Kingdom of Hawaii: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Kingdom of Hawaii

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aupuni Mōʻī o Hawaiʻi
Kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands
In Exile  (1893 – 1895)

1810–1893
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono
Anthem
Hawaiʻi Ponoʻi
Kingdom of Hawaii
Capital Lahaina (until 1845)
Honolulu (from 1845)
Language(s) Hawaiian, English
Government Constitutional monarchy
Monarch
 - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I
 - 1819–1824 Kamehameha II
 - 1825–1854 Kamehameha III
 - 1855–1863 Kamehameha IV
 - 1863–1872 Kamehameha V
 - 1873–1874 Lunalilo
Provisional Government
 - 1893–1894 Committee of Safety
History
 - Inception 1795
 - Unification 1810
 - Constitutional monarchy October 8, 1840
 - Occupation by Great Britain 25 February-31 July, 1843
 - Monarchy overthrown January 17, 1893
 - Defunct 24 January, 1895
Currency Hawaiian dollar,
U.S. dollar

The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was established during the years 1795 to 1810 with the subjugation of the smaller independent chiefdoms of Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kauaʻi and Niʻihau by the chiefdom of Hawaiʻi (or the "Big Island") into one unified government. The monarchy was replaced with a provisional government after an armed revolt led by foreign residents in 1893.

Contents

Formation

Through a series of bloody battles, led by a warrior chief later known as Kamehameha the Great, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was established with the help of Western weapons and advisors. Although successful in attacking both Oʻahu and Maui, he failed to secure a victory in Kauaʻi, his effort hampered by a storm. Eventually, Kauaʻi's chief swore allegiance to Kamehameha. The unification ended the Ancient Hawaiian society of the Hawaiian islands transforming it into an independent constitutional monarchy crafted in the tradition of European monarchies.

Government

ʻIolani Palace, one of many royal palaces in Hawaiʻi, was built by Kalākaua who shared Kamehameha V's vision of constructing a palace to rival the residences of European monarchs

Government in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was transformed in phases, marked by the promulgation of the constitutions of 1840, 1852, 1864 and 1887. Each successive constitution reduced the power of the monarch in favor of an elected legislature increasingly dominated by the interests of those of American and European descent.

The head of state and head of government in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was the monarch. He or she oversaw the Privy Council which was charged with administration. A royal cabinet, the Privy Council, consisted of ministers in charge of departments much like the British political system. These ministers also acted as the monarch's primary advisors.

The 1840 Constitution created a bicameral parliament in charge of legislation. The two houses of the Kingdom legislature were the House of Representatives (directly elected by popular vote) and the House of Nobles (appointed by the monarch with the advice of the Cabinet). The same constitution created a judiciary, charged with overseeing the courts and interpretation of laws. The Supreme Court was led by the Chief Justice, appointed by the monarch with the advice of the Cabinet.

The islands of Hawaiʻi were divided into smaller administrative divisions: Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Maui, and Hawaiʻi. Kauaʻi region included Niʻihau, while Maui region included Kahoʻolawe, Lānaʻi and Molokaʻi. Each region had a governor appointed by the monarch. See Governor of Oʻahu, Governor of Maui, Governor of Kauaʻi and Royal Governor of Hawaiʻi

Ruling Kings and Queen:
Hawaiian in cape
Kamehameha I, (1795–1819) 
Hawaiian in military uniform
Kamehameha II, Liholiho, (1819–1824) 
Hawaiian in Victorian coat
Kamehameha III, Kauikeaouli, (1825–1854) 
Hawaiian in Victorian coat
Kamehameha IV, Alexander L. Liholiho, (1854–1863) 
Hawaiian in military uniform
Kamehameha V, Lot Kapuāiwa, (1863–1872) 
Hawaiian in Victorian coat
Lunalilo, William C. Lunalilo (1873–1874) 
Hawaiian in military uniform
Kalākaua, David Kalākaua, (1874–1891) 
Hawaiian Queen
Liliʻuokalani, Lydia Kamakaʻeha Paki, (1891–1893) 
Queens and Prince Consort:
Hawaiian Queen
Queen Kaʻahumanu, (1795–1832) 
Hawaiian Queen
Queen Victoria Kamāmalu, (1819–1824) 
Hawaiian Queen
Queen Kalama, (1837–1854) 
Hawaiian Queen
Queen Emma Naʻea, (1855–1863) 
Hawaiian Queen
Queen Esther Kapiʻolani, (1874–1891) 
Man in military uniform

Military

The Hawaiian army and navy developed from the village warriors of Kona under Kamehameha I, who unified Hawaii in 1810. The army and navy used both traditional canoes and uniforms like the gourd helmets and loincloths as well as western technology like artillery cannons, muskets, and European ships. European advisors were captured, treated well and became Hawaiian citizens. When Kamehameha died in 1819 he left his son Liholiho a large arsenal with tens of thousands of men and many warships. This helped put down the revolt at Kuamoʻo later in 1819.

Hawaiian military officer, 1819

During the Kamehameha Dynasty the population in Hawaii was ravaged by epidemics following the arrival of outsiders. The military shrank with the population, so by the end of the Dynasty there was no Hawaiian navy and an army consisting of several hundred troops. After a French invasion that sacked Honolulu in 1849 Kamehameha III sought treaties with the United States and Britain to become a protectorate state. During the outbreak of the Crimean War, in Europe, Kamehameha III declared Hawaii a neutral state[1], similar to Switzerland, ending any hope of Hawaii to benefits through war. After Hawaii became a protectorate of the United States strong pressure was put on Kamehameha IV to make trade exclusively to the United States even annexing the Islands. To counterbalance this situation Kamehameha IV and Kamehameha V pushed for alliances with other foreign powers, especially Great Britain. Hawaii claimed uninhabited islands in the Pacific including the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Following the Kamehameha Dynasty the small army was disbanded under Lunalilo after a barracks revolt in September 1873 until his death leaving Hawaii solely protected by the United States who had wavering support of the monarchy. The small army was restored under King Kalakaua but failed to stop the 1887 Rebellion by the Missionary Party. In 1891 Queen Liliʻuokalani came to power. Following the elections 1892 with petitions and request from her administration to change the constitution of 1887. The US protectorate policy was that at least one US cruiser must be present in Hawaii at all times. So, on January 17, 1893, Liliʻuokalani, believing the US military would intervene if she changed the constitution, waited for the USS Boston to leave port. Once it was known that Liliʻuokalani was revising the constitution, the Boston was recalled and assisted the Missionary Party in her overthrow. (This controversial action was settled in 1993 in the Apology Resolution, when the US Congress admitted and apologized for wrongdoing.) Following the overthrow and the establishment of the Provisional Government of Hawaii the Kingdom’s military was disarmed and disbanded.

Kamehameha Dynasty

From 1810 to 1893, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was ruled by two major dynastic families: the House of Kamehameha and the Kalākaua Dynasty. Five members of the Kamehameha family led the government as king. Liholiho (Kamehameha II) and Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III), were direct sons of Kamehameha the Great. For a period of Liholiho and Kauikeaouli's reigns, the primary wife of Kamehameha the Great, Queen Kaʻahumanu, ruled as Queen Regent and Kuhina Nui, or Prime Minister.

Advertisements

The French Incident (1839)

Artémise

Under the rule of Queen Kaʻahumanu, the powerful newly-converted Protestant widow of Kamehameha the Great, Catholicism was illegal in Hawaii and chiefs loyal to her forcibly deported French priests on to the Artemise. Native Hawaiian Catholic converts were imprisoned and Protestant ministers ordered them to be tortured. The prejudice against the French Catholics missionaries remained the same under the reign of her successor, the Kuhina Nui Kaʻahumanu II.

In 1839 Captain Laplace of the French frigate Artémise sailed to Hawaii under orders to:

Destroy the malevolent impression which you find established to the detriment of the French name; to rectify the erroneous opinion which has been created as to the power of France; and to make it well understood that it would be to the advantage of the chiefs of those islands of the Ocean to conduct themselves in such a manner as not to incur the wrath of France. You will exact, if necessary with all the force that is yours to use, complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed, and you will not quit those places until you have left in all minds a solid and lasting impression.

Under the threat of war, King Kamehameha III signed the Edict of Toleration on July 17, 1839 and paid the $20,000 in compensation for the deportation of the priests and the incarceration and torture of converts, agreeing to Laplace's demands. The kingdom proclaimed:

That the Catholic worship be declared free, throughout all the dominions subject to the king of the Sandwich Islands; the members of this religious faith shall enjoy in them the privileges granted to Protestants.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu returned unpersecuted and Kamehameha III donated land for them to build a church as reparation.

The Paulet Affair (1843)

19th-century naval officer
Lord George Paulet

An even more serious threat occurred on February 13, 1843. Lord George Paulet of the Royal Navy warship HMS Carysfort, entered Honolulu Harbor and demanded that King Kamehameha III cede the islands to the British Crown.[2] Under the guns of the frigate, Kamehameha III surrendered to Paulet on February 25, writing to his people:

"Where are you, chiefs, people, and commons from my ancestors, and people from foreign lands?
Hear ye! I make known to you that I am in perplexity by reason of difficulties into which I have been brought without cause, therefore I have given away the life of our land. Hear ye! but my rule over you, my people, and your privileges will continue, for I have hope that the life of the land will be restored when my conduct is justified.
Done at Honolulu, Oahu, this 25th day of February, 1843.
Kamehameha III
Kekauluohi"[3]

Dr. Gerrit P. Judd, a missionary who had become the Minister of Finance for the Kingdom, secretly arranged for J.F.B. Marshall to be envoy to the United States, France and Britain, to protest Paulet's actions.[4] Marshall, a commercial agent of Ladd & Co., conveyed the Kingdom's complaint to the Vice Consul of Britain in Tepec. Rear Admiral Richard Darton Thomas, Paulet's commanding officer, arrived at Honolulu harbor on July 26, 1843 on HMS Dublin from Valparaíso, Chile. Admiral Thomas apologized to Kamehameha III for Paulet's actions, and restored Hawaiian sovereignty on July 31, 1843. In his restoration speech, Kamehameha III declared that "Ua mau ke ea o ka ʻāina i ka pono" (The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness), the motto of the future State of Hawaii.

The French Invasion (1849)

Honolulu Fort, 1853

In August 1849, French admiral Louis Tromelin arrived in Honolulu Harbor with the La Poursuivante and Gassendi. De Tromelin made ten demands to King Kamehameha III on August 22, mainly demanding that full religious rights be given to Catholics, (a decade earlier, during the French Incident the ban on Catholicism had been lifted, but Catholics still enjoyed only partial religious rights). On August 25 the demands had not been met. After a second warning was made to the civilians, French troops overwhelmed the skeleton force and captured Honolulu Fort, spiked the coastal guns and destroyed all other weapons they found (mainly muskets and ammunition). They raided government buildings and general property in Honolulu, causing $100,000 in damages. After the raids the invasion force withdrew to the fort. De Tromelin eventually recalled his men and left Hawaii on September 5.

Foreign relations

Anticipating this foreign encroachment on Hawaiian territory, King Kamehameha III had dispatched a delegation to the United States and Europe to secure the recognition of Hawaiian Independence. Timoteo Haʻalilio, William Richards and Sir George Simpson were commissioned as joint Ministers Plenipotentiary on April 8, 1842. Sir George Simpson left for England while Haʻalilio and Richards to the United States on July 8, 1842. The Hawaiian delegation secured the assurance of U.S. President John Tyler on December 19, 1842 of Hawaiian independence, and then met Simpson in Europe to secure formal recognition by the United Kingdom and France. On March 17, 1843, King Louis-Philippe of France recognized Hawaiian independence at the urging of King Leopold I of Belgium. On April 1, 1843, Lord Aberdeen on behalf of Queen Victoria, assured the Hawaiian delegation that, "Her Majesty's Government was willing and had determined to recognize the independence of the Sandwich Islands under their present sovereign."[5]

Anglo-Franco Proclamation

Flier for 30th anniversary celebration of the 1843 treaty

On November 28, 1843, at the Court of London, the British and French Governments formally recognized Hawaiian independence. The "Anglo-Franco Proclamation", a joint declaration by France and Britain, signed by King Louis-Phillipe of the French and Queen Victoria, assured the Hawaiian delegation that:

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the King of the French, taking into consideration the existence in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaiian Islands) of a government capable of providing for the regularity of its relations with foreign nations, have thought it right to engage, reciprocally, to consider the Sandwich Islands as an Independent State, and never to take possession, neither directly or under the title of Protectorate, or under any other form, of any part of the territory of which they are composed.

The undersigned, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State of Foreign Affairs, and the Ambassador Extraordinary of His Majesty the King of the French, at the Court of London, being furnished with the necessary powers, hereby declare, in consequence, that their said Majesties take reciprocally that engagement.

In witness whereof the undersigned have signed the present declaration, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.

Done in duplicate at London, the 28th day of November, in the year of our Lord, 1843.
" 'ABERDEEN. [L.S.]
" 'ST. AULAIRE. [L.S.],[6]

Hawaiʻi was thus the first non-European indigenous state to be admitted into the Family of Nations.[7] The United States declined to join with France and the United Kingdom in this statement. Even though President John Tyler had verbally recognized Hawaiian Independence, it was not until 1849 that the United States formally recognized Hawaii as a fellow nation.[8]

November 28 became a national holiday to celebrate the recognition of Hawaii's independence. The Hawaiian Kingdom entered into treaties with most major nations and established over ninety legations and consulates.[7]

Dynastic rule by the Kamehameha family ended in 1872 with the death of Kamehameha V. Upon his deathbed, he summoned Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop to declare his intentions of making her heir to the throne. She was the last direct Kamehameha family member surviving. She refused the crown and Kamehameha V died before naming an alternative heir.

Elected monarchy

The refusal of Bishop to take the crown forced the legislature of the Kingdom to elect a new monarch. From 1872 to 1873, several distant relatives of the Kamehameha line were nominated. In a ceremonial popular vote and a unanimous legislative vote, William C. Lunalilo became Hawaiʻi's first of two elected monarchs, but only reigned from 1873–1874.

Kalākaua Dynasty

Coat of Arms of the Hawaiian kingdom, ʻIolani palace, Honolulu, Hawaiʻi
Princess Victoria Kaʻiulani Cleghorn, a member of the Kalākaua Dynasty, was in line to become Queen before the overthrow of the monarchy.

Like his predecessor, Lunalilo failed to name an heir to the throne. Once again, the legislature of the Kingdom of Hawaii needed an election to fill the royal vacancy. Queen Emma, widow of Kamehameha IV, was nominated along with David Kalākaua. The 1874 election was a nasty political campaign in which both candidates resorted to mudslinging and innuendo. David Kalākaua became the second elected King of Hawaii but without the ceremonial popular vote of Lunalilo. The choice of the legislature was controversial, and U.S. and British troops were called upon to suppress rioting.

Hoping to avoid uncertainty in the monarchy's future, Kalākaua proclaimed several heirs to the throne to define a line of succession. His sister Liliʻuokalani would succeed the throne upon Kalākaua's death, with Princess Victoria Kaʻiulani to follow. If she could not produce an heir by birth, Prince David Lamea Kawananakoa then Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole would rule after her.

Constitution of 1887

Hawaiian in military coat
King David Kalākaua

In 1887, a constitution was drafted by Lorrin A. Thurston, Minister of Interior under King Kalākaua. The constitution was proclaimed by the king after a meeting of 3,000 residents including an armed militia demanded he sign it or be deposed. The document created a constitutional monarchy like the United Kingdom's, stripping the King of most of his personal authority, empowering the legislature and establishing cabinet government. It has since become widely known as the "Bayonet Constitution" because of the threat of force used to gain Kalākaua's cooperation.

The 1887 constitution empowered the citizenry to elect members of the House of Nobles (who had previously been appointed by the King). It increased the value of property a citizen must own to be eligible to vote above the previous Constitution of 1864 and denied voting rights to Asians who comprised a large proportion of the population. (A few Japanese and some Chinese had previously become naturalized and now lost voting rights they had previously enjoyed.) This guaranteed a voting monopoly to wealthy native Hawaiians and Europeans. The Bayonet Constitution continued allowing the monarch to appoint cabinet ministers, but stripped him of the power to dismiss them without approval from the Legislature.

Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom

Queen Liliʻuokalani

Some claim the 1874 constitution was the opening salvo to the end of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

Liliʻuokalani's Constitution

In 1891, Kalākaua died and his sister Liliʻuokalani assumed the throne. She came to power during an economic crisis precipitated in part by the McKinley Tariff. By rescinding the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, the new tariff eliminated the previous advantage Hawaiian exporters enjoyed in trade to U.S. markets. Many Hawaiian businesses and citizens were feeling the pressures of the loss of revenue, so Liliʻuokalani proposed a lottery and opium licensing to bring in additional revenue for the government. Her ministers and closest friends tried to dissuade her from pursuing the bills, and these controversial proposals were used against her in the looming constitutional crisis.

Liliʻuokalani wanted to restore power to the monarch by abrogating the 1887 Constitution. The queen launched a campaign resulting in a petition to proclaim a new Constitution. Many citizens and residents who in 1887 had forced Kalākaua to sign the "Bayonet Constitution" became alarmed when three of her recently appointed cabinet members informed them that the queen was planning to unilaterally proclaim her new Constitution.[9] Some cabinet ministers were reported to have feared for their safety after upsetting the queen by not supporting her plans.[10]

The overthrow

In 1893, local businessmen and politicians, composed primarily of American and European residents, overthrew the queen, her cabinet and her marshal, and took over the government of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

USS Boston's landing force on duty at the Arlington Hotel, Honolulu, at the time of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, January 1893.[11]

Historians suggest that businessmen were in favor of overthrow and annexation to the U.S. in order to benefit from more favorable trade conditions with its main export market.[12][13][14][15] The McKinley Tariff of 1890 eliminated the previously highly favorable trade terms for Hawaii's sugar exports, a main component of the economy. The significance of this economic downturn as a motivation for the overthrow has been questioned by other scholars.[16] The proximate cause of the overthrow, however, was in response to Liliʻuokalani's attempt to promulgate a new constitution, which she believed were supported by both her cabinet and her Native Hawaiian subjects.

In response to Liliʻuokalani's move, a group of European and American residents formed a "Committee of Safety" on January 14, 1893 in opposition to the Queen and her plans. After a mass meeting of supporters, the Committee committed itself to the removal of the Queen, and seeking annexation to the United States.[17]

United States Government Minister John L. Stevens summoned a company of uniformed U.S. Marines from the USS Boston and two companies of U.S. sailors to land on the Kingdom and take up positions at the U.S. Legation, Consulate, and Arion Hall on the afternoon of January 16, 1893. This deployment was at the request of the Committee of Safety, which claimed an "imminent threat to American lives and property". Stevens was accused of ordering the landing himself on his own authority, and inappropriately using his discretion. Historian William Russ concluded that "the injunction to prevent fighting of any kind made it impossible for the monarchy to protect itself".[18]:350

Government in Exile

“Royalists”
Participant in 1895 Counter-Revolution in Hawaii
Active 1894-1895
Ideology monarchism
nationalism
Clans/tribes Native Hawaiians
Leaders Samuel Nowlein
Robert Wilcox
Headquarters Oahu
Area of
operations
Republic of Hawaii, United States
Strength 600
Originated as Kingdom of Hawaii in exile
Allies United States
Opponents Republic of Hawaii

On July 17, 1893, Sanford B. Dole and his committee took control of the government and declared itself the Provisional Government of Hawaii "to rule until annexation by the United States" and the lobbied United States for it.[18]:90 Dole was president of both governments. During this time members of the former government lobbied in Washington, DC for the United States to restore the Hawaiian Kingdom. President Cleveland considered the overthrow to have been an illegal act of war; he refused to consider annexation of the islands and initially worked to restore the queen to her throne. Between December 14, 1893 and January 11, 1894 a standoff occurred between the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom against the Provisional Government to pressure them into returning the Queen known as the Black Week. This incident drovehome the message that president Cleveland wanted Queen Liliʻuokalani's return to power, so on July 4, 1894 the Republic of Hawaiʻi was proclaimed to wait out Cleveland's second term. Also in 1894, as lobbying continued in Washington, the exiled government was secretly amassing an army of 600 strong led by former Captain of the Guard Samuel Nowlein. In 1895 they attempted a counter-rebellion, Queen Liliʻuokalani was arrested when a weapons cache was found on the palace grounds, she was tried by a military tribunal of the Republic, convicted of treason, and placed under permanent house arrest in her own home. While under house arrest she dissolved the exiled government to avoid future acts of violence to restore the monarchy. She did this on January 24, 1895 in a five page letter she formally abdicating the throne and became a citizen of the Republic, the Kingdom of Hawaii was no more.

Abdication of Queen Liliuokalani

Island of Oahu

Honolulu
January 24th 1895
To the honorable
Sanford Ballard Dole
President of the Republic of Hawaii.

Sir:
After full and free consultation with my personal friends and with my legal advisors, both before and since my detention by military order in the Executive building, and acting in conformity with their advice, and also upon my own free volition, and in pursuance of my unalterable belief and understanding of my duty to the people of Hawaii, and to their highest and best interests, and also for the sake of those misguided Hawaiians and others who have recently engaged in rebellion against the Republic, and in an attempt to restore me to the position of queen, which I held prior to the 17th day of January, A. D. 1893, and without any claim that shall become entitled, by reason of anything that I may now say or do, to any other or different treatment or consideration at the hands of the Government than I otherwise could and might legally receive, I now desire to express and make known, and do hereby express and make known, to yourself, as the only lawful and recognized head of the Government, and to all the people of the Hawaiian Islands, whether or not they have yet become citizens of the Republic, or are or have been adherents of the late monarchy, and also to all diplomatic and other foreign representatives in the Hawaiian Islands, to all of whom I respectfully request you to cause this statement and action of mine to be made known as soon as may be, as follows, namely:-
First,
In order to avoid any possibility of doubt or misunderstanding although I do not think that any doubt or misunderstanding is either proper or possible, I hereby do fully and unequivocally admit and declare that the Government of the Republic of Hawaii is the only lawful Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that the late Hawaiian monarchy is finally and forever ended, and no longer of any legal or actual validity, force or effect whatsoever; and I do hereby forever absolve all persons whomsoever, whether in the Hawaiian Islands or elsewhere, from all and every manner of allegiance, or official obligation or duty, to me and my heirs and successors forever, and I hereby declare to all such persons in the Hawaiian Islands that I consider them as bound in duty and honor henceforth to support and sustain the Government of the Republic of Hawaii.
Second,
For myself, my heirs and successors, I do hereby and without any mental reservation or modification, and fully, finally, unequivocally, irrevocably, and forever abdicate, renounce and release unto the Government of the Republic of Hawaii and the legitimate successors forever all claims or pretensions whatsoever to the late throne of Hawaii, or to the late monarchy of Hawaii, or to any past, or to the existing, or to any future Government of Hawaii, or under or by reason of any present or formerly existing constitution, statute, law, position, right or claim of any and every kind, name or nature whatsoever, and whether the same consist of pecuniary or property considerations, or of personal status, hereby forever renouncing, disowning and disclaiming all rights, claims, demands, privileges, honors, emoluments, titles and prerogatives whatsoever, under or by virtue of any former, or the existing Government, constitution, statute, law or custom of the Hawaiian Islands whatsoever, save and excepting only such rights and privileges as belong to me in common with all private citizens of, or residents in the Republic of Hawaii.
Third,
I do hereby respectfully implore for such misguided Hawaiians and others as have been concerned in the late rebellion against the Republic of Hawaii, such degree of executive clemency as the Government may deem to be consistent with its duty to the community, and such as a due regard for its violated laws may permit.
Fourth,
It is my sincere desire henceforth to live in absolute privacy and retirement from all publicity, or even appearance of being concerned in the public affairs of the Hawaiian Islands, further than to express, as I now do and shall always continue to do, my most sincere hope for the welfare and prosperity of its people, under and subject to the Government of the Republic of Hawaii.
Fifth,
I hereby offer and present my duly certified oath of allegiance to the Republic of Hawaii.
Sixth,
I have caused the foregoing statement to be prepared and drawn, and have signed the same without having received the slightest suggestion from the President of Hawaii, or from any member of the Government of Hawaii, concerning the same or any part thereof, or concerning any action or course of my own in the premises.

Relying upon the magnanimity of the Government of the Republic, and upon its protection,
I have the honor to be, Mr. President,
very respectfully
your most obedient servant

(Signed) Liliuokalani Dominis.

[19]

Annexation

It was not until a change in administrations to president William McKinley that the Republic of Hawaiʻi succeeded in its goal when in 1898, Congress approved a joint resolution of annexation creating the U.S. Territory of Hawaiʻi. This followed the precedent of Texas which was also annexed by a joint resolution of Congress. Dole was appointed to be the first governor of the Territory of Hawaiʻi.

The overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and the subsequent annexation of Hawaiʻi has recently been cited as the first major instance of American imperialism.[20]

Royal estates

Early in its history, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was governed from several locations including coastal towns on the islands of Hawaiʻi and Maui (Lāhainā). It wasn't until the reign of Kamehameha III that a capital was established in Honolulu on the Island of Oʻahu.

On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi over ʻIolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation.

By the time Kamehameha V was king, he saw the need to build a royal palace fitting of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi's new found prosperity and standing with the royals of other nations. He commissioned the building of the palace at Aliʻiōlani Hale. He died before it was completed. Today, the palace houses the Supreme Court of the State of Hawaiʻi.

David Kalākaua shared the dream of Kamehameha V to build a palace, and eagerly desired the trappings of European royalty. He commissioned the construction of ʻIolani Palace. In later years, the palace would become his sister's makeshift prison under guard by the forces of the Republic of Hawaii, the site of the official raising of the U.S. flag during annexation, and then territorial governor's and legislature's offices. It is now a museum.

Palaces and Royal Grounds

Notable Hawaiians

Kawaiahaʻo Church is known as the Westminster Abbey of Hawaiʻi, the site of coronations, royal christenings and funerals.

Kamehameha Dynasty

Kalākaua Dynasty

Civil leaders

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.hawaiiankingdom.org/hawn-territory.shtml
  2. ^ The US Navy and Hawaii-A Historical Summary
  3. ^ James F. B. Marshall (1883). "An unpublished chapter of Hawaiian History". Harper's magazine 67: pp. 511–520. http://books.google.com/books?id=-4UCAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA511. 
  4. ^ "Lā Kūʻokoʻa: Events Leading to Independence Day, November 28, 1843". The Polynesian XXI (3). November 200. http://www.alohaquest.com/arbitration/news_polynesian_0011b.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  5. ^ Hawaiian Kingdom - International Treaties
  6. ^ The Morgan Report, p503-517
  7. ^ a b David Keanu Sai (November 28, 2006). "Hawaiian Independence Day". Hawaiian Kingdom Independence web site. http://www.hawaiiankingdom.info/C1126750129/E20061128121009/index.html. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  8. ^ 503-517 - TheMorganReport
  9. ^ Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen, Appendix A "The three ministers left Mr. Parker to try to dissuade me from my purpose; and in the meantime they all (Peterson, Cornwell, and Colburn) went to the government building to inform Thurston and his part of the stand I took."
  10. ^ Morgan Report, p804-805 "Every one knows how quickly Colburn and Peterson, when they could escape from the palace, called for help from Thurston and others, and how afraid Colburn was to go back to the palace."
  11. ^ U.S. Navy History site
  12. ^ Kinzer, Stephen. (2006). Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq.
  13. ^ Stevens, Sylvester K. (1968) American Expansion in Hawaii, 1842-1898. New York: Russell & Russell. (p. 228)
  14. ^ Dougherty, Michael. (1992). To Steal a Kingdom: Probing Hawaiian History. (p. 167-168)
  15. ^ La Croix, Sumner and Christopher Grandy. (March 1997). "The Political Instability of Reciprocal Trade and the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom" in The Journal of Economic History 57:161-189.
  16. ^ Wiegle, The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 16, No. 1. (Feb., 1947), p.47 Sugar and the Hawaiian Revolution
  17. ^ The Morgan Report, p817
  18. ^ a b Russ, William Adam (1992) [1959]. The Hawaiian Revolution (1893-94). Susquehanna University Press. ISBN 978-0945636434. http://books.google.com/books?id=9AeTAAAAIAAJ. 
  19. ^ historymystery.grassrootinstitute.org
  20. ^ Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq by Stephen Kinzer, 2006

External links


Aupuni Mōʻī o Hawaiʻi
Kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands
In Exile  (1893 – 1895)

 
File:Flag of the United
1795–1893 File:Flag of the United
 
File:Flag of
File:Flag of File:Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono
Anthem
Hawaiʻi Ponoʻi
Kingdom of Hawaii
Capital Kailua-Kona (until 1820)
Lahaina (until 1845)
Honolulu (from 1845)
Language(s) Hawaiian, English
Government Constitutional monarchy
Monarch
 - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I (first)
 - 1891–1893 Liliʻuokalani (last)
Provisional Government
 - 1893–1894 Committee of Safety
History
 - Inception May, 1795
 - Unification 1810
 - Constitutional monarchy October 8, 1840
 - Occupation by Great Britain 25 February-31 July 1843
 - Monarchy overthrown January 17, 1893
 - Defunct 24 January 1895
Currency Hawaiian dollar,
U.S. dollar

The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was established during the years 1795 to 1810 with the subjugation of the smaller independent chiefdoms of Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kauaʻi and Niʻihau by the chiefdom of Hawaiʻi (or the "Big Island") into one unified government. The Kingdom was overthrown in 1893.

Contents

History

A series of violent battles, lasting 15 years, was led by the warrior chief who would become Kamehameha the Great. The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was established with the help of western weapons and advisors, such as John Young and Isaac Davis.[1] Although successful in attacking both Oʻahu and Maui, he failed to secure a victory in Kauaʻi, his effort hampered by a storm. Eventually, Kauaʻi's chief swore allegiance to Kamehameha. The unification ended the ancient Hawaiian society, transforming it into an independent constitutional monarchy crafted in the traditions and manner of European monarchs.

Military

The Hawaiian army and navy developed from the warriors of Kona under Kamehameha I, who unified Hawaii in 1810. The army and navy used both traditional canoes and uniforms including helmets made of natural materials and loincloths (called the Malo) as well as western technology like artillery cannons, muskets, and European ships. European advisors were captured, treated well and became Hawaiian citizens. When Kamehameha died in 1819 he left his son Liholiho a large arsenal with tens of thousands of men and many warships. This helped put down the revolt at Kuamoʻo later in 1819.

During the Kamehameha Dynasty the population in Hawaii was ravaged by epidemics following the arrival of outsiders. The military shrank with the population, so by the end of the Dynasty there was no Hawaiian navy and an army consisting of several hundred troops. After a French invasion that sacked Honolulu in 1849 Kamehameha III sought treaties with the United States and Britain to become a protectorate state. During the outbreak of the Crimean War, in Europe, Kamehameha III declared Hawaii a neutral state,[2] similar to Switzerland, ending any hope of Hawaii to benefits through war. After Hawaii became a protectorate of the United States strong pressure was put on Kamehameha IV to make trade exclusively to the United States even annexing the Islands. To counterbalance this situation Kamehameha IV and Kamehameha V pushed for alliances with other foreign powers, especially Great Britain. Hawaii claimed uninhabited islands in the Pacific including the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, many of which came into conflict with American claims.

Following the Kamehameha Dynasty the small army was disbanded under Lunalilo after a barracks revolt in September 1873 until his death leaving Hawaii solely protected by the United States who had wavering support of the monarchy. The small army was restored under King Kalakaua but failed to stop the 1887 Rebellion by the Missionary Party. In 1891 Queen Liliʻuokalani came to power. Following the elections 1892 with petitions and request from her administration to change the constitution of 1887. The US protectorate policy was that at least one US cruiser must be present in Hawaii at all times. So, on January 17, 1893, Liliʻuokalani, believing the US military would intervene if she changed the constitution, waited for the USS Boston to leave port. Once it was known that Liliʻuokalani was revising the constitution, the Boston was recalled and assisted the Missionary Party in her overthrow. (This controversial action was settled in 1993 in the Apology Resolution, when the US Congress admitted and apologized for wrongdoing.) Following the overthrow and the establishment of the Provisional Government of Hawaii the Kingdom's military was disarmed and disbanded.

Kamehameha Dynasty

From 1810 to 1893, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was ruled by two major dynastic families: the House of Kamehameha and the Kalākaua Dynasty. Five members of the Kamehameha family led the government as king. Liholiho (Kamehameha II) and Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III), were direct sons of Kamehameha the Great. For a period of Liholiho and Kauikeaouli's reigns, the primary wife of Kamehameha the Great, Queen Kaʻahumanu, ruled as Queen Regent and Kuhina Nui, or Prime Minister.

The French Incident (1839)

[[File:|thumb|left|200px|Artémise]] Under the rule of Queen Kaʻahumanu, the powerful newly-converted Protestant widow of Kamehameha the Great, Catholicism was illegal in Hawaii and chiefs loyal to her forcibly deported French priests on to the Artemise. Native Hawaiian Catholic converts were imprisoned and Protestant ministers ordered them to be tortured.[citation needed] The prejudice against the French Catholics missionaries remained the same under the reign of her successor, the Kuhina Nui Kaʻahumanu II.

In 1839 Captain Laplace of the French frigate Artémise sailed to Hawaii under orders to:

Destroy the malevolent impression which you find established to the detriment of the French name; to rectify the erroneous opinion which has been created as to the power of France; and to make it well understood that it would be to the advantage of the chiefs of those islands of the Ocean to conduct themselves in such a manner as not to incur the wrath of France. You will exact, if necessary with all the force that is yours to use, complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed, and you will not quit those places until you have left in all minds a solid and lasting impression.

Under the threat of war, King Kamehameha III signed the Edict of Toleration on July 17, 1839 and paid the $20,000 in compensation for the deportation of the priests and the incarceration and torture of converts, agreeing to Laplace's demands. The kingdom proclaimed:

That the Catholic worship be declared free, throughout all the dominions subject to the king of the Sandwich Islands; the members of this religious faith shall enjoy in them the privileges granted to Protestants.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu returned unpersecuted and Kamehameha III donated land for them to build a church as reparation.

The Paulet Affair (1843)

An even more serious threat occurred on February 13, 1843. Lord George Paulet of the Royal Navy warship HMS Carysfort, entered Honolulu Harbor and demanded that King Kamehameha III cede the islands to the British Crown.[3] Under the guns of the frigate, Kamehameha III surrendered to Paulet on February 25, writing to his people:

"Where are you, chiefs, people, and commons from my ancestors, and people from foreign lands?
Hear ye! I make known to you that I am in perplexity by reason of difficulties into which I have been brought without cause, therefore I have given away the life of our land. Hear ye! but my rule over you, my people, and your privileges will continue, for I have hope that the life of the land will be restored when my conduct is justified.
Done at Honolulu, Oahu, this 25th day of February, 1843.
Kamehameha III
Kekauluohi"[4]

Dr. Gerrit P. Judd, a missionary who had become the Minister of Finance for the Kingdom, secretly arranged for J.F.B. Marshall to be envoy to the United States, France and Britain, to protest Paulet's actions.[5] Marshall, a commercial agent of Ladd & Co., conveyed the Kingdom's complaint to the Vice Consul of Britain in Tepec. Rear Admiral Richard Darton Thomas, Paulet's commanding officer, arrived at Honolulu harbor on July 26, 1843 on HMS Dublin from Valparaíso, Chile. Admiral Thomas apologized to Kamehameha III for Paulet's actions, and restored Hawaiian sovereignty on July 31, 1843. In his restoration speech, Kamehameha III declared that "Ua mau ke ea o ka ʻāina i ka pono" (The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness), the motto of the future State of Hawaii.

The French Invasion (1849)

In August 1849, French admiral Louis Tromelin arrived in Honolulu Harbor with the La Poursuivante and Gassendi. De Tromelin made ten demands to King Kamehameha III on August 22, mainly demanding that full religious rights be given to Catholics, (a decade earlier, during the French Incident the ban on Catholicism had been lifted, but Catholics still enjoyed only partial religious rights). On August 25 the demands had not been met. After a second warning was made to the civilians, French troops overwhelmed the skeleton force and captured Honolulu Fort, spiked the coastal guns and destroyed all other weapons they found (mainly muskets and ammunition). They raided government buildings and general property in Honolulu, causing $100,000 in damages. After the raids the invasion force withdrew to the fort. De Tromelin eventually recalled his men and left Hawaii on September 5.

Foreign relations

Anticipating this foreign encroachment on Hawaiian territory, King Kamehameha III had dispatched a delegation to the United States and Europe to secure the recognition of Hawaiian Independence. Timoteo Haʻalilio, William Richards and Sir George Simpson were commissioned as joint Ministers Plenipotentiary on April 8, 1842. Sir George Simpson left for England while Haʻalilio and Richards to the United States on July 8, 1842. The Hawaiian delegation secured the assurance of U.S. President John Tyler on December 19, 1842 of Hawaiian independence, and then met Simpson in Europe to secure formal recognition by the United Kingdom and France. On March 17, 1843, King Louis-Philippe of France recognized Hawaiian independence at the urging of King Leopold I of Belgium. On April 1, 1843, Lord Aberdeen on behalf of Queen Victoria, assured the Hawaiian delegation that, "Her Majesty's Government was willing and had determined to recognize the independence of the Sandwich Islands under their present sovereign."[6]

Anglo-Franco Proclamation

On November 28, 1843, at the Court of London, the British and French Governments formally recognized Hawaiian independence. The "Anglo-Franco Proclamation", a joint declaration by France and Britain, signed by King Louis-Phillipe of the French and Queen Victoria, assured the Hawaiian delegation that:

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the King of the French, taking into consideration the existence in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaiian Islands) of a government capable of providing for the regularity of its relations with foreign nations, have thought it right to engage, reciprocally, to consider the Sandwich Islands as an Independent State, and never to take possession, neither directly or under the title of Protectorate, or under any other form, of any part of the territory of which they are composed.

The undersigned, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State of Foreign Affairs, and the Ambassador Extraordinary of His Majesty the King of the French, at the Court of London, being furnished with the necessary powers, hereby declare, in consequence, that their said Majesties take reciprocally that engagement.

In witness whereof the undersigned have signed the present declaration, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.

Done in duplicate at London, the 28th day of November, in the year of our Lord, 1843.
" 'ABERDEEN. [L.S.]
" 'ST. AULAIRE. [L.S.],[7]

Hawaiʻi was thus the first non-European indigenous state to be admitted into the Family of Nations.[8] The United States declined to join with France and the United Kingdom in this statement. Even though President John Tyler had verbally recognized Hawaiian Independence, it was not until 1849 that the United States formally recognized Hawaii as a fellow nation.[9] November 28 became a national holiday to celebrate the recognition of Hawaii's independence. The Hawaiian Kingdom entered into treaties with most major nations and established over ninety legations and consulates.[8] Dynastic rule by the Kamehameha family ended in 1872 with the death of Kamehameha V. Upon his deathbed, he summoned High Chiefess Bernice Pauahi Bishop to declare his intentions of making her heir to the throne. She and her cousin, Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani were the last direct Kamehameha family members surviving. Bernice refused the crown and Kamehameha V died before naming an alternative heir.

Constitutional elections

The refusal of Bishop to take the crown forced the legislature of the Kingdom to elect a new monarch. From 1872 to 1873, several distant relatives of the Kamehameha line were nominated. In a ceremonial popular vote and a unanimous legislative vote, William C. Lunalilo, grandnephew of Kamehameha I, became Hawaiiʻis first of two elected monarchs, but only reigned from 1873–1874.

Kalākaua Dynasty

Like his predecessor, Lunalilo failed to name an heir to the throne. Once again, the legislature of the Kingdom of Hawaii needed an election to fill the royal vacancy. Queen Emma, widow of Kamehameha IV, was nominated along with David Kalākaua. The 1874 election was a nasty political campaign in which both candidates resorted to mudslinging and innuendo. David Kalākaua became the second elected King of Hawaii but without the ceremonial popular vote of Lunalilo. The choice of the legislature was controversial, and U.S. and British troops were called upon to suppress rioting by Queen Emma's supporters, the Emmaites.

Hoping to avoid uncertainty in the monarchy's future, Kalākaua proclaimed several heirs to the throne to define a line of succession. His sister Liliʻuokalani would succeed the throne upon Kalākaua's death, with Princess Victoria Kaʻiulani to follow. If she could not produce an heir by birth, Prince David Lamea Kawananakoa then Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole would rule after her.

Bayonet Constitution

File:Kingdavidkalakaua
King Kalākaua

In 1887, a constitution was drafted by Lorrin A. Thurston, Minister of Interior under King Kalākaua. The constitution was proclaimed by the king after a meeting of 3,000 residents including an armed militia demanded he sign it or be deposed. The document created a constitutional monarchy like the United Kingdom's, stripping the King of most of his personal authority, empowering the legislature and establishing cabinet government. It has since become widely known as the "Bayonet Constitution" because of the threat of force used to gain Kalākaua's cooperation.

The 1887 constitution empowered the citizenry to elect members of the House of Nobles (who had previously been appointed by the King). It increased the value of property a citizen must own to be eligible to vote above the previous Constitution of 1864 and denied voting rights to Asians who comprised a large proportion of the population. (A few Japanese and some Chinese had previously become naturalized and now lost voting rights they had previously enjoyed.) This guaranteed a voting monopoly to wealthy native Hawaiians and Europeans. The Bayonet Constitution continued allowing the monarch to appoint cabinet ministers, but stripped him of the power to dismiss them without approval from the Legislature.

Liliʻuokalani's Constitution

In 1891, Kalākaua died and his sister Liliʻuokalani assumed the throne. She came to power during an economic crisis precipitated in part by the McKinley Tariff. By rescinding the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, the new tariff eliminated the previous advantage Hawaiian exporters enjoyed in trade to U.S. markets. Many Hawaiian businesses and citizens were feeling the pressures of the loss of revenue, so Liliʻuokalani proposed a lottery and opium licensing to bring in additional revenue for the government. Her ministers and closest friends tried to dissuade her from pursuing the bills, and these controversial proposals were used against her in the looming constitutional crisis.

Liliʻuokalani wanted to restore power to the monarch by abrogating the 1887 Constitution. The queen launched a campaign resulting in a petition to proclaim a new Constitution. Many citizens and residents who in 1887 had forced Kalākaua to sign the "Bayonet Constitution" became alarmed when three of her recently appointed cabinet members informed them that the queen was planning to unilaterally proclaim her new Constitution.[10] Some cabinet ministers were reported to have feared for their safety after upsetting the queen by not supporting her plans.[11]

The overthrow

In 1893, local businessmen and politicians, composed primarily of American and European residents, overthrew the queen, her cabinet and her marshal, and took over the government of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. [[File:|thumb|200px|USS Boston's landing force on duty at the Arlington Hotel, Honolulu, at the time of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, January 1893.[12]]]

Historians suggest that businessmen were in favor of overthrow and annexation to the U.S. in order to benefit from more favorable trade conditions with its main export market.[13][14][15][16] The McKinley Tariff of 1890 eliminated the previously highly favorable trade terms for Hawaii's sugar exports, a main component of the economy.

In response to Liliʻuokalani's move, a group of European and American residents formed a "Committee of Safety" on January 14, 1893 in opposition to the Queen and her plans. After a mass meeting of supporters, the Committee committed itself to the removal of the Queen, and seeking annexation to the United States.[17]

United States Government Minister John L. Stevens summoned a company of uniformed U.S. Marines from the USS Boston and two companies of U.S. sailors to land on the Kingdom and take up positions at the U.S. Legation, Consulate, and Arion Hall on the afternoon of January 16, 1893. This deployment was at the request of the Committee of Safety, which claimed an "imminent threat to American lives and property". Stevens was accused of ordering the landing himself on his own authority, and inappropriately using his discretion. Historian William Russ concluded that "the injunction to prevent fighting of any kind made it impossible for the monarchy to protect itself".[18]:350

1895 Counter-Revolution in Hawaii

"Royalists"
Participant in 1895 Counter-Revolution in Hawaii
Active 1894-1895
Ideology monarchism
nationalism
Groups Native Hawaiians
Leaders Samuel Nowlein
Robert Wilcox
Headquarters Oahu
Area of
operations
Hawaiian Islands, United States, Pacific Ocean
Strength 600
Originated as Kingdom of Hawaii
Allies United States
Opponents Republic of Hawaii

On July 17, 1893, Sanford B. Dole and his committee took control of the government and declared itself the Provisional Government of Hawaii "to rule until annexation by the United States" and lobbied the United States for it.[18]:90 Dole was president of both governments. During this time, members of the former government lobbied in Washington, DC for the United States to restore the Hawaiian Kingdom. U.S. President Grover Cleveland considered the overthrow to have been an illegal act of war; he refused to consider annexation of the islands and initially worked to restore the queen to her throne. Between December 14, 1893 and January 11, 1894 a standoff occurred between the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom against the Provisional Government to pressure them into returning the Queen known as the Black Week. This incident drove home the message that president Cleveland wanted Queen Liliʻuokalani's return to power, so on July 4, 1894 the Republic of Hawaiʻi was proclaimed to wait out Cleveland's second term. Also in 1894, as lobbying continued in Washington, the exiled government was secretly amassing an army of 600 strong led by former Captain of the Guard Samuel Nowlein. In 1895 they attempted a counter-rebellion, Queen Liliʻuokalani was arrested when a weapons cache was found on the palace grounds, she was tried by a military tribunal of the Republic, convicted of treason, and placed under permanent house arrest in her own home. While under house arrest she dissolved the exiled government to avoid future acts of violence to restore the monarchy. She did this on January 24, 1895 in a five page letter. She formally abdicated the throne and became a citizen of the Republic, the Kingdom of Hawaii was no more.

Annexation

It was not until a change in administrations to President William McKinley that the Republic of Hawaiʻi succeeded in its goal when in 1898, Congress approved a joint resolution of annexation creating the U.S. Territory of Hawaiʻi. This followed the precedent of Texas which was also annexed by a joint resolution of Congress. Dole was appointed to be the first governor of the Territory of Hawaiʻi.

The overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and the subsequent annexation of Hawaiʻi has recently been cited as the first major instance of American imperialism.[19]

Royal estates

Early in its history, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was governed from several locations including coastal towns on the islands of Hawaiʻi and Maui (Lāhainā). It wasn't until the reign of Kamehameha III that a capital was established in Honolulu on the Island of Oʻahu.

[[File:|thumb|220px|On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi over ʻIolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation.]]

By the time Kamehameha V was king, he saw the need to build a royal palace fitting of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi's new found prosperity and standing with the royals of other nations. He commissioned the building of the palace at Aliʻiōlani Hale. He died before it was completed. Today, the palace houses the Supreme Court of the State of Hawaiʻi.

David Kalākaua shared the dream of Kamehameha V to build a palace, and eagerly desired the trappings of European royalty. He commissioned the construction of ʻIolani Palace. In later years, the palace would become his sister's makeshift prison under guard by the forces of the Republic of Hawaii, the site of the official raising of the U.S. flag during annexation, and then territorial governor's and legislature's offices. It is now a museum.

Palaces and Royal Grounds

Notable Hawaiians

[[File:|thumb|220px|Kawaiahaʻo Church is known as the Westminster Abbey of Hawaiʻi, the site of coronations, royal christenings and funerals.]]

Kamehameha Dynasty

Kalākaua Dynasty

Civil leaders

Ruling kings and queen:
[[File:|center|border|180x180px|alt=Hawaiian in cape|Kamehameha I, (1795–1819)]]
Kamehameha I, (1795–1819) 
Kamehameha IV, Alexander L. Liholiho, (1854–1863) 
Queens and prince consort:
Queen Kaʻahumanu, (1795–1832) 
Queen Victoria Kamāmalu, (1819–1824) 

See also

References

  1. ^ Lawrence, Mary S. (1912). Old Time Hawiians and Their Works. Gin and Company. p. 127. ISBN 978-1146324625. http://books.google.com/books?id=zQtlLhgWLLUC&pg=PA127. 
  2. ^ http://www.hawaiiankingdom.org/hawn-territory.shtml
  3. ^ The US Navy and Hawaii-A Historical Summary
  4. ^ James F. B. Marshall (1883). "An unpublished chapter of Hawaiian History". Harper's magazine 67: pp. 511–520. http://books.google.com/books?id=-4UCAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA511. 
  5. ^ "Lā Kūʻokoʻa: Events Leading to Independence Day, November 28, 1843". The Polynesian XXI (3). November 200. http://www.alohaquest.com/arbitration/news_polynesian_0011b.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  6. ^ Hawaiian Kingdom - International Treaties
  7. ^ The Morgan Report, p503-517
  8. ^ a b David Keanu Sai (November 28, 2006). "Hawaiian Independence Day". Hawaiian Kingdom Independence web site. http://www.hawaiiankingdom.info/C1126750129/E20061128121009/index.html. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  9. ^ 503-517 - TheMorganReport
  10. ^ Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen, Appendix A "The three ministers left Mr. Parker to try to dissuade me from my purpose; and in the meantime they all (Peterson, Cornwell, and Colburn) went to the government building to inform Thurston and his part of the stand I took."
  11. ^ Morgan Report, p804-805 "Every one knows how quickly Colburn and Peterson, when they could escape from the palace, called for help from Thurston and others, and how afraid Colburn was to go back to the palace."
  12. ^ U.S. Navy History site
  13. ^ Kinzer, Stephen. (2006). Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq.
  14. ^ Stevens, Sylvester K. (1968) American Expansion in Hawaii, 1842-1898. New York: Russell & Russell. (p. 228)
  15. ^ Dougherty, Michael. (1992). To Steal a Kingdom: Probing Hawaiian History. (p. 167-168)
  16. ^ La Croix, Sumner and Christopher Grandy. (March 1997). "The Political Instability of Reciprocal Trade and the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom" in The Journal of Economic History 57:161-189.
  17. ^ The Morgan Report, p817
  18. ^ a b Russ, William Adam (1992) [1959]. The Hawaiian Revolution (1893-94). Susquehanna University Press. ISBN 978-0945636434. http://books.google.com/books?id=9AeTAAAAIAAJ. 
  19. ^ Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq by Stephen Kinzer, 2006

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message