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České království (cs)
Königreich Böhmen (de)
Regnum Bohemiae (la)
Kingdom of Bohemia
State of the Holy Roman Empire
Imperial elector (1356–1440; 1708–1806)
Part of Habsburg Empire (from 1620/27)
Kronland of Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
Part of Austria-Hungary/Cisleithania (until 1918)

1198–1918
Flag Coat of arms
Kingdom of Bohemia, 15th century
Capital Prague
Religion Roman Catholic
Hussite
Lutheranism
Government Monarchy
King
 - 1198–1230 Ottokar I of Bohemia (first)[1]
 - 1916–1918 Charles I of Austria (last)
History
 - Kingdom established 1198
 - Hereditary royal title    definitely confirmed 26 September, 1212
 - Inauguration of the new    Luxemburg dynasty 7 April, 1348
 - Became main part of the    Crown of Bohemia (Charles IV) 5 April, 1355
 - Electorate established 25 December, 1356
 - Dissolution of the
   Austro-Hungarian Empire
31 October, 1918

The Kingdom of Bohemia (Czech: České království; German: Königreich Böhmen; Latin: Regnum Bohemiae) was a country in Central Europe, a de-facto independent member of the Holy Roman Empire and thereafter a part of the Austrian Empire.

Contents

History

The lands of Ottokar II of Bohemia in 1273

Although some former rulers of Bohemia had enjoyed a non-hereditary royal title during the 11th and 12th century (Vratislaus II, Vladislaus II), the kingdom was formally established in 1198 by Přemysl I Ottokar, who had his regality acknowledged by Philip of Swabia, elected King of the Romans, in turn for his support against rivaling Otto IV of Brunswick. In 1204 Ottokar's royal dignity was accepted by Otto IV himself as well as by Pope Innocent III and afterwards definitely confirmed by the Golden Bull of Sicily issued by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen in 1212, promoting the Duchy of Bohemia to the Kingdom status. Incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy from 1526, it was finally dissolved in 1918 with the fall of Austria–Hungary, when the last Bohemian king, Charles I of Austria, abdicated. The national assembly at Prague then deposed the Habsburg (Habsburg-Lorraine) dynasty and proclaimed the Czechoslovak Republic.

Bohemia proper (Čechy) with the County of Kladsko (Hrabství kladské) was the main area of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (země Koruny české), together with the incorporated provinces:

and, at times:

During the reign of the last Přemyslids and the succeeding House of Luxembourg the Bohemian kingdom was the most powerful state of the Holy Roman Empire.[citation needed] King Wenceslaus II was crowned King of Poland in 1300, his son Wenceslaus III King of Hungary one year later. Though both crowns were lost after Wenceslaus' III assassination in 1306, the rise of Bohemia continued, when in 1346 the heir to the Bohemian throne, Charles of Luxembourg was elected King of the Romans and crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1355. The issue of the 1356 Golden Bull together with the following acquisition of the Brandenburg Electorate gave the Bohemian Kingdom two votes in the electoral college. Charles made Prague the Imperial residence and his son King Sigismund again acquired the Hungarian crown by marriage with queen regnant Mary of Hungary in 1385. His successors – Ladislaus the Posthumous from Habsburg dynasty, George of Podiebrad and the rulers of the Jagiellon dynasty – strengthening the status of Bohemia as an autonomous part of the Empire – thus the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were not part of the Imperial Circles established by the 1500 Imperial Reform. From 1490 onward was Crown of Bohemia in personal union with Hungarian kingdom.

Bohemia (1), Moravia (9) and Austrian Silesia (11) within Austria–Hungary (1867–1918)

After the early death of King Louis II Jagiellon at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Bohemian kingdom was inherited by his brother-in-law, the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand I of Habsburg. The subsequent incorporation of Bohemia into the Habsburg hereditary lands against the resistance of the local Protestant nobility sparked off the 1618 Defenestration of Prague and the Thirty Years' War.

With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian kingdom – consisting only of Bohemia, Moravia and Austrian Silesia – was incorporated into the Austrian Empire. In the course of the 1867 Austro-Hungarian Compromise these three provinces became crown lands of Cisleithania.

Prague Castle – the ancient seat of Bohemian dukes, kings and emperors; after 1918 office of the Czechoslovak and Czech presidents

The current Czech Republic consisting of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia still uses some symbols of the Kingdom of Bohemia: a two-tailed lion in its coat-of-arms, red-white strips in the state flag and the royal castle as the president's office.

Administrative division

Lands of the Bohemian Crown until 1635. (Including internal partition.) A map by Josef Pekař, 1921

Kraje of Bohemia

Kraje of Moravia   

Silesian duchies   

Lusatias

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Ottokar was 3rd King of Bohemia actually, but 1st with full hereditary title recognized by the papacy and Holy Roman kings/emperors

References

  • Pánek, Jaroslav; Tůma Oldřich et al. (2009). A History of the Czech lands. Prague: Karolinum. ISBN 978-80-246-1645-2. 
  • Bobková, Lenka (2006) (in Czech). 7. 4. 1348 – Ustavení Koruny království českého: český stát Karla IV. (Founding of the Crown of Bohemian Kingdom: Czech State of Charles IV). Praha: Havran. ISBN 80-86515-61-3. 
  • Agnew, Hugh LeCaine (2004). The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. ISBN 0-8179-4492-3. 








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