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Coordinates: 64°13′36″N 41°39′06″E / 64.22667°N 41.65167°E / 64.22667; 41.65167

Cathedral Square in Kholmogory, 19th century

Kholmogory (Russian: Холмого́ры) is a historic village (selo) and the administrative center of Kholmogorsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It lies on the left bank of the Northern Dvina, along the Kholmogory Highway, 75 km southeast of Arkhangelsk and 90 km north of the Antonievo-Siysky Monastery. The name is derived from the Finnish Kalmomäki for "corpse hill" (cemetery). Population: 4,592 (2002 Census);[1] 5,205 (1989 Census).[2]

The Kolmogor area was at first in historical times inhabited by the Finno-Ugrians "Savolotshij Thsuuds", (sa-volokis) known also as Yems in old Novgorod chronicles and Karelians. The first Slavonic population to enter to Kalmamäki were Pomors (Pomortsians) from Vologda area after 1220. As early as the 14th century, the village (the name of which was then spelled Kolmogory) was an important trading post of the Novgorod Republic in the Far North of Russia. Its commercial importance further increased in 1554 when the Muscovy Company made it a center of its operations in furs. The Swedes besieged the wooden fort during the Time of Troubles (1613), but had to retreat in failure. In the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, the settlement was also a place of exile, notably for ex-regent Anna Leopoldovna and her children.

"Colmogor", near "Mare Glaciale", shown on Giacomo Gastaldi's 1550 map of Moscovia

In 1682, the six-pillared Kholmogory cathedral was consecrated; the biggest in the region. It was destroyed by the Communists in the 1930s. Many ancient wooden shrines and mills, however, still survive in the neighborhood. One of the nearby villages is a birthplace of the great Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. Local artisans — such as Fedot Shubin - have been famed for their craft of carving the tusks of mammoths and walruses.

The unique art of Kholmogory bone carving has existed for more than 400 years. The bone carvings from Kholmogory were notable for excellent craftsmanship and perfected technique. The best carving masters from Kholmogory were invited to work in the Kremlin's Armoury, which performed orders for the tsar’s court. The flowering of Kholmogory bone carving reached its peak under the reign of Peter the First. The Lomonosov Bone-Carving Factory preserves the medieval tradition of this folk art.

References

  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  2. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg2.php. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 

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