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A knockout can be characterized by temporary unconsciousness.

A knockout (also referred to as a K.O.) is a winning criterion in several full-contact combat sports, such as boxing, kickboxing, Muay Thai, mixed martial arts, Karate and others sports involving striking. A knockout is usually awarded when one participant is unable to rise from the canvas within a specified period of time, typically because of fatigue, injury (serious or temporarily incapacitating, e.g. a bleeding cut above the eye can blind a fighter), loss of balance, or unconsciousness; that is, the person may literally be knocked out. A technical knockout (also referred to as a T.K.O.) is often declared when the referee or other judges (such as official ring physician, the fighter, or the fighter's cornermen) decide that a fighter cannot continue the match, even though he did not fail the count, or, in many regions, a fighter has been knocked down three times in one round.[1] British records refer to TKOs as either "retired", if the fighter refuses to continue, or "R.S.F.", for Referee Stopped Fight. In amateur boxing, a knockout is scored as "RSC," for Referee Stopped Contest. A technical knockout ("Outclassed") can also be declared if a fighter is ahead by 15 points in a bout. Boxers regarded as hard punchers who have racked up a high percentage of knockout victories, or especially spectacular knockouts, are referred to as knockout artists, because it is said "they make an art of knocking people unconscious".[citation needed]

Contents

Physical characteristics

There is actually very little known about what exactly causes a knockout but many agree it has to do with minor trauma to the brain stem. This usually happens when the head rotates sharply, often caused by a strike. There are three general manifestations of such trauma - the typical knock out which results in a sustained loss of consciousness (comparable to general anesthesia - where the recipient emerges and has lost memory of the event), a "flash" knock out where a very transient loss of consciousness (of less than three seconds) occurs (where the recipient often maintains awareness and memory of the combat) , and lastly a "stunning" where consciousness is maintained despite extremely distorted proprioception, visual fields, and auditory processing. A basic principle of boxing is to defend against this vulnerability by keeping both hands raised about the face and the chin tucked in.

A fighter who suffers a concussion and becomes unconscious from a strike with sufficient knockout power is referred to as having been knocked out or kayoed (KO'd). Losing balance without losing consciousness is referred to as being knocked down ("down but not out"). Repeated blows to the head are known to gradually cause permanent brain damage.In severe cases may cause strokes or paralysis.[citation needed] This is commonly known as becoming "punch drunk" or "Rocked". Because of this, many physicians advise against sports involving knockouts.[2]

Fighters who lose by knockout (either by ten count or technical) are automatically suspended 30 days, three months if it is the second knockout within three months, or one year if it is the third knockout within one year. In AIBA competition, this does not apply if a fighter loses by a technical knockout outclassed, when a fighter is behind more than 20 points—15 for junior levels—in any round except the final round.

As a winning outcome

In boxing, a knockout occurs when a fighter is knocked down and does not get up within 10 seconds, as counted by the referee.

In mixed martial arts, the definitions of knockouts and technical knockouts vary according to organization and jurisdiction. Under New Jersey's Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts, which has become the de facto standard of MMA rules in the United States, a knockout is defined as a "failure to rise from the canvas".[3] In Pancrase, a knockout is declared when the competitor loses consciousness, and a technical knockout when the referee or judges consider a fighter unable to continue the match.[4]

Knockdown

A boxer is knocked down and receives the 10 count.

A knockdown occurs when a fighter touches the floor of the ring with any part of his or her body other than his or her feet following a hit. The term is also used if the fighter is hanging on to the ropes, caught between the ropes, or is hanging over the ropes and is unable to fall to the floor and cannot protect him or her self. A knockdown triggers a count by the referee; if the fighter fails the count, then the fight is ended as a K.O.[5]

A flash knockdown is a knockdown where the fighter hits the canvas but recovers quickly enough that a count is not started.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sugar, Bert. Boxing. www.owingsmillsboxingclub.com. URL last accessed March 4, 2006.
  2. ^ Lieberman, Abraham. Causing Parkinson: Boxing, Brain Injury. www.liebermanparkinsonclinic.com. URL last accessed March 4, 2006.
  3. ^ New Jersey State Athletic Control Board. Mixed Martial Arts Unified Rules of Conduct Additional Mixed Martial Arts Rules. www.state.nj.us. URL last accessed March 18, 2006.
  4. ^ Pancrase Hybrid Wrestling official website. Pancrase official rules -2005 Edition-. www.pancrase.co.jp. URL last accessed March 4, 2006.
  5. ^ a b Boxing Terminology Ringside by Gus. URL last accessed June 17, 2008.
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