# Knot (speed): Wikis

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The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, which is equal to exactly 1.852 km/h and approximately 1.151 mph.[1] The abbreviation kn is preferred by members of the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), which includes all major seafaring nations.[2], however, the abbreviations kt (singular) and kts (plural) are also widely used.[3] The knot is a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI.[4] Worldwide, the knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation—for example, a vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels one minute of geographic latitude in one hour. Mariners first used the term 'knot' denoting the measure of how many knots in a special line paid out in a given time, using the chip log.

## Definitions

1 international knot =
nautical mile per hour (by definition),
1.852 kilometers per hour (exactly),[4]
0.514 meters per second,
1.151 miles per hour (approximately).

1.852 km is the length of the internationally-agreed nautical mile. The U.S. adopted the international definition in 1954, having previously used the U.S. nautical mile (1,853.248 m).[5] The U.K. adopted the international nautical mile definition in 1970, having previously used the U.K. Admiralty nautical mile (6,080 ft [1,853.184 m]).

The speeds of vessels relative to the fluids in which they travel (boat speeds and air speeds) are measured in knots. For consistency, the speeds of navigational fluids (tidal streams, river currents and wind speeds) are also measured in knots. Thus, speed over the ground (SOG) (ground speed (GS) in aircraft) and rate of progress towards a distant point ('velocity made good', VMG) are also given in knots.

A convenient everyday approximation is 1 m/s = 2 kn and 1 kn = 0.5 m/s. Since wind speed is usually represented as metres per second in European countries and as knots in US, the proximity of these values make conversion easy.

## Origin

Until the mid-19th century vessel speed at sea was measured using a chip log. This consisted of a wooden panel, weighted on one edge to float upright, and thus present substantial resistance to moving with respect to the water around it, attached by line to a reel. The chip log was "cast" over the stern of the moving vessel and the line allowed to pay out. Knots placed at a distance of 47 feetinches (14.4018 m) passed through a sailor's fingers, while another sailor used a 30 second sandglass (28 second sandglass is the current accepted timing) to time the operation.[6] The knot count would be reported and used in the sailing master's dead reckoning and navigation. This method gives a value for the knot of 20.25 in/s, or 1.85166 km/h. The difference from the modern definition is less than 0.02%.

## Modern use

Although the unit knot does not fit within the primary SI system, its retention for nautical and aviation use is important because standard nautical charts are on the Mercator projection and the scale varies with latitude. On a chart of the North Atlantic, the scale varies by a factor of two from Florida to Greenland. A single graphic scale, of the sort on many maps, would, therefore, be useless on such a chart. Since the length of a nautical mile is, for practical purposes, identical to a minute of latitude, a distance in nautical miles on a chart can easily be measured by using dividers and the latitude scales on the chart.

Speed is sometimes incorrectly expressed as "knots per hour" which would actually be a measure of acceleration, as in "nautical miles per hour per hour."

### Aeronautical terms

Prior to 1969, airworthiness standards for civil aircraft in the USA Federal Aviation Regulations specified that distances were to be in statute miles, and speeds in miles per hour. In 1969 these standards[7] were progressively amended to specify that distances were to be in nautical miles, and speeds in knots.

The following abbreviations[8] are used to distinguish between various measurements of airspeed.

## References

1. ^ Bartlett, Tim (2003, reprinted July 2008). RYA Navigation Handbook. Southampton: Royal Yachting Association.
2. ^ Chart No. 1, Positions, Distances, Directions, Compass. Jointly by NOAA and Department of Commerce, USA.  The cited book incorporates IHO Chart INT 1 and therefore represents the practice of the member states.
3. ^ "Google calculator". Retrieved 2009-04-05. "1 kt = 0.514444444 m/s"
4. ^ a b "Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI, and units based on fundamental constants". SI brochure (8th ed.). International Bureau of Weights and Measures. "The knot is defined as one nautical mile per hour."
5. ^ Louis E. Barbrow and Lewis V. Judson (1976). "Appendix 4 The international nautical mile" (PDF). Weights and Measures Standards of the United States, A brief history. NIST Physics Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
6. ^ Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Page 454.
7. ^ For example, Part 23 of the Federal Aviation Regulations, amendment 23-7, September 14, 1969
8. ^ U.S. Federal Aviation Regulations, Part 1 Definitions and Abbreviations
• Kemp, Peter (editor). The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Oxford university Press, 1976. ISBN 0-19-282084-2

# Simple English

“Knots” redirects here. For other uses, see Knot (disambiguation).

A knot is a unit of speed. It is abbreviated kt or kn. It is a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI.[1] It is used around the world in meteorology and for maritime and aviation purposes.

## Definition

1 international knot = 1 nautical mile per hour = 1.852 kilometres per hour exactly. This is based on the internationally agreed length of the nautical mile, as adopted by the US in 1954 (which previously used the US nautical mile of 1853.248 m)[2], the UK in 1970 (which previously used the UK or Admiralty nautical mile of 1853.184 m) and other countries. This is the definition used in most, if not all, modern circumstances. Knot is sometimes used for the nautical mile itself, but this is incorrect.

The speed of a vessel relative to the fluid in which it travels is usually measured in knots. This may be referred to as 'boat speed', 'vessel speed' and, for aircraft, 'air speed'. The speeds of relevant fluids, such as tidal streams, river currents and wind speeds, are also usually specified in knots. Knots are then also used to describe the actual speed of a vessel over the ground (SOG) and for its rate of progress toward a distant point ('velocity made good' or VMG).

## Conversions

One (international) knot is the same as 1.852 kilometres per hour (km·h−1), and is approximately equal to the following:

• 101.268591 feet per minute
• 1.687810 feet per second
• 514.4444 mm per second (mm·s−1)
• 1.150779 mile (statute) per hour (mph)

## Discussion

Although knots do not fit within the primary SI system, they are used for nautical and aviation use for navigational reasons, because the length of a nautical mile is almost identical to a minute of latitude. As a result, distance in nautical miles on a navigational chart can easily be measured by using dividers and the latitude indicators on the side of the chart.

## References

1. Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI
2. Louis E. Barbrow and Lewis V. Judson (1976). "Appendix 4 The international nautical mile" (PDF). Weights and Measures Standards of the United States, A brief history. NIST Physics Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-08-02.