The kimono (着物) is a Japanese traditional garment worn by women, men and children. The word "kimono", which literally means a "thing to wear" (ki "wear" and mono "thing"), has come to denote these full-length robes. The standard plural of the word kimono in English is kimonos, but the unmarked Japanese plural kimono is also sometimes used.
Kimonos are T-shaped, straight-lined robes worn so that the hem falls to the ankle, with attached collars and long, wide sleeves. Kimonos are wrapped around the body, always with the left side over the right (except when dressing the dead for burial), and secured by a sash called an obi, which is tied at the back. Kimonos are generally worn with traditional footwear (especially zōri or geta) and split-toe socks (tabi).
Today, kimonos are most often worn by women, and on special occasions. Traditionally, unmarried women wore a style of kimono called furisode, with almost floor-length sleeves, on special occasions. A few older women and even fewer men still wear the kimono on a daily basis. Men wear the kimono most often at weddings, tea ceremonies, and other very special or very formal occasions. Professional sumo wrestlers are often seen in the kimono because they are required to wear traditional Japanese dress whenever appearing in public.
As the kimono has another name gofuku (呉服, literally "clothes of Wu (呉)"), the earliest kimonos were heavily influenced by traditional Han Chinese clothing, known today as hanfu (漢服, kanfuku in Japanese), through Japanese embassies to China which resulted in extensive Chinese culture adoptions by Japan, as early as the fifth century ce. It was during the 8th century, however, when Chinese fashions came into style among the Japanese, and the overlapping collar became particularly a women's fashion. During Japan's Heian period (794–1192 ce), the kimono became increaslingly stylized, though one still wore a half-apron, called a mo, over it . During the Muromachi age (1392-1573 AD), the Kosode, a single kimono formerly considered underwear, began to be worn without the hakama (trousers, divided skirt) over it, and thus began to be held closed by an obi "belt" . During the Edo period (1603-1867 AD), the sleeves began to grow in length, especially among unmarried women, and the Obi became wider, with various styles of tying coming into fashion . Since then, the basic shape of both the men’s and women’s kimono has remained essentially unchanged. Kimonos made with exceptional skill from fine materials have been regarded as great works of art..
The formal kimono was replaced by the more convenient Western clothes and Yukata as everyday wear. After an edict by Emperor Meiji, police, railroad men and teachers moved to Western clothes. The Western clothes became the army and school uniform for boys. After the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, kimono wearers often became victims of robbery. The Tokyo Women's & Children's Wear Manufacturers' Association(東京婦人子供服組合) promoted the western clothes. Between 1920 and 1930 the Sailor outfit replaced the undivided hakama in school uniform for girls. The 1932 fire at Shirokiya's Nihombashi store is said to have been the catalyst for the decline in kimonos as everyday wear. (It is, however, suggested, that this is an urban myth.) The national uniform, Kokumin-fuku (国民服) a type of western clothes was mandated for males in 1940. Today most people wear western clothes and wear the cooler and more comfortable yukata for special occasions.
Kimonos for men are available in various sizes and should fall approximately to the ankle without tucking. A woman's kimono has additional length to allow for the ohashori, the tuck that can be seen under the obi which is used to adjust the kimono to the individual wearer. An ideally tailored kimono has sleeves that fall to the wrist when the arms are lowered.
Kimonos are traditionally made from a single bolt of fabric called a tan. Tan come in standard dimensions—about 14 inches wide and 12½ yards long—and the entire bolt is used to make one kimono. The finished kimono consists of four main strips of fabric—two panels covering the body and two panels forming the sleeves—with additional smaller strips forming the narrow front panels and collar. Historically, kimonos were often taken apart for washing as separate panels and resewn by hand. Because the entire bolt remains in the finished garment without cutting, the kimono can be retailored easily to fit a different person.
The maximum width of the sleeve is dictated by the width of the fabric. The distance from the center of the spine to the end of the sleeve could not exceed twice the width of the fabric. Traditional kimono fabric was typically no more than 36 centimeters (14 inches) wide. Thus the distance from spine to wrist could not exceed a maximum of roughly 68 centimeters (27 inches). Modern kimono fabric is woven as wide as 42 centimeters (17 inches) to accommodate modern Japanese body sizes. Very tall or heavy people, such as sumo wrestlers, must have kimono custom-made by either joining multiple bolts, weaving custom-width fabric, or using non-standard size fabric. 
Traditionally, kimonos are sewn by hand, but even machine-made kimonos require substantial hand-stitching. Kimono fabrics are also frequently hand made and hand decorated. Various techniques such as yūzen dye resist are used for applying decoration and patterns to the base cloth. Repeating patterns that cover a large area of a kimono are traditionally done with the yūzen resist technique and a stencil. Over time there have been many variations in color, fabric and style, as well as accessories such as the obi.
The kimono and obi are traditionally made of silk, silk brocade, silk crepes (such as chirimen) and satin weaves (such as rinzu). Modern kimonos are also widely available in less-expensive easy-care fabrics such as rayon, cotton sateen, cotton, polyester and other synthetic fibers. Silk is still considered the ideal fabric.
Customarily, woven patterns and dyed repeat patterns are considered informal; Formal kimonos have free-style designs dyed over the whole surface or along the hem. During the Heian period, kimonos were worn with up to a dozen or more colorful contrasting layers, with each combination of colors being a named pattern. Today, the kimono is normally worn with a single layer on top of one or more undergarments. There are different types of kimono to wear throughout the year. The four seasons are reflected in the patters and the material the kimono is made of. The haori (short coat) is worn from the fall to early spring. The awase is a kimono with a lining. The yukata is a very cool summer kimono. It is an unlined cotton kimono. Traditionally it was put on after coming out of a hot steaming bath. The yukata is not for formal wear. The only time Japanese women are allowed to show their bare feet is when in the yukata. The Japanese are very faithful to the rules governing the seasonal changes of the kimono. The pattern of the kimono can also determine in which season it should be worn. For example, a pattern with butterflies or cherry blossoms would be worn in spring. Watery designs are common during the summer. A popular autumn motif is the russet leaf of the Japanese maple; for winter, designs may include bamboo, pine trees and plum blossoms.
A popular form of textile art in Japan is shibori (intricate tie dye), found on some of the more expensive kimonos and haori kimono jackets. Patterns are created by minutely binding the fabric and masking off areas, then dying it, usually done by hand. When the bindings are removed, an undyed pattern is revealed. Shibori work can be further enhanced with yuzen (hand applied) drawing or painting with textile dyes or with embroidery; it is then known as tsujigahana. Shibori textiles are very time consuming to produce and require great skill, so the textiles and garments created from them are very expensive and highly prized.
Old kimonos are often recycled in various ways: altered to make haori, hiyoku, or kimonos for children, used to patch similar kimono, used for making handbags and similar kimono accessories, and used to make covers, bags or cases for various implements, especially for sweet-picks used in tea ceremonies. Damaged kimonos can be disassembled and resewn to hide the soiled areas, and those with damage below the waistline can be worn under a hakama. Historically, skilled craftsmen laboriously picked the silk thread from old kimono and rewove it into a new textile in the width of a heko obi for men's kimono, using a recycling weaving method called saki-ori.
A woman's kimono may easily exceed US$10,000; a complete kimono outfit, with kimono, undergarments, obi, ties, socks, sandals and accessories, can exceed US$20,000. A single obi may cost several thousand dollars. However, most kimonos owned by kimono hobbyists or by practitioners of traditional arts are far less expensive. Enterprising people make their own kimono and undergarments by following a standard pattern, or by recycling older kimonos. Cheaper and machine-made fabrics can substitute for the traditional hand-dyed silk. There is also a thriving business in Japan for second-hand kimonos, which can cost as little as ¥500(About 5 US dollars). Women's obis, however, mostly remain an expensive item. Although simple patterned or plain colored ones can cost as little as ¥1,500(about 15 US dollars), even a used obi can cost hundreds of dollars, and experienced craftsmanship is required to make them. Men's obis, even those made from silk, tend to be much less expensive, because they are narrower, shorter and less decorative than those worn by women. While parents regard the high expense of up to ¥1,000,000 (about $10,000) for purchasing a kimono as a social must for the Coming of Age ceremony. Having the money to dress one’s daughter in an expensive kimono for her coming-of-age ceremony is still considered important for the public image of the modern Japanese household. The obvious alternative is to rent instead of purchasing it. More prudent mothers find that the cheapest way is not to rent through ordinary kimono shops but rather through one of the ceremonial-occasions mutual-assistance organizations (kankon sōsai gojokai). Rental prices range from ¥75,000 to ¥180,000.
Kimonos range from extremely formal to casual. The level of formality of women's kimono is determined mostly by the pattern of the fabric, and color. Young women's kimonos have longer sleeves,signifying that they are not married, and tend to be more elaborate than similarly formal older women's kimono. Men's kimonos are usually one basic shape and are mainly worn in subdued colors. Formality is also determined by the type and color of accessories, the fabric, and the number or absence of kamon (family crests), with five crests signifying extreme formality. Silk is the most desirable, and most formal, fabric. Kimonos made of fabrics such as cotton and polyester generally reflect a more casual style.
On formal or ceremonial occasions, such as weddings and funeral services, the Japanese of both sexes and all ages wear a special kind of kimono called kuromontsuki. This kimono is made of black silk and bears its wear’s family crest on it. The family crest is in white. The crest is located in five prominent positions. There is one on the back, one on each sleeve and breast. The one and three crest kimono is worn on less formal occasions. These crests were developed from two main sources. The esthetic habits of the court nobles of the Heian Period (794-1185) and the military needs of the warrior class in the Kamakura Period (1185-1333). Later on the people chose their crest from other sources. Most of these crests have been handed down from generation to generation and cherished by the wearers.
Many modern Japanese women lack the skill to put on a kimono unaided: the typical woman's kimono outfit consists of twelve or more separate pieces that are worn, matched and secured in prescribed ways, and the assistance of licensed professional kimono dressers may be required. Called upon mostly for special occasions, kimono dressers both work out of hair salons and make house calls.
Choosing an appropriate type of kimono requires knowledge of the garment's symbolism and subtle social messages, reflecting the woman's age, marital status, and the level of formality of the occasion.
In contrast to women's kimono, men's kimono outfits are far simpler, typically consisting of five pieces, not including footwear.
Men's kimono sleeves are attached to the body of the kimono with no more than a few inches unattached at the bottom, unlike the women's style of very deep sleeves mostly unattached from the body of the kimono. Men's sleeves are less deep than women's kimono sleeves to accommodate the obi around the waist beneath them, whereas on a woman's kimono, the long, unattached bottom of the sleeve can hang over the obi without getting in the way.
In the modern era, the principal distinctions between men's kimono are in the fabric. The typical men's kimono is a subdued, dark color; black, dark blues, greens, and browns are common. Fabrics are usually matte. Some have a subtle pattern, and textured fabrics are common in more casual kimono. More casual kimono may be made in slightly brighter colors, such as lighter purples, greens and blues. Sumo wrestlers have occasionally been known to wear quite bright colors such as fuchsia.
The most formal style of kimono is plain black silk with five kamon on the chest, shoulders and back. Slightly less formal is the three-kamon kimono. These are usually paired with white undergarments and accessories.
During the 1960s kimono academies sprang up all over Japan. Special kimono schools offing courses to modern women who lack familiarity with kimono and kimono dressing. The art of kimono dressing was not considered part of bridal training in prewar Japan, since wearing a kimono was an integral part of everyday life. Contemporary Japanese consider themselves ignorant is such matters as wearing the kimono. So complicated in their appearance that they need experts to aid them in achieving the desirable image.
Is an ornament worn suspended from the Obi.
Datejime or datemaki
The hiyoku is the floating lining or under-kimono traditionally worn under kimono. Nowadays a false hiyoku is often added to tomesode kimonos in the form of a double layer of the bottom half of the lining and at the collar edge, to give the impression of layers being worn. There are various meanings involved in Kimono-hiyoku-layering though mostly these are not used in everyday modern Japanese life. Often today instead of an entirely separate lining the Hiyoku refers to a lining sewn into the kimono itself. There are no special meanings ascribed to Hiyoku worn in this way.
In modern day Japan the meanings of the layering of kimono and hiyoku are usually forgotten. Only maiko and geisha now use this layering technique for dances and subtle erotic suggestion, usually emphasising the back of the neck. Modern Japanese brides may also wear a traditional Shinto kimono which is worn with a hiyoku.
Traditionally kimonos were worn with hiyoku or floating linings. Hiyoku can be a second kimono worn beneath the first and give the traditional layered look to the kimono. Often in modern kimonos the hiyoku is simply the name for the double sided lower-half of the kimono which may be exposed to other eyes depending on how the kimono is worn.
Old-fashioned kimono styles meant that hiyoku were entire under-kimono, however modern day layers are usually only partial, to give the impression of layering.
In the past, a kimono would often be entirely taken apart for washing, and then re-sewn for wearing. This traditional washing method is called arai hari. Because the stitches must be taken out for washing, traditional kimonos need to be hand sewn. Arai hari is very expensive and difficult and is one of the causes of the declining popularity of kimono. Modern fabrics and cleaning methods have been developed that eliminate this need, although the traditional washing of kimono is still practiced, especially for high-end garments. An important, but often neglected, precaution is simply to wash one’s hands before putting the kimono on and before taking it off. Neck, arms and feet should also be clean before putting on a kimono. It is advised to carry three handkerchiefs. One keeps the hands from touching the kimono directly. The second, for spreading over the lap when eating. The third can be used when riding in a car, to wipe stains or dirt off the kimono or to wipe the hands.
New, custom-made kimonos are generally delivered to a customer with long, loose basting stitches placed around the outside edges. These stitches are called shitsuke ito. They are sometimes replaced for storage. They help to prevent bunching, folding and wrinkling, and keep the kimono's layers in alignment.
Like many other traditional Japanese garments, there are specific ways to fold kimonos. These methods help to preserve the garment and to keep it from creasing when stored. Kimonos are often stored wrapped in paper called tatōshi.
Kimonos need to be aired out at least seasonally and before and
after each time they are worn. Many people prefer to have their
kimono dry cleaned, although this can be extremely expensive, it is
generally less expensive than arai hari and may be
impossible for certain fabrics or dyes.
Dalby, L. C. (1993). Kimono: fashioning culture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Goldstein-Gidoni, O. (1999). Kimono and the construction of gendered and cultural identities.
Ethnology, vol.38, no. 4, p351-70.
Takasawa, K. (1948). Kimono. Japan Travel Bureau. Yamanaka, N. (1982). The book of kimono. Tokyo: Kodansha International.
Kimonos (着物) are traditional Japanese style clothes. "Kimono" meant "something you wear" originally. Long ago, people in Japan wore kimonos every day. Now, people only wear a kimono for special occasions such as formal ceremonies.
A kimono is a robe shaped like a "T". Normal kimonos reaches to the ankles, and have very long sleeves. Kimonos for women usually have a colorful design of flowers, butterflies, etc. People wear a wide belt called an obi with their kimono. Obi are also colorful.
Women's kimonos are all the same size. They fold them and tuck them to make them the right size. People who are very tall or heavy have to have kimonos made for them.
Kimonos are very expensive. One woman's kimono can cost more than US$10,000. The obi (belts) are very expensive too. They can cost thousands of dollars. Most people's kimonos are not so expensive. Some people make their own kimono, or buy them second hand.
Japanese people have been wearing kimonos for hundreds of years. Today, kimonos are worn only at special times. More women wear kimonos than men. Men wear kimonos most often at weddings and Japanese tea ceremonies. Men's kimonos are made of haori (top) and hakama (loose-fitting pants).
People who play some sports like kendo also wear kimono. They are tough, thick and short, not like typical women's kimono. They are usually called do-gi.
In Japan people can take classes about wearing kimonos and learn about how to choose kimonos and how to tie the obi.
Most Japanese women do not know how to put on a kimono by themselves because it is very difficult. Some people work as "kimono dressers". They help people to put on their kimono.
Some people still wear kimonos every day in Japan.
Omikuji by kalandrakas in
Two women wearing kimonos in Kamakura
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