashtu, a member of the Iranian branch of Indo-European languages, and exhibit specific socio-cultural and linguistic features that do not resemble those of the Ḵalaj or any other Turkish groups (see Morgenstierne, in EIr. I, pp. 516-22; Doerfer; Minorsky) [...]"
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, Khalji Dynasty..."This dynasty, like the previous Slave dynasty, was of Turkish origin, though the Khaljī tribe had long been settled in Afghanistan."
  4. ^ Dynastic Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 368.
  5. ^ Khalji Dynasty
  6. ^ World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa, By Marshall Cavendish, p.320.
  7. ^ The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009, 1/e By Showick Thorpe Edgar Thorpe, p.63.
  8. ^ History of medieval India: from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D., By Radhey Shyam Chaurasia, p.28.
  9. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/316162/Khalji-dynasty
  10. ^ Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose, pg. 241
  11. ^ http://www.khawaran.com/Engl_Nazary_OriginsOfPashtuns.htm
  12. ^ http://www.khyber.org/places/2005/LakkiMarwat.shtml
  13. ^ The History of India, by Mountstuart Elphinstone
  14. ^ a b http://www.voi.org/books/mssmi/ch9.htm
  15. ^ http://www.thenagain.info/webChron/India/SlaveDelhi.html
  16. ^ http://www.storyofpakistan.com/person.asp?perid=P048
  17. ^ a b c d http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/285248/India/46899/The-early-Muslim-period#ref=ref485615
  18. ^ Sastri (1955), pp206–208
  19. ^ Sastri (1955), pp206–208
  20. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/part1_05.html
  21. ^ The Turks in India, 2001, by Henry George Keene
  22. ^ Sharaf Al-Zamān Ṭāhir Marvazī on China, the Turks, and India, Delhi 1942, by Marwazī, Sharaf al-Zamān Ṭāhir Marwazī, Vladimir Minorsky
  23. ^ E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, p. 326
  24. ^ Eran, Land zwischen Tigris und Indus, 1879, p. 268
  25. ^ The Pathans: 550 B.C.-A.D. 1957,by Olaf Kirkpatrick Caroe
  26. ^ a b The Cambridge History of Iran, 1968, p.217 by William Bayne Fisher, Ehsan Yarshater, Ilya Gershevitch and Richard Nelson
  27. ^ a b http://asi.nic.in/asi_epigraphical_arabicpersian.asp
  • The Oxford History of India, Clarendon Press, 1958.

External links


Khilji dynasty
1290–1320
Khilji dynasty
Capital Delhi
Language(s) Persian and Arabic
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate
SultanJalal ud din Firuz Khilji
History
 - Established 1290
 - Disestablished 1320

The Khilji (or Khalji; Persian: سلطنت خلجی - Sulṭanat-e Khaljī; Hindi: सलतनत ख़िलजी) was a dynasty of Turko-Afghan[1] Khalaj origin[2] who ruled large parts of South Asia from 1290 - 1320.[3] They were the second Muslim dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India. Led by their powerful ruler, Alauddin Ghiljai, they are noted in history for repeatedly defeating the warring Mongols[4] and thereby saving India from plundering raids and attacks.

Contents

Origin of the dynasty

The Encyclopædia Britannica states that "this dynasty, like the previous Slave dynasty, was of Turkish origin, though the Khaljī tribe had long been settled in Afghanistan."[5]

The sultans of the Slave Dynasty were Turkic central Asians, but the members of the new dynasty, although they were also Turkic, had settled in Afghanistan and brought a new set of customs and culture to Delhi.[6]
The Khilji dynasty was named after a village in Afghanistan. Some historians feel that they were Afghans, but Bharani and Wolse Haig have mentioned in their accounts that the rulers from this dynasty who came to India had temporarily settled in Afghanistan, but were originally Turks.[7]
The Khiljis were a Turkish tribe but having been long domiciled in Afghanistan, and adopted some Afghan habits and customs. They were treated as Afghans in Delhi Court.[8]

The three sultans of the Khalji dynasty were noted for their faithlessness, their ferocity, and their penetration from Afghanistan into what is now India.[5] Although the rulers were members of Turko-Afghan origin[1], the court was of multi-ethnical background, filled with ministers, vezirs, poets, writers, teachers etc. of Turkic, Indian, Persian, and Arab background.[citation needed] The term Khilji was their self-designation, (see also Ibn Batuta's and Ibn Khaldun's excessive quantity) meaning in Turkic languages "swordsman" or in Ottoman-Turkish "long arm" or "long fingers" and in Pashto language "thief."[9][10]

Originated from upper Central Asia, they came in contact with the multi-ethnic population of Khorasan and thus with the native ruling class, the Ghaznavids and later Ghurids, who islamized them and taught them their culture, language and civilization. During the Ghaznavid period, the Khiljis were ruled for a short time by the Seljuqs, who expanded their Khorasanian empire until they were driven out by the alliance of Ghurids. Under the Ghurids, the Khiljis had still the slave-statue as before under the Ghaznavids and played a role in Ghurid's slave army, Bardagân-e Nezâmi, also called Ghilman.[11]

[[File:|thumb|Ala-ud-din Khilji, the second sultan of the Khilji dynasty.]]

Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji, one of the servants of Qutb-ud-din Aybak who was himself an ex-slave of the Ghurids and of Turkic background[12] and an Indo-Ghurid Shah (king) and founder of the Delhi Sultanat, conquered Bihar and Bengal regions of India in the late 12th century. From this time, the Khiljis became servants and vassals of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi. From 1266 to his death in 1290, the Sultan of Delhi was officially Ghiyas ud din Balban[13], another servant of Qutab-ud-din Aybak. Balban’s immediate successors, however, were unable to manage either the administration or the factional conflicts between the old Turkic nobility and the new forces, led by the Khaljis. After a struggle between the two factions, Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji was established by a noble faction of Turkic, Persian, Arabic and Indian-Muslim aristocrates on the collapse of the last feeble Slave king, Kay-Qubadh. Their rise to power was aided by impatient outsiders, some of them Indian-born Muslims[14], who might expect to enhance their positions if the hold of the followers of Balban and the Forty (members of the royal Loya Jirga) were broken.[14] Jalal-ud-din was already elderly, and for a time he was so unpopular, because his tribe was thought to be close to the nomadic Afghans, that he dared not to enter the capital. During his short reign (1290–96), some of Balban's officers revolted due to this assumption but Jalal-ud-din suppressed them, led an unsuccessful expedition against Ranthambhor, and defeated a substantial Mongol force on the banks of the Sind River in central India.[14]

Ali Gurshap, his nephew and son-in-law was ordered by his father to lead an expedition with ca. 4000-7000 men into the Hindu Deccan where the conquered countries had refused obedience and to capture Ellichpur and it's treasure and possibly it was also his father's order to murder his uncle after his return in 1296. However, the prince is considered to be the greatest among the Khiljis, due to successfully repelling of two invasions from the Mongols.

With the title of Ala ud din Khilji, Ali Gurshap reigned for 20 years. He captured Ranthambhor (1301) and Chitor (1303), conquered Māndu (1305), and captured and annexed the wealthy Hindu kingdom of Devagiri[15]. He also repelled Mongol raids. Ala-ud-din’s lieutenant, Malik Kafur, a native Muslim Indian, was sent on a plundering expedition to the south in 1308, which led to the capture of Warangal, the overthrow of the Hoysala Dynasty south of the Krishna River, and the occupation of Madura in the extreme south[15]. Malik Kafur returned to Delhi in 1311, laden with spoils. Thereafter, the empire felt into a deep political and family decadence. The sultan died in early 1316. Malik Kafur’s attempted usurpation ended with his own death. The last Khalji, Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah, was murdered in 1320 by former Indian slave who was also chief minister and his friend, Khusraw Khan, who was in turn replaced by Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, the first ruler of the Turkic Tughluq dynasty. A remnant of the ruling house of the Khaljis ruled in Malwa from 1436 to 1530/31 until the Sultan of Gujarat cleansed their entire nobility.

To some extent then, the Khilji usurpation was a move toward the recognition of a shifting balance of power, attributable both to the developments outside the territory of the Delhi sultanate, in Central Asia and Iran, and to the changes that followed the establishment of Turkic rule in northern India.

In large measure, the dislocation in the regions beyond the northwest assured the establishment of an independent Delhi-Sultanate and its subsequent consolidation. The eastern steppe tribes’ movements to the west not only ended the threat to Delhi from the rival Turks and Iranians in Ghazna and Ghur but also forced a number of the Central Asian Muslims to migrate to northern India, a land that came to be known as Hindustan. Almost all the high nobles, including the famous Forty in the 13th century, were of Central Asian origin (mostly Iranians and Turks). Many of them were slaves purchased from the Central Asian bazaars. The same phenomenon also led to the destabilization of the core of the Turkic Mamluks. With the Mongol plunder of Central Asia and eastern Iran (modern Afghanistan, Samarkand, Bukhara, Gorgon, Khwarezm, Merv, Peshawar, Swat, Quetta... and borderlands), many more members of the political and religious elite of these regions were thrown into north India, where they were admitted into various levels of the military and administrative cadre by the early Delhi sultans.[14]

The position of the Khiljis within the Turkic society of India

The Khilji Turks were not recognized by the older nobility as coming from a pure Turkic stock (although they were ethnic Turks), since they were (unlike the Turks and their Turkic nobility who tried to intermerry only into Turkic families) assimilated into non-Turks, mostly by Muslims of Indian, Afghan (Pashtun) and Arab (bedouines) origine, who populated the entire North-West India and near locations which cause that they were in terms of customs and manners different from the Turks. Although they had played a conspicuous role in the success of the Turkic armies in India, they had always been looked down upon by the leading Turks, the dominant group during the Slave dynasty. This tension between the Khiljis and other Turks, kept in check by Balban, came to the surface in the succeeding reign, and ended in the displacement of the Ilbari Turks.Khilji tribe was mostly known for thier ferocious war capabilities and retaliation against any invader.[16]

Origin of the Khalji people

It seems, that the larger Khilji tribe was once member of Hephthalites of central Asia who also conquered -invaded- India. Originally, the Khaljis were mainly dwelling in Turkestan, except in some cases[17][18][19] or members of ancient Gökturks. In older scripts of Al-Biruni, Al-Khwarezmi, Masudi, in Juzjani's Hudud ul-'alam min al-mashriq ila al-maghrib and of Arab and Indian historians (Ibn Batuta, Ibn Khaldun or Vahara Mihira etc.) they are considered as one of the original (in the sense of real) members of the Hephtalite's confederation and of Turkic origin who are also found as nomads near Bactria, in Turfan (Turkestan) and east-ward of modern Ghazni in Afghanistan. Possibly, they have split themselves from these large area up and moved to Iran, Armenia, Iraq, Anatolia, Turkmenistan, Punjab) and modern Pakistan and Afghanistan, around the Sulaiman Mountains under the Ghaznavids[20] (see also on Ghalzais). In Iran, they moved to Pars where they settled an isolated region which is called today as Khaljistan - Land of Khaljis. However, Persians of Iran use the term Khalji also to describe nomads of Turkic background in their country[20]. Also in in the Kohistan destrict of Pakistan, there is a place called after the Khiljis. The Khilji people of Iran and Afghanistan, the Ghilzai (also called Khaldjish) fraction of the Pashtuns, the Khaldji people of Bengal and Sindh are considered as descendants of ancient and middle-age Khalji (sub-)tribes. However, modern Khalji people are not more comparable to the past Khalji tribes who were of pure Turkic stock. For example in the case of India, modern Khalji people became ethnic Indians and lost their east-Asian features and their Turkic identity. In Iran, Afghanistan and Iraq, they are either of hybrid origin or in the case of Turkmen Khalji tribe they kept Turks but became culturally Iranians and South Asian. Because of this fact, most of modern Khalji people and tribes have no more ties or any kind of an identity that trace them intentional to the Turks, except for the Khaljis of Iran and Afghanistan, who speak a Khalaj dialect of the Khalaj language group.

Cultural achievements

The main court language of Khiljis became Persian[21], followed by Arabic[21] and their own native Turkoman language and some of north-Indian dialects. Even if it was not related with their nature as original nomads and had no ties with urbane cultures and civilizations, the Khilji of Delhi promoted Persian language to a high degree. Such a co-existence of different languages gave birth to the earliest and archaic version of Urdu.

List of Khalji rulers of Delhi (1290-1320)

Name Picture Reign started Reign ended
Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji
Sultan
1290 1296
Alauddin Khilji
Sultan
[[File:|100px]] 1296 1316
Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah
Sultan
1316 1320

Khalji Sultans of Malwa (1436-1531)

  • Mahmud Khilji (1436–1469)
  • Ghiyas ud din Khilji (1469–1500)

See also

References and footnotes

  1. ^ a b Yunus, Mohammad; Aradhana Parmar (2003). South Asia: a historical narrative. illustrated. Oxford University Press. p. 97. ISBN 0195797116, 9780195797114. http://books.google.com/books?id=opbtAAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  2. ^ M.J. Hanifi, ḠILZĪ, in Encyclopædia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "[...] Some Indian and Western historians and several nationalistically inspired Afghan writers have proposed that the Turkish Ḵaljī and the Lodī dynasties that ruled northern India during 689-720/1290-1320 and 855-932/1451-1526 respectively were Ḡalzī Pashtuns. However, the Ḡalzī Pahstuns speak Pashtu, a member of the Iranian branch of Indo-European languages, and exhibit specific socio-cultural and linguistic features that do not resemble those of the Ḵalaj or any other Turkish groups (see Morgenstierne, in EIr. I, pp. 516-22; Doerfer; Minorsky) [...]"
  3. ^ Dynastic Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 368.
  4. ^ Barua, Pradeep (2005). The state at war in South Asia. illustrated. U of Nebraska Press. p. 29. ISBN 0803213441, 9780803213449. http://books.google.com/books?id=FIIQhuAOGaIC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  5. ^ a b Khalji Dynasty. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 23 August 2010.
  6. ^ Cavendish, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. illustrated. Marshall Cavendish. p. 320. ISBN 0761475710, 9780761475712. http://books.google.com/books?id=j894miuOqc4C&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  7. ^ Thorpe, Showick Thorpe Edgar (2009). The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009, 1/e. illustrated. Pearson Education India. p. 63. ISBN 8131721337, 9788131721339. http://books.google.com/books?id=oAo1X2eagywC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  8. ^ Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of medieval India: from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D.. illustrated. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 28. ISBN 8126901233, 9788126901234. http://books.google.com/books?id=8XnaL7zPXPUC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  9. ^ Rose, Horace Arthur; Denzil Ibbetson (Sir); Edward Douglas Maclagan (Sir) (2002). Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province. illustrated. Asian Educational Services. p. 241. ISBN 8120605055, 9788120605053. http://books.google.com/books?id=UQUtQzPtC6wC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  10. ^ http://www.khyber.org/places/2005/LakkiMarwat.shtml
  11. ^ http://www.voi.org/books/mssmi/ch9.htm
  12. ^ http://www.thenagain.info/webChron/India/SlaveDelhi.html
  13. ^ http://www.storyofpakistan.com/person.asp?perid=P048
  14. ^ a b c d http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/285248/India/46899/The-early-Muslim-period#ref=ref485615
  15. ^ a b Sastri (1955), pp206–208
  16. ^ V. Expansion in the South: The Khaljis and the Tughluqs
  17. ^ E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, p. 326
  18. ^ Eran, Land zwischen Tigris und Indus, 1879, p. 268
  19. ^ The Pathans: 550 B.C.-A.D. 1957,by Olaf Kirkpatrick Caroe
  20. ^ a b The Cambridge History of Iran, 1968, p.217 by William Bayne Fisher, Ehsan Yarshater, Ilya Gershevitch and Richard Nelson
  21. ^ a b http://asi.nic.in/asi_epigraphical_arabicpersian.asp

Further reading

  • The Oxford History of India, Clarendon Press, 1958.

External links








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