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Geunchogo of Baekje
Hangul 근초고왕
Hanja 近肖古王
Revised Romanization Geunchogo-wang
McCune–Reischauer Kǔnch'ogo-wang
Monarchs of Korea
Baekje
  1. Onjo 18 BCE–29 CE
  2. Daru 29–77
  3. Giru 77–128
  4. Gaeru 128–166
  5. Chogo 166–214
  6. Gusu 214–234
  7. Saban 234
  8. Goi 234–286
  9. Chaekgye 286–298
  10. Bunseo 298–304
  11. Biryu 304–344
  12. Gye 344–346
  13. Geunchogo 346–375
  14. Geungusu 375–384
  15. Chimnyu 384–385
  16. Jinsa 385–392
  17. Asin 392–405
  18. Jeonji 405–420
  19. Guisin 420–427
  20. Biyu 427–455
  21. Gaero 455–475
  22. Munju 475–477
  23. Samgeun 477–479
  24. Dongseong 479–501
  25. Muryeong 501–523
  26. Seong 523–554
  27. Wideok 554–598
  28. Hye 598–599
  29. Beop 599–600
  30. Mu 600–641
  31. Uija 641–660

Geunchogo of Baekje (?-375, r. 346-375) was the 13th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea[1]. He reigned over the apex of Baekje's powers.

Contents

Background

Geunchogo was the second son of the 11th king Biryu and became king upon the death of the 12th king Gye. His reign seems to have marked the permanent ascendancy of the descendants of the 5th king Chogo (reflected in Geunchogo's name) over those of the 8th king Goi, and ended the alternating kingship of the two lines.

Strengthening royal power

Upon ascending the throne, he set out to solidify the royal power within the Baekje state. He reduced the power of the aristocracy and set up a system of local government with regional heads appointed by the court. He married a wife from the Jin clan, setting a precedent for his successors.

He moved the capital to Hansan[2], today's Seoul.

Territorial expansion

Under Geunchogo, the kingdom reached its greatest geographic extent and political power. The remaining tribes of Mahan were annexed in the year 369, completing Baekje's control over all of present-day Jeolla-do. Gaya confederacy states west of the Nakdong River were also made Baekje dependencies.

In 369, Baekje was invaded by Goguryeo, but counterattacked in force (Battle of Chiyang). In the year 371, the Baekje army of 30,000, led by Crown Prince Geungusu, took the fortress of Pyongyang and killed Gogugwon of Goguryeo.

At the end of these conquests, Baekje ringed the Yellow Sea, and controlled much of the Korean peninsula, including all of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla and parts of Gangwon and Hwanghae provinces.

Foreign relations

In 366, Geunchogo allied with Silla, which bordered Baekje on the east, maintaining a rough balance of power among the Three Kingdoms.

Geunchogo also imported Chinese culture and learning from the Eastern Jin Dynasty. According to both Korean and Chinese sources, the first diplomatic contact between Baekje and China took place in 372, when Geunchogo sent a mission to the court of Jin. In the same year, the Jin court sent a mission granting him the title of "General Stabilizing the East and Administrator-General of Lelang."

During his reign, Baekje activated and led the commercial trading among China, Korean Peninsula and Japan; known as the triangle trade. Traditionally the commerce was mostly dominated by Chinese emperors; however, after China lost control of Lelang, northern China came under the rule of Foreign People including Xiongnu, Xianbei and Qiang, all of who were inexperienced at sea. Baekje established commanderies in the Liaoxi regions of China and advanced into Kyūshū of Japan, and rose as the new trading center of East Asia.[3]

Baekje also exported culture to Baekje's allies in the Wa kingdom of Yamato period Japan. The evidence of friendly relationship of Baekje with Japan is the Seven-Branched Sword which Geunchogo gave to the Yamato ruler. Geunchogo also sent scholars Wang In and Ajikki to Japan to spread knowledge of Confucianism and Chinese characters.

Culture

Geunchogo also encouraged culture; as Baekje forces occupied former Daebang, many Chinese scholars were invited and came to Geunchogo's court. With advanced Chinese cultures adopted from those people and also imported culture from Eastern Jin through trade, Baekje people enjoyed higher quality of life.

Also during his reign, a history of Baekje called Seogi (서기, 書記) was compiled by the scholar Go Heung (고흥, 高興). Its primary purpose was not only to record history, but also to justify his and his family's rule and to display the power of Baekje. However, it has not survived.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Book Two, page 120. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1596543485
  2. ^ Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Book Two, page 120. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1596543485
  3. ^ http://kdaq.empas.com/koreandb/history/kpeople/person_view.html?n=9587&in=29204#his http://100.naver.com/100.nhn?docid=26587

Geunchogo of Baekje
Hangul 근초고왕
Hanja 近肖古王
Revised Romanization Geunchogo-wang
McCune–Reischauer Kǔnch'ogo-wang
Monarchs of Korea
Baekje
  1. Onjo 18 BCE–29 CE
  2. Daru 29–77
  3. Giru 77–128
  4. Gaeru 128–166
  5. Chogo 166–214
  6. Gusu 214–234
  7. Saban 234
  8. Goi 234–286
  9. Chaekgye 286–298
  10. Bunseo 298–304
  11. Biryu 304–344
  12. Gye 344–346
  13. Geunchogo 346–375
  14. Geungusu 375–384
  15. Chimnyu 384–385
  16. Jinsa 385–392
  17. Asin 392–405
  18. Jeonji 405–420
  19. Guisin 420–427
  20. Biyu 427–455
  21. Gaero 455–475
  22. Munju 475–477
  23. Samgeun 477–479
  24. Dongseong 479–501
  25. Muryeong 501–523
  26. Seong 523–554
  27. Wideok 554–598
  28. Hye 598–599
  29. Beop 599–600
  30. Mu 600–641
  31. Uija 641–660

Geunchogo of Baekje (?-375, r. 346-375) was the 13th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea[1]. He reigned over the apex of Baekje's powers.

Contents

Background

Geunchogo was the second son of the 11th king Biryu and became king upon the death of the 12th king Gye. His reign seems to have marked the permanent ascendancy of the descendants of the 5th king Chogo (reflected in Geunchogo's name) over those of the 8th king Goi, and ended the alternating kingship of the two lines.

Strengthening royal power

Upon ascending the throne, he set out to solidify the royal power within the Baekje state. He reduced the power of the aristocracy and set up a system of local government with regional heads appointed by the court. He married a wife from the Jin clan, setting a precedent for his successors.

He moved the capital to Hansan[2], today's Seoul.

Territorial expansion

Under Geunchogo, the kingdom reached its greatest geographic extent and political power. The remaining tribes of Mahan were annexed in the year 369, completing Baekje's control over all of present-day Jeolla-do. Gaya confederacy states west of the Nakdong River were also made Baekje dependencies.

In 369, Baekje was invaded by Goguryeo, but counterattacked in force (Battle of Chiyang). In the year 371, the Baekje army of 30,000, led by Crown Prince Geungusu, took the fortress of Pyongyang and killed Gogugwon of Goguryeo.

At the end of these conquests, Baekje ringed the Yellow Sea, and controlled much of the Korean peninsula, including all of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla and parts of Gangwon and Hwanghae provinces.

Foreign relations

In 366, Geunchogo allied with Silla, which bordered Baekje on the east, maintaining a rough balance of power among the Three Kingdoms.

Geunchogo also imported Chinese culture and learning from the Eastern Jin Dynasty. According to both Korean and Chinese sources, the first diplomatic contact between Baekje and China took place in 372, when Geunchogo sent a mission to the court of Jin. In the same year, the Jin court sent a mission granting him the title of "General Stabilizing the East and Administrator-General of Lelang."

During his reign, Baekje activated and led the commercial trading among China, Korean Peninsula and Japan; known as the triangle trade. Traditionally the commerce was mostly dominated by Chinese emperors; however, after China lost control of Lelang, northern China came under the rule of Foreign People including Xiongnu, Xianbei and Qiang, all of who were inexperienced at sea. Baekje established commanderies in the Liaoxi regions of China and advanced into Kyūshū of Japan, and rose as the new trading center of East Asia.[3]

Baekje also exported culture to Baekje's allies in the Wa kingdom of Yamato period Japan. The evidence of friendly relationship of Baekje with Japan is the Seven-Branched Sword which Geunchogo gave to the Yamato ruler. Geunchogo also sent scholars Wang In and Ajikki to Japan to spread knowledge of Confucianism and Chinese characters.

Culture

Geunchogo also encouraged culture; as Baekje forces occupied former Daebang, many Chinese scholars were invited and came to Geunchogo's court. With advanced Chinese cultures adopted from those people and also imported culture from Eastern Jin through trade, Baekje people enjoyed higher quality of life.

Also during his reign, a history of Baekje called Seogi (서기, 書記) was compiled by the scholar Go Heung (고흥, 高興). Its primary purpose was not only to record history, but also to justify his and his family's rule and to display the power of Baekje. However, it has not survived.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Book Two, page 120. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1596543485
  2. ^ Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Book Two, page 120. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1596543485
  3. ^ http://kdaq.empas.com/koreandb/history/kpeople/person_view.html?n=9587&in=29204#his http://100.naver.com/100.nhn?docid=26587


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