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Kochi metropolitan area
Ernakulam Mainland, as seen from the Vembanad Lake
Coordinates
Country  India
State Kerala
District(s) Ernakulam
Population
Density
1,355,406
4,914 /km2 (12,727 /sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 275.85 km2 (107 sq mi)
This article is about the urban agglomeration of Kochi. For the city of Kochi, see Kochi

The urban agglomeration (UA) of Kochi (pronunciation?·i; Malayalam: കൊച്ചി [Kocci]); formerly known as Cochin) is the largest UA in the Indian state of Kerala.

Kochi urban agglomeration constituted on the basis of census data 2001, consists of Corporation of Kochi (Cochin), five municipalities, 15 Panchayaths and parts of 3 Panchayaths. The five municipalities are Thrippunithura, Kalamassery, North Paravur, Aluva and Angamali. The fifteen Panchayaths consists of Trikkakkara, Cheranelloor, Eloor, Varapuzha, Chennamangalam, Kadamakkudy, Mulavukad, Thiruvankulam, Maradu, Kadungalloor, Alangad, Chengamanad, Choornikkara, Edathala,Kumbalam and Kottuvally. Apart from these local body areas, Census Towns (CT) of Kureekad, Chowwara, Cheriyakadavu and Kedamangalam also make up parts of Kochi UA. Urban ugglomerations in India are determined on the basis Census Towns (CT) which may or may not coincide with local bodies like Corporations, Municipalities or Panchayaths. Eg., Trikkakkara panchayath is enumerated as Census Towns of Kakkanad and Vazhakkala. Kochi urban agglomeration itself is not a geographically contiguous entity. As per Census 2001, it has a population of 1.355 million making it the largest urban agglomeration in Kerala. In census 1991, Kochi UA was found to have a population of 1.14 million. [1] [2] [3]

Contents

Name

Cheena vala (Chinese fishing nets). Kochi is the only place outside of China where these fishing structures are used.

Theories regarding the etymology of the name "Kochi" are disputed.[4] One of the theories suggests that the modern name of the city is derived from the Malayalam word koch azhi, meaning 'small lagoon'. Another version mentions that the city derives its name from the Sanskrit word Go shree which means 'prosperous with cows'. Certain ancient texts refer to the city as Balapuri (Sanskrit for 'small town'), which became Cochin in course of time.[5]

According to some accounts, traders from the court of the Chinese ruler Khubilai Khan gave Cochin the name of their homeland. Yet another theory is that Kochi is derived from the word Kaci meaning 'harbour'. Certain scholars claim that Cochin is derived from the term Cocha, which is a transfiguration of the Biblical term Cohen. Accounts by Italian explorers Nicolo Conti (15th century), and Fra Paoline in the 17th century say that it was called Kochchi, named after the river connecting the backwaters to the sea.

After the arrival of the Portuguese, and later the British, the name Cochin stuck as the official appellation. The city reverted to a closer anglicisation of its original Malayalam name, Kochi, in 1996. However, it is still widely referred to as Cochin.

History

Kochi was the princely state under the Kingdom of Kochi which came into existence in 1102, after the fall of the Kulasekhara empire.[6] The princely state was having the Kochi mainland as the capital. The state was ruled by Cochin Royal Family. However, the kingdom was under foreign rule since the 18th century, and the King often only had titular privileges.

On the earlier days, the kingdom of Kochi was always under the shadow of the attacks from Samoothirippadu(often anglicised as Zamorin), the ruler of Malabar the northern neighbour. From 1503 to 1663, Kochi was ruled by Portugal. Kochi hosted the grave of Vasco da Gama, the first European explorer to set sail for India, who was buried at St. Francis Church until his remains were returned to Portugal in 1539.[7] The Portuguese rule was followed by that of the Dutch, who had allied with the Zamorins in order to conquer Kochi.

In the battle of Ambalapuzha (3 January 1754), the Dutch allied Kochi was defeated by Marthanda Varma of Travancore after he ousted the Dutch in the Battle of Colachel-1741. In 1757 AD, a treaty was concluded between Travancore and Cochin, ensuring peace and stability on the Southern border. By 1773, the Mysore King Hyder Ali extended his conquest in the Malabar region to Kochi forcing it to become a tributary of Mysore. The hereditary Prime Ministership of Kochi held by the Paliath Achans came to an end during this period. Soon, Kochi was ceded to the United Kingdom by the Dutch, who feared an outbreak of war on the United Provinces signed a treaty with the United Kingdom. This was in exchange for the island of Bangka as per the treaty. Kochi was thus under the British rule, till India gained independence in 1947.

In 1949, Travancore-Cochin state came into being with the merger of Cochin and Travancore. The King of Travancore was the Rajpramukh of the Travancore-Cochin Union from 1949 to 1956. Travancore-Cochin, was in turn merged with the Malabar district of the Madras State. Finally, the Government of India's States Reorganisation Act (1956) inaugurated a new state Kerala; incorporating Travancore-Cochin (excluding the four southern Taluks which were merged with Tamil Nadu), Malabar District, and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara.

Kochi Urban Agglomeration was defined in 1998, with the corporation of Cochin, municipalities of North Paravur Aluva, Angamaly, Kalamassery and 11 adjoining villages.

Economy

Kochi UA is referred to as the economic capital of Kerala. Due to the proximity of the sea port at Kochi city, the economy of the area is booming.

Kochi witnessed economic stagnation in the years following India's independence at 1947. The economic recovery gathered momentum after economic reforms in India introduced by the central government in the mid-1990s. Since 2000, the service sector has revitalised the stagnant economy. Over the years, the city has witnessed rapid commercialisation, and has today grown into the commercial capital of Kerala.[9]

Constituents of the urban agglomeration

Place Classification 2001 population Area (km²)
Angamaly Municipality 33,424 24.0
Chengamanad Census town 29,775 15.6
Chowwara Census town 13,603
Aluva Municipality 24,108 7.2
Choornikkara Census town 36,998 11.0
Edathala Census town 67,137 16.0
Paravur Municipality 30,056 9.0
Kottuvally Census town 37,884 20.8
Varappuzha Census town 24,516 7.7
Eloor Census town 30,092 14.2
Kadungalloor Census town 35,451 18.1
Mulavukad Census town 22,845 19.3
Kadamakkudy Census town 15,823 12.9
Cheranallur Census town 26,330 10.6
Kalamassery Municipality 63,176 27.0
Vazhakkala Census town 42,272 19.6
Kochi Municipal corporation 596,473 94.9
Kedamangalam Outgrowth 21,729
Alangad Outgrowth 40,585 18.4
Cheriyakadavu Outgrowth 8,326
Kakkanad Outgrowth 22,486
Maradu Census town 40,993 12.4
Thrippunithura Municipality 59,881 18.7
Chennamangalam Outgrowth 21,881 14.7
Thiruvankulam Census town 21,713 10.5
Kureekkad Census town 9,730
TOTAL 1,355,406

References

  1. ^ . http://jnnurm.nic.in/nurmudweb/cdp_apprep_pdf/CDP_Appraisals_ASCI/COCHIN/KOCHI_AR1.pdf.  
  2. ^ . http://ernakulam.nic.in/census.htm.  
  3. ^ "Achieving compact and high-density development". http://www.hindu.com/pp/2005/10/01/stories/2005100100970400.htm.  
  4. ^ Etymology Corporation of Cochin official site
  5. ^ Theory about the origin of the word KochiCorporation of Cochin official site. It may also be referred that there is a place called Kochi in Japan, which if related to Kochi in Kerala or not, has to be scrutinized.
  6. ^ Kochi KingdomCorporation of Cochin official site
  7. ^ Vasco-Da-Gama Encarta encyclopedia. Archived 2009-11-01.
  8. ^ "TABLE 7.2.11". mospi.gov.in. http://mospi.gov.in/comenv2000tab7.2.11.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-23.  
  9. ^ Statistics of Ernakulam in 2001 Official site of Government of Kerala

External links

This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

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