Komi Republic: Wikis

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Coordinates: 63°9′10″N 55°49′41″E / 63.15278°N 55.82806°E / 63.15278; 55.82806

Komi Republic (English)
Республика Коми (Russian)
Коми Республика (Komi)
-  Republic  -
Map of Russia - Komi Republic (2008-03).svg
Coat of Arms of the Komi Republic.svg
Coat of arms of the Komi Republic
Flag of Komi.svg
Flag of the Komi Republic
Anthem National Anthem of the Komi Republic[citation needed]
Political status
Country Russia
Political status Republic
Federal district Northwestern[1]
Economic region Northern[2]
Capital Syktyvkar[citation needed]
Official languages Russian[3]; Russian, Komi[4]
Statistics
Population (2002 Census)[5] 1,018,674 inhabitants
- Rank within Russia 54th
- Urban[5] 75.3%
- Rural[5] 24.7%
- Density 2 /km2 (0/sq mi)[6]
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[7] 415,900 km2 (160,579.9 sq mi)
- Rank within Russia 13th
Established August 22, 1921[citation needed]
License plates 11
ISO 3166-2:RU RU-KO
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Government (as of November 2008)
Head[8] Vladimir Torlopov[9]
Legislature State Council[8]
Constitution Constitution of the Komi Republic
Official website
http://www.rkomi.ru/

The Komi Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Ко́ми, Respublika Komi; Komi: Коми Республика, Komi Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

Contents

Geography

The republic is situated to the west of the Ural mountains, in the north-east of the East European Plain. Forests cover over 70% of the territory and swamps cover approximately 15%.

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Rivers

Major rivers include:

Lakes

There are many lakes in the republic. Major lakes include:

  • Sindorskoye Lake
  • Yam-Ozero Lake

Natural resources

The republic's natural resources include coal, oil, natural gas, gold, diamonds, and more.

Around 32,800 km² of mostly boreal forest (as well as some alpine tundra and meadows) in the Republic's Northern Ural Mountains have been recognized in 1995 as a UNESCO World Heritage site, Virgin Komi Forests. It is the first natural UNESCO World Heritage site in Russia and the largest expanse of virgin forests in Europe. The site includes two pre-existing protected areas: Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve (created in 1930) and Yugyd Va National Park (created in 1994).

Climate

Winters in the republic are long and cold, and the summers, while short, are quite warm.

  • Average January temperature: −17 °C (1.4 °F) (southern parts) to −20 °C (−4 °F) (northern parts)
  • Average July temperature: +11 °C (51.8 °F) (northern parts) to +15 °C (59 °F) (southern parts)
  • Lowest recorded temperature: −58.1 °C (−72.6 °F) (village of Ust-Shchuger)
  • Average annual precipitation: 625 mm (24.6 in)

Manpupuner and the 7 Strong Men Rock Formations

Deemed one of the Seven Wonders of Russia, Komi Republic is home to Manpupuner (Man-Pupu-Nyer), a mysterious site in the northern Ural mountains, in the Troitsko-Pechorsky District, made out of seven rock towers bursting out of the flat plateau known as the “7 strong men“. Manpupuner is a very popular attraction in Russia, but not on an international level and information regarding its origin is scarce. We know however that their height and abnormal shapes make the top of these rock giants inaccessible even to experienced rock-climbers. Manpupuner is very hard to reach, it lies in a very harsh environment, but once there you’ll be able to enjoy a view unique in the whole world.

Administrative divisions

Demographics

  • Population: 1,018,674 (2002)
    • Urban: 766,587 (75.3%)
    • Rural: 252,087 (24.7%)
    • Male: 488,316 (47.9%)
    • Female: 530,358 (52.1%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,086
  • Average age: 34.5 years
    • Urban: 33.7 years
    • Rural: 36.8 years
    • Male: 32.3 years
    • Female: 36.8 years
  • Number of households: 381,626 (with 992,612 people)
    • Urban: 289,854 (with 749,329 people)
    • Rural: 91,772 (with 243,283 people)
  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1920 4,760 4,353
1930 10,256 6,574
1940 14,976 12,134
1945 6,432 6,185
1950 20,087 6,002 37.6 11.2
1960 25,578 5,010 30.6 6.0
1965 18,956 5,241 20.2 5.6
1970 16,462 6,276 17.0 6.5
1975 18,899 7,284 18.1 7.0
1980 20,685 9,169 18.2 8.1
1981 21,244 9,103 18.4 7.9
1982 23,420 8,758 20.0 7.5
1983 23,806 9,250 20.1 7.8
1984 24,217 9,486 20.2 7.9
1985 23,303 9,334 19.2 7.7
1986 24,176 8,112 19.7 6.6
1987 23,616 8,544 19.0 6.9
1988 20,916 8,930 16.7 7.1
1989 18,481 8,857 14.7 7.1
1990 16,930 9,321 13.6 7.5
1991 15,589 9,665 12.7 7.9
1992 13,880 11,426 11.4 9.4
1993 12,158 14,642 10.1 12.2
1994 11,835 16,074 10.1 13.7
1995 11,105 15,057 9.7 13.2
1996 10,900 13,674 9.7 12.2
1997 10,388 12,244 9.4 11.1
1998 10,793 11,545 9.9 10.6
1999 9,680 12,253 9.1 11.5
2000 9,906 13,594 9.4 12.9
2001 10,325 13,968 10.0 13.5
2002 11,177 15,265 10.9 14.9
2003 11,462 15,810 11.3 15.6
2004 11,489 15,210 11.5 15.2
2005 10,975 15,074 11.1 15.2
2006 10,872 13,519 11.1 13.8
2007 11,523 12,304 11.9 12.7
2008 11,719 12,270 12.2 12.7
  • Ethnic groups

According to the 2002 Census, ethnic Russians make up 59.6% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Komi are only 25.2%. Other groups include Ukrainians (6.1%), Tatars (15,680 or 1.5%), Belarusians (15,212 or 1.5%), Ethnic Germans (9,246 or 0.9%), Chuvash (7,529 or 0.7%), Azeris (6,066 or 0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. 5,700 people (0.6%) did not indicate their nationalities during the Census.

census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Komi 191,245 (92.2%) 231,301 (72.5%) 245,074 (30.4%) 276,178 (28.6%) 280,798 (25.3%) 291,542 (23.3%) 256,464 (25.2%)
Russians 13,731 (6.6%) 70,226 (22.0%) 389,995 (48.4%) 512,203 (53.1%) 629,523 (56.7%) 721,780 (57.7%) 607,021 (59.6%)
Ukrainians 34 (0.0%) 6,010 (1.9%) 80,132 (9.9%) 82,955 (8.6%) 94,154 (8.5%) 104,170 (8.3%) 62,115 (6.1%)
Others 2,304 (1.1%) 11,459 (3.6%) 90,998 (11.3%) 93,466 (9.7%) 105,886 (9.5%) 133,355 (10.7%) 93,074 (9.1%)

Vital statistics for 2007

Source: [1]

Vital Statistics Births 2007 Deaths 2007 BR 2007 DR 2007 NGR 2007 BR Jan-aug 2007 BR J-A 08 DR J-A 07 DR J-A 08 NGR J-A 07 NGR J-A 08
Komi Republic 11,523 12,304 11.9 13.8 -0.19% 11.8 11.9 12.9 12.6 -0.11% -0.07%
Urban 8,087 8,204 NA NA NA 11.4 11.3 11.7 11.2 -0.03% 0.01%
Rural 3,436 4,100 NA NA NA 13.0 13.8 16.4 17.0 -0.34% -0.32%
Syktyvkar 3,013 2,733 12.3 12.1 0.02% 12.3 11.6 11.6 11.1 0.07% 0.05%
Vorkuta 1,126 1,064 9.5 10.3 -0.08% 9.3 9.7 8.8 8.2 0.05% 0.15%
Vuktyl 210 200 12.6 12.2 0.04% 12.9 11.2 12.1 14.7 0.08% -0.35%
Inta 414 495 10.2 13.7 -0.35% 10 10.4 12.1 13.2 -0.21% -0.28%
Pechora 714 916 11.3 16.2 -0.49% 11.3 11.4 14.8 14.5 -0.35% -0.31%
Sosnogorsk 582 725 11.6 15.8 -0.42% 10.9 11.7 14.8 14 -0.39% -0.23%
Usinsk 614 459 11.9 8.9 0.30% 11.5 12.1 8.8 8.8 0.27% 0.33%
Ukhta 1,414 1,612 11.1 12.7 -0.16% 11 11.4 13.1 11.4 -0.21% 0.00%
Izhemsky District 315 368 15.6 1.5 -0.09% 15.2 17.4 18.2 18.2 -0.30% -0.08%
Knyazhpogostsky District 290 411 10.9 16.8 -0.59% 10.2 10.2 15.5 14.6 -0.53% -0.44%
Koygorodsky District 129 140 13.9 18.6 -0.47% 14.1 14.1 15.1 19.1 -0.10% -0.50%
Kortkerossky District 314 373 13.7 17.8 -0.41% 14 12.2 15.8 16.7 -0.18% -0.45%
Priluzsky District 318 402 13.9 21.8 -0.79% 13 14.2 16.6 19.2 -0.36% -0.50%
Syktyvdinsky District 308 341 12.8 14.6 -0.18% 13.2 15.6 15.1 14.8 -0.19% 0.08%
Sysolsky District 214 302 13.3 17.0 -0.37% 14.7 12 18.8 17.9 -0.41% -0.59%
Troitsko-Pechorsky District 193 262 12.0 19.1 -0.71% 12.2 13.9 16.7 18.5 -0.45% -0.46%
Udorsky District 280 305 11.9 14.3 -0.24% 11.7 13 12.5 13.3 -0.08% -0.03%
Ust-Vymsky District 443 543 14.0 19.4 -0.54% 14.9 12.7 17.7 16 -0.28% -0.33%
Ust-Kulomsky District 453 433 14.8 19.5 -0.47% 15.1 15.1 13.9 15.2 0.12% -0.01%
Ust-Tsilemsky District 179 220 12.5 16.0 -0.35% 11.1 15.3 16.3 17.8 -0.52% -0.25

History

Map of the Komi Republic

A northernmost portion of European Russia, Komi was an unspoiled land throughout most of history, dwelt in only by nomadic native peoples.

The territory of the republic was most intensely settled in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. The Komi-Zyryan Autonomous Oblast was established on August 22, 1929, and on December 5 of the same year it was reorganized into an Komi-Zyryan ASSR.

Many of the "settlers" who came in the early 20th century were prisoners of the Gulag who were sent by the hundreds of thousands to perform forced labor in the Arctic regions of the USSR. Towns sprang up around labor-camp sites, which were initially carved out of the untouched tundra and taiga by gangs of prisoners.[citation needed]

The Komi Republic in its modern form was established on May 26, 1992.

Politics

The head of government in the Komi Republic is the Head of the Republic. As of 2008, the head of the republic is Vladimir Torlopov, who was elected in December 2001.

The State Council is the legislature.

Economy

The Komi Republic's major industries include oil processing, timber, woodworking, natural gas and electric power industries. Major industrial centers are Syktyvkar, Inta, Pechora, Sosnogorsk, Ukhta, and Vorkuta.

Transportation

Railroad transportation is very well developed. The most important railroad line is KotlasVorkutaSalekhard, which is used to ship most goods in and out of the republic. The rivers Vychegda and Pechora are navigable. There are airports in Syktyvkar, Ukhta, and Vorkuta.

In 1997, total railroad trackage was 1,708 km, automobile roads 4,677 km.

Education

There are over 450 secondary schools in the republic (with ~180,000 students). The most important higher education facilities include Syktyvkar State University and Ukhta State Technical University.

See also

References

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ According to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia, Russian is the official language on the whole territory of the Russian Federation. Article 68.2 further stipulates that only the republics have the right to establish official languages other than Russian.
  4. ^ Constitution, Article 67
  5. ^ a b c Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  7. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  8. ^ a b Constitution, Article 8
  9. ^ Official website of the Komi Republic. Vladimir Alexandrovich Torlopov (Russian)

Sources

  • 17 февраля 1994 г. «Конституция Республики Коми», в ред. Закона №44-РЗ от 4 мая 2008 г. (February 17, 1994 Constitution of the Komi Republic, as amended by the Law #44-RZ of May 4, 2008. ).

Further reading

  • Pearson, M., Ojanen, P., Havimo, M., Kuuluvainen, T. & Vasander, H. (eds.) 2007. On the European Edge — Journey through Komi Nature and Culture. University of Helsinki Department of Forest Ecology Publications 36. 216 p. ISBN 978-952-10-3898-3.
  • Strogoff, M., Brochet, P. & Auzias, D. 2005. Guidebook Komi Republic. Avant-Garde Publishers, Moscow. 176. p. ISBN 5-86394-255-X.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Russia : Northwestern Russia : Komi Republic

Komi Republic is a region in Northwestern Russia, which borders Kirov Oblast to the southwest, Arkhangelsk Oblast to the west, Nenetsia to the north, Yamalia to the northeast, Khantia-Mansia to the east, Sverdlovsk Oblast to the southeast, and Perm Krai to the south.

  • Syktyvkar — the capital and the only city in the region that qualifies as a tourist destination for its own sake
  • Inta — a small city which housed one of the region's many gulags
  • Pechora — a small city on the Pechora river; likely your base for exploring Yugyd Va
  • Ukhta — a big industrial city centered around the nearby oilfields
  • Usinsk — another oil city
  • Vorkuta — a coal mining city in the tundra, which hosted one of the USSR's most notorious Stalin-era gulags, and has one of the closest airports to the beautiful but inhospitable polar Ural mountains
  • Virgin Komi Forests — UNESCO World Heritage Site and largest virgin forest in Europe:
    • Yugyd Va National Park — The World's seventh and Russia's largest national park is also one of its most beautiful and remote—the place to go in the Urals for nature lovers
    • Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve

Understand

The Komi Republic is named for the Komi People, a Finno-Ugric group, who comprise a quarter of the region's population (ethnic Russians are the majority).

The region is of interest for two main reasons: its extensive and brutal gulag history and the beautiful mountain and forest areas in its east, most of all Yugyd Va National Park.

Talk

Most of the Komi People who live in the region speak Komi, a Finno-Ugric language closely related to Udmurt, but virtually all inhabitants of the Komi Republic are fluent in Russian.

Get in

Flights arrive to Syktyvkar from Moscow and Ufa. Trains arrive to Syktyvkar via Kotlas, Arkhangelsk Oblast.

Get around

Komiinteravia Airlines operate flights from Syktyvkar to other far-flung cities in the region.

  • Mt.Narodnaya – Climbing the highest top of the Ural Mountains

Get out

In the late summer, boats head north from Pechora to Naryan-Mar, the capital of Nenetsia.

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