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City of Kingston upon Hull
—  City and Unitary Authority area  —
The Queen's Gardens, City Hall and Maritime Museum in Kingston upon Hull city centre

Logo
Hull shown within England
The unitary authorities of the Ceremonial East Riding.
1. East Riding of Yorkshire (Unitary)

2. Kingston upon Hull (Unitary)

Coordinates: 53°45′N 0°20′W / 53.75°N 0.333°W / 53.75; -0.333
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region Yorkshire and the Humber
Ceremonial county East Riding of Yorkshire
Admin HQ Kingston upon Hull
Founded 12th century
City Status 1897
Government
 - Type Unitary authority, City
 - Governing body Hull City Council
 - Leadership: Leader & Cabinet
 - Executive: Liberal Democrat
 - MPs: Alan Johnson (L)
Diana Johnson (L)
John Prescott (L)
Area
 - City and Unitary Authority area 27.6 sq mi (71.45 km2)
Population (2008 est.)
 - City and Unitary Authority area 258,700 (Ranked 41st)
 Density 9,028.7/sq mi (3,486/km2)
 Urban 573,300 (LUZ)
 - Ethnicity
(2005 Estimate)[1]
94.9% White
1.8% S. Asian
1.0% Black
1.0% Mixed Race
1.3% Chinese and other
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)
Postcode Area HU
Area code(s) (01482)
ISO 3166-2 GB-KHL
ONS code 00FA
Website www.hull.gov.uk

Kingston upon Hull (pronounced /ˌkɪŋstən əpɒn ˈhʌl/ ( listen), or locally [ˌkɪŋkstən əpɒn ˈhʊl]), almost invariably referred to as Hull, is a city and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.[2] It is located 25 miles (40 km) from the North Sea on the River Hull at its junction with the Humber estuary.[2] Hull has a resident population of 258,700 (2008 est.). Renamed Kings town upon Hull by King Edward I in 1299, the town and city of Hull has served as market town,[3] military supply port,[4] trading hub,[5] fishing and whaling centre,[4] and industrial metropolis.[4]

Hull was an early theatre of battle in the English Civil Wars.[5] Through its celebrated 18th century Member of Parliament, William Wilberforce, the city was the backdrop to events leading to the abolition of the slave trade in Britain.[6]

The city is unique in the United Kingdom in having had a municipally owned telephone system from 1902, sporting cream, not red, telephone boxes. After suffering heavy damage during the Second World War,[5] Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline,[7] during which the city gained unfavourable results on measures of social deprivation, education and policing. However, the city has embarked on an extensive programme of economic regeneration and renewal.[8]

Culturally, Hull has been the base for several notable poets including Philip Larkin, many of whose poems were set in the city. A range of both classical and popular musical experiences are available, and the various museums offer a glimpse of the scope of Hull's history and development. These, along with a lively night life and popular arts festivals, attract visitors from a wide area.

Spectator sporting activities include professional football and two rugby league clubs. There are many amateur sports clubs located in the city offering a wide range of participatory opportunities.

The University of Hull and the Hull York Medical School are situated in the city. In keeping with the maritime history of Hull, the long established Hull Trinity House School offers training to mariners.

The local accent differs markedly in its vowel sounds from that in the rest of the Yorkshire region and the rhythm of speech bears a similarity to that of Lincolnshire to which it was linked in the defunct county of Humberside.

Contents

History

Kingston upon Hull is situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary at the mouth of its tributary, the River Hull. The valley of the River Hull has been inhabited since the early Neolithic period but there is little evidence for a substantial settlement in the area where the town of Kingston upon Hull was sited.[9] The situation was attractive to its early developers because of its ability to give access to a prosperous hinterland and navigable rivers, but the actual site was not as good as it was remote and low lying with no fresh water. It was originally an outlying part of the hamlet of Myton when, in the late 12th century, it was chosen by the monks of Meaux Abbey to develop as a new town which they named Wyke upon Hull after John Wyke, Archbishop of York.[10] The locals flatly refused to call their town Wyke, and used Hull, the name of the river, instead.

The River Hull was a good haven for shipping whose main trade was in the export of wool from the abbey. In 1293 the town was acquired from the abbey by King Edward I, who later granted a royal charter, dated 1 April 1299, that renamed the settlement King's town upon Hull, or Kingston upon Hull. The charter remains preserved in the archives of the city's Guildhall.[5] In 1440, a further charter incorporated the town and instituted local government consisting of a mayor, a sheriff, and twelve aldermen.[5]

In his Guide to Hull (1817), J.C. Craggs provides a colourful background to Edward's acquisition and naming of the town. He writes that the King and a hunting party started a hare which "led them along the delightful banks of the River Hull to the hamlet of Wyke … [Edward], charmed with the scene before him, viewed with delight the advantageous situation of this hitherto neglected and obscure corner. He foresaw it might become subservient both to render the kingdom more secure against foreign invasion, and at the same time greatly to enforce its commerce". Pursuant to these thoughts, Craggs continues, Edward purchased the land from the Abbot of Meaux, had built for himself a manor hall, issued proclamations encouraging development within the town, and bestowed upon it the royal appellation, King's Town.[11]

The port served as a base for Edward I during the First War of Scottish Independence and later developed into the foremost port on the east coast of England. It prospered by exporting wool and woollen cloth and importing wine. Hull also established a flourishing commerce with the Baltic ports as part of the Hanseatic League.[10]

From its medieval beginnings, Hull’s main trading links were with Scotland and northern Europe. Scandinavia, the Baltic and the Low Countries were all key trading areas for Hull’s merchants. In addition, there was trade with France, Spain and Portugal. As sail power gave way to steam, Hull’s trading links extended throughout the world. Docks such as Alexandra Dock were opened to serve the frozen meat trade of Australia, New Zealand and South America. Hull was also the centre a thriving inland and coastal trading network, serving the whole of the United Kingdom.[12]

Sir William de la Pole was the town's first mayor.[13] A prosperous merchant, de la Pole founded a family that became prominent in government.[5] Another successful son of a Hull trading family was bishop John Alcock, who founded Cambridge University's Jesus College and was a patron of the grammar school in Hull.[5] The increase in trade after the discovery of the Americas and the town's maritime connections are thought to have played a part in the introduction of a virulent strain of syphilis through Hull and on into Europe from the New World.[14] The town prospered during the 16th and early 17th centuries[5] and Hull's affluence at this time is preserved in the form of several well-maintained buildings from the period, including Wilberforce House, now a museum documenting the life of William Wilberforce.[5]

Hull in 1866

During the English Civil War, Hull became strategically important because of the large arsenal located there. Very early in the war, on 11 January 1642, the king named the Earl of Newcastle as governor of Hull while Parliament nominated Sir John Hotham and asked his son, Captain John Hotham, to secure the town at once.[5] Sir John Hotham and Hull corporation declared support for Parliament and denied Charles I entry into the town.[5] Charles I responded to these events by besieging the town.[5] This siege helped precipitate open conflict between the forces of Parliament and those of the Royalists.[5]

Throughout the second half of the nineteenth century and leading up to the first World War, The Port of Hull played a major role in the transmigration of Northern European settlers to the New World, with thousands of emigrants sailing to the city and stopping for administrative purposes before travelling on to Liverpool and then North America.[15]

Whaling played a major role in the town's fortunes until the mid-19th century.[5] Hull's prosperity peaked in the decades just before the First World War; it was during this time that city status was granted in 1897.[4] After the decline of the whaling industry, emphasis shifted to deep sea trawling until the Anglo-Icelandic Cod War of 1975–1976. The conditions set at the end of this dispute initiated Hull's economic decline.[5]

Hull Blitz

The city's port and industrial facilities, coupled with its proximity to mainland Europe and ease of location being on a major estuary, led to extremely widespread damage by bombing raids during World War II; much of the city centre was completely destroyed.[5] Hull had 95% of its houses damaged or destroyed, making it the most severely-bombed British city or town, apart from London, during World War II.[16]

Of a population of approximately 320,000 at the beginning of World War II, approximately 192,000 were made homeless as a result of bomb destruction or damage. The worst of the bombing occurred during 1941. Little was known about this destruction by the rest of the country at the time since most of the radio and newspaper reports did not reveal Hull by name but referred to it as a "North-East" town or "northern coastal town".[17] Most of the city centre was rebuilt in the years following the war, but as recently as 2006 researchers found documents in the local archives that suggested an unexploded wartime bomb may be buried beneath a major new redevelopment, The Boom, in Hull.[18][19]

Governance

The Guildhall

Following the Local Government Act 1888, Hull became a county borough, a local government district independent of the East Riding of Yorkshire. This district was dissolved under the Local Government Act 1972, on 1 April 1974 when it became a non-metropolitan district of the newly created shire county of Humberside. Humberside (and its county council) was abolished on 1 April 1996 and Hull was made a unitary authority area.[20][21]

The single-tier local authority of the city is now Hull City Council, headquartered in the Guildhall in the city centre.[22] The council was designated as the UK's worst performing authority in both 2004 and 2005, but in 2006 was rated as a two star 'improving adequate' council and in 2007 it retained its two stars with an 'improving well' status.[23][24][25][26] In the 2008 corporate performance assessment the city retained its "improving well" status but was upgraded to a three star rating.[27]

The Liberal Democrats won overall control of the City Council in the 2007 local elections, ending several years where no single party had a majority.[28] They retained control in the 2008 local elections by an increased majority.[29]

The city returns three Members of Parliament to the House of Commons and at the last general election, in 2005, elected three Labour MPs: Alan Johnson who was appointed Home Secretary on 5 June 2009,[30] Diana Johnson and John Prescott who was the Deputy Prime Minister until his resignation on 27 June 2007.[31] William Wilberforce is the most celebrated of Hull's former MPs. He was a native of the city and the member for Hull from 1780 to 1784 when he was elected as an Independent member for Yorkshire.[32][33] It lies within the Yorkshire and the Humber constituency of the European Parliament, which in the June 2009 European Election elected two Conservative, one Labour, one UKIP, one Liberal Democrat and one British National Party MEPs.[34] Though in March 2010 one of the elected Conservative MEPs transferred to the Liberal Democrats.[35]

Panorama of Hull from the north bank of the Humber near Paull, with the Yorkshire Wolds rising behind the city

Hull is the only city and forms the major urban area in the official government defined Hull and Humber Ports City Region

Geography

The River Hull tidal barrier is situated at the end of the River Hull where it meets the Humber.

At 53°44′30″N 0°20′0″W / 53.74167°N 0.333333°W / 53.74167; -0.333333, 154 miles (248 km) north of London, Kingston upon Hull is near the east coast of the United Kingdom, on the northern bank of the Humber estuary.[2] The city centre is west of the River Hull and close to the Humber.[2] The city is built upon alluvial and glacial deposits which overlie chalk rocks but the underlying chalk has no influence on the topography. The land within the city is generally very flat and is only 2 to 4 metres (6.5 to 13 ft) above sea level. Because of the relative flatness of the site there are few physical constraints upon building and many open areas are the subject of pressures to build.[36] The parishes of Drypool, Marfleet,Sculcoates, and most of Sutton parish, were absorbed within the borough of Hull in the 19th and 20th centuries. Much of their area has been built over, and socially and economically they have long been inseparable from the city. Sutton alone retained a recognisable village centre in the late 20th century, but on the south and east the advancing suburbs had already reached it. The four villages were, nevertheless, distinct communities, of a largely rural character, until their absorption in the borough—Drypool and Sculcoates in 1837, Marfleet in 1882, and Sutton in 1929.[37] The current boundaries of the city are tightly drawn and exclude many of the metropolitan area's nearby villages, of which Cottingham is the largest.[38] The city is surrounded by the rural East Riding of Yorkshire.

The expansion of Kingston upon Hull

Some areas of Hull lie on reclaimed land at or below sea level. The Hull Tidal Surge Barrier is at the point where the River Hull joins the Humber estuary and is lowered at times when unusually high tides are expected. It is used between 8 and 12 times per year and protects the homes of approximately 10,000 people from flooding.[39] Due to its low level, Hull is expected to be at increasing levels of risk from flooding due to global warming.[40]

Hull was hit particularly hard by the June 2007 United Kingdom floods because of the local topography which resulted in standing water over a wide area.

Holy Trinity Church, Hull

Unlike many other English cities, Hull has no cathedral. It is in the Diocese of York and has a Suffragan bishop. However, Hull's Holy Trinity Church is the largest parish church in England when floor area is the measurement for comparison. The church dates to about 1300[41] and contains what is widely acknowledged to be some of the finest mediæval brick-work in the country, particularly in the transepts.

Hull forms part of the Southern Vicariate of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough[42] and included among Hull's Catholic churches is St Charles Borromeo, the oldest post-reformation Catholic Church in the city.[43] There are several seamen's missions and churches in Hull. The Mission to Seafarers has a centre at West King George Dock [44] and the St Nikolaj Danish Seamen's Church is located in Osborne Street.[45]

Located in Northern England, Hull has a temperate maritime climate which is dominated by the passage of mid-latitude depressions. The weather is very changeable from day to day and the warming influence of the Gulf Stream makes the region mild for its latitude. Rain falls on about 109 days of the year giving an average total annual rainfall of 565 millimetres (22 in). January is usually the coldest month and November the wettest. The warmest month is August and the driest is February.[46]

Climate data for Cleethorpes (The nearest weather station to Kingston upon Hull at 20 miles (32 km) to the south east.)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.9
(44)
7.3
(45)
9.5
(49)
11.4
(53)
14.6
(58)
17.7
(64)
20.1
(68)
20.2
(68)
17.7
(64)
14.0
(57)
9.9
(50)
7.8
(46)
13.1
(56)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(35)
1.7
(35)
3.1
(38)
4.6
(40)
6.9
(44)
9.7
(49)
12.2
(54)
12.2
(54)
10.4
(51)
7.4
(45)
4.1
(39)
2.4
(36)
6.4
(44)
Precipitation mm (inches) 50.7
(2)
38.3
(1.51)
45.6
(1.8)
42.4
(1.67)
43.5
(1.71)
50
(1.97)
38.4
(1.51)
48.7
(1.92)
52.1
(2.05)
46.5
(1.83)
57.2
(2.25)
52.0
(2.05)
565.4
(22.26)
Sunshine hours 61.1 75.7 105.4 146.1 201.1 183.3 200 187.9 138.6 104.2 69.3 49.3 1,521.9
Source: [47] 2008-06-07

At around 00:56 GMT on 27 February 2008, Hull was 30 miles (48 km) north of the epicentre of an earthquake measuring 5.3 on the Richter Scale which lasted for nearly 10 seconds. This was an unusually large earthquake for this part of the world.[48]

Demography

According to the 2001 UK census, Hull had a population of 243,589 living in 104,288 households. The population density was 34.1 per hectare.[49] Of the total number of homes 47.85% were rented compared with a national figure of 31.38% rented.[50] The population had declined by 7.5% since the 1991 UK census,[49] and has been officially estimated as 256,200 in July 2006.[51]

In 2001 approximately 53,000 people were aged under 16, 174,000 were aged 16–74, and 17,000 aged 75 and over.[49] Of the total population 97.7% were white and the largest minority ethnic group was of 749 people who considered themselves to be ethnically Chinese. There were 3% of people living in Hull who were born outside the United Kingdom.[49][52] In 2006 the largest minority ethnic grouping was Iraqi Kurds who were estimated at 3,000. Most of these people were placed in the city by the Home Office while their applications for asylum were being processed.[53] With regard to religious diversity, in 2001, the city was 71.7% Christian. A further 18% of the population indicated they were of no religion while 8.4% did not specify any religious affiliation.[49] In 2001, the city had the lowest church attendance in the United Kingdom.[54]

Also in 2001, the city had a high proportion, at 6.2%, of people of working age who were unemployed ranking 354th out of 376 local and unitary authorities within England and Wales.[49] The distance travelled to work was less than 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) for 64,578 out of 95,957 employed people. A further 18,031 travelled between 5 and 10 kilometres (3.1 and 6.2 mi) to their place of employment. The number of people using public transport to get to work was 12,915 while the number travelling by car was 53,443.[49]

Population growth in Kingston upon Hull since 1801
Year 1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941[a] 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001[b]
Population 21,280 28,040 33,393 40,902 57,342 57,484 93,955 130,426 166,896 199,134 236,772 281,525 295,017 309,158 302,074 295,172 289,716 284,365 266,751 266,180 243,595
Source: Vision of Britain Through Time[55]

Economy

The economy of Hull was built on seafaring and although the fishing industry is in decline the city remains a very busy port, handling 13 million tonnes of cargo per year.[56] Freight handling at the port is projected to rise following Network Rail oversight of a £14.5 million investment in the rail link, which was completed in mid-2008. This was projected to increase its capacity from 10 trains per day to 22.[57][58] The port operations run by Associated British Ports and other companies in the port, employ 5,000 people. A further 18,000 are employed as a direct result of the port's activities.[59] The port area of the city has diversified to compensate for the decline in fishing by the introduction of Roll-on Roll-off ferry services to the continent of Europe. These ferries now handle over a million passengers each year.[60] Hull has exploited the leisure industry by creating a marina from the old Humber Street Dock in the centre of the city. It opened in 1983 and has 270 berths for yachts and small sailing craft.[61]

Prince's Quay Shopping Centre built over Prince's Dock

Industry in the city is focused on the chemical and health care sectors. Several well-known British companies, including BP, Smith & Nephew, Seven Seas, and Reckitt Benckiser, have facilities in Hull.[62] The health care sector is further enhanced by the research facilities provided by the University of Hull through the Institute of Woundcare and the Hull York Medical School partnerships.[63]

As the biggest settlement in the East Riding of Yorkshire and the local transport hub, Hull is a natural focus for retail shoppers and areas of Hull are undergoing regeneration to encourage retailing and commercial development. These areas include the Quay West and St. Stephen's projects.

At a cost of £300 million Quay West, which is being built on brownfield land and due for completion in 2013, will provide an open air expansion of the existing Princes Quay shopping centre by providing another 60 shops, two new department stores and other leisure facilities.[64][65] Princes Quay, which is built on stilts in the former Prince's Dock already includes a new Vue cinema which opened on 21 December 2007 and is the first fully digital cinema in Europe.[66]

St. Stephen's is a new shopping centre built on the site of the old bus station. It is a 52,000-square-metre (560,000 sq ft) scheme, costing over £160 million. It is anchored by a 24-hour superstore and provides shop units, residential areas and car parking. Adjacent to it is a transport interchange, which includes a new bus station and renovated railway station. Stores leasing area in St Stephen's include Zara, Cult, Topshop, Oasis, H&M, Next, New Look, Pumpkin Patch, Starbucks Jane Norman, Build-A-Bear Workshop and Tesco Extra. A more recent addition to the centre is USC.[67]

One Humber Quays, home to the World Trade Centre Hull & Humber

Overlooking the Humber, the new £165 million Humber Quays development, has now gained World Trade Centre status,[68] is adding new high quality office space to Hull's waterfront. Phase 1 of the project includes two office buildings (both complete), and 51 new apartments.[69] Phase 2 will include a new 200-bedroom 4-star hotel, a restaurant, plus more high quality office space.[70]

The east bank of the River Hull will see a £100 million residential development connected to Hull's old town. This development called the Boom will include over 600 luxury riverside apartments, shops, boutiques, bistro cafés, a 120-bed luxury hotel, plus health and education facilities.[71] Linking the development to the city centre started in September 2009 with the construction of a swing footbridge across the River Hull which is described as an "iconic" addition to Hull's skyline.[72][73] The 50-stall indoor Edwardian Trinity Market, a grade II listed building, has also been renovated.[74][75] Businesses in Hull deliver an annual turnover of almost £8 billion and over 5 million annual visitors contribute almost £210 million to Hull’s economy.[76]

In 2003, the city established a Youth Enterprise Partnership to help to support enterprising young people. Teams from Hull, which were formed under this partnership have reached the National Finals of the Young Enterprise competition, and two teams have continued to the European Finals. The city has also established the John Cracknell Youth Enterprise Bank to give financial support to qualifying individuals.[77]

Culture

The Deep at night

Hull's Museum Quarter, on the High Street in the heart of the Old Town, consists of Wilberforce House, the Arctic Corsair, the Hull and East Riding Museum (which contains the Hasholme Logboat - Britain's largest surviving prehistoric logboat[78]), and the Streetlife Museum of Transport.[79] Other museums and visitor attractions include the Ferens Art Gallery, the Maritime Museum, the Spurn Lightship,[79] the Yorkshire Water Museum,[80] and the Deep, the world's only submarium.[81] The Fish Trail leads its followers through old and new sections of the city, following a wide variety of sealife engraved in the pavement.[82]

The city has three main theatres. Hull New Theatre, which opened in 1939,[83] is the largest venue which features musicals, opera, ballet, drama, children's shows and pantomime.[84] The Hull Truck Theatre is a smaller independent theatre, established in 1971,[85] that regularly features plays, notably those written by John Godber.[86] From 23 April 2009 the Hull Truck Theatre has a new £14.5 million, 440 seat venue in the St Stephen's development.[87][88][89] The Northern Theatre Company, established in 1975, is also based in the city.

Hull New Theatre

Hull has attracted the attention of poets to the extent that the Australian author Peter Porter has described it as "the most poetic city in England".[90] Philip Larkin set many of his poems in Hull; these include "The Whitsun Weddings", "Toads", and "Here".[91] Scottish-born Douglas Dunn's Terry Street, a portrait of working-class Hull life, is one the outstanding poetry collections of the 1970s.[92] Dunn forged close associations with such Hull poets as Peter Didsbury and Sean O'Brien; the works of some of these writers appear in the 1982 Bloodaxe anthology A Rumoured City, a work that Dunn edited.[93] Andrew Motion, past Poet Laureate, lectured at the University of Hull between 1976 and 1981,[94] and Roger McGough studied there.[95] Contemporary poets associated with Hull are Maggie Hannan,[96] David Wheatley,[97] and Caitriona O'Reilly.[98]

17th century Metaphysical Poet and parliamentarian Andrew Marvell was born nearby, grew up and was educated in the city.[99][100] There is a statue in his honour in Trinity Square, set against the backdrop of his alma mater Hull Grammar School.

Artist and Royal Academician David Remfry grew up in Hull and studied at the Hull College of Art (now part of Lincoln University) from 1959–64.[101] Remfry has had two solo exhibitions at the Ferens Art Gallery in 1975 and 2005.

In the field of classical music, Hull is home to Hull Sinfonietta, the largest professional chamber ensemble in the Humber region,[102] and also the Hull Philharmonic Orchestra, one of the oldest amateur orchestras in the country.[103] The Hull Philharmonic Youth Orchestra, established in 1952,[104] the Hull Choral Union, the Hull Bach Choir - which specialises in the performance of 17th and 18th century choral music, the Hull Male Voice Choir, the Arterian Singers and two Gilbert & Sullivan Societies: the Dagger Lane Operatic Society and the Hull Savoyards are also based in Hull. There are two brass bands, the East Yorkshire Motor Services Band, who are the current North of England Area Brass Band Champions,[105][106] and East Riding of Yorkshire Band.[107]

Hull City Hall annually plays host to major British and European symphony Orchestras with its 'International Masters' orchestral concert season.[108] During the 2009–10 season visiting orchestra's included the St Petersburg Symphony Orchestra and the Czech National Symphony Orchestra.[109] Internationally renowned touring pop, rock, and comedy acts also regularly play the City Hall.[108]

Newland Avenue looking north

On the popular music scene, in the 1960s, Mick Ronson of the Hull band Rats worked closely with David Bowie and was heavily involved in production of the album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars.[110] Ronson later went on to record with Lou Reed, Bob Dylan, Morrissey and The Wildhearts.[110] There is a Mick Ronson Memorial Stage in Queen's Gardens in Hull.[111] In the 1980s, Hull groups such as The Red Guitars, The Housemartins and Everything But the Girl found mainstream success.[112] Paul Heaton, former member of The Housemartins went on to front The Beautiful South.[113] Another former member of The Housemartins, Norman Cook, now performs as Fatboy Slim.[114] In 1983, Hull-born Paul Anthony Cook, Stuart Matthewman and Paul Spencer Denman formed the group Sade. In 1984, the singer Helen Adu signed to CBS and the group released the album Diamond Life. The album went Triple Platinum in the UK.[115] Vocalist and actor Roland Gift, who formed the Fine Young Cannibals, grew up in Hull.[116] The pioneering industrial band Throbbing Gristle formed in Hull; Genesis P-Orridge (Neil Megson) attended Hull Universty between 1978 and 1979, where he met Cosey Fanni Tutti (Christine Newby), who was born in the city, and first became part of the provocative Hull performance art group COUM Transmissions in 1970.[117][118][119] The record label Pork Recordings started in Hull in the mid-1990s and has released music by Fila Brazillia,[120] Mr Beasley and The Brilliance among others. The Sesh night has released four DIY compilations featuring the cream of Hull's live music scene and there are currently a few labels emerging in the city, including Purple Worm Records[121] and Empire. The Adelphi is a popular local venue for alternative live music in the city, and has achieved notability outside Hull, having hosted such bands as The Stone Roses, Radiohead, Green Day, and Oasis in its history,[122] while the Springhead caters to a variety of bands and has been recognised nationally as a Live Music Pub of the Year.[123]

Humber Quays during Freedom 2009

The nightlife of Hull attracts people from outlying areas as well as inhabitants of the city. It has the concentration of pubs and bars expected of any large city in contemporary Britain. The drinking culture in the city centre tends towards late bars while the wine bars and pubs around Hull University and its accommodation area are popular with students. In particular, the areas around Newland Avenue and Prince's Avenue have seen a rapid expansion in continental style bars and cafes encouraged by the redesign of the street layout.[124] The city is host to a number of festivals and events. The Humber Mouth literature festival is an annual event and in the 2008 season featured writers such as Yasmin Alibhai-Brown, Lisa Appignanesi, Jonathan Miller, Christopher Reid and Janet Street-Porter.[125] The annual Hull Jazz Festival takes place around the Marina area for a week at the beginning of August.[126] This is followed, in early September, by the Sea Fever Festival, an International Sea Shanty Festival.[127]

As of 2008 Hull has also held Freedom Festival; an annual free arts and live music event that celebrates freedom in all its forms.[128]

Picture of Hull Fair taken from the top of the Big Wheel, 2006

Early October sees the arrival of Hull Fair which is one of Europe's largest travelling funfairs and takes place on land adjacent to the KC Stadium.[129]

The Hull Global Food Festival held its third annual event in the city's Queen Victoria Square for three days – 4 September–6 September 2009.[130] According to officials, the event in 2007 attracted 125,000 visitors and brought some £5 million in revenue to the area.[131] In 2007 the Hull Metalfest began in the Welly Club,[132] it featured Major Label bands hailing from the United States, Canada and Italy, as well as the UK. The first Hull Comedy Festival, which included performers such as Stewart Lee and Russell Howard was held in 2007 and it is anticipated that this too will become an annual festival.[133]

Media

The BBC building in Hull

Hull's only local daily newspaper is the Hull Daily Mail, a free paper 'The Hull Advertiser' is published once a week by the same publisher. Local listings and what's-on guides include Tenfoot City Magazine and Sandman Magazine. The BBC has its new Yorkshire and Lincolnshire regional headquarters at Queen's Gardens,[134] from which the regional news programme Look North is broadcast. Radio services come from BBC Radio Humberside, Viking FM, KCFM, Magic 1161, 106.9FM WHCR, Hull University Union's Jam 1575, and Kingstown Radio, the hospital-based radio station, which all broadcast to the city.[135]

Sport

The Hull area has available a wide range of both spectator and participatory sporting clubs and organisations. These are as various as professional football, rugby league, golf, darts, athletics and pigeon racing.[136]

The city's professional football club, Hull City (The Tigers), play in the Premier League, the top tier of the English football league system, having been promoted in the 2007–08 season.[137] The team play at the Kingston Communications Stadium.

Hull is also a rugby league hub, having two clubs who play in the engage Super League competition. Hull, along side the city's football club Hull City, play at the Kingston Communications Stadium[138] while Hull Kingston Rovers play at Craven Park in East Hull.[139] There are also several lower league teams in the city, such as East Hull, West Hull, Hull Dockers and Hull Isberg, who all play in the National Conference League.[140] Rugby union is catered for by Hull Ionians who play at Brantingham Park.[141]

The city has two athletics clubs based at the Costello Stadium in the west of the city—Kingston upon Hull Athletics Club and Hull Achilies Athletics Club.

Cycling wise the city is home to Hull Cycle Speedway Club situated at the Hessle raceway near the Humber bridge. The side race in the sports Northern league and won both the league titles in 2008.[142] Other cycling clubs also operate throughout the city including Hull Thursday, the areas road racing group.

The city also has Hull Arena,[143] a large ice rink and concert venue, which is home to the Hull Stingrays ice hockey team who play in the Elite Ice Hockey League.[143] It is also home to the Kingston Kestrels sledge hockey team.[144]

New to the city is the Hull Hornets American Football Club which acquired full member status of the British American Football League on 5 November 2006 and played in the BAFL Division 2 Central league for 2007. Greyhound racing returned to the city on 25 October 2007 when The Boulevard stadium re-opened as a venue for the sport.[145] In mid-2006 Hull was home to the professional wrestling company One Pro Wrestling, which held the Devils Due event on 27 July in the Gemtec Arena.[146]

The city plays host to the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race, a tough 35,000 miles (56,000 km) race around the globe, for the 2009–10 race which started on 13 September 2009 and finishes in July 2010.[147][148] The locally named yacht, Hull and Humber, captained by Danny Watson, achieved second place in the 2007–2008 race.[149]

Transport and infrastructure

The Humber Bridge from the south bank

The main road route into and out of Hull is the M62 motorway/A63 road, which is one of the main east–west routes in northern England.[150] It provides a link to the cities of Liverpool, Manchester and Leeds as well as the rest of the country via the UK motorway network. The motorway itself ends some distance from the city; the rest of the route is along the A63 dual carriageway. This east–west route forms a small part of the European road route E20.[151]

Hull is close to the Humber Bridge, which provides road links to destinations south of the Humber. This toll bridge was constructed between 1972 and 1981 and at the time it was built it was the longest single-span suspension bridge in the world. It is now fifth on the list.

Prior to the construction of the bridge those wishing to cross the Humber could either take a ferry or travel inland as far as Goole.[152]

Public transport within the city is provided by two main bus operators: Stagecoach in Hull and East Yorkshire Motor Services. A smaller operator, Alpha Bus and Coach, provides one of the two Park and Ride services in the city and CT Plus the other, having taken over the contract in November 2009 from East Yorkshire Motor Services.[153] Generally, routes within the city are operated by Stagecoach and those which leave the city are operated by EYMS.[154][155]

Hull Paragon Interchange, opened on 16 September 2007,[156] is the city's transport hub, combining the main bus and rail termini in an integrated complex. It is expected to have 24,000 people passing through the complex each day.[157] From the railway terminus, services run to the rest of the UK, including direct services to London, provided by First Hull Trains.

The Pride of Rotterdam ferry operates from Hull to Rotterdam

P&O Ferries provide daily overnight ferry services from King George Dock in Hull to Zeebrugge and Rotterdam.[158][159] Services to Rotterdam are worked by ferries Pride of Rotterdam and Pride of Hull, the largest ferries operating from the United Kingdom.

The nearest airport is Humberside Airport which is 20 miles (32 km) away in Lincolnshire, this mostly provides charter flights but it also has four KLM scheduled flights to Amsterdam and Aberdeen each day. Robin Hood Airport in South Yorkshire is 48 miles (77 km) from the city centre and provides low cost flights to many European destinations.[160]

Road transport in Hull suffers from delays caused both by the many bridges over the navigable River Hull which bisects the city and which can cause disruption at busy times, and from the remaining three level crossings in the city. The level crossing problem was greatly relieved during the 1960s by the closure of the Hornsea and Withernsea branch lines, the transfer of all goods traffic to the high level line that circles the city,[161] and by the construction of two major road bridges on Hessle Road (1962) and Anlaby Road (1964).

Telephone system

A Hull K6 telephone box

Hull is the only city in the UK with its own independent telephone network company, Kingston Communications. Its distinctive cream telephone boxes can be seen across the city. The company was formed in 1902 as a municipal department by the City Council and is an early example of municipal enterprise. It remains the only locally operated telephone company in the UK, although it is now privatised.[162] Initially Hull City Council retained a 44.9 per cent interest in the company and used the proceeds from the sale of shares to fund the city's sports venue, the KC Stadium, among other things.[163] On 24 May 2007 they sold their remaining stake in the company for over £107 million.[164]

Kingston Communications was one of the first telecoms operators in Europe to offer ADSL to business users, and the first in the world to run an interactive television service using ADSL, known as Kingston Interactive TV (KiT), which has since been discontinued due to cost, technical problems and user dissatisfaction.[165] In recent years, Kingston Communications, despite being a virtual monopoly within Hull itself, has expanded and diversified its service portfolio to become a nationwide provider of telephone, television, and Internet access services, having close to 180,000 customers projected for 2007.[166]

Public services

Policing in Kingston upon Hull is undertaken by Humberside Police. In October 2006 the force was named (jointly with Northamptonshire Police) as the worst performing police force in the United Kingdom, based on data released from the Home Office.[167] However, after a year of "major improvements", the Home Office list released in October 2007 shows the force rising several places (although still among the bottom six of 43 forces rated). Humberside Police received ratings of "good" or "fair" in most categories.[168]

HM Prison Hull is located in the city and is operated by HM Prison Service. It caters for up to 1,000 Category B/C adult male prisoners.[169]

Statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the Humberside Fire and Rescue Service, which has its headquarters near Hessle and five fire stations in Hull. This service was formed in 1974 following local government reorganisation from the amalgamation of the East Riding of Yorkshire County Fire Service, Grimsby Borough Fire and Rescue Service, Kingston Upon Hull City Fire Brigade and part of the Lincoln (Lindsey) Fire Brigade and a small part of the West Riding of Yorkshire County Fire and Rescue Service.[170]

Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust provides healthcare from three sites, Hull Royal Infirmary, Castle Hill Hospital and Princess Royal Hospital[171] and there are several private hospitals including ones run by BUPA and Nuffield Hospitals.[172] The Yorkshire Ambulance Service provides emergency patient transport.[173] Other forms of health care are provided for locally by Hull NHS Primary Care Trust at several smaller clinics and general practitioner surgeries.[174] Waste management is co-ordinated by the local authority. The Waste Recycling Group is a company which works in partnership with the Hull City and East Riding of Yorkshire councils to deal with the waste produced by residents.[175] The company plans to build an energy from waste plant at Salt End to deal with 240,000 tonnes of rubbish and put waste to a productive use by providing power for the equivalent of 20,000 houses.[176] Hull's Distribution Network Operator for electricity is CE Electric UK (YEDL); there are no power stations in the city. Yorkshire water manages Hull's drinking and waste water. Drinking water is abstracted from the River Derwent[177] at Elvington and moved to Hull via the Yorkshire water grid. Waste water and sewage has to be transported in a wholly pumped system because of the flat nature of the terrain to a sewage treatment works at Salt End which is powered by a wind turbine.

Education

The Venn Building, part of the University of Hull

Kingston upon Hull is home to the University of Hull, which was founded in 1927 and received its Royal Charter in 1954. It has a student population of 16,000.[178] Associated with the university is the Hull York Medical School, which took its first intake of students in 2003 as a part of the British government's attempts to train more doctors.[179]

The University of Lincoln grew out of the University of Humberside, a former polytechnic, which was based in Hull. In the 1990s the focus of the institution moved to nearby Lincoln and the administrative headquarters and management moved in 2001.[180] The University of Lincoln still retains a small campus in Hull city centre.[181]

The Hull School of Art, founded in 1861, is regarded nationally and internationally for its excellence as a specialist creative centre for higher education.[182]

The Northern Academy of Performing Arts[183] and Northern Theatre School[184] both provide education in musical theatre, performance and dance.

Hull has over 100 local schools; of these, Hull City Council supports 14 secondary and 71 primary schools.[185] One of these, St Mary's Sports College, is a Roman Catholic secondary school.[186] Schools which are independent of the City Council include Hymers College[187] and Hull Collegiate School. The latter, which is run by the United Church Schools Trust, was formed by the merging of Hull Grammar School and Hull High School.[188] There is a further education college, Hull College,[189] and two large sixth form colleges, Wyke College[190] and Wilberforce College.[191] East Riding College operates a small adult education campus in the city,[192] and Hull Trinity House School has been offering pre-sea training to prospective mariners since 1787.[193] There are only two single sex schools in Hull: Trinity House, which teaches only boys, and Newland School For Girls.

The city has had a poor examination success rate for many years and is often at the bottom of government GCSE league tables.[194][195] In the 2007 the city moved off the bottom of these tables for pupils who achieve five A* to C grades, including English and Maths, at General Certificate of Secondary Education by just one place when it came 149th out of 150 local education authorities. However, the improvement rate of 4.1 per cent, from 25.9 per cent in 2006 to 30 per cent in summer 2007, was among the best in the country.[196] They returned to the bottom of the table in 2008 when 29.3 per cent achieved five A* to C grades which is well below the national average of 47.2 per cent.[197]

Dialect and accent

The local accent is quite distinctive and noticeably different from the rest of the East Riding; however it is still categorised among Yorkshire accents. The most notable feature of the accent is the strong I-mutation[198] in words like goat, which is [ˈɡəʊt] in standard English and [ˈɡoːt] across most of Yorkshire, becomes [ˈɡɵːt] ("geuht") in and around parts of Hull, although there is variation across areas and generations.[199]

View of Pearson Park

In common with much of England (outside of the far north), another feature is dropping the H from the start of words, for example Hull is more often pronounced 'Ull in the city. The vowel in "Hull" is pronounced the same way as in northern English, however, and not as the very short /ʊ/ that exists in Lincolnshire. Though the rhythm of the accent is more like that of northern Lincolnshire than that of the rural East Riding, which is perhaps due to migration from Lincolnshire to the city during its industrial growth. One feature that it does share with the surrounding rural area is that an /aɪ/ sound in the middle of a word often becomes an /ɑː/: for example, "five" may sound like "fahve", "time" like "tahme", etc. "Guide" and "guard" for example are therefore homophones.[200]

The vowel sound in words such as burnt, nurse, first is pronounced with an /ɛ/ sound, as is also heard in Middlesbrough and in areas of Liverpool yet this sound is very uncommon in most of Yorkshire. The word pairs spur/spare and fur/fair illustrate this.[201] The generational and/or geographic variation can be heard in word pairs like pork/poke or cork/coke, or hall/hole, which some people pronounce identically while others make a distinction; anyone called "Paul" (for example) soon becomes aware of this (Paul/pole).[199][202]

Notable people

The Wilberforce Monument as seen from the Queen's Gardens
Most of the notable people associated with the city can be found in the People from Kingston upon Hull and People associated with the University of Hull categories.

People from Hull are called "Hullensians"[203] and the city has been the birthplace and home to many notable people. Among the most notable persons of historic significance with a connection to Hull are William Wilberforce who was instrumental in the abolition of slavery[32] and Amy Johnson, aviator who was the first person to fly solo from England to Australia.[204] Notable entertainers from the city include actor John Alderton[205] and actress Maureen Lipman.[206] Playwrights Richard Bean, John Godber and Alan Plater have close connections with Hull.[86][207][208] Musicians include Paul Heaton of the Housemartins and The Beautiful South[113] and guitarist Mick Ronson who worked with David Bowie.[209] Notable sportspeople include Clive Sullivan, rugby league player, who played for both of Hull's professional rugby league teams and was the first black Briton to captain any national representative team.[210] The main A63 road into the city from the Humber Bridge is named after him (Clive Sullivan Way). Another is Dean Windass, who had two spells with Hull City and scored the goal which helped the club to promotion to the top flight of English football for the first time in the club's history.[211]

Twinned cities

Hull City Hall

Hull has formal twinning arrangements with several places:[212][213]

Country Place County / District / Region / State Date
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Freetown Western Area
Japan Japan Flag of Niigata, Niigata.png Niigata Niigata
United States United States Flag of Raleigh.svg Raleigh Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina
Iceland Iceland Reykjavik Coat of Arms.svg Reykjavík Reykjavík
Netherlands Netherlands Flag Rotterdam.svg Rotterdam Flag Zuid-Holland.svg South Holland
Poland Poland POL Szczecin COA.svg Szczecin POL województwo zachodniopomorskie COA.svg West Pomerania

Hull, Massachusetts, in the USA is named after this city,[214] as is Hull, Quebec, which is part of the Canadian national capital region.[215]

See also

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  205. ^ "Alderton, John". Who's Who 2008. A&C Black. 2008. ISBN 978-07136-8555-8. "Education: Kingston High Sch., Hull". 
  206. ^ "Maureen Lipman Biography (1946-)". Film Reference. 2007. http://www.filmreference.com/film/49/Maureen-Lipman.html. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  207. ^ "Richard Bean - Hot New Playwright". The British Theatre Guide. 2001. http://www.britishtheatreguide.info/otherresources/interviews/RichardBean.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-10. 
  208. ^ "Plater, Alan (1935-)". Screenonline. British Film Institute. http://www.screenonline.org.uk/people/id/473028/index.html. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  209. ^ "Mick Ronson". NNDB. http://www.nndb.com/people/103/000089833/. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
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  211. ^ Taylor, Louise (2008-05-24). "From Birds Eye and building to a shot at the top". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2008/may/24/championship.hullcity. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
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Notes

a There was no census in 1941: figures are from National Register. United Kingdom and Isle of Man. Statistics of Population on 29 September 1939 by Sex, Age and Marital Condition.
b There is a discrepancy of 6 between Office of National Statistics figures (quoted before) and those on the Vision of Britain website (quoted here).

External links

Coordinates: 53°44.66′N 0°19.95′W / 53.74433°N 0.3325°W / 53.74433; -0.3325


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Kingston upon Hull, or Hull as it is usually called, is a city in Yorkshire on the northern bank of the Humber Estuary.

Understand

Early history

A settlement called Myton, although not listed in Domsday 1086, existed at the confluence of the River Hull and Humber in the 11th century. In the late 12th century the monks of the near-by Meaux Abbey created the new town of Wyke, Wyke from the Scandinavian meaning creek i.e. the River Hull. The town of Wyke would later become Hull. Both the names Myton and Wyke remain as political ward areas of the city. With the River Hull offering a harbour for the import and export of goods and the Humber estuary being connected to other major rivers the town of Wyke upon Hull became established and thrived. This situation drew the attention of the town to King Edward 1 who visited it, eventually giving Kyngeston (or King's Town) upon Hull its Royal Charter on April 1st 1299. Usage has changed the name in the charter to Kingston upon Hull. The lay of the main roads to and from the city are the result Edward's involvement. The interest of various Kings including Henry VIII have had a bearing on what the visitor, with a little understanding, may see when visiting the city. Hull's importance as a port and in its early years an arsenal--at one time second only to London's arsenal--caused walls with battlements and towers to be initiated in 1327, blockhouses on the east bank of the River Hull in 1542 and a Citadel, again on the east bank, in 1681. Although all these have long gone their imprint on the old town along with the subsequent docks can still be appreciated.

Modern history

In some ways the 20th century was the most consistently calamitous era in the long, long history of this great maritime city. From a position at the start of the 1900s of industrial and mercantile might that put it on a level with almost any other city in the land, by the last decade of the century its litany of hard luck stories had cruelly conspired to turn Hull into something of a national laughing stock. The last hundred years were, however, a sad chapter in an epic story, and at the birth of a new century, the place Larkin called the 'lonely northern daughter' has begun to miraculously revive and stake its claim for prosperity and respect once more.

Much investment is being directed into the city, encouraged by the huge success of The Deep as a visitor attraction, concerted efforts by regeneration agencies, and the recent success of Hull City FC and the Rugby League teams in displaying the element of untapped potential in the region.

Anybody who has experienced the city first hand without any preconceived notions or bias will tell you that Hull is unique. It is no longer isolated, as transport links with the rest of the country are more than adequate. This was not the case for hundreds of years though, and the result is a true one-off. The place has a genuine cultural identity and character of its own. It is reflected in the accent (pronounce "oh no" as "er ner" and you will have an idea), the humor, the self-effacement and spirit of its people. Hull's colourful (at times startling) but always fascinating urban fabric and history are its markers.

The flat landscape and low but often breathtaking historic buildings give a sense of there being a massive backdrop of sky, and when combined with a view out to the brooding, bleak, mighty expanse of the Humber Estuary from the point at which it converges with the River Hull it becomes apparent that there is something special in the location of the town.

River Hull
River Hull

Along with the poetry of its setting, Hull has a formidable connection with some of the most influential poets in English literature. Amongst others Andrew Marvell was baptized in Holy Trinity Church and attended the Old Grammar School, Philip Larkin lived at 32 Pearson Park for most of his life and Stevie Smith was born here.

The city has in recent years branded itself as the "Pioneering City", and this claim is backed up by a list of many firsts originating on Humberside. The technology for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), for example, was discovered and refined at the University of Hull in the late 1960s. The city is also a UK leader in the development of broadband and telecom technology.

In 2007 Kingston-Upon-Hull celebrated another of its numerous remarkable achievements when it commemorated the life of its greatest son William Wilberforce [1], and celebrated his starring role in the abolition of the British slave trade which in turn changed the face of world history. There was a wide range of events across the city.

Get in

By plane

Hull is served by Humberside International Airport, which is on the south bank of the Humber Estuary - about 20 to 25 minutes drive to Hull City centre via the Humber Bridge. Humberside Airport has daily scheduled flights to Aberdeen and Amsterdam and charter flights to many European airports.

The X1 express coach service (operated by Stagecoach Bus) links the Airport with Hull City centre. Journey times are just over half an hour and services run hourly.

By train

Hull Paragon Interchange is in the city centre and provides easy access between rail, coach and local bus services all under the same roof. A taxi rank is located outside the main entrance of the station and car rental services are available on the concourse.

Hull is served by eight daily Intercity train services to and from London Kings Cross. Journey times from the capital vary from between 2 hours, 30 minutes to 2 hours, 50 minutes. Most trains are operated by the city's own train operator - Hull Trains, though one service in each direction, is operated by National Express East Coast. Between direct services you can change at Doncaster station for regular (two per hour) connections to Hull.

The city is located at the end of a major Transpennine route from Manchester. Hourly Transpennine Express trains operate to and from Manchester Piccadilly station stopping at Huddersfield, Leeds, Selby and Brough. Journey time from Manchester is about 1 hour, 55 minutes and from Leeds, a little under 1 hour. Regular, quick connections from Manchester Airport are available by changing at Huddersfield (same platform, normally) or Manchester.

An hourly fast service to and from Sheffield via Doncaster is available (operated by Northern Rail). This service calls at Meadowhall - a large, popular shopping centre near Sheffield. An hourly local, stopping service also operates to Doncaster.

Hull is the southern terminus of the Wolds Coast line to and from Scarborough, Bridlington, Driffield and Beverley.

A local service from York (with connections from the North and Scotland) is also available.

By car

The city is at the eastern end of the M62 (which changes to the A63 shortly before Hull) and can be easily accessed from the rest of the motorway network. It has good access from Lincolnshire and the south via the A15 and the Humber Bridge and can be accessed by the A1079 from York and the North

By bus

There are two Park and Ride services available, one from the outskirts of the city (Priory Road) and Walton Street nearer the city center. When returning from the city center make sure you get the correct bus otherwise you may not get back to your car! Priory Park and Ride lies south of Hessle Road off Priory Way. Follow the signs on A15 and A63 (Clive Sullivan Way)coming into Hull. For SatNavs the postal code is HU4 7DY. The bus number is 700. City Centre fare: Adult return £2.10, child return £1.05. The service drops off at the Kingston Communications Stadium (and is therefore useful for match-days as parking capacity near the stadium is very limited), Hull Royal Infirmary and Hull City centre.Walton Street Park and Ride is between Anlaby Road and Spring Bank West. SatNav postal code is HU3 6JU. The bus number is 701. City centre fares: Adult return £1.60, child return £0.8. The bus drops off at the Hull Royal Infirmary. Kingston Communications Stadium is next to the park and ride site.

National Express coach services operate in and out of Hull Paragon Interchange. Several of the services operate through to King George Dock to connect with ferry services through to the continent.

Pride Of Rotterdam
Pride Of Rotterdam

Hull is a major port and ferry terminus for P&O North Sea Ferries sailings to and from Rotterdam in Holland and Zeebrugge in Belgium. Other Routes are present within the UK. Buses run to and from the ferry terminal but when going from the city to the terminal get to the bus at least fifteen minutes early as departure times are not always on 'the dot'.

Get around

By bus

The bus station in Hull city centre has recently undergone a multi million pound refurbishment, along with the adjacent Paragon railway station to form a new central 'transport interchange'. The main entrances / exits for the station are located on Ferensway, within a short distance of the new St Stephens covered shopping street to the north, and the central core of the city to the east.

Bus services in Hull are operated by East Yorkshire Motor Services [2] and Stagecoach [3] in Hull. Unfortunately, as with most local transport services in the UK outside of London, ticketing and fares on bus services are not integrated across operators and you have to pay separately for each bus you ride on. Tickets are purchased from the driver when you board the bus. All information regarding bus routes, times etc. can be gained from the passenger information boards and the Travel Centre within the station. It can also be downloaded from the council's website [4].

Walking

The city centre is fairly compact and mainly pedestrianised. This creates a relatively hassle free walk around town. Care should be taken when crossing from the southern side of the old town towards the marina area, however, as the route is intersected by Castle Street - a huge and very busy dual carriageway.

To more fully appreciate what you may see when visiting the old part of Hull the following may be useful.

The Docks walk. This walk, which is wheel chair friendly, takes you along the docks which encircled the old town.

The early town was substantially walled from the River Hull at a point just south of where North Bridge now stands to the River Hull where it meets the Humber. The wall, pierced by four land gates for entry and exit, formed three sides of a ‘square’ round the old town. Until King Henry VIIIs intervention the River Hull formed the town’s major defence on east side. The pattern of roads in the old town is influenced by the wall and its gates. The Beverley Gate in what was the west wall is of some historical significance as it was here that King Charles I, who was interested in acquisitioning Hull’s arsenal, was barred from the town by Sir John Hotham on a rainy April 23rd 1642. This action was a contributory factor in the start of the English Civil War. The development of the first docks essentially followed the line of the demolished old town wall and walking along these docks you are encompassing the old town.

Standing by the tall Wilberforce Monument at the east end of Queens Gardens (formally Queen’s Dock) you are at a point where a lock joined the River Hull to the first of Hulls docks. The lock ran under what is now Hull College, the large white building at the east end of the gardens. Opened in 1778 the dock was first known as Town Dock then the Old Dock and eventually Queen’s Dock renamed to commemorate the visit of Queen Victoria to the city in 1854. When it was built it was the largest dock in England and took much pressure off the harbour in the River Hull. The north side of the dock is slightly higher than the south as the soil dug out when excavating the dock was tipped here. At the west end of Queen’s Gardens stand the domed Dock Offices. The offices were built in 1867-71 and built in such a way as to look east along Queen's Dock and south along the other docks which allowed dock officials to see the coming and going of ships. The offices are a Victorian statement to the importance of the port of Hull.

Walking along the centre of Queen’s Gardens towards the Dock Offices you are approximately following the line of the towns old North Walls. Looking south from the Dock Offices (now the Maritime Museum) you see Prince’s Dock. This was originally called Junction Dock, because it joined two docks, but was renamed Prince’s Dock after Prince Albert the husband of Queen Victoria. This dock opened in 1829 (decommissioned in 1968) and joined the southern most dock, Humber Dock (opened 1809, now the Marina), to Queen’s Dock. Monument Bridge (so called because the Wilberforce Monument once stood near it) crossed the lock joining Queens Dock and Prince’s Dock and some of its stanchions can be seen in the nearby excavation. The bridge (removed in 1932) opened between 30 to 40 minutes each hour for the passage of ships which was a considerable inconvenience to road users! Importantly, in the same excavated area as the bridge stanchions are the remains of the famous Beverley Gate. It was at this gate that King Charles I was refused entry into Hull. Walking towards the east side of Prince’s Dock you pass the end of Whitefriargate . This is not the original name of this street but never the less an ancient one being named after the white robed Carmelite friars who arrived in Hull in the 13th century. At the east end of this street are the interestingly named streets of ‘Land of Green Ginger’ and ‘Bowlalley Lane’ as well as the famous old, though slightly hidden, Ye Old White Harte pub. It is said that it was here the meeting took place in 1642 to exclude King Charles I from Hull. The buildings on the east side of Prince’s Dock are old warehouses and associated shipping offices. Railway lines use to run along the dock side and rows of open sheds allowed the loading and unloading of ships. Princes Quay shopping centre was built partly over the dock in 1991.

South of Prince’s Dock is the Marina formally called Humber Dock (opened 1809). This lies on the south side of the very busy Castle Street, part of the south orbital road which leads to, besides other things, the eastern Hull docks. The old Spurn Light Ship is moored here, entry is free. In September the Marina serves as a back drop for Hull's famous international ‘Shanty Festival’. The Railway Dock (opened 1846) which comes off the west side of the Marina now also houses pleasure craft. Towards the southern end of the Marina, on the east side, is Humber Street. Originally this was called The Ropery as ships ropes where made here and this was the southern most street of the walled town. Soil from the excavation of the docks was used to reclaim the land south of here. Humber Street was, for many years, the centre for fruit, vegetable and flower importation into Hull. Redevelopment of this area is planned. At the end of the Marina is the lock leading to the dock Basin and the Humber. West of the Basin is a new office development built on what were the railway goods yards which which were next to the Railway Dock. Close to the Basin on the east side is the Minerva pub and near to this some excellent award winning public toilets. East of this area, across the River Hull, can be seen the Deep, Hull’s famous marine attraction.

A recommended walk from here is up Queens Street, across the busy Castle Street, along Market Place turning right down Scale Lane and then left (north) up High Street. Diversions to Holy Trinity church, with some of the earliest examples of medieval brickwork in the country, and into the old town can be made and are highly recommended.

The Haven Walk takes you round the north part of the Haven. It is wheelchair friendly though some dereliction will be seen. One hopes that if, or when, development takes place the important features will be saved.

For a stranger the easiest place to start is at the east end of the Guildhall (built 1916). Facing east towards Drypool Bridge pass the City Hotel pub and the black and white timbered White Hart pub (1904) to the junction of Salthouse Lane and High Street. Both these pubs were listed grade II in 1994. Turning north up High Street a few new houses are past on the west side.

On the east side can be seen Blaydes House (circa 1760) with its Georgian portico. It is now the location of the Hull Maritime Studies Centre of the University of Hull. A period hall leads to an elegant stairway lit by an equally elegant arched rear window. In the 16 and 1700s the Blaydes were important merchants and shipbuilders who had dealings with Samuel Pepys for Admiralty work though in 1702 got into trouble when they blocked North Bridge with a ship’s ‘boltspright’ (bowsprit)! Blades staith (a Norse word meaning ‘landing place’) runs down the south side of the house and their land ran from this staith north to their dry dock behind the Dock Office further up the street.

Just a little further on the east side of the street is Haworth House (built1887) and named after the owners but latter used in the interwar period as ‘National Works’ offices. The Haworth and Blaydes family were related by marriage. Beyond this house on the east side are two small houses, Barton House and its neighbour. The only notable feature on the west side is the small road called North Walls, the rest of the area having been redeveloped. This road follows the line on the original North Walls of the city and during the construction of the new buildings their foundations came to light. North Walls lead to Queens Gardens.

The next building on the east side is the elegant Dock Offices built in 1820. A side door on the right side of the building allowed merchants, workers etc access, the front door not being available to them! With the increase in shipping these offices moved, in 1871, to those at Queens Gardens. Behind and to the right of the Dock Offices building is the dry dock that belonged to the Blaydes and where the 400 ton Bethia (Bounty) was built in 1782. The large dry dock to the north of the Dock Offices was originally the basin to the Queens Dock lock, the Queens Dock being the other side of the Hull College, the large building to the west. The lock basin was turned into a dry dock in 1957 and was in operation into the 1990s. The lock gates are no longer water tight and the dock fills and empties with the tide. The dock has an example of a Scotch Derrick crane. Here High Street becomes Dock Office Row.

Towards the end of Dock Office Row a house (number 3) has an ornate Georgian entrance.

At this junction of four roads the small dead end road on the right is the remains of Bridge Street which led to the old North Bridge. The large building on the left of this small road is North Bridge House, originally a warehouse or mill but now flats. Grade II listed in 1994.

At the main road (George Street) turn east towards and over North Bridge. Like Drypool Bridge it is a bascule bridge. Follow the road curving left but stop on the corner. Across the road is a Pharmacy, once Annisons Funeral Directors and Livery Stables. Interestingly the horses were stabled upstairs and a walk through the arch to the yard beyond reveals the staircase on the left which the horses used. Diagonally across the road can be seen the ornate red brick parapet of the first ferro-concrete bridge built in England. A plaque on the south west end commemorates this.

Follow the road round the corner for a few meters to the small dead end road on the right and walk to the east river bank. This piece of road is what is left of the eastern one to the old North Bridge. From here can be seen some timber work on the west bank which relates to the old North Bridge. Next to the bridge is the tall North Bridge House with elements of the hoisting floor, interesting hip-roof, iron finials on the ridges and attractive chimney stacks.

Walking along the east river bank towards Drypool Bridge (in 1888 a wrought iron swing bridge) the gates of four old locks can be seen in the west bank as well as the backs of the high street houses. The elegant rear window of the Blaydes house can be seen. In the distance can be seen the smallish conical tower of the City Archives, the square clock tower of the Guild Hall, the crenulated tower of St Mary’s church and the metallic grey dome of the Law Courts. The path passes over the entrance to an old dry dock to the left. The dock is now silted up but interestingly the end is bow shaped and not straight. The past shipping activity along here is indicated by mooring stanchions. Towards Drypool Bridge two large buildings are evident. One is the land mark Shotwell tower where pellets are made for shot gun cartridges and on the far side of the bridge is the Ranks Clarence Flour Mills. Following his fathers death (his father being a miller) Joseph Rank started milling in Hull in 1875, his first windmill still stands on Holderness Road. Clarence Flour Mills on the side of the River Hull was rebuilt in 1952 having been destroyed by bombing in World War II. Joseph’s son, J. Arthur Rank, became the ‘movie mogul’.

At the end of the path mount the steps or ramp to Drypool Bridge. Down stream you can see the Arctic Corsair, a side winder trawler (free entry but booking necessary), the Tidal Surge Barrier (built 1980) and beyond that The Deep (opened 2002), Hulls famous ‘submarium’. The Deep is built on the site of another famous shipyard, that of the 19th century ship builder, Martin Samuelson. On Drypool Bridge turn right which brings you back to the Guildhall. Alternatively cross the road –carefully—(there is a crossing near the Guildhall) and proceed on another walk along the west bank of the River Hull. This starts next to the south side of the bridge lifting gear.

The Fish Trail. The trail takes you round old Hull by following various fish types embossed on the pavement. People take rubbings of the best ones but make sure children are safe from peoples feet! To get the most out of this walk get a leaflet(40p)from the Tourist Information Office (Tel 01482 223559) which is to the right of the City Hall entrance. On completion of the walk the Tourist Office will give you a free certificate to say you have done it!

Walking with Wilberforce Trail. This trail takes you round the old town among places that would probably have been familiar to William Wilberforce who was famous for his part in the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade. He was born in Hull and his early education took place here. He later bacame the Member of Parliament Hull. The trail starts where he was born at Wilberforce House in High Street. If you have time you could start with visiting the house, now a museum about slavery. There are twelve 'stops' in the trail the final one being the Wilberforce Monument at the east eand of Queens Gardens. Obtain a leaflet from the Tourist Information Office (Tel 01482 223559)on the right hand side of the City Hall entrance.

See

Historic Architecture

Although Hull was amongst the most heavily bombed cities in the UK during the Second World War, the 700 years since the granting of its first charter have left it with a fascinating wealth of architectural gems. From Flemish inspired facades to beautiful domed civic buildings. From dock offices to imposing industrial heritage warehouses and mills. From the medieval cobbled charm of the old town, grand private merchant's houses and Georgian terraces to cutting edge modern design.

Queen Victoria Square

The centre of Hull, from which all of the wide shopping streets of the late 19th/early 20th century radiate. At its heart stands Queen Victoria, surrounded by the magnificent domes of The Maritime Museum and The City Hall. A recent addition to the square was that of the controversial BBC Big Screen on its Jameson St. entrance.

  • Ferens Art Gallery. Free entry. Permanent collection of Sculpture and Paintings from medieval to present day, as well as a regular programme of temporary exhibitions from around the world. Strong on old European Masters, particularly Dutch and Flemish, the Ferens also houses some of the best contemporary art in the country. Includes masterpieces by Frans Hals, Antonio Canaletto, Stanley Spencer, David Hockney, Helen Chadwick and Gillian Wearing. There is a pleasant cafe on the ground floor of the gallery with an outside section overlooking part of Prince's dock. In February to April each year it hosts the 'Open Exhibition' to which, for a modest fee, amateurs as well as professional artists can submit their own work for sale or just display.
  • Maritime Museum. Free entry. Formerly the Whaling Museum and housed in the original Dock Offices for the Prince's Dock and Queen's Dock (now Queen's Gardens). It is a huge, quaintly old-fashioned museum dedicated to Hull's glorious conquest of the High Seas and to the often tragic sacrifices made to it. An elegant staircase rises from the entrance hall and there are displays to interest all ages from the skeleton of a whale to models of ships to explantions of fishing methods.
  • Hull City Hall. Completed in 1903 and designed by Frank Matcham, the City Hall to some extent defied total distruction by Luftwaffe. When the bomb damage of 1941 was finally made good in 1950 it reopened to emerge, with its green copper roof, as one of the most loved structures in the city. Around the upper west end of the building is a frieze commemorating famous musical composers. The cupola of the previous town hall, built in 1866 by Cuthbert Brodrick, is sited at the west side of Pearson Park. The City Hall now regularly hosts Rock, Pop and Classical Concerts as well as Comedy events. Left of the entrance is the booking office for events in the city and to the right The Tourist Infomation Office.
Queens Gardens
Queens Gardens

Opened in 1930 and built on top of the old Queen's Dock. The dock was built in the late 1700s and at 10 acres it was the largest dock in England. However, it was not untill 1854 that it was named Queen's Dock after Queen Victoria. You can still make out the original shape of the dock in the walls and buildings surrounding the gardens. Some of the buildings on the south side are the old warehouses of the dock. At the east end stands the Wilberforce Monument and at the west, the old Dock Offices now the Maritime Museum. The Gardens are sunk and contain flowerbeds, seating and a large grassy area.

  • The Mick Ronson Memorial Stage is the main focus of scheduled events throughout the summer months. Constructed after the untimely death from cancer of Mick Ronson, the guitarist who along with two other Hullensians formed David Bowie's band The Spiders From Mars in the early 1970s and later went on to success with Bob Dylan, Elton John, Lou Reed and Morrissey among others. The stage hosted a memorable speech by freeman of the city Archbishop Desmond Tutu in 1997.
  • Behind the stage is a plaque to commemorate the fictional character of Robinson Crusoe, who set sail from Hull in the famed novel of the same name by Daniel Defoe. This book - it has been argued - was the first novel in the English language in 1719.
  • The Guildhall runs adjacent to and on the south side of Queen's Gardens and with Alfred Gelder Street on its south side. Built between 1903-1916, to a design chosen by competition, it is the home of the City Council, it also houses the city's silver and the Hull Tapestry as well as the old magistrate's court and below this the cells! The Guildhall is a great slab of early 20th century civic pride, prosperity and confidence. At the west end sits a sculpture of Boadicea atop its ornate Neo-Classical design and at the east end a clock tower. Starting in 1991 The Hull Tapestry took 15 years to complete and in 19 panels depicts important aspects of the city's history and development. The tapestry can be viewed (free of charge) Monday - Thursday 8.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. and Friday 8.30 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. To view it ask at the reception desk of the Guildhall. Guildhall tours are also available free of charge but these must be booked in advance. For these contact the Guildhall Curator Tel 01482-613902.

Trinity Quarter

Created around the site of the old market square in front of Holy Trinity church, and taking in the grand Victorian Hepworths Arcade, this is the main home in the city centre for vintage clothes, independent record shops and alternative retail outlets. The square has benefited in recent times from sensitive restoration including seating and public art, as well as a great selection of small cafes with outdoor areas to make it a vital destination for any sightseeing tour.

  • Holy Trinity Church is officially the largest parish church in England, but as a piece of imposing medieval ecclesiastical architecture, it is to all intents and purposes more like a cathedral. The oldest parts date back to c.1300 and the 150ft high tower contains a ring of 15 bells.
  • Old Grammar SchoolFree Entry. This is one of the oldest grammar schools in England dating back to the 16th century, and now houses the Hands on History Museum. The Museum focuses on the history of Hull and it's people, recreates Victorian Childhood in the classroom and contains a genuine Egyptian Mummy.

The Museum Quarter and High Street

This area runs alongside the River Hull, and was the main street at the centre of the medieval old town.

  • Transport Museum. Free Entry.
  • Wilberforce House. Free Entry. Birthplace and residence of William Wilberforce (1759-1833), MP for Hull and slavery abolitionist, whose anti-slavery bill was finally passed in 1807 after his tireless campaigning. The house has been a museum in his memory since 1903.
  • Arctic Corsair. Free Entry. Hulls last remaining sidewinder trawler, berthed in the River Hull to the rear of the Museums Quarter complex. Guided tours are available.
  • Hull Time Based Arts

Princes Quay and Whitefriargate

Whitefriargate is the thoroughfare that links the old and new towns, and has traditionally been the main shopping high street for centuries. After decline caused by the emergence of new shopping centres, a new future is planned for the street, with the hope of it attracting cafes, bars and galleries.

  • Princes Quay A shopping centre built on stilts over the quay, soon to have a cinema installed. The futuristic glass shards of the centre have dated surprisingly well, and the walk up the long, light and airy entrance from Queen Victoria square and over the water is as exhilarating an experience you could ask for from a city centre shopping trip.
  • At the Queen Victoria Square end of Whitefriargate an excavated hole containing a small amphitheater and brick wall signals the medieval Beverley Gate. This belonged to the original city walls, and is where King Charles I was refused entry to Hull in the 17th Century - the first military act of the English Civil War.
  • The smallest window in England. This is outside the George Inn on a street called The Land of Green Ginger (so called because of the medieval spice market that operated here).
  • Parliament street leads off of Whitefriargate about halfway down. This is the home of many professional practices in the city centre, and this is reflected in it's fine Georgian architecture. It was built to give access to the town dock now Queens Gardens.

The Marina and around

Developed from the old derelict Humber Dock in the early 80's, Hull Marina provides space for 270 yachts and small sailing craft in its permanent and visiting berths. The area is an enjoyable stroll with some great cafes and old pubs, and annually hosts the Sea Fever Sea shanty festival.

  • In one of the permanent berths resides the Spurn Lightship. This will be open to the public again from April 2007.
  • As the city centres prime business district the area to the west known as Humber Quays is earmarked for huge office and residential development, with the Hull and Humber World Trade Centre, the HQ2 building and Freedom Quay apartments along with high quality landscaping to the river frontage recently being completed as phase 1.
  • The Deep. A huge aquarium looking out over the Humber estuary. Built as Hull's main millennium project, it has surpassed all expectations to become a massively successful tourist destination and second only to the Eden Project in terms of visitor numbers.
  • Humber Bridge. The longest single span suspension bridge in the world when completed in 1981.
  • The KC Stadium Is the shared home of Hull City A.F.C., and Hull F.C. Rugby League Club. Commonly referred to as 'The Circle' owing to the original cricket ground on the site, the stadium houses a seating capacity of 25,000 and is amongst the most spectacular new stadiums in the country.
  • Hull Parks. Three of the four main ones were laid out in the late 1800s as a response to Victorian altruism to provide the population with open green areas for recreation. There are four major parks but several smaller ones. Like many parks in the world wandering in them at night may not be judicious. For information: Email parksandgardens@hullcc.gov.uk or ring Hull City Council 01482-300300 or the Tourist Information Office 01482 223559
  • East Park During 1885 and 1886 unemployment and hunger gripped some parts of Hull and some work was provided for the unemployed in laying out part of East Park. A large park, of some 120 acres and recently improved, it is situated in east Hull off Holderness Road about 2 miles east of the city centre and accessible by the majority of buses that go east. It boasts a large boating and fishing lake, a pavilion and café, a paddling pool, bowling greens, football and rugby pitches, a walk through aviary, a fenced deer park and a smaller lake for sailing models boats. On most Sundays enthusiasts can be found sailing a variety of model boats, of varying complexity, from surface craft to the occasional submarine. A splash boat operates in the summer months along with pedal boats that can be hired. There are a number of shops and pubs located near the various entrances which provide the park with good amenities. Further information Email eastpark@hullcc.gov.uk. SatNav code HU8 8JU.
  • West Park. Much smaller than East Park it was opened in 1885 and is adjacent to the Walton Street Park and Ride. A model railway is operated by volunteers and more information on this could be obtained from Hull and District Society of Model and Experimental Engineers. There are bowling greens and at the south west corner is the interesting Carnegie Library now a local heritage resource centre. The park is now rather over shadowed by the KC Stadium and suffers a little from the proximity of busy roads. However, there is a £7 million make over planned for this park. SatNav code HU3 6JA
  • Pickering Park. Named after Christopher Pickering a successful trawler owner who donated 50 acres of land for a park which opened in 1911. Adjacent to the park Pickering also built Pickering Homes, a set of 12 attractive alms houses, initially for ex-fishermen. Situated in west Hull on Pickering Road off Boothferry Road. The park has fishing ponds, football pitches, bowling greens, ornamental gardens, an aviary and a boating lake. The park hosts concerts and fishing competitions. SatNav code HU4 6
  • Pearson Park. This is Hull's first public park, tree planting starting in 1860. It was initially called The Peoples Park but later named Pearson Park after Zachariah Pearson, ship owner and at one time Mayor of Hull. He gave the land to the people of Hull but being a shrewd business man retained 12 acres of land round it for housing development. Unfortunately Pearson went bankrupt running arms to the southern states in the American civil war and is buried in a modest grave in the nearby old General Cemetery on Spring Bank West, its self worth a visit. At the east side there is a large pair of ornamental metal gates and within the park there is a small lake and fountain, a ‘Victorian’ glasshouse, statues of Queen Victoria (1861) and Prince Albert (1868), an elegant Victorian drinking fountain (1864), the cupola of the old Town Hall (west side) and next to this a children’s playground. Bowling greens are situated at the east side. Many of the large houses surrounding the park are of interest and include the one in which Philip Larkin, the poet, lived from 1956-1974. The park lies between Beverley Road and Prince's Avenue about 1 mile north west of the city centre. SatNav code HU5 2.
  • The Garden Village. During the late 1800s and early 1900s a number of industrial philanthropists around the country became aware of the very poor housing occupied by many of their workers and decided to build houses of a higher standard for them. One such philanthropist was Sir James Reckitt, a Quaker, who developed the Hull based company Reckitt and Sons which was started by his father Isaac. The company later became Reckitt and Colman and more recently Reckitt Benckiser. In 1907 Sir James formed a company, The Garden Village (Hull) Ltd., with his own money and initiated the building of The Garden Village which he opened on July 1st 1908. Originally the houses were rented, the amount depending on their size, but some 50 years ago tenants were allowed to buy them. Garden Village has a mix of house size and architectural styles (but all have gardens), there is a large grassy area, The Oval, where the houses were individually designed, a Club House supporting various activities, a colonnaded shopping centre restored as flats and three alms houses, now homes for the elderly, referred to as Havens. All the roads are tree lined and named after trees e.g. Chestnut Avenue, Lilac Avenue. The area, which lies some 2 miles NE of the city centre (near East Park), can be approached from Holderness Road via Village Road or Laburnum Avenue or from James Reckitt Avenue via Laburnum or Chestnut Avenues. Visit www.gardenvillagehull.co.uk for more information. SatNav code HU8 8.
  • Have a pint in Ye Olde White Harte. One of many delightful historic pubs in the old town. The upstairs 'plotting parlor' is believed to be where Sir John Hotham and various city elders met in 1642 and decided to deny King Charles I access to the city. When the King returned a few months later with an army, his defeat was the first military action of the English Civil War.
  • Take a Humber Speedboat ride from Victoria Pier for £3.50
  • Stand at the statue of Henry Wilson and look in all four directions at the fantastic buildings around you.
  • Check out Hull Truck Theatre on Spring Street to see a production at the home of one of the most successful touring theater companies in the country. Hull Truck are all set to move into a striking new building facing onto Ferensway in the next couple of years.
  • Go see a film at the Hull Screen - Hulls independent arthouse cinema, now based at the University of Lincoln building on George Street.
  • RED Gallery, Hull

19 Osborne Street, Hull, East Yorkshire, Web site: www.red-gallery.com

Since RED opened in 1997 it has provided Hull with an independent exhibition space and 'laboratory' for contemporary art. The gallery's viewing audience has been growing steadily with around 200 visitors attending each exhibition. In between the formal exhibitions the gallery offers the opportunity to local art students to organize and publicize their own shows. RED is a non-profit making initiative, run collectively by a small group of local artists.

  • The University of Hull is consistently voted amongst the top five Higher Education establishments in the country. It was also recently voted the friendliest University in the UK in a poll conducted by Friends Reunited. The foundation stone of the University College Hull (operating through the University of London) was laid on 28th April 1928 by King George VI. It obtained its own University Charter on 13th May 1954 as the University of Hull. The old campus was expanded by the addition of of the old University of Humberside site which its self moved to Lincoln as the University of Lincoln. The University is on Cottingham Road, the front buildings of which are not without merit.
  • The University of Lincoln also has a presence within the city though its main activity is now in the City of Lincoln.
  • Along with the recent influx of investment into the regeneration of the city centre, there is evidently a concerted effort to improve and expand upon the city centre's current retail offerings. The massive new St Stephen's development is nearing completion close to Paragon Station, and is set to include over 30 large format stores such as Next, Zara and H&M along with other High Street names.
  • Built on stilts above the Princes Dock, Princes Quay shopping centre is currently the largest mall in the city centre, with over one hundred shops on three floors.
  • Planning permission has recently been granted to expand the main shopping centre of Princes Quay out to the west. The £300m Quay West scheme would be an open air expansion, with the proposed regeneration of this land more than doubling the current size of the centre. It is hoped that the expansion should be complete by 2009.
  • For classic tailoring and trendy designer names, the cobbled Saville Street to the north of Queen Victoria Square is the best bet, with Read's and Bolo (Lyle and Scott Vintage, Puma Heritage, Diesel etc.) amongst them.
  • Hepworth's Arcade is home to a quirky selection of stores including a brilliant old-school joke shop, Beasley's American work wear and vintage, Fanthorpes stereo shop and FunkyWormHole.
  • The arcade connects to the indoor market through a record stall specializing in Punk, Indie, New Wave, Psychedelia and Funk.
  • The Indoor Market is home to Revolver which specializes in late Madchester era kewl, along with other retro youth culture threads.
  • The market leads out to the main square which contains a row of cafes and eateries facing out onto the beautiful, historic square.
  • Walton Street Market occurs on Wednesday mornings down Walton Street on the site used by Hull Fair. There is good parking. The Walton Street Park and Ride service leaves from here (bus number 701). Good weather brings out more stalls. For sale --- vegetables, meat, clothes, carpets, toys, electrical goods, plants, flowers, tools, fishing equipment, jewellery -- you name it its probably there. The central area is given over to ‘car booters’ with a plethora of merchandise. Very crowded just before Christmas. Try to bargain?
  • Cafe Pasaz A happening modern bistro specializing in fresh local food and a low carbon footprint
  • Pave, Princes Ave
  • Thai House Restaurant, Princes Avenue. Excellent atmosphere and great service.
  • Boars Nest, Princes Avenue. Sumptuously decorated Edwardian style restaurant.

ASK - Very good quality Italian restaurant located on Hull's waterfront.

  • Zillis Fabulous restaurant and bar close to Holy Trinity Church, selling excellent Mexican, American, and European food for reasonable prices. It has a brilliant menu and good specials, with huge variety.
  • May Sum Cheap All-You-Can-Eat Chinese buffet, serving the famous zheng-qui (looks like squirrel cooked on long fat)
  • dazal, 12 Newland Avenue, 01482 341535, [5]. A modern, vibrant cafe bar serving coffees and homemade cakes, 103 cocktails and wines/champagnes and nibbles and main meals.  edit
  • Raj Pavillion, Beverley Road.. Delicious Indian cuisine. Modern decor and very friendly staff. Eat in or take away...be sure to book if you choose to eat in as it can get really busy!!  edit
  • Lounge, Princes Ave.. Great value food and buzzing atmosphere. Fantasic place to go on a Sunday afternoon or a light lunch with friends.  edit

Cafes

Herbys Cafe on Ferensway.....Home Cooked Foods, All Day Breakfasts, Wraps, Sandwiches, Salads to eat in or to Take -Away

  • Cafe Pasaz, city centre - a funky, light and modern eatery that's even open for breakfast!
  • Stanleys Brassiere, city centre, paragon st- a newly opened eatery opposite the train station.
  • The Zoo Cafe, Off Newland Avenue. Specializing in vegetarian fare. Very good and uncomplicated atmosphere.
  • Zillis, Opposite the Holy Trinity Church. Offering delicious American, Mexican, and English food. With a fabulous location, it is particularly pleasant to sit outside, close to the nearby spectacular Holy Trinity Church.
  • Huckleberrys, In Queens Gardens. Definitely A Nice Cafe To Visit!
  • Luciano's, Carr Lane. Brilliantly chic 60's style decor.
  • Ye Olde Black Boy One of several ancient High Street boozers with many spooky tales to tell.
  • Sailmakers Arms, High Street. A classically eccentric English pub, complete with beer garden that has to be seen to be believed!
  • Nellys Bar - High Street, former Irish Pub recently refurbished ,now selling Cask Ales and Real Ciders from micro-brewerys around the country, Draught Belgian and German beers also available.
  • Walters Bar - Scale lane, Over 21's upmarket city-centre bar specialising in Cask Ales, continental draught beers and fine wines.
  • The Avenues,Princes and Newland Avenue. On the outskirts of the city centre, this traditionally bohemian area has taken off in recent years, with masses of new restaurants, bars and cafes. A great urban mix of artists, professionals, students, fashionistas and winos rub shoulders here every night of the week.
  • The Lamp, Norfolk Street.
  • The Adelphi, De Grey Street. One of the last surviving underground music venues in the country. Played host to many bands before they were household names including Oasis, Radiohead, The Stone Roses, Manics, Bluetones, Levellers

Nightclubs

Certain weeknights are student-only at some clubs, so you should probably check before going.

There are a number of different areas where clubs and pubs are located in groups. In the city centre there is, as referred to by locals, the old town, new town and George Street. The old town is on Lowgate and runs through to Posterngate where The Sugarmill is located. George Street is located north of Lowgate, here you will find Pozition along with Biarritz, Venue and many more. Visit George Street for the 18-30s style of bar. The new town area is located around Carr Lane, It is based for the younger market 18-24 but has some good venues with good drinks offers and if your night has not quite ended and the other bars are closed it is worth a look, a few bars here have a 24-hour licence.

  • Spiders, "Hull's premier student and goth nightclub", is located East of the river Hull in Cleveland Steet and is completely without pretension. Unbelievably cheap drinks but make sure you are dressed in black or you may be discouraged by the door staff. Don't forget to try a Pan Galactic Gargle Blaster.
  • Pozition boldly claims to be "Hull’s premier nightclub". The club is spread over three floors meaning there is usually a broad spectrum of music on offer. Found on George Street.
  • Welly Club Dance, drum and bass, indie.
  • The Attic George St., city centre
  • Sugarmill Posterngate, city centre
  • Fuel, Baker Street, [6]. Metrosexual nightclub with an attitude free atmosphere. The staff can be quite hostile to straight males. Mon: karaoke; Tue: rock; Wed: drag cabaret; Thu: Pink Pounder; Fri & Sat: funky house & electro / pop, chart & commercial,  edit
  • Barn House Hotel (Hotel), [7].  edit
  • Ibis Hotel, city centre. The Ibis is a newly built, modern hotel situated at the end Ferensway - the main road through the city centre. It's right next to the A63 (Castle Street) - the main road into town from the Motorway Network - and a three minute walk from the railway station. It's close to the main shopping area of the centre and a five minute walk from the popular restaurants and pubs on the marina. Room rates are currently about £46 per room per night.
  • Royal (Station) Hotel, city centre.
  • Willerby Manor Hotel, Willerby.
  • Portland Hotel, city centre.
  • Holiday Inn, Hull Marina, near the city centre.
  • Ramada Jarvis, Willerby.
  • Cave Castle & Country Club, South Cave. Four Star
  • Village Hotel, Priory Park. Four Star
  • Tickton Grange, Tickton
  • Efforts have been made to crack down on violent crime in the city centre, and some of the most troublesome establishments have been closed down to make way for new development. However, as with any other town in the UK, evenings on a weekend are a time when you should be particularly vigilant.
  • Hull can boast that in comparison to most other major cities in the UK, gun crime is virtually unheard of.
  • Book a cheap 2 night mini-cruise with P&O Ferries [8] and go to Amsterdam, Rotterdam or Bruges. See how close Hull is to its continental neighbours.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!







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