
This article contains Khmer script. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Khmer script. 
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Khmer numerals are characters used for writing numbers for several languages in Cambodia, most notably Cambodia's official language, Khmer. They date back to at least the oldest known epigraphical inscription of the Khmer numerals in 604 AD, found on a stele in Prasat Bayang, Cambodia, located not far from Angkor Borei.^{[2]}^{[3]}
Contents 
Numeral systems by culture  

HinduArabic numerals  
Eastern Arabic Indian family Khmer 
Mongolian Thai Western Arabic 
East Asian numerals  
Chinese Counting rods Japanese 
Korean Suzhou Vietnamese 
Alphabetic numerals  
Abjad Armenian Āryabhaṭa Cyrillic 
Ge'ez Greek (Ionian) Hebrew 
Other systems  
Attic Babylonian Brahmi Egyptian Etruscan Inuit 
Mayan Quipu Roman Urnfield 
List of numeral system topics  
Positional systems by base  
Decimal (10)  
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 16, 20, 60 more…  
Having been derived from the Hindu numerals, modern Khmer numerals also represent a decimal positional notation system. It is the script with the first extant material evidence of zero as a numerical figure, dating its use back to the seventh century, two centuries before its certain use in India.^{[2]}^{[4]} However, Old Khmer, or Angkorian Khmer, also possessed separate symbols for the numbers 10, 20, and 100. Each multiple of 20 or 100 would require an additional stroke over the character, so the number 47 was constructed using the 20 symbol with an additional upper stroke, followed by the symbol for number 7.^{[5]} This inconsistency with its decimal system suggests that spoken Angkorian Khmer used a vigesimal system.
As both the Thai alphabet and Lao alphabet are derived from Old Khmer^{[6]}, their modern forms still bear many resemblances to the latter, demonstrated in the table below:
Value  Khmer  Thai  Lao 

0  ០  ๐  ໐ 
1  ១  ๑  ໑ 
2  ២  ๒  ໒ 
3  ៣  ๓  ໓ 
4  ៤  ๔  ໔ 
5  ៥  ๕  ໕ 
6  ៦  ๖  ໖ 
7  ៧  ๗  ໗ 
8  ៨  ๘  ໘ 
9  ៩  ๙  ໙ 
The spoken names of modern Khmer numbers represent a biquinary system, with both base 5 and base 10 in use. For example, 6 (ប្រាំមួយ) is formed from 5 (ប្រាំ) plus 1 (មួយ).
For the most part, the etymology of the Khmer numbers from 1 to 5 are derived directly from the (Nuclear) MonKhmer language, with the exception of the number 0, which is borrowed from the Sanskrit word śūnya.
Value  Khmer  Word Form  IPA  UNGEGN  ALALC  Notes 

0  ០  សូន្យ  soun  sony  sūny  From Sanskrit śūnya 
1  ១  មួយ  muəj  muŏy  muay  Before a classifier, /muəj/ is reduced to /mə/ in regular speech.^{[7]} 
2  ២  ពីរ  piː (pɨl)  pir  bir  Also /pir/ 
3  ៣  បី  ɓəj  bei  pi  
4  ៤  បួន  ɓuən  buŏn  puan  
5  ៥  ប្រាំ  pram  prăm  prâṃ 
As mentioned above, the numbers from 6 to 9 may be constructed by adding any number between 1 to 4 to the base number 5 (ប្រាំ), so that 7 is literally constructed as 5 plus 2. Beyond that, Khmer uses a decimal base, so that 14 is constructed as 10 plus 4, rather than 2 times 5 plus 4; and 16 is constructed as 10+5+1.
Colloquially, compound numbers from eleven to nineteen may be formed using the word ដណ្ដប់ [dɔnɗɑp] preceded by any number from one to nine, so that 15 is constructed as ប្រាំដណ្ដប់ [pram dɔnɗɑp], instead of the standard ដប់ប្រាំ [ɗɑp pram].^{[11]}
Value  Khmer  Word Form  IPA  UNGEGN  ALALC  Notes 

6  ៦  ប្រាំមួយ  pram muəj  prăm muŏy  prâṃ muay  
7  ៧  ប្រាំពីរ  pram piː (pram pɨl)  prăm pir  prâṃ bir  
8  ៨  ប្រាំបី  pram ɓəj  prăm bey  prâṃ pi  
9  ៩  ប្រាំបួន  pram ɓuən  prăm buŏn  prâṃ puan  
10  ១០  ដប់  ɗɑp  dáb  ṭáp  Old Chinese *di̯əp.^{[12]} 
11  ១១  ដប់មួយ  ɗɑp muəj  dáb muŏy  ṭáp muay  Colloquially មួយដណ្ដប់ [muəj dɔnɗɑp]. 
20  ២០  ម្ភៃ  mpʰej (məpʰɨj, mpʰɨj)  mphey  mbhae  Contraction of /muəj/ + /pʰej/ (i.e. one + twenty) 
The numbers from thirty to ninety in Khmer bear many resemblances to both the modern Thai and Cantonese numbers. It is likely that Khmer has borrowed them from the Thai language, as the numbers are both nonproductive in Khmer (i.e. their use is restricted and cannot be used outside 30 to 90) and bear a near onetoone phonological correspondence as can be observed in the language comparisons table below.
Informally, a speaker may choose to omit the final [səp] and the number is still understood. For example, it is possible to say [pɐət muəj] (ប៉ែតមួយ) instead of the full [pɐət səp muəj] (ប៉ែតសិបមួយ).
Value  Khmer  Word Form  IPA  UNGEGN  ALALC  Notes 

30  ៣០  សាមសិប  saːm səp  sam sĕb  sām sip  
40  ៤០  សែសិប  sɐe səp  sê sĕb  sai sip  
50  ៥០  ហាសិប  haː səp  ha sĕb  hā sip  
60  ៦០  ហុកសិប  hok səp  hŏk sĕb  huk sip  
70  ៧០  ចិតសិប  cət səp  chĕt sĕb  cit sip  
80  ៨០  ប៉ែតសិប  pɐət səp  pêt sĕb  p″ait sip  
90  ៩០  កៅសិប  kaw səp  kau sĕb  kau sip 
Language Comparisons:
Value  Khmer  Thai  Archaic Thai  Lao  Cantonese  Teochew  Min Nan  Mandarin 

3 ‒  *saːm  sam  sǎam  sãam  saam^{1}  sã^{1}  sa^{1} (sam^{1})  sān 
4 ‒  *sɐe  si  sài  sii  sei^{3}  si^{3}  si^{3}  sì 
5 ‒  *haː  ha  ngùa  hàa  ng^{5}  ŋou^{6}  go^{2}  wǔ 
6 ‒  *hok  hok  lòk  hók  luk^{6}  lak^{8}  lak^{2} (liok^{8})  liù 
7 ‒  *cət  chet  jèd  jét  cat^{1}  tsʰik^{4}  chit^{2}  qī 
8 ‒  *pɐət  paet  pàed  pàet  baat^{3}  poiʔ^{4}  bpui^{2} (pat^{4})  bā 
9 ‒  *kaw  kao  jao  kâo  gau^{2}  kao^{2}  kau^{4}  jiǔ 
10 ‒  *səp  sip  jǒng  síp  sap^{6}  tsap^{8}  tzhap^{2}  shí 
The standard Khmer numbers starting from one hundred are as follows:
Value  Khmer  Word Form  IPA  UNGEGN  ALALC  Notes^{[13]} 

100  ១០០  មួយរយ  muəj rɔj (rɔj, mərɔj)  muŏy rôy  muay ray  May possibly be borrowed from Thai ร้อย roi. 
1 000  ១០០០  មួយពាន់  muəj piːən  muŏy peăn  muay bân  From Thai พัน phan. 
10 000  ១០០០០  មួយម៉ឺន  muəj məɨn  muŏy mœŭn  muay muȳn  From Thai หมื่น muen. 
100 000  ១០០០០០  មួយសែន  muəj saːen  muŏy sên  muay s″ain  From Thai แสน saen. 
1 000 000  ១០០០០០០  មួយលាន  muəj liːən  muŏy leăn  muay lân  From Thai ล้าน lan. 
10 000 000  ១០០០០០០០  មួយកោដិ  muəj kaot  muŏy kaôdĕ  muay koṭi  From Sanskrit and Pali koṭi. 
Although [muəj kaot] មួយកោដិ is most commonly used to mean ten million, in some areas this is also colloquially used to refer to one billion (which is more properly [muəj rɔj kaot] មួយរយកោដិ). In order to avoid confusion, sometimes [muəj ɗɑp liːən] មួយដប់លាន is used to mean ten million, along with [muəj rɔj liːən] មួយរយលាន for one hundred million, and [muəj piːən liːən] មួយពាន់លាន ("one thousand million") to mean one billion.^{[14]}
Different Cambodian dialects may also employ different base number constructions to form greater numbers above one thousand. A few of the such can be observed in the following table:
Value  Khmer  Word Form^{[14]}^{[15]}  IPA  UNGEGN  ALALC  Notes 

10 000  ១០០០០  (មួយ)ដប់ពាន់  (muəj) ɗɑp piːən  (muŏy) dáb peăn  (muay) ṭáp bân  Literally "(one) ten thousand" 
100 000  ១០០០០០  (មួយ)ដប់ម៉ឺន  (muəj) ɗɑp məɨn  (muŏy) dáb mœŭn  (muay) ṭáp muȳn  Literally "(one) ten tenthousand" 
100 000  ១០០០០០  មួយរយពាន់  muəj rɔj piːən  muŏy rôy peăn  muay ray bân  Literally "one hundred thousand" 
1 000 000  ១០០០០០០  មួយរយម៉ឺន  muəj rɔj məɨn  muŏy rôy mœŭn  muay ray muȳn  Literally "one hundred tenthousand" 
10 000 000  ១០០០០០០០  (មួយ)ដប់លាន  (muəj) ɗɑp liːən  (muŏy) dáb leăn  (muay) ṭáp lân  Literally "(one) ten million" 
100 000 000  ១០០០០០០០០  មួយរយលាន  muəj rɔj liːən  muŏy rôy leăn  muay ray lân  Literally "one hundred million" 
1 000 000 000  ១០០០០០០០០០  មួយពាន់លាន  muəj piːən liːən  muŏy peăn leăn  muay ray bân  Literally "one thousand million" 
Reminiscent of the standard 20base Angkorian Khmer numbers, the modern Khmer language also possesses separate words used to count fruits, not unlike how English uses words such as a "dozen" for counting items such as eggs.^{[16]}
Value  Khmer  Word form  IPA  UNGEGN  ALALC  Notes 

4  ៤  ដំប  dɑmbɑː  dâmbâ  ṭaṃpa  Also written ដំបរ (dâmbâr or ṭaṃpar) 
40  ៤០  ផ្លូន  ploːn  phlon  phlūn  From (pre)Angkorian *plon "40" 
80  ៨០  ពីរផ្លូន  piː~pɨl ploːn  pir phlon  bir phlūn  Literally "two forty" 
400  ៤០០  ស្លឹក  slək  slœ̆k  slẏk  From (pre)Angkorian *slik "400" 
As a result of prolonged literary influence from both the Sanskrit and Pali languages, Khmer may occasionally use borrowed words for counting. Generally speaking, asides a few exceptions such as the numbers for 0 and 100 for which the Khmer language has no equivalent, they are more often restricted to literary, religious, and historical texts than they are used in day to day conversations. One reason for the decline of these numbers is that a Khmer nationalism movement, which emerged in the 1960s, attempted to remove all words of Sanskrit and Pali origin. The Khmer Rouge also attempted to cleanse the language by removing all words which were considered politically incorrect.^{[17]}
Value  Khmer  Word form  IPA  UNGEGN  ALALC  Notes 

12  ១២  ទ្វាទស  tvietʊəh tvieteaʔsaʔ 
tvéatôs(â)  dvādas(a)  Sanskrit, Pali dvādasa 
13 or 30  ១៣ or ៣០  ត្រីទស  trəj tʊəh  trei tôs  trǐ das  Sanskrit, Pali trayodasa 
28  ២៨  អស្តាពីស  ʔahsdaː piː sɑː  ’astéa pi sâ  qastā bǐ sa  Sanskrit (8, aṣṭá) (20, vimsati) 
Like Thai (ที่ thi) and Vietnamese (thứ), Khmer ordinal numbers are also formed by placing ទី [tiː] in front of a cardinal number.^{[18]}
Meaning  Khmer  IPA  UNGEGN  ALALC  Notes 

First  ទីមួយ  tiː muəj  ti muŏy  dǐ muay  
Second  ទីពីរ  tiː piː~pɨl  ti pir  dǐ bir  
Third  ទីបី  tiː ɓəj  ti bei  dǐ pi 
It is generally assumed that the Angkorian and preAngkorian numbers also represented a dual base (quinquavigesimal) system, with both base 5 and base 20 in use. Unlike modern Khmer, the decimal system was highly limited, with both the numbers for ten and one hundred being borrowed from the Chinese and Sanskrit languages respectively. Angkorian Khmer also used Sanskrit numbers for recording dates, sometimes mixing them with Khmer originals, a practice which has persisted until the last century.^{[19]}
The numbers for twenty, forty, and four hundred may be followed by multiplying numbers, with additional digits added on at the end, so that 27 is constructed as twentyoneseven, or 20×1+7.
Value  Khmer  Orthography^{[5]}  Notes 

1  ១  mvay  
2  ២  vyar  
3  ៣  pi  
4  ៤  pvan  
5  ៥  pram  (7 : pramvyar or pramvyal) 
10  ១០  tap  Old Chinese *di̯əp.^{[12]} 
20  ២០  bhai  
40  ៤០  plon  
80  ៨០  bhai pvan  Literally "four twenty" 
100  ១០០  çata  Sanskrit (100, sata). 
400  ៤០០  slik 
ProtoKhmer is the hypothetical ancestor of the modern Khmer language bearing various reflexes of the proposed MonKhmer language. By comparing both modern Khmer and Angkorian Khmer numbers to those of other Eastern MonKhmer (or KhmeroVietic) languages such as Pearic, ProtoVietMuong, Katuic, and Bahnaric; it is possible to establish the following reconstructions for ProtoKhmer.^{[20]}
Contrary to later forms of the Khmer numbers, ProtoKhmer possessed a single decimal number system. The numbers from one to five correspond to both the modern Khmer language and the proposed MonKhmer language, while the numbers from six to nine do not possess any modern remnants, with the number ten *kraaj (or *kraay) corresponding to the modern number for one hundred. It is likely that the initial *k, found in the numbers from six to ten, is a prefix.^{[20]}
Value  Khmer  Reconstruction^{[21]}^{[22]}  Notes 

5  ៥  *pram  
6  ៦  *krɔɔŋ  
7  ៧  *knuul  
8  ៨  *ktii  Same root as the word hand, *tii. 
9  ៩  *ksaar  
10  ១០  *kraaj  Corresponds to presentday /rɔj/ (one hundred). 
