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Kiều Công Tiễn
Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải quân
Reign 937-938
Predecessor Dương Đình Nghệ
Successor none
Ruler of Vietnam
Reign 937-938
Predecessor Dương Đình Nghệ
Successor Ngô Quyền
Born  ?
Phong Châu, Phú Thọ, Tĩnh Hải quân
Died 938
Tĩnh Hải quân
History of Vietnam Map of Vietnam
Hồng Bàng Dynasty prior to 257 BC
Thục Dynasty 257–207 BC
First Chinese domination 207 BC – 39 AD
Triệu Dynasty 207–111 BC
Trưng Sisters 40–43
Second Chinese domination 43–544
Lady Triệu's Rebellion 248
Early Lý Dynasty 544–602
Triệu Việt Vương
Third Chinese domination 602–905
Mai Hắc Đế 722
Phùng Hưng 791–798
Autonomy 905–938
Khúc Family 906–930
Dương Đình Nghệ 931–937
Kiều Công Tiễn 937–938
Ngô Dynasty 939–967
The 12 Lords Rebellion 966–968
Đinh Dynasty 968–980
Early Lê Dynasty 980–1009
Lý Dynasty 1009–1225
Trần Dynasty 1225–1400
Hồ Dynasty 1400–1407
Fourth Chinese domination 1407–1427
Later Trần Dynasty 1407–1413
• Lam Sơn Rebellion 1418–1427
Later Lê Dynasty 1428–1788
• Early Lê 1428–1527
• Restored Lê 1533–1788
Mạc Dynasty 1527–1592
Southern and
Northern Dynasties
1533–1592
Trịnh-Nguyễn War 1627–1673
Tây Sơn Dynasty 1778–1802
Nguyễn Dynasty 1802–1945
Western imperialism 1887–1945
Empire of Vietnam 1945
Indochina Wars 1945–1975
Partition of Vietnam 1954
Democratic Republic
 of Vietnam
1945–1976
State of Vietnam 1949–1955
Republic of Vietnam 1955–1975
Provisional Revolutionary
 Government
1975–1976
Socialist Republic of Vietnam from 1976
Related topics
Champa Dynasties 192–1832
List of Vietnamese monarchs
Economic history of Vietnam
Prehistoric cultures of Vietnam

Kiều Công Tiễn or Kiểu Công Tiện (Hán tự: or ) was a general in the court of Dương Đình Nghệ, a Vietnamese Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải quân who took over the position in 931. In 937 Kiều Công Tiễn assassinated the Jiedushi to seize his position and thus provoked a revolt led by Ngô Quyền who sought revenge his lord and father-in-law Dương Đình Nghệ. In response to the attack, Kiều Công Tiễn appealed to Liu Yan, the emperor of Southern Han, for reinforcements but he was defeated and executed by Ngô Quyền before the army of Southern Han entered the country. Later, Ngô Quyền had a decisive victory over the Southern Han in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River and marked the independence of Vietnam from Chinese authorities.

Contents

History

According to Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam, the date of birth of Kiều Công Tiễn was unknown but he was from Phong Châu (now Phú Thọ, Vietnam) where he was a notable of the region.[1][2] Commonly, the Hán tự characters of his name (矯公羨) are transcribed in Vietnamese as Kiều Công Tiễn[1][2] but there are some sources such as the Khâm định Việt sử thông giám cương mục or the Việt Nam sử lược of Trần Trọng Kim use the transcription Kiểu Công Tiện.[3][4] In several ancient historical books of China like the New History of the Five Dynasties, his family name (, Kiều) was recorded by another character which is often transcribed as Hiệu in Vietnamese.[5]

When Dương Đình Nghệ took over the position of Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải quân in 931 from the Southern Han,[6] Kiều Công Tiễn was chosen as a general in the court of Dương Đình Nghệ,[1] according to the Đại Việt sử lược, Kiều Công Tiễn was the adopted son of the Jiedushi.[7] In the third month of lunar calendar in 937,[5] Kiều Công Tiễn assassinated Dương Đình Nghệ in order to seize his position of Jiedushi.[1][8] Nine months later, Ngô Quyền, another general of Dương Đình Nghệ, commanded his army from the Ái province (now Thanh Hóa) to rise a revolt against Kiều Công Tiễn in revenging his lord and father-in-law Dương Đình Nghệ.[3] In response to Ngô Quyền's military campaign, Kiều Công Tiễn decided to seek help from the emperor of Southern Han Liu Yan who also wanted to profit the chaos in Tĩnh Hải quân to regain Chinese control in this country.[1][9][10] Because of his action against Dương Đình Nghệ and the call on Chinese aid, Kiễu Công Tiễn is denounced by many Vietnamese historians as a rebel (nghịch tặc) in history of Vietnam.[3][4][7]

After accepting the appeal of Kiều Công Tiễn, Liu Yan appointed his son Liu Yuancao the new Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải quân, which was renamed as King of Giao Chỉ (Giao vương), and personally conducted the reinforcements for Kiều Công Tiễn.[5] Before the troops of Southern Han entered the territory of Tĩnh Hải quân, Ngô Quyền got ahead by defeating and executing Kiều Công Tiễn in 938 and prepared to catch the army of Liu Yan in Bạch Đằng River. Finally Liu Yan's army was defeated in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River where his son Liu Yuancao was killed in action, the emperor of Southern Han had to abandon his military campaign and Ngô Quyền thus successfully secured the country from invaders and marked the beginning of the independence of Vietnam from Chinese authorities.[1][4][11] After the death of Ngô Quyền in 944, Vietnam again fell into trouble time with the 12 Lords Rebellion in which Kiều Công Hãn and Kiều Thuận, grandsons of Kiều Công Tiễn, were among the principal warlords.[12]

References

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Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Kiều Công Tiễn" (in Vietnamese). Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam. http://dictionary.bachkhoatoanthu.gov.vn/default.aspx?param=22F8aWQ9MTI0MTMmZ3JvdXBpZD0ma2luZD0ma2V5d29yZD1LaSVlMSViYiU4MXUrQyVjMyViNG5nK1RpJWUxJWJiJTg1bg==&page=1. 
  2. ^ a b Đinh Xuân Lâm et al. (2005) (in Vietnamese). Từ điển nhân vật lịch sử Việt Nam. Hanoi: Education Publishing House. p. 512. 
  3. ^ a b c Trần Trọng Kim 1971, p. 29
  4. ^ a b c National Bureau for Historical Record 1998, pp. 74-75
  5. ^ a b c Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993, p. 53
  6. ^ "Dương Đình Nghệ" (in Vietnamese). Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam. http://dictionary.bachkhoatoanthu.gov.vn/default.aspx?param=25FCaWQ9MzQ1MDUmZ3JvdXBpZD0ma2luZD0ma2V5d29yZD1EJWM2JWIwJWM2JWExbmcrJWM0JTkwJWMzJWFjbmgrTmdoJWUxJWJiJTg3&page=1. 
  7. ^ a b Nguyễn Gia Tường (translator) (1993). Đại Việt sử lược. Ho Chi Minh City: Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House, University of Ho Chi Minh City. p. 22. 
  8. ^ Chapuis 1995, p. 36
  9. ^ Tucker, Spencer (1999). Vietnam. University Press of Kentucky. p. 9. ISBN 0813109663. 
  10. ^ Chapuis 1995, p. 70
  11. ^ "Ngô Quyền" (in Vietnamese). Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam. http://dictionary.bachkhoatoanthu.gov.vn/default.aspx?param=1CFCaWQ9MjA3MjImZ3JvdXBpZD0ma2luZD0ma2V5d29yZD1OZyVjMyViNCtRdXklZTElYmIlODFu&page=1. 
  12. ^ Taylor, Keith Weller (1991). The Birth of Vietnam. University of California Press. p. 272. ISBN 0520074173. 

Bibliography

Kiều Công Tiễn
Born:  ? Died: 938
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Dương Đình Nghệ
Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải quân
937-938
Succeeded by
none
Preceded by
Dương Đình Nghệ
Ruler of Vietnam
937-938
Succeeded by
Ngô Quyền


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