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Sufi philosophy
Name: Sayyid Muḥammad al-Ḥusaynī Gīsu Darāz
Title: Banday Nawāz and Gesudaraz ,
Birth: July 13, 1321 CE in Delhi
Death: November 1, 1422 CE in Gulbarga
Maddhab: Sunni Sufi
Main interests: Sufism
Influences: Disciple of Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi who was disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya
Influenced: Sufism

Syed Muhammad Hussaini commonly renowned as Hazrat Khwaja Banda Nawaz Gesu Daraz (Urdu: خواجہ بندہ نواز گیسو دراز) (July 13, 1321 -November 1, 1422), was a famous Sufi saint from India of Chishti Order, who advocated understanding, tolerance and harmony among various religious groups.

Gisu Daraz was a murid (disciple) of the noted Sufi saint of Delhi, Hazrat Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi, who in turn was a disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya, the spiritual master of Delhi. After the death of his master, Chiragh Dehlavi, Gisu Daraz took on the mantle of the successor (khalifa). Thus later on when he moved to Daulatabad around 1398, owing to the attack of Timur on Delhi, he took the Chishti Order to South India [1]. He finally settled down in Gulbarga, at the invitation of Bahamani King, 'Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah' (r. 1397-1422) [2].

Contents

Biography

Hazrat Khwaja Banda Nawaz Syed Muhammad Al-Hassani Al-Hussaini Gesu-Daraaz Buland Parvaaz Namudaan-e-Sarfaraaz ( Shahinshah-e-Daccan-ul-awliya ) ( Khwaja-e-Daccan)Qaddas Allahu Sirra ul Azeez

He was born Syed Mohammed Hussaini in Delhi in 1321. At the age of four, his family shifted to Daulatabad in Deccan (Now in Maharashtra). In 1397, he went to Gulbarga, Deccan (Presently in Karnataka) at the invitation of Sultan Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah of the Bahmani Sultanate. Bande Nawaz authored about 195 books in Arabic, Persian and Urdu languages [2].

At the age of fifteen, he returned to Delhi for his education and training by the famous Sufi saint Hazrat Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi, who bestowed him with his Khilafath and succession after about fifteen years. He was also a very enthusiastic student of Hazrat Kethli, Hazrat Tajuddin Bahadur and Qazi Abdul Muqtadir. After teaching at various places such as Delhi, Mewath, Gwalior, Chander, Aircha, Chatra, Chanderi, Miandhar, Baroda, Khambayat and Gulbarga in 1397 and died in Gulbarga in the year November 1422.

His name as well as patronymic was Abul-Fatah (RA) and Gesu Daraaz (RA) his title. Among the scholars and theologians he was Sheikh Abul-Fatah Sadr Uddin Muhammad Dehlavi but people called him Khawaja Banda Nawaz Gesu-Daraaz (RA).

Parentage

He was the descendant of Hazrat Ali ( Karam Allahu Wajhu ). His forefathers resided in Hirat. One of them came to Delhi and settled down here. Hazrat Sheikh Muhammad (RA) was born here on 4, Rajab, 721 Hijri. His father Hazrat Syed Yousaf or Shah Raju Qatal (RA) was a holy figure and devoted to Hazrat Nizam Uddin Aulia (RA).

Sultan Muhammad-bin Tughlaq once transferred his capital to Daulatabad (Devgiri) and along with him went many scholars, theologians, and mystics. His parents also migrated to the place. He was four years at the time Malik-ul-Umar Hazrat Syed Ibrahim Mustafa, his maternal uncle, was the governor of Daulatabad.

Childhood and Early Education

From the very beginning his father put him on the right track i.e. to learn and to study and gave him his early education. From his childhood he was inclined towards Religion and spent time in meditation and prayer. He was ten when his father died and his maternal grand father assumed the responsibility of his education and training and taught him initial books but he took lessons on "Misbah" and "Qadoori" from another teacher.

Again in Delhi

On the expiry of her father his mother grew angry with her brother, and returned to Delhi. He was fifteen at the time. He had heard a lot about Hazrat Nizam Uddin Auliya (RA) and Hazrat Nasir Uddin Roshan Chiragh Dehlavi (RA) from his father and maternal grand father and grew devoted to them. One day he went to say his prayer in the Jama-Majid of Sultan Qutub Uddin, there he saw Hazrat Sheikh Nasir Uddin Mahmud Chiragh Dehlavi and pledged Obedience to him on 16, Rajab. Completion of Outer and intrinsic studies. Under the guidance of Hazrat Nasir Uddin Chiragh Dehlavi (RA) he engaged himself in prayers and meditation and so much enjoyed them that lie forbade studies and requested his teacher to allow him to do so. Hazrat Nasir Uddin (RA) strictly denied him permission and instructed him to study with attention Usool-e-Bizoori, Risals Shamsia, Kashaf, Misbah so he restarted the studies under the guidance of renowned teachers. Maulana Syed Sheriff Uddin Kaithli, Maulana Taj Uddin Muqaddam and Maulana Qazi Abdul Muqtadir and qualified for the degree at the age of nineteen.

Title Gesu-Daraaz (RA)

One day he with other disciples lifted the palanquin bearing Hazrat Nasir Uddin (RA). His long hair stuck into the foot of the palki and pained him severely but he did not disentangle them for love and respect to the teacher. When Hazrat Nasir Uddin learnt of the episode, he was overjoyed and recited the Persian couplet

Har ki murid Syed gesu daraaz shud

Vallah khilaf-e-nest ki Uoo ishq baaz shud.

(Meaning: "Syed Gesu Daraaz has pledged his obedience; there is nothing wrong in it because he has deeply fallen in love)."

After this incidence he was entitled Gesu-Daraaz (RA).

Books

He was a great scholar on material as well as spiritual subjects. He left many books. It is said, he was the first writer of a magazine on mysticism in Urdu. He wrote about 100 and more books on Persian and Arabic. Some of them are:

Tafseer (Commentary)-e-Qu'Orane-e-Majeed.

Multaqit.

Havashi Kashaf.

Shairah-e-Mashareq.

Shairah Fiqah-e-Akbar.

Shairah Adab-Ul-Murideen.

Shairah Ta-arruf.

Risala Sirat-Ul-Nabi.

Tarjuma Mashareq.

Ma-Arif.

Tarjuma Awarif.

Sharah Fasoosul Hukm.

Tarjuma Risala Qerya,

Hawa Asahi Quwwat-Ul-Qalb, etc. etc.

Stay at Gulbarga

Having lived for about 44 years in Delhi he went to Gulbarga. He was 76 (Approx) at that time. Firoz Shah Bahmani ruled over the Deccan during this period. He gave him much respect. For a long time he was engaged in religious discourses, sermons, and spiritual training of the people.

Wisal Mubarak

This great scholar, mystic, and the wonderful, guide attained an age of 101 years, died on 16 Ziqa'ad 825 Hijri in Gulbarga and buried there. His tomb is a place of pilgrimage for all the people, high as well as low.

Golden Quotes

  • If a Salik prays or meditates for fame, his is an atheist.
  • If one prays or meditates out of fear, he is a cheat and a hypocrite.
  • So long as a man disengages himself from all the worldly things, he would not step into the road of conduct.
  • Divide the night into three periods: in the first period say Darud and recitation; in the second sleep and in the third call His name and meditate.
  • The Salik should be careful in food it should be legitimate.
  • The Salik should abstain from the company of the worldly people.

City/Town

Gulbarga : Gulbarga is a town in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the administrative headquarters of Gulbarga District, and of Gulbarga Division. Gulbarga is 200 KM from Hyderabad and is 613 km north of Bangalore and well connected by road to Bijapur, Hyderabad and Bidar. A railway line connecting the southern part of India to Mumbai and Delhi passes through Gulbarga.

District : Gulbarga

State : Karnataka

you can also watch URS online at http://www.gesudaraz.com/

[2].

Works

His magnum opus, Tafseer Multaqat in Arabic, was compiled into one book very recently. It is unfortunate, however, that most people even within Gulbarga are unaware of this work. Little has been done to publish this and his other works on a large scale. He also composed a book on the Prophet of Islam titled Miraj-al Ashiqin for the instruction of the masses in Dakhni, a South Indian branch of the Urdu language. He was the first Sufi to use this vernacular which was elaborated upon by many other Sufi saints of South India in later centuries.[3] He wrote many treatises on the works on Ibn Arabi, Suhrawardi etc which made the works of these scholars accessible to Indian scholars and played a major role in influencing mystical thought later. Other books authored are:Qaseeda Amali, and Adaab-al-Mureedein.

Urs

People from various walks of life, irrespective of caste and creed, assemble even today to celebrate the urs - death anniversary - (which takes place on the 15, 16 and 17 day of Zul-Qa`dah of Muslim calendar at the famous Bande Nawaz Dargah in Gulbarga every year. His descendents still live in Gulbarga. Almost all family members along with several hundred thousand devotees from near and far irrespective of religion and beliefs gather to seek blessings [2].

The present head of the family amongst his descendents is Dr. Syed Shah Mohammed Gesudaraz Khusro Al Hussaini, who has written many books about his great forefather.

References

  1. ^ Jihad in the East: A Crescent Over Delhi The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict Between Islam and Christianity, by M. J. Akbar. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0415284708. Page 111.
  2. ^ a b c d Urs-e-Sharief of Khwaja Bande Nawaz in Gulbarga from tomorrow "The Hindu", November 27, 2007.
  3. ^ Mystical Dimensions of Islam By Annemarie Schimmel, Pg 351

Bibliography

  • Askari, Syed Hasan, Tazkira-i Murshidi—Rare Malfuz of the 15th-Century Sufi Saint of Gulbarga. Proceedings of the Indian Historical Records Commission (1952).
  • Hussaini, Syed Shah Khusro, Gisudaraz on Wahdat al-Wujud. Studies in Islam 19 (1982), pp. 233–45.
  • Hussaini, Syed Shah Khusro, The Life, Works and Teachings of Khwajah Bandahnawaz Gisudiraz. Gulbarga: Sayyid Muhammad Gisudiraz Research Academy, 1986.
  • Hussaini, Syed Shah Khusro, Sayyid Muhammad al-Husayni Gisu Daraz: On Sufism Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1985.
  • Hussaini, Syed Shah Khusro, Shuhud vs. Wujud: A Study of Gisudiraz Islamic Culture 59 (1985), pp. 323–39.
  • Siddiqi, Mohd. Sulaiman, Syed Mohd. al-Husaini Gisudaraz Islamic Culture 52 (1978), pp. 173–84.

See also

External links

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