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東寧
Dōng Níng
Kingdom of Tungning

1662–1683
Motto
反清復明
"Oppose the Qing, restore the Ming"
Kingdom of Tungning on Taiwan
Capital Tungtu
Language(s) Hokkien
Government Monarchy
King of Tungning
 - 1662 - 1682 Zheng Jing
 - 1682 - 1683 Zheng Ke-Shuang
Historical era Qing Dynasty
 - Siege of Fort Zeelandia February 1, 1662 1662
 - Battle of Penghu 1683 1683
Population
 - 1664 est. 140,000 
 - 1683 est. 200,000 
Currency Copper Coin and Silver tael issued by the kingdom

The Kingdom of Tungning was a Han Chinese government which ruled Taiwan, between 1661 and 1683. It was a pro-Ming Dynasty kingdom, and was founded by Koxinga (國姓爺), literally Lord with the Imperial Surname, because he was given the Ming Emperor's Surname), after the destruction of Ming power by the Manchu. Koxinga was son of a former merchant who styled himself as a Ming Dynasty loyalist; he hoped to marshal his troops on Taiwan and use it as a base to regain mainland China for the Ming Dynasty.

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Names

Koxinga received Dutch surrender on 1 Feb 1662

The Kingdom of Tungning (simplified Chinese: 东宁王国traditional Chinese: 東寧王國pinyin: Dōngníng Wángguó) is also sometimes called the Kingdom of Zheng (Cheng) (simplified Chinese: 郑氏王朝traditional Chinese: 鄭氏王朝pinyin: Zhèngshì Wángcháo) or the Kingdom of Yanping (延平王國). Admiral Koxinga called Taiwan Tungtu/Dongdu. It has been called in western histories the Kingdom of Taiwan,[1] and the period of rule is sometimes referred to as the Koxinga dynasty.[2]

History

Chihkan Tower, Koxinga's office after he took over the former Dutch post.
History of Taiwan en.png

Part of a series on
History of Taiwan

Prehistory 50,000 BC – 1624 CE
Kingdom of Middag 1540 – 1732
Dutch Formosa 1624 – 1662
Spanish Formosa 1626 – 1642
Kingdom of Tungning 1662 – 1683
Chinese Qing Dynasty1683 – 1895
Republic of Formosa 1895
Japanese Taiwan 1895 – 1945
Republic of China 1945 – present

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In 1661, Koxinga forced a landing at Luerhmen (simplified Chinese: 鹿耳门traditional Chinese: 鹿耳門pinyin: Lù'ěrmén), Taiwan. In less than a year, he captured Fort Zeelandia and negotiated a treaty[3] with Frederick Coyett, the Dutch governor, where the Dutch surrendered the fortress and left all the goods and property of the Dutch East India Company behind. In return, all Dutch officials, soldiers and civilians left with their personal belongings and supplies back to Batavia, ending the 38 years of Dutch colonial rule on Taiwan. Koxinga proceeded to devote himself to building Taiwan into an effective base for anti-Qing Dynasty sympathizers who wanted to restore the Ming Dynasty to power.

In 1662, at the age of 39, Koxinga died of malaria, although speculations said that he died in a sudden fit of madness upon hearing the death of his father under the Qing. His son, Zheng Jing, succeeded him as the ruler of Taiwan, with the inherited title of Prince of Yanping.

For the next 19 years, Zheng Jing tried to provide sufficiently for the local inhabitants and reorganize their military forces in Taiwan. Contact with the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty from the China through ambassadors was frequent. Under Qing pressure, Zheng Jing struggled to defend Xiamen, Quemoy and the Pescadores islands, which he had eventually lost over the years, mainly due to his minuscule forces which were insufficient to defend from the Qing. During Revolt of the Three Feudatories, Zheng Jing launched an offensive in the Fujian area. With the end of the revolt, Zheng suffered a serious defeat. After the defeat, Zheng returned to Taiwan where he indulged in wine and women, dying soon after of illness. Upon his death, his generals and ministers were divided into two factions, each supporting one of his sons as heir. After some infighting, Zheng Keshuang, his younger twelve-year-old son, succeeded him as king.

In 1683, after the Battle of Penghu, Zheng Keshuang gave in to Qing demand of surrender, and his kingdom was incorporated into the Qing Dynasty as part of the Fujian Province.

Legacy

The Kingdom of Tungning existed for just over 20 years, but due to its parallels to the current political status of Taiwan, it continues to hold great symbolic value.

After its defeat in the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Republic of China (ROC), led by the Kuomintang, retreated to Taiwan, leaving Mainland China to the Communist Party who later established People's Republic of China (PRC). For the next several decades, the ROC was devoted to regaining the mainland (Chinese:反攻大陸), by maintaining island bases in proximity to the mainland (e.g. Quemoy), just as Koxinga and his descendents had done. Although the ROC has since democratized and is no longer singularly devoted to reconquering the mainland, the political and territorial arrangement has remained unchanged. In this respect, there is a striking parallel between the Qing/Koxinga situation and the current PRC/ROC situation.

The Kuomintang of the ROC have, unsurprisingly, focused on the goals of Koxinga, i.e. to use Taiwan as a base for restoring their government to Mainland China, parallel to how they view themselves as the defenders of the ROC, and Taiwan as a base from which the ROC will regain the mainland (Chinese:反攻大陸). The PRC has generally focused on the fact that Koxinga liberated Taiwan from Dutch colonialism for the sake of the motherland, while downplaying the fact that Koxinga was in fact devoted to overthrowing the mainland government at the time to restore a previous dynasty (Chinese:反清復明).

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See also

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Simple English

東寧
Dōng Níng

Kingdom of Tungning
1662 – 1683

Motto: 反清復明
"Oppose the Qing, restore the Ming"
Kingdom of Tungning on Taiwan
Capital Tungtu
Language(s) Hoklo
Government Monarchy
King of Tungning
 - 1662 - 1682 Zheng Jing
 - 1682 - 1683 Zheng Ke-Shuang
Historical era Qing Dynasty
 - Siege of Fort Zeelandia February 1, 1662
 - Battle of Penghu 16831683
Population
 - 1664 est. 140,000 
 - 1683 est. 200,000 
Currency Copper Coin and Silver tael issued by the kingdom

[[File:|thumb|220px|right|Koxinga]] The Kingdom of Tungning was the first Han Chinese government to rule Taiwan. It ruled between 1661 and 1683. It was a pro-Ming Dynasty kingdom. It was started by Koxinga, after the destruction of Ming government by the Manchu. Koxinga was son of a pirate who was a supporter of the Ming Dynasty. He hoped to get his soldiers together on Taiwan and use it as a base to get back mainland China for the Ming Dynasty.

Contents

Names

to Koxinga on 1 Feb 1662]]

The Kingdom of Tungning is also sometimes known as:

  • The Kingdom of Zheng (Cheng)
  • The Kingdom of Yanping.
  • The Koxinga dynasty. [1]

Admiral Koxinga called Taiwan Tungtu/Dongdu. In western history books it is known as the Kingdom of Taiwan, [2].

History

File:Koxinga Dutch
The agreement with the Dutch
, Koxinga's office after he took over the old Dutch fort.]]


In 1661, Koxinga forced a landing at Luerhmen, Taiwan. In less than a year, he took Fort Zeelandia and made an agreement [3] with Frederick Coyett, the Dutch governor. The Dutch gave him the fort and left all the goods and property of the Dutch East India Company behind. All the Dutch people, officials and soldiers were able take their personal things and supplies back to Batavia in safety. This ended 38 years of Dutch colonial rule on Taiwan. Koxinga kept himself busy making Taiwan into a useful base for anti-Qing Dynasty supporters who hoped to get the Ming Dynasty back to power.

In 1662, at the age of 39, Koxinga died of malaria. Some people said that he died in a sudden fit of craziness when he heard about the death of his father under the Qing. His son, Zheng Jing, took control as the ruler of Taiwan, with the name of Prince of Yanping.

For the next 19 years, Zheng Jing tried to run the country and rebuild his army in Taiwan. Contact with the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty from the China through ambassadors was frequent. Zheng Jing fought the Qing to defend Xiamen, Quemoy and the Pescadores islands, which he finally lost over the years. His small army army was not big enough to defend the islands from the Qing. During Revolt of the Three Feudatories, Zheng Jing started an attack in the Fujian area. At the end of the revolt, Zheng's army was defeated. After the defeat, Zheng went back to Taiwan where he spent his time with wine and women, dying soon after of illness. After his death, his generals and ministers were split into two groups, each supporting one of his sons to take take over. After some fighting, Zheng Keshuang, his 12 year old son, became the new king.

In 1683, after the Battle of Penghu, Zheng Keshuang gave himself up to the Qing. His kingdom was added to the Qing Dynasty as part of the Fujian Province.

What the kingdom means today

The Kingdom of Tungning lasted for just over 20 years. Because its history is almost the same as modern Taiwan, it has great symbolic value.

After its defeat in the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Republic of China (ROC), led by the Kuomintang, went to Taiwan. They left mainland China to the Communist Party who started the People's Republic of China (PRC). For many years, the ROC planned to take control of the mainland. It kept island bases close to the mainland (for example, Quemoy). This was the same as Koxinga and his sons had done. The ROC has now become a democracy and no longer wants to take over the mainland. The political and territorial arrangement has not changed. In this way, it is the same as between the Qing/Koxinga situation and the current PRC/ROC situation.

The Kuomintang of the ROC have talked a lot about the goals of Koxinga. They were going to use Taiwan as a base for returning their government to Mainland China. They see themselves as the defenders of the ROC. They see Taiwan as a base from which the ROC will take back control of the mainland. The PRC talks about the fact that Koxinga freed Taiwan from Dutch colonialism for the sake of the motherland. They do not talk about the fact that Koxinga was trying to get rid of the mainland government, to bring back an earlier dynasty.

References


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