Kite surfing: Wikis

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Kitesurfing or kiteboarding is a surface water sport that uses the wind to pull a rider through the water on a small surfboard or a kiteboard (similar to a wakeboard). Generally kiteboarding refers to a style of riding known as freestyle or wake-style, whereas kitesurfing is more "wave-riding" oriented. These two styles usually require different boards and specific performance kites.

A kitesurfer or kiteboarder uses a board with or without foot-straps or bindings, combined with the power of a large controllable kite to propel the rider and the board across the water. In 2006, the number of kitesurfers has been estimated at around 150,000 to 210,000, with 114,465 inflatable kites sold that same year.[1]

The sport is becoming safer due to innovations in kite design, safety release systems, and instructions. Riding styles have evolved to suit riders and conditions, such as wakestyle, waveriding, freestyle, freeride, jumping, and cruising.

A kitesurfer off Long Beach, California

Contents

History

In the 1800s George Pocock, used kites of increased size to propel carts on land and ships on the water, using a four-line control system - the same system in common use today. Both carts and boats were able to turn and sail upwind. The kites could be flown for sustained periods.[2] The intention was to establish kitepower as an alternative to horsepower, partly to avoid the hated "horse tax" that was levied at that time.[3] In 1903, aviation pioneer Samuel Cody developed "man-lifting kites" and succeeded in crossing the English channel in a small collapsible canvas boat powered by a kite[4]

In the late 1970s the development of Kevlar then Spectra flying lines and more controllable kites with improved efficiency contributed to practical kite traction. In 1978, Ian Day's "FlexiFoil" kite-powered Tornado catamaran exceeded 40 km/h.

Through the 1980s there were occasionally successful attempts to combine kites with canoes, ice skates, snow skis,[5] water skis and roller skates.

Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s Dieter Strasilla from Germany developed parachute-skiing and later perfected a kiteskiing system using self made paragliders and a ball-socket swivel allowing the pilot to kitesail upwind and uphill but also to take off into the air at will[6]. Strasilla and his friend Andrea Kuhn/Switzerland used this invention also in combination with surfboards and Skurfs, grasskies and selfmade buggies. One of his patents describes in 1979 the first use of an inflatable kite design for kitesurfing[7].

Two brothers, Bruno Legaignoux and Dominique Legaignoux, from the Atlantic coast of France, developed kites for kitesurfing in the late 1970s and early 1980s and patented an inflatable kite design in November 1984, a design that has been used by companies to develop their own products.

In 1990, practical kite buggying was pioneered by Peter Lynn at Argyle Park in Ashburton, New Zealand. Lynn coupled a three-wheeled buggy with a forerunner of the modern parafoil kite. Kite buggying proved to be very popular worldwide, with over 14,000 buggies sold up to 1999.

The development of modern day kitesurfing by the Roeselers in the USA and the Legaignoux in France carried on in parallel to buggying. Bill Roeseler, a Boeing aerodynamicist, and his son Corey Roeseler patented the "KiteSki" system which consisted of water skis powered by a two line delta style kite controlled via a bar mounted combined winch/brake. The KiteSki was commercially available in 1994. The kite had a rudimentary water launch capability and could go upwind. In 1995, Corey Roeseler visited Peter Lynn at New Zealand's Lake Clearwater in the Ashburton Alpine Lakes area, demonstrating speed, balance and upwind angle on his 'ski'. In the late 1990s, Corey's ski evolved to a single board similar to a surfboard.[3]

In 1996 Laird Hamilton and Manu Bertin were instrumental in demonstrating and popularising kitesurfing off the Hawaiian coast of Maui.

In 1997 the Legaignoux brothers developed and sold the breakthrough "Wipika" kite design which had a structure of preformed inflatable tubes and a simple bridle system to the wingtips, both of which greatly assisted water re-launch. Bruno Legaignoux has continued to improve kite designs, including developing the bow kite design, which has been licensed to many kite manufacturers.

Kitesurfing in Fuertaventura

In 1997, specialist kiteboards were developed by Raphaël Salles and Laurent Ness. By 1998 kitesurfing had become a mainstream sport, and several schools were teaching kitesurfing. The first competition was held on Maui in September 1998 and won by Flash Austin.[3]

By 1999 single direction boards derived from windsurfing and surfing designs became the dominant form of kiteboard. From 2001 onwards, wakeboard style bi-directional boards became more popular.

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Speed records

French kitesurfer Sebastien Cattelan became the first sailor to break the 50 knots barrier by reaching 50.26 knots on 3 October 2008 at the Lüderitz Speed Challenge in Namibia. On 4 October, Alex Caizergues (also of France) broke this record with a 50.57 knots run. These speeds are verified, but are still subject to ratification by the World Sailing Speed Record Council. [8] Earlier in the event, on 19 September, American Robert Douglas reached 49.84 knots (92.30 km/h) [9], becoming the first kitesurfer to establish an outright world record in speed sailing. Previously the record was held only by sailboats or windsurfers. Douglas also became the world's third over-50 knots sailor, when on 8 September he made a 50.54 knots (93.60 km/h) run[10].

The outright sailing speed record has since been claimed by the French trimaran Hydroptère which, on 4 September 2009, reached a speed of 51.36 knots over 500 meters. [11]

The 14th of November 2009, Alex Caizergues completed another run of 50,98 knots in Namibia.

Distance records

It is possible to travel great distances on a kiteboard on a journey referred to a "downwinder". Eric Gramond set the distance record when he went 419.9km (226 Nmilles), crossing from Fortaleza to Parnaiba in Brazil during 24 hours on October 12, 2008.[12].

A record combination of distance and speed of 207 km in 5h 30 was set by Raphaël Salles, Marc Blanc and Sylvain Maurain on July 24, 2007 between Saint Tropez and Calvi, beating Manu Bertin's previous record of 6h 30 for the same journey. Their average speed was almost 38 km/h.[13]

Techniques

Kitesurfing basics

Kiteboarding can pose hazards to kitesurfers, beachgoers, bystanders and others on the water. Many problems and dangers that may be encountered while learning kiting can be avoided or minimized by taking professional instruction through lesson centres.

Kitesurfing schools provide courses and lessons to teach skills including kite launching, flying, landing, usage of the bar, lines and safety devices.

A kiteboarder at Lake Vernon, Ontario
Kitesurfers at Slufter beach on the Maasvlakte in Rotterdam

Turning

A beginner can turn by stopping, sinking backwards into the water, then turning the kite in the opposite direction and starting again. A heel turn jibe is a quicker, more skillful turn that is executed by slowing down, flattening the board, then reversing the board flat on the water by bringing the rear foot around downwind to eventually become the new leading foot. The direction of the kite is then reversed, which swings the surfer's path in a half circle, centered on the kite. As the turn ends, the kite is flown over to be in front of the surfer again.[14]

A poorly executed turn will "fly" the surfer, and is often followed by a tumble if the surfer can't put the board down at the right angle.

A careless turn in high winds can easily swing the rider into the air and result in an uncontrolled impact.

Controlled flying and jumping

Jumping

Controlled flying is possible and one of the biggest attractions of the sport. Before jumping, the surfer builds up tension in the lines by strongly edging the board. Then the kite is flown quickly to an overhead position, sometimes just as the surfer goes over a wave. As the kite begins to lift, the board edge is then 'released' and the rider becomes airborne. The kite is then piloted from overhead to the direction of travel. A large variety of maneuvers and tricks can be performed while jumping.

Jumping can be very risky, riders must keep a clear buffer zone downwind when attempting to jump. Litigation has come about due to riders not exercising due care when jumping.[citation needed]

Board grabs

Board grabs names

Board grabs are tricks performed while a rider is jumping or has gained air from popping by grabbing the board in a number of positions with either hand. Each grab has a different name dependent on which part of the board is grabbed and with which hand it is grabbed by. Rear hand grabs are known as Crail, Indy, Trindy, Tail, Tailfish, and Stalefish; while front hand grabs are known as Slob, Mute, Seatbelt, Melon, Lien, and Nose. Names generally originate from other board sports like skateboarding and snowboarding.

A number of grabs can also be combined into one trick. A rider may perform a tail grab going to indy by moving the rear hand from the back of the board to the middle of the toe side edge.

Assessing the wind

Wind strength and kite sizes

Kitesurfers change kite size and/or line length depending on wind strength -- stronger winds call for a smaller kite to prevent overpower situations.

Kites come in different aspect ratios (AR). The AR refers to how much of the kite is exposed to the wind and what angle the wind takes as it passes through the kite. Newer kites also provide a "depower" option to reduce the power in the kite. By using depower, the kite's angle of attack to the wind is reduced, thereby catching less wind in the kite and reducing the power or pull.

Wind speed, rider experience and weight, board size, kite design and riding style are all interdependent and affect the choice of kite.

An experienced rider generally carries a 'quiver' of different sized kites appropriate for the wind speed range. A typical kite quiver might include 9 m², 13 m² and 18 m² traditional "C-kites". Exact kite sizes will vary depending on rider weight and desired wind ranges.

Bow kites have a wider wind range than C-kites, so two kite sizes (such as 7 m² and 12 m²) could form an effective quiver for winds ranging from 10 to 30+ knots for a 75 kg (165 lbs) rider[citation needed].

Wind direction

Cross-shore and cross-onshore winds are the best for kiteboarding. Offshore winds carry the danger of being carried away from the shore in the event of equipment failure or loss of control. Offshore winds are suitable in a lake or when a safety boat is available, however they are generally more gusty. Direct onshore winds carry the risk of being thrown onto land, and are thus less favorable.

Locations

Kitesurfing in Noordwijk in the Netherlands
Kitesurfer on the Columbia River
Kitesurfers wearing dry suits on Long Island in winter when the air and water temperatures are near 0 °C (32 °F)
Kitesurfing at Punta Paloma Beach, Tarifa, Spain

Any location with consistent, steady side-onshore winds (10 to 35+ knots), large open bodies of water and good launch areas are suitable for kitesurfing. Most kitesurfing takes place along ocean shores, usually off beaches, but it can also be practiced on large lakes and inlets and occasionally on rivers. Since kiteboarding relies heavily on favorable, consistent wind conditions, certain locations tend to become popular and sought out by kiteboarders.

Restrictions

Kite surfing is restricted or banned in some locations[citation needed]. This is generally the result of safety and liability concerns, excessive general beach traffic and poorly organized practicing of kiteboarding. Bans have been reversed when kitesurfers have organized, prepared riding guidelines and negotiated with authorities for resumption of this sport[citation needed]. Many experienced kite boarders stress safety and adequate quality professional instruction in order to keep their sport from being banned or restricted at their favorite location[citation needed]. As the sport has progressed the governing bodies have become a lot more involved in the sport, managing the schools and keeping the teaching practices up to date.

Equipment

To kitesurf, some basic gear is needed:

Power kites

Illustration of LEI(R), Bow(L) and Foil(T) Power kites

A power kite is available in two major forms: leading edge inflatables and foil kites.

Leading edge inflatables

Leading edge inflatable kites, known also as inflatables, LEI kites or C-kites, are typically made from ripstop nylon with an inflatable plastic bladder that spans across the front edge of the kite with separate smaller bladders that are perpendicular to the main bladder to form the chord or foil of the kite. The inflated bladders give the kite its shape and also keep the kite floating once dropped in the water. LEIs are the most popular choice among most kitesurfers thanks to their quicker and more direct response to the rider's inputs, easy relaunchability once crashed into the water, and resilient nature. If an LEI kite hits the water/ground too hard or is subjected on water to substantial wave activity, bladders can burst or it can be torn apart.

In 2005 Bow kites (also known as flat LEI kites) were developed with features including a concave trailing edge, a shallower arc in planform, and frequently a bridle along the leading edge. These features allow the kite's angle of attack to be altered more and thus adjust the amount and range of power being generated to a much greater degree than previous LEIs. These kites can be fully depowered, which is a significant safety feature. They can also cover a wider wind range than a comparable C-shaped kite. The ability to adjust the angle of attack also makes them easier to re-launch when lying front first on the water. Bow kites are popular with riders from beginner to advanced levels. Most LEI kite manufacturers developed a variation of the bow kite by 2006.

Early bow kites had some disadvantages compared to classic LEI kites:

  • They can become inverted and then not fly properly
  • They can be twitchy and not as stable
  • Heavier bar pressure makes them more tiring to fly
  • Lack of "sled boosting" effect when jumping[15]

In 2006 second generation flat LEI kites were developed which combine near total depower and easy, safe relaunch with higher performance, no performance penalties and reduced bar pressure. Called Hybrid or SLE kites (Supported Leading Edge), these kites are suitable for both beginners and experts.

In 2008 Naish introduced another kite design, with their "Sigma Series" of kites. These kites are a SLE design and feature a unique "bird in flight" shape with the center of the kite swept back to put much of the sail area behind the tow point, which Naish claims has multiple benefits.

For 2009 the performance revolution shows no sign of slowing. Bridled designs feel more like C kites, and five-line hybrids have better depower capability than ever before. [16] There are more than thirty companies manufacturing Leading edge inflatable kites. The ten most popular kitefactories are Best, Cabrinha, Core, F.One, Flysurfer, JN, Liquid Force,Naish, North and Slingshot. The delta-kites are growing in popularity since 2008 with around 12 companies offering delta-kites since 2008/2009.

Foil kites

Foil kites are also mostly fabric (ripstop nylon) with air pockets (air cells) to provide it with lift and a fixed bridle to maintain the kite's arc-shape, similar to a paraglider. A depowerable foil kite can cover about the same wind range as two traditional C-shape LEI kite sizes, so the rider can use a smaller kite, giving a wider depower range, although the new LEI "bow" kites have a comparable wide range. Foil kites have the advantage of not needing to have bladders manually inflated, a process which, with an LEI, can take up to ten minutes. Foil kites are designed with either an open or closed cell configuration.

Open Cell

Open cell foils rely on a constant airflow against the inlet valves to stay inflated, but are generally impossible to relaunch if they hit the water, since they have no means of avoiding deflation, and quickly become soaked.

Closed Cell

Closed cell foils are almost identical to open cell foils except they are equipped with inlet valves to hold air in the chambers, thus keeping the kite inflated (or, at least, making the deflation extremely slow) even once in the water. Water relaunches with closed cell foil kites are simpler; a steady tug on the power lines typically allows them to take off again. An example for a closed cell kite is the Arc Kite.

A kitesurfing kite at Exmouth, Devon, England

Kite sizes

Kites come in sizes ranging from 0.7 square meters to 21 square meters, or even larger. In general, the larger the surface area, the more power the kite has, although kite power is also directly linked to speed, and smaller kites can be flown faster; a tapering curve results, where going to a larger kite to reach lower wind ranges becomes futile at a wind speed of around eight knots. Kites come in a variety of designs. Some kites are more rectangular in shape; others have more tapered ends; each design determines the kites flying characteristics. 'Aspect ratio' is the ratio of span to length. Wider shorter (ribbon-like) kites have less drag because the wing-tip vortices are smaller. High aspect ratios (ribbon-like kites) develop more power in lower wind speeds.

Seasoned kiteboarders will likely have three or more kite sizes which are needed to accommodate various wind levels, although bow kites may change this, as they present an enormous wind range; some advanced kiters use only one bow kite. Smaller kites are used by light riders, or in strong wind conditions; larger kites are used by heavier riders or in light wind conditions. Larger and smaller kiteboards have the same effect: with more available power a given rider can ride a smaller board. In general, however, most kiteboarders only need one board and one to three kites (7-12m in size).

Other equipment

  • Flying lines are made of a very strong material, frequently Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, in order to handle the dynamic load in unpredictable wind while maintaining a small cross-sectional profile to minimize drag. They come in sizes generally between seven and thirty-three meters; experimentation with line lengths is common in kiteboarding. The lines attach the rider's control bar to the kite using attachment cords on the kite edges or its bridle. Most power kites use a 3, 4 or 5-line configuration. The 5th line is used to aid in water re-launching or adjusting the kite's angle of attack.
  • The control bar is a solid metal or composite bar which attaches to the kite via the lines. The rider holds on to this bar and controls the kite by pulling at its ends, causing the kite to rotate clockwise or counter-clockwise like a bicycle. Typically a chicken loop from the control bar is attached to a latch or hook on a spreader bar on the rider's harness. Most bars also provide a quick-release safety-system and a control strap to adjust the kite's angle of attack. While kite control bars are made intentionally light, they must also be very strong, and so are usually heavier than water; "bar floats" made of foam are generally fixed to the lines right above the harness to keep the bar from sinking if lost in the water. Control bars are usually specific to a particular kite type and size and are not usually suitable for use with different kite types.
  • A kite harness comes in seat (with leg loops), waist or vest types. The harness together with a spreader bar attaches the rider to the control bar. By hooking in, the harness takes most of the strain of the kite's pull off of the rider's arms, and spreads it across a portion of his body. This allows the rider to do jumps and other tricks while remaining attached to the kite via the control bar. Waist harnesses are by far the most popular harnesses among advanced riders, although seat harnesses make it possible to kitesurf with less effort from the rider and vest harnesses provide both flotation and impact protection. Kite harnesses look similar to windsurfing harnesses, but are actually much different; a windsurfing harness used for kiteboarding is likely to break very quickly, which could result in injury and/or gear loss.
Kiteboard
  • Kiteboard, a small composite, wooden, or foam board. There are now several types of kiteboards: directional surf-style boards, wakeboard-style boards, hybrids which can go in either direction but are built to operate better in one of them, and skim-type boards. Some riders also use standard surfboards, or even long boards, although without foot straps much of the high-jump capability of a kite is lost. Twin tip boards are the easiest to learn on and are by far the most popular. The boards generally come with sandle-type footstraps that allow the rider to attach and detach from the board easily; this is required for doing board-off tricks and jumps. Bindings are used mainly by the wakestyle riders wishing to replicate wakeboarding tricks such as KGBs and other pop initiated tricks. Kiteboards come in shapes and sizes to suit the rider's skill level, riding style, wind and water conditions.
The equipment used can be seen on this kitesurfer at Exmouth, Devon, England
  • A wetsuit is often worn by kitesurfers, except in warmer conditions with light winds. When kitesurfing in strong winds, body heat loss is reduced by wearing a wetsuit. A "shortie" is worn to protect the torso only, and a full suit is used for protection against cool conditions, from marine life such as jellyfish, and also from abrasions if the rider is dragged by the kite. Dry suits are also used to kitesurf in cold conditions in winter.
  • A safety hook knife is considered required equipment. The corrosion resistant stainless-steel blade is partially protected by a curved plastic hook. It can be used to cut entangled or snagged kite lines, or to release the kite if the safety release system fails. Some kitesurfing harnesses are equipped with a small pocket for the knife.
  • A helmet is often worn by kitesurfers to protect the head from blunt trauma. Helmets prevent head lacerations, and can also reduce the severity of impact injuries to the head, as well as compression injuries to the neck and spine.
  • A personal flotation device or PFD may be required if the kitesurfer is using a boat or personal water craft for support. It is also recommended for kitesurfing in deep water in case the kitesurfer becomes disabled and must wait for rescue.
  • An impact vest provides some protection against impacts to the torso area. They can also provide some flotation.
  • A board leash that attaches the board to the kitesurfer's leg or harness is used by some riders. However, many kitesurfing schools discourage the use of board leashes due to the risk of recoil, where the leash can yank the board to impact the rider, which can result in serious injury or even death. Generally, kitesurfers that use a board leash will also wear a helmet to help protect against this.
  • A buddy is important to help with launching and retrieving the kite, and to assist in an emergency.
  • A GPS can be used to measure distance travelled, tracks and speed during a session.

Dangers and safety

Power kites can be dangerous. Because of strong forces that can be generated by sudden wind gusts, people can be lofted, carried off, dashed against water, buildings, terrain or power lines, resulting in what's termed a "kitemare" (kite + nightmare).

Most kiteboarding fatalities are the result of being lofted or dragged out of control, resulting in a collision with hard objects including sand. It is possible to be seriously injured simply by hitting the water surface at speed or from a height.

Jumping and being airborne at inappropriate places (such as shallow water or near fixed or floating objects) can be hazardous.

A surfer can get farther from shore than an easy swim, which is the primary reason kite surfing in directly offshore winds is discouraged. Marine hazards include sharks, jellyfish, sea otters, dolphins, and even crocodiles, depending on the location.

Collisions with wind surfers, other kite boarders or water craft are hazards, particularly at busy locations.

A safety knife is useful if lines become tangled and dangerous.

Some kite designs from late 2005 and onwards have included immediate and almost full depower integrated with the control bar and improved quick release mechanisms, both of which are making the sport much safer.

Weather planning and awareness are key to safe kiteboarding. A number of riders have been killed in kiteboarding-related accidents since 2000 (Kitesurfing injury statistics 2000- 2003), according to a safety adviser for one of the sport's governing bodies[citation needed].

Paying attention to the weather and staying within the limits of the riders ability will provide the safest experience[17].

Some countries have laws[18] about flying kites and being safe while flying, this also applies to kitesurfing.

Kitesurfing safety rules

Kite High Rule - A kiter who is upwind (closest to the wind) must keep their kite high to avoid their lines crossing those of downwind kiters. Similarly, the downwind kiter must keep their kite low to avoid their lines crossing upwind kites. This applies regardless of whether kiters are on the same, or opposing courses.

Clearance Rule - A kiter must have a clear safety zone of at least 50m downwind because they move downwind during a jump. A rider must also have a clear safety zone of 30m upwind to jump as his lines could touch the kite or the lines of another rider kiteboarding close by (see Kite High rule).

Kiters are also considered as sailing vessels – so some standard sailing rules apply such as:

Starboard Rule (Sailing Rule 12) - When vessels (e.g. kiters) approach from opposite directions the kiter who has the wind on the starboard (right side, right leg/arm leads in direction of travel) has right of way. The kiter who has the wind on the port side (left side, left leg/arm are leads in direction of travel) shall keep out of the way of the other.

In sailing terms, a sailor or kiter with right of way is entitled to "insist" on exercising that right (warning opposing kiters) by shouting "starboard" very clearly and in good time.

Other boating rules such as no-go zones, distance from shore and swimmers also apply.[19]

Terminology and jargon

  • Air time: the amount of time spent in the air while jumping. This can be remarkably long; the record is Jessie Richman's 22 second long jump. Five to ten seconds is not unusual.
  • Apparent wind: the kite's speed relative to the surrounding air. When kitesurfing in a straight line, the kite's apparent wind is a combination of the wind speed and the speed of the kite and rider over the surface, but since the kite is highly steerable apparent wind can vary widely depending on how the kite is being flown. Most ways of increasing power from the kite involve giving it a higher apparent wind somehow, i.e. diving the kite, riding faster, or riding at a greater angle into the wind. Any of these raises the kite's apparent wind speed.
  • Big Air: doing a very high jump utilizing the lift of the kite. The jump is often assisted in its initial stage by the rider being catapulted off the lip of a wave.
  • Body dragging: being pulled through the water without standing on a board. This is an early step in the learning process, and is recommended before trying the board after flying a trainer kite.
  • Boost: to suddenly become airborne
  • Charlie browner: same as kiteboarder or kitesurfer.
  • Chicken loop: a hard rubber loop attached to the middle line which has been fed through the control bar. It is used to attach the control bar to the harness so the kitesurfer can produce tension in the lines using their entire bodyweight instead of using purely arm strength.
  • Chicken bone/chicken finger/donkey dick: a hard rubber "tongue" attached to the chicken loop which the rider feeds through the spreader bar hook to prevent the rider from becoming "unhooked".
  • De-power: to reduce the kite's power (pull), generally by adjusting the angle of attack of the kite. Most kites and control bars now allow a rider to rig a kite for a number of different power levels before launching, in addition to powering the kite up and down "on the fly" by moving the bar up and down. Depowerability makes a kite safer and easier to handle. Some new kite models, especially "bow" kites, can be de-powered to practically zero power, giving them an enormous wind range.
  • DP: dawn patrol; a very early morning session.
  • downwind: the direction the wind is blowing towards; to leeward. When a rider is facing downwind the wind is at their back.
  • Downwinder: a kitesurfing "trip" (could actually be as short as a few minutes) where the rider starts at one point and ends up at another point downwind of their original position.
Kiteboarder edging his board -Praia da Varzinha Brazil
  • Edge: tilting the board with its edge into the water. Used to control the direction of travel. Learning to edge properly is critical for learning to tack upwind. Edging is one of the fundamental skills of kitesurfing and is one of the ways kitesurfing is different from windsurfing or wakeboarding. While windsurf boards have daggerboards and/or skegs to steer the board upwind while lift and planing is provided by the board itself, generally kiteboards actually combine both functions and the bottom of the board lifts the rider and steers simultaneously. Kiteboard fins are generally much smaller and are for keeping the board in the water (see "tea-bagging"), but are not essential. Because kite boards have a small rocker, a deep edge can allow the board to act as a large low drag fin. Edging in wakeboarding is used for steering the board; whereas in kite boarding not only does edging steer the kite board, it is essential for kite control and controlling board speed. Riding downwind towards the kite subtracts massively from the kite's power and helps control board speed as well.
  • Freeride: kiteboarding style. Plain kiteboarding that does not involve tricks or jumping. The main goal is keeping a good edge and ability to traverse upwind. This would normally require a board with little rocker.
  • Freestyle: kiteboarding style. Freestyle involves tricks (or combinations of tricks) where the rider is jumping off the water and experiencing enhanced elevation using lift generated from the kite. Freestyle is weather vise a multi-condition concept and is to some degree equipment specific. "Big Air" is commonly associated with Freestyle.
  • Heel side: the side of a board on the edge where a riders heels are (opposite of toe side). "Riding heel side" is riding with heels down.
  • Hindenburg: a reference to the Hindenburg Airship disaster of 1937, which in kitesurfing terminology refers to the kite stalling and then crashing. Hindenburging can be caused either by lack of wind or by the kite advancing to a position upwind of the kitesurfer in the wind window, also called "overflying the kite".
  • Handlepass: while unhooked, passing the control bar behind a riders back while in the air
  • Kiteloop: is a powered group of tricks where a rider loops the kite through the power zone while spinning through the air
  • Kitemare: a kiteboardsurfing accident or dangerous mishap. Kitemares can be deadly.
  • Launch: getting the kite in the air. The kite may be launched assisted or un-assisted. An assisted launch is generally more safe that an un-assisted launch.
  • Lofted: to get lifted vertically into the air by the kite by a strong gust of wind. A very dangerous occurrence that has resulted in several fatalities when kiters on or near land have been dragged into obstacles. Can be avoided by minimizing time on land with the kite flying directly overhead, and by not kiting in overpowered situations.
  • Luff : when the air flow stalls around the kite. It may then stall and fall out of the sky. Like sails, a luffing kite has rippling and flapping panels. When launching the kite, if the kite is luffing, the rider should move farther upwind, or the person holding the kite should move downwind.
  • Mobe: this term has two meanings. It can either be used to describe a class of wakestyle tricks: any invert with a 360 degree spin is considered a "mobe." Also, this term can denote a specific trick: a back roll with a frontside 360 handlepass (while keeping the kite below 45 degrees); this specific trick is also known as "the mobe." The term "mobe" (as a class of tricks) is historically rooted in the fact that the mobe (the specific trick) was the first type of mobe to ever be landed. Other types of mobes include: mobe 540, mobe 720, slim chance, KGB, crow mobe, moby dick, Pete Rose, blind pete, crow mobe 540, etc.
  • Nuking: wind blowing at great speeds (30-40 knots). These conditions are very extreme and dangerous for most riders.
  • Offshore: wind blowing at the water from the shore. Never ride in offshore winds without some means of recovery, i.e. a chase boat. This is somewhat less important in smaller bodies of water, of course.
  • Onshore: wind blowing perpendicular to and directly at the shore from the water. A challenging condition for beginners, especially if waves are present.
  • Dookie Dive: loss of power during air time resulting in a crash into the water.
  • O-Shit Loop: two loops on either ends of the bar that are attached to the kite lines and run through rings attached to the bar. A standard leash attachment point.
  • Overhead waves: waves two or more meters (6 ft) from trough to crest;
  • Overpowered: the condition of having too much power from the kite. Can be a result of an increase in wind, incorrect kite choice (too large for the conditions), incorrect adjustment, simply going too fast, etc. Interestingly, experienced riders who are overpowered can switch to a smaller board to compensate, to a degree, although it's common to have just one board.
  • pop: height gained above the water using only the board and tension in the lines to get lift, with the kite usually positioned at 45 degrees. Lower kite angles are possible for more experienced riders. Used as a basis for many tricks and regarded as an essential skill for progressing.
  • Port is the nautical term that refers to the left side of a ship, as perceived by a person on board facing the bow (front).
  • Power up: when the kite's power increases (suddenly), because of wind gusts or the kite's movement.
  • Power zone: is the area in the sky where the kite generates the most lift (pull), this is generally between 0 to 60 degrees arc from the center of the downwind direction.
  • Re-Launch: a general term for getting the kite back up in the air after crashing it (on land or water). A relaunch is unassisted and requires the rider to follow a kite-specific procedure (check the manual). As years of development have gone by, the more recent kites are easier to relaunch.
  • Send it: to move the kite aggressively up through the power zone.
  • Schlogging: this is riding extremely underpowered. A rider has no power to plane and definitely not enough to jump. A rider and their board bounce from planing on the surface to being dragged in the water.
  • Shit hot: the art of stylish smooth moves.
  • SLE: Supported Leading Edge. A C shaped kite with an inflatable leading edge, currently the most advanced kite design available allowing massive de-power.
  • Side offshore: wind blowing between sideshore and at a 45 degree angle away from the shore.
  • Side onshore: wind blowing between sideshore and at a 45 degree angle towards the shore.
  • side shore: winds blowing parallel to the shore. Usually the most desirable direction for kitesurfing.
  • Spreader bar: a stainless steel bar that attaches to the rider's harness. It has a hook that holds the "chicken loop" when riding hooked in.
  • Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board facing the bow (front).
  • Stomp: to successfully perform a trick.
  • Tack: the direction which is being sailed, normally either starboard tack or port tack. In a starboard tack the wind is coming in from the rider's starboard (right-hand) side, similar to sailing a boat. In normal riding, the kitesurfer takes a heading which is as close to into the wind as possible, and in any event leads at some angle slightly upwind, sometimes as much as 45 degrees; jumping or wave riding usually results in traveling downwind, so the net result is to maintain relative position. Alternately, see "downwinder".
  • Tea-bagging: popping out of and falling back into the water intermittently due to light or gusty wind, poor flying skills, twisted lines etc.
  • Toe side: the side of a board on the edge where a riders toes are (opposite of heel side). "Riding toe side" is riding with toes down.
  • Underpowered: the condition of having insufficient power from the kite. Can be a result of insufficient wind, choosing a kite that is too small for the wind, rigging incorrectly, board too small, water current in the same direction as the wind, not riding fast enough, etc. A rider who is continuously diving the kite and sending it back up in a sine-wave pattern is usually underpowered.
  • Unhooked is a term used to describe when a kitesurfer is riding while the chicken loop is not attached to the rider's harness.
  • Upwind: the direction from which the wind is blowing; windward; into the wind.
  • VaS conditions: Victory at Sea; very rough sea conditions, generally with overhead wind waves causing severe shore break.
  • Walk of Shame is the act of walking back upwind to the location where the kite was originally launched.
  • Wind window is the 120-180 degree arc of the sky downwind of the rider in which the kite can be flown. Roughly one fourth of a sphere's surface. If the rider is facing downwind on a flat surface, like the ocean, the wind window consists of roughly all the area the rider can see, from the rider's peripheral vision on one side, along the horizon to the other side, and then directly overhead back to the first side. If the rider somehow puts the kite out of the window -- for example, by riding downwind very quickly and sending the kite directly overhead and behind -- the kite will stall and frequently fall out of the sky.
  • Zenith the location in the wind window directly over the kiter's head. This is the neutral position where kitesurfers can place the kite to stop moving or prior to movement. This places the kite in a more vulnerable to "Hindenburgs" position than any other.
  • Wind-testing dummy refers to a person who goes out to test if the wind is rideable or not. If it is, others start riding too.

Photos

See also

References

  1. ^ SBC Kiteboard Magazine 2006 industry survey www.sbckiteboard.com
  2. ^ Jakob Jelling [http:/www.kitesurfingnow.com/kitesurfing-facts/history-of-kitesurfing.shtml History of kitesurfing] Kitesurfingnow
  3. ^ a b c Peter Lynn A brief history of kitesurfing, Aquilandia.com, 2006
  4. ^ [http:/www.design-technology.org/military.htm Samuel Franklin Cody and his man-lifting kite], www.design-technology.org, 2005
  5. ^ Mark Harris Sea kayaking and kites, July 2002
  6. ^ www.skywing.de
  7. ^ Patent DE2933050
  8. ^ http://www.sail-world.com/Australia/Fifty-knots-broken-again---New-Speed-Record/49448
  9. ^ http://www.luderitz-speed.com/ContentPages/Results/Results.aspx?Filter=Overall&Session=3&Run=9/19/2008
  10. ^ http://www.luderitz-speed.com/ContentPages/Results/Results.aspx?Filter=Overall&Session=11&Run=10/8/2008
  11. ^ http://www.hydroptere.com/_en/actu_detail.php?id_actu=57#centre
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ m8kite.com - Long Distance record
  14. ^ Jibing, How To Kitesurf, www.kitesurfingschool.org
  15. ^ Flat Inflatable Kites, Bow Kites, Flat LEIs, Kitesufingschool.org, 27 June 2006
  16. ^ 2009 Kiteboarding Buyers'Guide
  17. ^ Kitesurfing Dangers www.kitesurfingnow.com
  18. ^ "Kite Safety" www.kiteman.co.uk
  19. ^ Are you kiting Safely?? Are you aware of the Rules??, kbv.org.au

External links


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