Khukhrain: Wikis

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Castes of India
Khukhrain
Classification Khatri
Religions Hinduism and Sikhism
Language Doabi, Punjabi
Populated States Punjab
See detailed article Khatri

The Khukhrain are an ancient group of eight specific clans of the Khatri caste [1] who originally hailed from the areas of the Salt Range and particularly the town of Bhera in Punjab. This area was the Sind Sagar Doab (Indus-Jhelum interfluve) and the Jech Doab (Jhelum-Chenab interfluve) region of Pakistan that comprised Khushab, Pindi Gheb, Talagang, Chakwal, Pind Dadan Khan, Peshawar and Nowshera. The name "Doab" literally translates to "land of two rivers" ("Do" two, "Ab" river; Punjabi). In former India, Sind Sagar Doab and Jech Doab were the main region where Khukrains were in large number. The language spoken in the region was majorly Doabi. The names of the eight clans are: Anand, Bhasin, Chadha, Kohli, Sabharwal, Sahni, Sethi and Suri. Later four new subclans originated those were Chandok (Chandhoke, Chandhok, Chandiok), Chhachi (Chachi, Chhachhi): a sub section of the Kohli clan, Gandhoke and Ghai.

Contents

History

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Clan details

Thama Sections Gotra
1… …{ Anand

Bhasin .. …

}Chandrabansi
2… …{ Chadha… …

Sahni … …

Virbans

Surajbansi

3… …{ Suri …

Sethi…

}Chanrabansi

Chandrabansi

4… …{ Kohli …

Sabharwal…

}Chanrabansi

Chandrabansi

.[2].

The main place of their ancestral geographic location was the town of Bhera, situated in the Jech doab region (Jhelum-Chenab interfluve) of Punjab, which now lies in the Sargodha District of Pakistan. The history of the Khukran is inextricably intertwined with the ancient town of Bhera

Bhera is also the historical town to which Porus or Purushotthama of the Puru tribe belonged. Purushotthama (c.325 BC) was the king of Kekaya the land of the Puru tribe, one of the Janapadas (kingdoms). Its location was in what is now middle Punjab, the areas between the rivers Jhelum and Chenab and its extent varied from time to time. The word Purushotthama means "Supreme Being". Purushotthama was 7 feet 6 inches tall according to Arrian.

The Kekaya are said to have occupied the land now comprised by three districts of Jhelum, Shahpur and Gujerat, now all in Pakistan.

The Purus are a tribe or a confederation of tribes mentioned in the Rigveda. The RV 7.96.2 locates them at the banks of the Sarasvati River. The Puru were ostensibly defeated by king Sudas at the Battle of the Ten Kings.

The palace of Sopeithes which the Greek historian Arrian mentions as the place on the Hydaspes is supposed to be at Bhera. The Greeks refer to the Jhelum river as the Hydaspes River where Alexander the Great fought Porus in Battle of the Hydaspes River in 326 BCE(also see sources below).

Porus in the Shahnameh

The Shāhnāmeh, or Shāhnāma, is an enormous poetic opus written by the Iranian poet Ferdowsi around 1000 CE and is the national epic of the Persian-speaking world. The Shāhnāmeh tells the mythical and historical past of Iran from the creation of the world up until the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century.

' Fur called Parus by European historians.[3]

finds extensive mention in it.

Dara attacked by Alexander writes a letter pleading to Fur or Porus from Bhera in India.

Dara's Letter to Fur of India

As he nor near nor far could find a friend, He wrote a letter then to Fur to send
Full of humility and grief and pain
And first he praised the king in fitting strain
"Wise, learned and of lively soul" he said:
"Though who of Hindoo peoples art the head,
Perchance by now the news thou hast obtained
Of what upon my head hath fate ordained
Sikander has from Rum an army braught, Of land inhabited he leaves us naught
Nor throne nor crown, no relatives no son,
No royal diadem and soldiers none.
If thou consent henceforth to be my friend,
That I myself from mischief may defend,
Such gems I 'll send thee from my treasury
That treasure no more shall lack to thee
Thou in the world too shall renown acquire
And to the love of great men shall aspire
A camel with the pace of wind he sent
To Fur straight of Turanian descent[3]

Muhmad of Ghazni and Khukhrain Kshatriyas

The Khukhrain Indo-Scythians spread over Khushab , Dhune Kheb, Chakwal, Pind Dadan Khan, Peshawar, Nowshera and Lahore [4] were a powerful tribe durying the attacks of Ghazni and never submitted to the foreigners but always resisted them whenever the opportunity came to their hands [5] . The clash of the Khukhrains with Mahmud of Ghazni [6] took place in his third invasion after the defeat of Jayapala ,at the Battle of Bhera in 1004-5 which was a powerful stronghold of the Khukhrain [7],

Dr Ishwari Prasad also writes that the last invasion of Mohammad was against Bhadravati (Bhera) the capital of the Khukhrains , in this area who had relieved him of his booty while [8], returning from Somnath with a huge booty , which Mohammad plundered from the famous Shiva temple of Somnath , which certainly shook the religious sentiments of the Hindus , a certain tribe attacked him and snatched away a large part of the booty from his army [9],

Finally when Bhera was sacked by Ghazni , Khukhrain King Biji Rai instead of submitting ,committed suicide by ending his life with his own dagger [10] Jaipals son Anandpal received support of the Khukhrains against Mahmud Ghazni in 1008-9 at Wahind [11]

Ferishta has recorded a detailed account of the fierce encounter between King Biji Rai and Mahmud of Ghazniat Bhera .

It was at this time governed by Raja Beejay,who having greatly molested the Mohomedan governors ,whom Mahmood had established in Hindoostan , also refused to pay his proportion of the to Anundpal , the son of Jaipal , on whom he was dependent .

When Mohmood entered the territories of Beejy Ray that prince drew out his troops to receive him; and taking possession of strong posts, engaged the Mohomedans for the space of three days during which time they suffered so much , that they were on the point of abandoning their enterprise . On the fourth day , Mahmood , addressing his troops , said he should in person the lead the main attack . " For to day (said he), I have devoted myself to conquest or to death "Beejy Ray , on his part having propitiated the gods , resolved also to combat with his wonted courage . Although the Mohomedans advanced with great impetuosity, they were frequently repulsed with great slaughter ;still however they returned and renewed with ardor their attacks till evening , when Mahmood , his face towards Mecca ,prostrated himself in sight of his troops , and implored the aid of the prophet "Advance advance " cried the King prayers have found favour with God " A loud shout from his soldiers responded their resolution,and the the Mahomedans , pressing forward , compelled the enemy to give ground and pursued them to the gates of the town . Mahmood having next morning invested the fort of Bhatea , took measures to fill up the ditch , an undertaking which in a few days was nearly completed . Beejay Ray , deeming it impossible any longer to maintain the town , determined to leave only a small garrison for its defense , and accordingly , one night marched out with the rest of his troops , aand took post in a wood on the banks of the Indus . Mahmood informed of his retreat detached part of his army to surprise him .Beejaay Ray , deserted by most of his friends , and perceiving himself surrounded by the Mohomedans , attempted in vain to force his way , till just as he was at the point of being made prisoner , he turned his sword against his breast :and most of his adherents subsequently fell attempting to revenge the death of their master .[12]

Khokhran and Bhera

The Imperial Gazetteer of India records the History of Bhera -

In 1519 Babur held it to ransom, and in 1540 Sher Shah founded a new town, which ubder Akhbar became the head quarters of the sub division of the Subah of Lahore. In the reign of Muhammad Shah, Raja Salamat Rai, a Rajput of the Anand Tribe, administered Bhera and the surrounding country; while Khushab was managed by Nawab Ahmdyar Khan, and the south eastern tract along the Chenab formed part of the territories under the charge of Maharaja Kaura Mal, governor of Multan [13]
About the same time, by the death of Nawab Ahmdyar Khan, Khushab also passed into the hands of Raja Salamat Rai. Shortly afterwards Abbas Khan a Khattak who held Pind Daddan Khan, treacherously put the Raja to death, and seized Bhera. But Abbas Khan was himself thrown into prison as a revenue defaulter and, and Fateh Singh, nephew of Salamat Rai then recovered his uncles dominions.[14]

In the recent past centuries, Bhera was an important trading outpost on the road to Kabul, and had a taksal or (mint) during the rule of Ranjit Singh. Bhera declined in importance due to the gradual shifting of the course of the Jhelum river, due to which the town lost the advantage of being located on a river bank.

Last Raja of Bhera

The last chief or Raja of Bhera was a Khukran, Diwan Bahadur Jawahir Mal [15]. The Diwan Family originally came from Peshawar,and tradition ascribes the abolition the Jizya in Peshawar to his influence.

Khukrains like other Khatricastes were traditionally and historically a warrior community (although they are now well represented in many fields other than the army) and hence they bore the brunt of invasions from the various central Asian tribes now converted to Islam who came from the northwest during the 12th-16th centuries. The Hindu populations in Afghanistan and Northwest India continued to recede after the 11th century even as predominant areas of Afghanistan were still under non Muslim rule till the 10th CE. (see also Shahi and Jayapala).

Post Partition Of India 1947

Most of the Hindu or Sikh, Kukhrans moved perforce to India following the partition of India in 1947. Khukreins among Hindu/Sikh and are now settled not only in large concentrations in Delhi and Punjab, Haryana but also spread the world over. Their mother tongue is Punjabi. In India the special dialect of Pothari spoken by the Khukrains who migrated from Western Punjab (now Pakistan) is fast being replaced by the local Eastern Punjabi language, in their new Indian residence of Punjab.

Sikh Khukrain

Among the Khatri castes, the Kukhran were one of the foremost followers of the Sikh Gurus[citation needed] and traditionally brought up one son as a Keshdhari Sikh[citation needed]. This is evident from the large number of Kukhran surnames among Khatri Sikhs.

A predominant section of the Hindu Khukrain continue to follow dual religious traditions of both Sikh as well as Arya Samaj mores[citation needed]. This has been in spite of the religo-political competitive zeal of both the Arya Samaj and Tat Khalsa effort at creating purified identities.

Intermarriage between Khatri as well as Khukrain Sikhs and Hindus are common. The dual religious Hindu and Sikh identity and Kukhran biradri identity comfortably coexists[citation needed].

Shared Gotras of Khokhars and Khokhrain

 :"On the other hand in Shahpur the Bhat are divided into Bunjahis and Khokhars, the latter suggesting the Khokhrain group of the Khatris thus
Section of Khokhars - Gotra
Sigarre ------------ Kushab
Nadhipotre ---------- Bhardwaj
Apat -------------- Balash
Jain --------------- Vashisht",[16]
-[17]}}

Muslim Khukran

Most Khukhrans are Hindu or Sikh. Some are Muslim. Khukhrans of all these faiths collectively form one community. In Pakistan there continues to be a large number of Muslim Khukreins living specially in the Pakistani Punjab as is borne out by their Khukrain surnames such as Sethi, Sahni and Suri. The Pakistani Journalist Najam Sethi is one such example. Some scholars such as Muhammad Ikrām Chutai believe that a number of Khokharain were converted to Islam by the Sufi Baba Farid [18]

Mohyals Khokhran and Khokhars

The Mohyal Brahmins were associated to the Khokhars and Kukhran|Khokhran have a long history of not following the priesthood occupation that was usually associated with Brahmins in the past.

The Mohyal of whom the Datts are a sub clan were also purohits of the Kukhran|Khokhran in earlier times however

'The Muhial having ceased to be Brahmans at all no longer minister to the Khokharan-Khatris and so a special group of Khokharan-Brahmans has had to be formed[19]
'That the Khokhars were originally Hindus appears hardly open to question. The Khokhars in Jhelum say they used to keep up certain Hindu customs and had parohits who were Datts, until recent times, but that this is no longer the case. They do not know whether they are connected with other Khokhars of the Punjab.[20]

Khokran and Khokhars and Ala-ud-din Khilji

The book A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces records -

The Khokhran section is said to consist of the descendents of certain Khatris who joined the Khokhars in rebellion (against Ala-ud-din Khilji);and with whom other the other Khatri families were afraid to intermarry "[21]

Other scholarly references such as in the publications of the Britannica also point to the close relation between Khokharain and Khokhar. About the Khokharains mention is made stating

' The Khokharain sub group of the 52 claims descent from a son of Manu but it is possibly named from the Khokhar Rajputs and several clan names are traced to military.[22]

Khorasan Karakhan and Krukhak origins

The oral history of the Khokharan traditionally trace their ancient origins to Khorasan in Iran [23]

, The older Persian province of Khorasan (also known as the Greater Khorasan included parts which are today in Iran, Afghanistan, Caucasus, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Some of the main historical cities of Persia are located in the older Khorasan: Nishapur (now in Iran), Merv and Sanjan (now in Turkmenistan), Samarkand and Bukhara (both now in Uzbekistan), Herat, Kabul, Ghazni and Balkh (now in Afghanistan). In its long history, Khorasan knew many conquerors and empires: Greeks, Arabs, Seljuk Turks, Safavids, Afghans and others.

The reference to origins from Khorasan in the oral history of the Khukran could allude to migration from that area Khorasan during periods period as well.

It is also said that Khukran (Khokhran ) is derived from Karakhan descendants of Krukhak, one of the sons of Manu who setelled and reigned in the North West Punjab "[24]

Karakhan is in Uzbekistan.

The Karakhan also find mention among the The Karakhanids (Qarakhānid, also spelled Ilek Khanidis, 黑汗, 桃花石) were a Turkic dynasty that ruled Transoxania in Central Asia from 999 to 1211.[25] Their capitals included Kashgar, Balasagun, Uzgen and then again Kashgar.

Khukrains like other Khatri (Punjabi: ਖੱਤਰੀ, Hindi: खत्री) is the Punjabi language adaptation or pronunciation of Sanskrit word Kshatriya (Hindi: क्षत्रिय, Kşhatriya)[26][27][28] were traditionally and historically a warrior community (although they are now well represented in many fields other than the army) and hence they bore the brunt of invasions from the various central Asian tribes now converted to Islam who came from the northwest during the 12th-16th centuries. c

The Hindu populations in Afghanistan and Northwest India continued to recede after the 11th century even as predominant areas of Afghanistan were still under non Muslim rule till the 10th century also see the section on Hindu Shahi and Jayapala.Ibbetson records with regards to Khatris.

I do not know the exact limits of Khatri occupation to the west, but certainly in all eastern Afghanistan they seem to be part of the established community as they are in the Punjab. They find their way far into central Asia, but the further they get the more humiliating is their position.[29]

Though the writer Ibbetson claims that the Khatri

They are the only Hindus known in Central Asia[29]

, it is contested by other experts in the field of Indians in Central Asia, that though they have a presence in Central Asia, they certainly were not the only Hindu community established in Central Asia, although they were certainly an important element of that Diaspora.[30]

Places in Punjab And Afghanistan

Various contemporary and historical places in the Punjab and Afghanistan corresponding to traditional areas associated with Khokharain or Khokhar bear the name or variants of Khokharain or Kokrana.

Afghanistan

Eight or ten miles west of Qandhar lies the village of Khokharan. The Kabits of the bards record a Raja named Kokra of Garh Kokarana, now called Kadyana [31]

Pakistan

  • Basti Khokharān Mainwali, Punjab, Pakistan, also known as Shampur Khokharan
  • Pindi Khokharan SIALKOT Punjab, Pakistan
  • Mari Khokharan Gujarat District
  • Mohalla Khokharan, Khanpur, Dist. Rahim Yaar Khan,
  • Rindheer Khokharan Gujrat,
  • Khokharan Wala Outside Dehli Gate Multan
  • Khokharan Bahawalnager Qalandar Pufr. Punjab, Pakistan

khokhar agar khan jhelum punjab Pakistan India

  • Khokharain in Hoshiarpur Punjab India. Ibetson records
'The traditional history of the Khokhars * By a Khokhar of Khokharain, in the Hoshiarpur district, Punjab.[32]
  • Khokharain in Kapurthala Punjab India

Contemporary

Khukrein Hindu or Sikh are by and large an urbanised highly educated and economically well off community. Khukreins in India and Pakistan have excelled in almost all spheres including business, politics, arts, military, and in the field of sciences as well as in the Judiciary and law.

Famous Khukrain personalities include: GURMUKH SINGH MUSAFIR CHIEF MINISTER PUNJAB AND M.P

  • Dr Manmohan Singh (Kohli clan)-Prime Minister of India.
  • Admiral S.N Kohli, ex Chief of Naval Staff of the Indian Navy
  • Yogesh Kumar Sabharwal, former Chief Justice of India
  • Mohit Sabharwal, Student at York University, Canada
  • Dr. Justice A.S. Anand, former Chief Justice of India
  • Ruchi Ram Sahni, pioneer of science popularisation in Punjab
  • Mulk Raj Anand, English writer, most famous for the novels "Untouchable" and "Coolie");
  • Narinder Kohli, Hindi writer famous for "Abhigyan" and "Krish.Katha;"
  • Bhisham Sahni, writer, recipient of the Sahitya Academy Award and the Padmashri. His works include "Amritsar Aa Gaya" and "Tamas." Brother of Balraj Sahni.
  • Balraj Sahni, stage and film actor, brother of Bhisham Sahni.
  • Gurinder Chadha, UK-based film-maker whose oeuvre includes "Bend it like Beckham" and "Bride and Prejudice"
  • Dayaram Sahni, ASI's first Indian Director-General who discovered Harappa
  • Keshav Malik, poet and critic
  • Kapila Vatsyayan, founding director of Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts
  • Dhanchand Kohli: architect who rebuilt eight Gates of the city of Bhera
  • Sohan Lal Suri (Maharaja Ranjit Singhs Court Historian), 'Umdat ut-Twarikh
  • Mulk Raj Chadha A Retired Principal, Awarded with National Award for teachers forspreading School Education in rural areas Dist Hazaribag of Bihar (Now Jharkhand)
  • Wg.Cdr. R. C. Kohli (retd) VrC, war hero and Vir Chakra gallantry awardee in 1971 Indo-Pak war, former commander of Rajajhansi Airbase upgraded for war.
  • Capt. Ron Dev Kohli (retd), earlier Master of the Company of Master Mariners of India, MD/Chairman of Mogul Lines Ltd., Managing Director of the Scindia Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., ED of Shipping Corporation of India and one of founding members of SCI, President of INSA (Indian National Shipowners Association 1985-87).
  • Gurbux Singh Kohli, Olympic gold medallist in field hockey 1964, Captain of Indian Hockey team
  • Gurpreet Singh Sahni, IT Engineer, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College;
  • Shalu Dhananjay Anand a mumbai based chartered accountant.
  • Lala Gokul Chand Suri founder director of Lakshmi Commercial Bank and Punjab & Kashmir Bank (Rawal Pindi).Was also the Head of the Khukrain Biradri in Rawal Pindi and New Delhi.
  • Sanjeev Sethi, an office bearer of the Rashtriya Lok Dal

See also

References

  1. ^ M.A. Sherring, Hindu Castes and Tribes as represented in Banares, 1872.
  2. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces, compiled by H A Rose Page 509 Vol 11
  3. ^ a b The Shah-Namah of Fardusi translation by Alexander Rogers LPP Publication Page 370
  4. ^ The Panjab Past and Present By Punjabi University Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies Published by Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University., 1981 Page 195]
  5. ^ [(The Panjab Past and Present By Punjabi University Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies Published by Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University., 1981 PAGE 200)
  6. ^ [The Panjab Past and Present By Punjabi University Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies Published by Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University., 1981 page 200
  7. ^ The Panjab Past and Present By Punjabi University Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies Published by Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University., 1981 Page 200)
  8. ^ The Panjab Past and Present By Punjabi University Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies Published by Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University., 1981 Page 205)
  9. ^ The Panjab Past and Present By Punjabi University Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies Published by Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University., 1981
  10. ^ The Panjab Past and Present By Punjabi University Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies Published by Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University., 1981 Page 195]
  11. ^ The Panjab Past and Present By Punjabi University Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies Published by Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University., 1981 page 201}
  12. ^ History of the rise of the Mahmomedan Power in India by John Briggs ,Translated from the original Persian of Mohomed Kasim Ferishta Vol Page 22
  13. ^ http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V22_219.gif Imperial Gazetteer of India v22 page 214
  14. ^ http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V22_219.gif Imperial Gazetteer of India v22 page 214
  15. ^ The Punjab Chiefs " by authors W.L.Conran and H.D Craik and published by Sang-E-Meel publications of Lahore Pakistan Page 197
  16. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces, compiled by H A Rose vol II Page 97
  17. ^ Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1911 AD, Page 537, Vol II,
  18. ^ Babaji: Life and Teachings of Farid-ud Din Ganj-i Shakar By Muhammad Ikrām Chutai Page 433 Published by Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2006
  19. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces, compiled by H A Rose, vol II Page 123
  20. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces, compiled by H A Rose, vol II Page 539
  21. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces, compiled by H A Rose, vol II Page 513
  22. ^ Britannica: A New Survey of Universal Knowledge By Walter Yust Published by Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1952 Page 980
  23. ^ From Jhelum to Tana By Neera Kapur-Dromson Page 144 Published by Penguin Books,2007
  24. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces, compiled by H A Rose, vol II Page 514
  25. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
  26. ^ People, GAZETTEER LUDHIANA, Department of Revenue, Government of Punjab (India), Homepage: [1]
  27. ^ [ GAZETTEER AMRITSAR ,Department of Revenue, Government of Punjab (India) (First Edition 1976)]
  28. ^ GAZETTEER OF INDIA PUNJAB FARIDKOT
  29. ^ a b A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces, compiled by H A Rose, vol II Page 506
  30. ^ "The Indian Diaspora in Central Asia and Its Trade, 1550-1900" Scott Cameron Levi 2002, P108, quotation "Regardles of Campbell's claim, however, Khatris were not the only Hindu community to establish themselves in Central Asia..."
  31. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces, compiled by H A Rose, vol II Page 541
  32. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West provinces, compiled by H A Rose, vol II Page 540

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