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Komodo dragon[1]
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Lacertilia
Family: Varanidae
Genus: Varanus
Species: V. komodoensis
Binomial name
Varanus komodoensis
Ouwens, 1912[2]
Komodo dragon distribution

The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is a species of lizard that inhabits the islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, and Gili Motang in Indonesia.[3] A member of the monitor lizard family (Varanidae), it is the largest living species of lizard, growing to an average length of 2 to 3 metres (6.6 to 9.8 ft) and weighing around 70 kilograms (150 lb). Their unusual size is attributed to island gigantism, since there are no other carnivorous animals to fill the niche on the islands where they live; their large size is also explained by the Komodo dragon's low metabolic rate.[4][5] As a result of their size, these lizards dominate the ecosystems in which they live.[6] Although Komodo dragons eat mostly carrion, they will also hunt and ambush prey including invertebrates, birds, and mammals.

Mating begins between May and August, and the eggs are laid in September. About twenty eggs are deposited in abandoned megapode nests and incubated for seven to eight months, hatching in April, when insects are most plentiful. Young Komodo dragons are vulnerable and therefore dwell in trees, safe from predators and cannibalistic adults. They take around three to five years to mature, and may live as long as fifty years. They are among the rare vertebrates capable of parthenogenesis, in which females may lay viable eggs if males are absent.[7]

Komodo dragons were first recorded by Western scientists in 1910. Their large size and fearsome reputation make them popular zoo exhibits. In the wild their range has contracted due to human activities and they are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. They are protected under Indonesian law, and a national park, Komodo National Park, was founded to aid protection efforts.

Contents

Etymology

The Komodo dragon is also known as the Komodo monitor or the Komodo Island monitor in scientific literature, although this is not very common.[1] To the natives of Komodo Island, it is referred to as ora, buaya darat (land crocodile) or biawak raksasa (giant monitor).[8][9]

Evolutionary history

The evolutionary development of the Komodo dragon started with the Varanus genus, which originated in Asia about 40 million years ago and migrated to Australia. Around 15 million years ago, a collision between Australia and Southeast Asia allowed the varanids to move into what is now the Indonesian archipelago, extending their range as far east as the island of Timor. The Komodo dragon was believed to have differentiated from its Australian ancestors 4 million years ago. However, recent fossil evidence from Queensland suggests that the Komodo dragon evolved in Australia before spreading to Indonesia.[10] Dramatic lowering of sea level during the last glacial period uncovered extensive stretches of continental shelf that the Komodo dragon colonized, becoming isolated in their present island range as sea levels rose afterwards.[9]

Description

Closeup of a Komodo dragon's skin

In the wild, an adult Komodo dragon usually weighs around 70 kilograms (150 lb),[11] although captive specimens often weigh more. The largest verified wild specimen was 3.13 metres (10.3 ft) long and weighed 166 kilograms (370 lb), including undigested food.[9] The Komodo dragon has a tail as long as its body, as well as about 60 frequently replaced serrated teeth that can measure up to 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in length. Its saliva is frequently blood-tinged, because its teeth are almost completely covered by gingival tissue that is naturally lacerated during feeding.[12] This creates an ideal culture for the virulent bacteria that live in its mouth.[13] It also has a long, yellow, deeply forked tongue.[9]

Senses

The Komodo dragon does not have a particularly acute sense of hearing, despite its visible earholes, and is only able to hear sounds between 400 and 2000 hertz.[9][14] It is able to see as far away as 300 metres (980 ft), but because its retinas only contain cones, it is thought to have poor night vision. The Komodo dragon is able to see in color, but has poor visual discrimination of stationary objects.[15]

Komodo dragons video.wmv.OGG
A Komodo dragon on Komodo Island uses its tongue to sample the air

The Komodo dragon uses its tongue to detect, taste, and smell stimuli, as with many other reptiles, with the vomeronasal sense using a Jacobson's organ, a sense that aids navigation in the dark.[13] With the help of a favorable wind and its habit of swinging its head from side to side as it walks, Komodo dragons may be able to detect carrion from 4–9.5 kilometres (2.5–6 mi) away.[12][15] The dragon's nostrils are not of great use for smelling, as the animal does not have a diaphragm.[12][16] It only has a few taste buds in the back of its throat.[13] Its scales, some of which are reinforced with bone, have sensory plaques connected to nerves that facilitate its sense of touch. The scales around the ears, lips, chin, and soles of the feet may have three or more sensory plaques.[12]

The Komodo dragon was formerly thought to be deaf when a study reported no agitation in wild Komodo dragons in response to whispers, raised voices, or shouts. This was disputed when London Zoological Garden employee Joan Proctor trained a captive specimen to come out to feed at the sound of her voice, even when she could not be seen.[17]

Ecology

Close-up of a Komodo dragon's foot and tail

The Komodo dragon prefers hot and dry places, and typically lives in dry open grassland, savanna, and tropical forest at low elevations. As an ectotherm, it is most active in the day, although it exhibits some nocturnal activity. Komodo dragons are largely solitary, coming together only to breed and eat. They are capable of running rapidly in brief sprints up to 20 kilometres per hour (12.4 mph), diving up to 4.5 metres (15 ft), and climbing trees proficiently when young through use of their strong claws.[11] To catch prey that is out of reach, the Komodo dragon may stand on its hind legs and use its tail as a support.[17] As the Komodo dragon matures, its claws are used primarily as weapons, as its great size makes climbing impractical.[12]

For shelter, the Komodo dragon digs holes that can measure from 1–3 metres (3–10 ft) wide with its powerful forelimbs and claws.[18] Because of its large size and habit of sleeping in these burrows, it is able to conserve body heat throughout the night and minimize its basking period the morning after.[19] The Komodo dragon typically hunts in the afternoon, but stays in the shade during the hottest part of the day.[20] These special resting places, usually located on ridges with a cool sea breeze, are marked with droppings and are cleared of vegetation. They also serve as a strategic location from which to ambush deer.[21]

Diet

Komodo dragons on Rinca

Komodo dragons are carnivores. Although they eat mostly carrion,[4] they will also ambush live prey with a stealthy approach. When suitable prey arrives near a dragon's ambush site, it will suddenly charge at the animal and go for the underside or the throat.[12] It is able to locate its prey using its keen sense of smell, which can locate a dead or dying animal from a range of up to 9.5 kilometers (6 miles).[12] Komodo dragons have also been observed knocking down large pigs and deer with their strong tail.[22]

Komodo dragons eat by tearing large chunks of flesh and swallowing them whole while holding the carcass down with their forelegs. For smaller prey up to the size of a goat, their loosely articulated jaws, flexible skull, and expandable stomach allow it to swallow its prey whole. The vegetable contents of the stomach and intestines are typically avoided.[21] Copious amounts of red saliva that the Komodo dragons produce help to lubricate the food, but swallowing is still a long process (15–20 minutes to swallow a goat). Komodo dragons may attempt to speed up the process by ramming the carcass against a tree to force it down its throat, sometimes ramming so forcefully that the tree is knocked down.[21] To prevent itself from suffocating while swallowing, it breathes using a small tube under the tongue that connects to the lungs.[12] After eating up to 80 percent of its body weight in one meal,[6] it drags itself to a sunny location to speed digestion, as the food could rot and poison the dragon if left undigested for too long. Because of their slow metabolism, large dragons can survive on as little as 12 meals a year.[12] After digestion, the Komodo dragon regurgitates a mass of horns, hair, and teeth known as the gastric pellet, which is covered in malodorous mucus. After regurgitating the gastric pellet, it rubs its face in the dirt or on bushes to get rid of the mucus, suggesting that it, like humans, does not relish the scent of its own excretions.[12]

A young Komodo dragon photographed on Rinca feeding on a water buffalo carcass

The largest animals generally eat first, while the smaller ones follow a hierarchy. The largest male asserts his dominance and the smaller males show their submission by use of body language and rumbling hisses. Dragons of equal size may resort to "wrestling". Losers usually retreat though they have been known to be killed and eaten by victors.[12]

Komodo excrement is mostly white as the stomach is not capable of digesting the calcium found in the bones of the animals they eat.

The Komodo dragon's diet is wide-ranging, and includes invertebrates, other reptiles (including smaller Komodo dragons), birds, bird eggs, small mammals, monkeys, wild boar, goats, deer, horses, and water buffalo.[23] Young Komodos will eat insects, eggs, geckos, and small mammals.[4] Occasionally they consume humans and human corpses, digging up bodies from shallow graves.[17] This habit of raiding graves caused the villagers of Komodo to move their graves from sandy to clay ground and pile rocks on top of them to deter the lizards.[21] The Komodo dragon may have evolved to feed on the extinct dwarf elephant Stegodon that once lived on Flores, according to evolutionary biologist Jared Diamond.[24] The Komodo dragon has also been observed intentionally startling a pregnant deer in the hopes of a miscarriage whose remains they can eat, a technique that has also been observed in large African predators.[24]

Because the Komodo dragon does not have a diaphragm, it cannot suck water when drinking, nor can it lap water with its tongue. Instead, it drinks by taking a mouthful of water, lifting its head, and letting the water run down its throat.[12] When it comes to hunting the lizard is very picky, but will eat any type of carrion.

Saliva

A sleeping Komodo dragon. Its large, curved claws are used in fighting and eating.

Auffenberg described the Komodo dragon as having septic pathogens in its saliva, specifically the bacteria: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp., Providencia sp., Proteus morgani and P. mirabilis.[25] He noted that while these pathogens can be found in the mouths of wild Komodo dragons, they disappear from the mouths of captive animals, due to a cleaner diet.[25][26] This was verified by taking mucous samples from the external gum surface of the upper jaw of two freshly captured individuals.[25][26] Saliva samples were analyzed by researchers at the University of Texas who found 57 different strains of bacteria growing in the mouths of three wild Komodo dragons including Pasteurella multocida.[9][27] The rapid growth of these bacteria was noted by Fredeking: "Normally it takes about three days for a sample of P. multocida to cover a petri dish; ours took eight hours. We were very taken aback by how virulent these strains were".[28] This study supported the observation that wounds inflicted by the Komodo dragon are often associated with sepsis and subsequent infections in prey animals.[27]

In late 2005, researchers at the University of Melbourne speculated that the perentie (Varanus giganteus), other species of monitor, and agamids may be somewhat venomous. The team believes that the immediate effects of bites from these lizards were caused by mild envenomation. Bites on human digits by a lace monitor (V. varius), a Komodo dragon, and a spotted tree monitor (V. scalaris) all produced similar effects: rapid swelling, localized disruption of blood clotting, and shooting pain up to the elbow, with some symptoms lasting for several hours.[29]

In 2009, the same researchers published further evidence demonstrating that Komodo dragons possess a venomous bite. MRI scans of a preserved skull showed the presence of two venom glands in the lower jaw. They extracted one of these glands from the head of a terminally ill specimen in the Singapore Zoological Gardens, and found that it secreted a venom containing several different toxic proteins. The known functions of these proteins include inhibition of blood clotting, lowering of blood pressure, muscle paralysis, and the induction of hypothermia, leading to shock and loss of consciousness in envenomated prey.[30][31] As a result of the discovery, the previous theory that bacteria were responsible for the deaths of komodo victims was disputed.[32]

Kurt Schwenk, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Connecticut finds the discovery of these glands intriguing, but considers most of the evidence for venom in the study to be "meaningless, irrelevant, incorrect or falsely misleading". Even if the lizards have venomlike proteins in their mouths, Schwenk argues, they may be using them for a different function, and he doubts that venom is necessary to explain the effect of a Komodo dragon bite, arguing that shock and blood loss are the primary factors.[33][34]

Reproduction

Mating occurs between May and August, with the eggs laid in September.[9] During this period, males fight over females and territory by grappling with one another upon their hind legs with the loser eventually being pinned to the ground. These males may vomit or defecate when preparing for the fight.[17] The winner of the fight will then flick his long tongue at the female to gain information about her receptivity.[6] Females are antagonistic and resist with their claws and teeth during the early phases of courtship. Therefore, the male must fully restrain the female during coitus to avoid being hurt. Other courtship displays include males rubbing their chins on the female, hard scratches to the back, and licking.[35] Copulation occurs when the male inserts one of his hemipenes into the female's cloaca.[15] Komodo dragons may be monogamous and form "pair bonds", a rare behavior for lizards.[17]

A Komodo dragon with its long tail and claws fully visible

The female lays her eggs in burrows cut into the side of a hill or in the abandoned nesting mounds of the Orange-footed Scrubfowl (a moundbuilder or megapode), with a preference for the abandoned mounds.[36] Clutches contain an average of 20 eggs which have an incubation period of 7–8 months.[17] The female lies on the eggs to incubate and protect them until they hatch around April, at the end of the rainy season when insects are plentiful. Hatching is an exhausting effort for the pups, who break out of their eggshells with an egg tooth that falls off soon after. After cutting out the hatchlings may lie in their eggshells for hours before starting to dig out of the nest. They are born quite defenseless, and many are eaten by predators.[12]

Young Komodo dragons spend much of their first few years in trees, where they are relatively safe from predators, including cannibalistic adults, who make juvenile dragons 10% of their diet.[17] According to David Attenborough, the habit of cannibalism may be advantageous in sustaining the large size of adults, as medium-sized prey on the islands is rare.[22] When the young must approach a kill, they roll around in fecal matter and rest in the intestines of eviscerated animals to deter these hungry adults.[17] Komodo dragons take about three to five years to mature, and may live for up to 50 years.[18]

Parthenogenesis

A Komodo dragon at London Zoo named Sungai laid a clutch of eggs in late 2005 after being separated from male company for more than two years. Scientists initially assumed that she had been able to store sperm from her earlier encounter with a male, an adaptation known as superfecundation.[37] On December 20, 2006, it was reported that Flora, a captive Komodo dragon living in the Chester Zoo in England, was the second known Komodo dragon to have laid unfertilized eggs: she laid 11 eggs, and 7 of them hatched, all of them male.[38] Scientists at Liverpool University in England performed genetic tests on three eggs that collapsed after being moved to an incubator, and verified that Flora had never been in physical contact with a male dragon. After Flora's eggs' condition had been discovered, testing showed that Sungai's eggs were also produced without outside fertilization.[39]

A parthenogenetic baby Komodo dragon, Chester Zoo, England

Komodo dragons have the ZW chromosomal sex-determination system, as opposed to the mammalian XY system. Male progeny prove that Flora's unfertilized eggs were haploid (n) and doubled their chromosomes later to become diploid (2n) (by being fertilized by a polar body, or by chromosome duplication without cell division), rather than by her laying diploid eggs by one of the meiosis reduction-divisions in her ovaries failing). When a female Komodo dragon (with ZW sex chromosomes) reproduces in this manner, she provides her progeny with only one chromosome from each of her pairs of chromosomes, including only one of her two sex chromosomes. This single set of chromosomes is duplicated in the egg, which develops parthenogenetically. Eggs receiving a Z chromosome become ZZ (male); those receiving a W chromosome become WW and fail to develop.[40][41]

It has been hypothesized that this reproductive adaptation allows a single female to enter an isolated ecological niche (such as an island) and by parthenogenesis produce male offspring, thereby establishing a sexually reproducing population (via reproduction with her offspring that can result in both male and female young).[40] Despite the advantages of such an adaptation, zoos are cautioned that parthenogenesis may be detrimental to genetic diversity.[42]

On January 31, 2008, the Sedgwick County Zoo in Wichita, Kansas became the first zoo in the Americas to document parthenogenesis in Komodo dragons. The zoo has two adult female Komodo dragons, one of which laid about 17 eggs on May 19–20, 2007. Only two eggs were incubated and hatched due to space issues; the first hatched on January 31, 2008 while the second hatched on February 1. Both hatchlings were males.[43][44]

History

Discovery by the Western world

Komodo dragon coin, issued by Indonesia

Komodo dragons were first documented by Europeans in 1910, when rumors of a "land crocodile" reached Lieutenant van Steyn van Hensbroek of the Dutch colonial administration.[45] Widespread notoriety came after 1912, when Peter Ouwens, the director of the Zoological Museum at Bogor, Java, published a paper on the topic after receiving a photo and a skin from the lieutenant, as well as two other specimens from a collector.[2] Later, the Komodo dragon was the driving factor for an expedition to Komodo Island by W. Douglas Burden in 1926. After returning with 12 preserved specimens and 2 live ones, this expedition provided the inspiration for the 1933 movie King Kong.[46] It was also Burden who coined the common name "Komodo dragon."[20] Three of his specimens were stuffed and are still on display in the American Museum of Natural History.[47]

Studies

The Dutch, realizing the limited number of individuals in the wild, outlawed sport hunting and heavily limited the number of individuals taken for scientific study. Collecting expeditions ground to a halt with the occurrence of World War II, not resuming until the 1950s and 1960s, when studies examined the Komodo dragon's feeding behavior, reproduction, and body temperature. At around this time, an expedition was planned in which a long-term study of the Komodo dragon would be undertaken. This task was given to the Auffenberg family, who stayed on Komodo Island for 11 months in 1969. During their stay, Walter Auffenberg and his assistant Putra Sastrawan captured and tagged more than 50 Komodo dragons.[28] The research from the Auffenberg expedition would prove to be enormously influential in raising Komodo dragons in captivity.[3] Research after the Auffenberg family has shed more light on the nature of the Komodo dragon, with biologists such as Claudio Ciofi continuing to study the creatures.[48]

Danger to humans

Although attacks are very rare, Komodo dragons have been known to attack humans; on June 4, 2007 a Komodo dragon attacked an eight-year-old boy on Komodo Island. The boy later died of massive bleeding from his wounds. It was the first recorded fatal attack in 33 years.[49] Natives blamed the attack on environmentalists outside the island prohibiting goat sacrifices. This denied the Komodo dragons their expected food source, causing them to wander into human civilization in search of food. A belief held by many natives of Komodo Island is that Komodo dragons are actually the reincarnation of fellow kinspeople and should thus be treated with reverence.[50][51]

On March 24, 2009, two Komodo Dragons attacked and killed fisherman Muhamad Anwar on Komodo. Anwar was attacked after he fell out of a sugar-apple tree and was left bleeding badly from bites to his hands, body, legs, and neck. He was taken to a clinic on the neighboring island of Flores where he was pronounced dead on arrival.[52]

In a bizarre incident in June 2001, Phil Bronstein, Executive Editor of the San Francisco Chronicle newspaper, was given a special tour of the Komodo dragons at the San Francisco Zoo for a Father's Day present by his wife, the actress Sharon Stone. Bronstein and Stone were benefactors of the zoo. While barefooted and petting one of the dragons, Bronstein was bitten and subsequently lost his big toe.[53][54]

In February 2010 an Indonesian park ranger escaped an attack by a Komodo dragon, the world’s largest lizard species, when his colleagues heard his cries for help and drove the reptile away. Marcelinus Subanghadir was outside his hut on Komodo Island late Monday when a nearly 7-foot-long (more than 2-meter-long) dragon grabbed hold of his right foot, Komodo National Park chief Tamen Sitorus said. The dragon had Subanghadir’s foot clamped in its shark-like, serrated teeth until fellow rangers heard his screams and drove it off with wooden clubs, Sitorus said. Subanghadir, 34, suffered deep lacerations and was recovering at a hospital on nearby Bali.[55]

Conservation

A basking Komodo dragon photographed at Disney's Animal Kingdom

The Komodo dragon is a vulnerable species and is found on the IUCN Red List.[56] There are approximately 4,000 to 5,000 living Komodo dragons in the wild. Their populations are restricted to the islands of Gili Motang (100), Gili Dasami (100), Rinca (1,300), Komodo (1,700), and Flores (perhaps 2,000).[3] However, there are concerns that there may presently be only 350 breeding females.[8] To address these concerns, the Komodo National Park was founded in 1980 to protect Komodo dragon populations on islands including Komodo, Rinca, and Padar.[57] Later, the Wae Wuul and Wolo Tado Reserves were opened on Flores to aid with Komodo dragon conservation.[48] There is evidence that Komodo dragons became accustomed to human presence, as they were often fed animal carcasses at several feeding stations by tourists and sacrifices from natives before a hunt.[4][50] As these practices have been outlawed, attacks on humans by the lizards has increased.[50]

Volcanic activity, earthquakes, loss of habitat, fire (the population at Padar was almost destroyed because of a wildfire, and has since mysteriously disappeared),[12][48] loss of prey, tourism, and poaching have all contributed to the vulnerable status of the Komodo dragon. Under Appendix I of CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species), commercial trade of skins or specimens is illegal.[16][58]

The Australian biologist Tim Flannery has suggested that the Australian ecosystem may benefit from the introduction of Komodo dragons, as it could partially occupy the large-carnivore niche left vacant following the extinction of the giant varanid Megalania. However, he argues for great caution and gradualness in these acclimatisation experiments, especially as "the problem of predation of large varanids upon humans should not be understated". He uses the example of the successful coexistence with saltwater crocodiles as evidence that Australians could successfully adjust.[59]

In captivity

A Komodo dragon at Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Despite the visible earholes, Komodo dragons cannot hear very well.

Komodo dragons have long been great zoo attractions, where their size and reputation make them popular exhibits. They are, however, rare in zoos because they are susceptible to infection and parasitic disease if captured from the wild, and do not readily reproduce.[8] As of May 2009, there are 13 European, 2 African, 35 North American, 1 Singaporean, and 2 Australian institutions that keep Komodo dragons.[60]

The first Komodo dragon was exhibited in 1934 at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park, but it lived for only two years. More attempts to exhibit Komodo dragons were made, but the lifespan of these creatures was very short, averaging five years in the National Zoological Park. Studies done by Walter Auffenberg, which were documented in his book The Behavioral Ecology of the Komodo Monitor, eventually allowed for more successful managing and reproducing of the dragons in captivity.[3]

It has been observed in captive dragons that many individuals display relatively tame behavior within a short period of time in captivity. Many occurrences are reported where keepers have brought the animals out of their enclosures to interact with zoo visitors, including young children, to no harmful effect.[61][62] Dragons are also capable of recognizing individual humans. Ruston Hartdegen of the Dallas Zoo reported that their Komodo dragons reacted differently when presented with their regular keeper, a less familiar keeper, or a completely unfamiliar keeper.[63]

Research with captive Komodo dragons has also provided evidence that they engage in play. One study concerned an individual who would push a shovel left by its keeper, apparently attracted to the sound of it scraping across the rocky surface. A young female dragon at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. would grab and shake various objects including statues, beverage cans, plastic rings and blankets. She would also insert her head into boxes, shoes, and other objects. She did not confuse these objects with food, as she would only swallow them if they were covered in rat blood. This social play has led to a striking comparison with mammalian play.[6]

Komodo dragons at Toronto Zoo. Komodo dragons in captivity often grow fat, especially in their tails, due to regular feeding.

Another documentation of play in Komodo dragons comes from the University of Tennessee, where a young Komodo dragon named "Kraken" interacted with plastic rings, a shoe, a bucket, and a tin can by nudging them with her snout, swiping at them, and carrying them around in her mouth. She treated all of them differently than her food, prompting leading researcher Gordon Burghardt to conclude that they disprove the view of object play being "food-motivated predatory behavior." Kraken was the first Komodo dragon hatched in captivity outside of Indonesia, born in the National Zoo on September 13, 1992.[9][64]

Even seemingly docile dragons may become aggressive unpredictably, especially when the animal's territory is invaded by someone unfamiliar. In June 2001, a Komodo dragon seriously injured Phil Bronstein—executive editor of the San Francisco Chronicle—when he entered its enclosure at the Los Angeles Zoo after being invited in by its keeper. Bronstein was bitten on his bare foot, as the keeper had told him to take off his white shoes, which could have potentially excited the Komodo dragon.[65][66] Although he escaped, he needed to have several tendons in his foot reattached surgically.[67]

See also

  • Dragon
  • Varanus priscus (formerly known as Megalania prisca) – A huge extinct varanid lizard of Pleistocene Australia
  • Papua monitor (Varanus salvadorii) – A monitor lizard often asserted to be the longest lizard
  • Toxicofera – A hypothetical clade encompassing all venomous reptiles, including the Komodo dragon
  • Whiptail lizards – Lizards widely studied for their parthenogenesis

References

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  2. ^ a b Ouwens, P.A. (1912). "On a large Varanus species from the island of Komodo". Bull. Jard. Bot. Buit. 2 (6): 1–3. 
  3. ^ a b c d Trooper Walsh; Murphy, James Jerome; Claudio Ciofi; Colomba De LA Panouse (2002). Komodo Dragons: Biology and Conservation (Zoo and Aquarium Biology and Conservation Series). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1-58834-073-2. 
  4. ^ a b c d Chris Mattison, (1989 & 1992). Lizards of the World. New York: Facts on File. pp. 16, 57, 99, 175. ISBN 0-8160-5716-8. 
  5. ^ Burness G, Diamond J, Flannery T (Dec 2001). "Dinosaurs, dragons, and dwarfs: the evolution of maximal body size" (Free full text). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98 (25): 14518–23. doi:10.1073/pnas.251548698. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 11724953. PMC 64714. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11724953. 
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  7. ^ This article in Nature (magazine) reports a female who reproduced parthenogenetically for one batch of eggs, and subsequently was impregnated by a male in a normal process. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7122/abs/4441021a.html
  8. ^ a b c "Endangered! Ora". American Museum of Natural History. http://www.amnh.org/nationalcenter/Endangered/ora/ora.html. Retrieved 2007-01-15. 
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  14. ^ "Komodo Conundrum". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2006-11-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20061116030327/http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/animals/features/336feature1.shtml. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
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  16. ^ a b "Zipcodezoo: Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon, Komodo Island Monitor, Komodo Monitor)". BayScience Foundation, Inc.. http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/V/Varanus_komodoensis. Retrieved 2009-10-25. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h text by David Badger; photography by John Netherton (2002). Lizards: A Natural History of Some Uncommon Creatures, Extraordinary Chameleons, Iguanas, Geckos, and More. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press. pp. 32, 52, 78, 81, 84, 140–145, 151. ISBN 0-89658-520-4. 
  18. ^ a b consultant editors, Harold G. Cogger & Richard G. Zweifel; illustrations by David Kirshner (1998). Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 132, 157–8. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. 
  19. ^ Eric R. Pianka and Laurie J. Vitt; with a foreword by Harry W. Greene (2003). Lizards: Windows to the Evolution of Diversity. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 244. ISBN 0-520-23401-4. 
  20. ^ a b "Komodo National Park". Komodo Foundation. http://www.komodo-gateway.org/faq1.html. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  21. ^ a b c d Alison Ballance; Morris, Rod (2003). South Sea Islands: A Natural History. Hove: Firefly Books Ltd. ISBN 1-55297-609-2. 
  22. ^ a b Attenborough, David (2008). Life in Cold Blood. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-13718-8. 
  23. ^ "The terrifying truth about Komodo dragons". guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jun/12/indonesia. Retrieved 2008-06-19. 
  24. ^ a b Diamond, Jared M. (1987). "Did Komodo dragons evolve to eat pygmy elephants?". Nature 326 (6116): 832. doi:10.1038/326832a0. 
  25. ^ a b c Auffenberg, Walter (1981). The Behavioral Ecology of the Komodo Monitor. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida. pp. 406. ISBN 0-8130-0621-X. 
  26. ^ a b Balsai, Michael Joseph (2001). The phylogenetic position of Palaeosaniwa and the early evolution of the Platynotan (Varanoid) anguimorphs (January 1, 2001). Univ. of Pennsylvania - Electronic Dissertations. Paper AAI3031637.[1]
  27. ^ a b Montgomery; D Gillespie, P Sastrawan, TM Fredeking, and GL Stewart (2002). "Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons". Journal of Wildlife Diseases (Wildlife Disease Association) 38 (3): 545–551. PMID 12238371. http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/38/3/545.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-29. 
  28. ^ a b Cheater, Mark (August/September 2003). "Chasing the Magic Dragon". National Wildlife Magazine (National Wildlife Federation) 41 (5). http://www.nwf.org/nationalwildlife/article.cfm?articleId=810&issueId=63. 
  29. ^ Fry, BG; Vidal, N; Norman, JA; Vonk, FJ; Scheib, H; Ramjan, SF; Kuruppu, S; Fung, K et al. (February 2006). "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes" (PDF). Nature 439 (7076): 584–588. doi:10.1038/nature04328. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 16292255. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v439/n7076/abs/nature04328.html. 
  30. ^ Scientists discover deadly secret of Komodo's bite, Yahoo news from May 18th 2009
  31. ^ Bryan G. Fry, Stephen Wroec, Wouter Teeuwissed, et al., (University of Melbourne): PNAS, publisched online, doi:10.1073/pnas.0810883106, A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus'
  32. ^ Staff. "Komodo dragons kill with venom, not bacteria, study says." CNN. May 20, 2009. Retrieved on May 25, 2009.
  33. ^ Zimmer, Carl (May 2009), "Venom Might Boost Dragons Bite", San diego Tribune, http://www3.signonsandiego.com/stories/2009/may/25/1c25komodo183628-venom-may-be-boost-dragons-bite/?uniontrib, retrieved 2009-09-26 
  34. ^ ANTHONY BARTKEWICZ (May 2009), "Study:Komodo Dragons Kill With Venom", Fox News Service, http://www.myfoxdfw.com/dpp/news/weird/dpgo_Study_Komodo_Dragons_Kill_With_Venom_SAB_05192009_2497449, retrieved 2009-09-26 
  35. ^ "Komodo Dragon, Varanus komodoensis". San Diego Zoo. http://library.sandiegozoo.org/factsheets/komodo_dragon/komodo.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  36. ^ Jessop, Tim S., et al.. "Distribution, Use and Selection of Nest Type by Komodo Dragons" (PDF). Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2007-08-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20070829154723/http://www.komododragon.biz/uploads/downloads/jessop+et+al+2004e.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  37. ^ Morales, Alex. "Komodo Dragons, World's Largest Lizards, Have Virgin Births". Bloomberg Television. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601082&sid=apLYpeppu8ag&refer=canada. Retrieved 2008-03-28. 
  38. ^ Notice by her cage in Chester Zoo in England
  39. ^ "Wise men testify to Dragon's virgin birth". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article759338.ece. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  40. ^ a b "'Virgin births' for giant lizards". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6196225.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  41. ^ "Strange but True: Komodo Dragons Show that "Virgin Births" Are Possible: Scientific American". Scientific American. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=strange-but-true-komodo-d. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  42. ^ Watts PC, Buley KR, Sanderson S, Boardman W, Ciofi C, Gibson R (Dec 2006). "Parthenogenesis in Komodo Dragons". Nature 444 (7122): 1021–2. doi:10.1038/4441021a. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 17183308. 
  43. ^ "Recent News - Sedgwick County Zoo". Sedgwick County Zoo. Archived from the original on 2008-02-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20080211184900/http://www.scz.org/n_recent.html. Retrieved 2008-02-12. 
  44. ^ "Komodo dragons hatch with no male involved". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23058689/. Retrieved 2008-02-12. 
  45. ^ Daily Mail - Should we really be scared of the Komodo dragon?
  46. ^ Rony, Fatimah Tobing (1996). The third eye: race, cinema, and ethnographic spectacle. Durham, N.C: Duke University Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-8223-1840-7. 
  47. ^ "American Museum of Natural History: Komodo Dragons". American Museum of Natural History. http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/expeditions/treasure_fossil/Treasures/Komodo_Dragons/komodo.html?aa. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  48. ^ a b c "Trapping Komodo Dragons for Conservation". National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/01/0129_030129_komodo.html. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  49. ^ "Komodo dragon kills boy in Indonesia". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19026658/. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  50. ^ a b c "When Good Lizards Go Bad: Komodo Dragons Take Violent Turn". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121963304805268235.html?mod=djemBestOfTheWeb. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  51. ^ "Dangerous Encounters". channel.nationalgeographic.com. http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/dangerous-encounters/3395/Photos#tab-Overview. Retrieved 2009-03-24. 
  52. ^ "Komodo dragons kill Indonesian Fisherman". cnn.com. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/03/24/komodo.dragon/index.html. Retrieved 2009-03-24. 
  53. ^ Cagle, Jess (2001-06-23). "Transcript: Sharon Stone vs. the Komodo Dragon". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/sampler/article/0,8599,133163,00.html. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  54. ^ "Lizard bites Sharon Stone's husband". BBC News. 2001-06-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/1382755.stm. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  55. ^ http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2010/02/23/12991876-ap.html
  56. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). Varanus komodoensis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 11 May 2006.
  57. ^ "The official website of Komodo National Park, Indonesia.". Komodo National Park. http://www.komodonationalpark.org/. Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  58. ^ "Appendices I, II and III". CITES. http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.shtml. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  59. ^ Flannery, Tim (2002). The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australian Lands and People. New York: Grove Press. pp. 384–385. ISBN 0-8021-3943-4. 
  60. ^ "ISIS Abstracts". ISIS. http://app.isis.org/abstracts/Abs50024.asp. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  61. ^ Procter, J.B. (October 1928). "On a living Komodo Dragon Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, exhibited at the Scientific Meeting". Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 1017–1019. 
  62. ^ Lederer, G. (1931). "Erkennen wechselwarme Tiere ihren Pfleger?". Wochenschr. Aquar.-Terrarienkunde 28: 636–638. 
  63. ^ Murphy, J.; T. Walsh (2006). "Dragons and Humans" (PDF). Herpetological Review 37 (3): 269–275. http://zoohistory.co.uk/html/modules/Downloads/files/HRkomododragons.pdf. 
  64. ^ "Such jokers, those Komodo dragons". Science News 78 (1): 78. August 2002. 
  65. ^ "Transcript: Sharon Stone vs. the Komodo Dragon". Time. http://www.time.com/time/sampler/article/0,8599,133163,00.html. Retrieved 2008-03-20. 
  66. ^ Phillip T. Robinson (2004). Life at the Zoo: Behind the Scenes with the Animal Doctors. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-231-13248-4. 
  67. ^ "Editor stable after attack by Komodo dragon / Surgeons reattach foot tendons of Chronicle's Bronstein in L.A.". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2001/06/11/MN204069.DTL. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 

Further reading

  • Attenborough, David (1957). Zoo Quest for a Dragon. London: Lutterworth Press. 
  • Auffenberg, Walter (1981). The Behavioral Ecology of the Komodo Monitor. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-0621-X. 
  • Burden, W. Douglas (1927). Dragon Lizards of Komodo: An Expedition to the Lost World of the Dutch East Indies. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-6579-5. 
  • Eberhard, Jo; King, Dennis; Green, Brian; Knight, Frank; Keith Newgrain (1999). Monitors: The Biology of Varanid Lizards. Malabar, Fla: Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 1-57524-112-9. 
  • Lutz, Richard L; Lutz, Judy Marie (1997). Komodo: The Living Dragon. Salem, Or: DiMI Press. ISBN 0-931625-27-0. 


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

A Komodo dragon

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Etymology

From Komodo (island) + dragon

Noun

Singular
Komodo dragon

Plural
Komodo dragons

Komodo dragon (plural Komodo dragons)

  1. An endangered species of monitor lizard native to certain Indonesian islands east of Java. It is the world's largest lizard, growing to 10 feet or 3 meters. It is known for its ability to kill prey with its septic saliva; the resulting septicemia can kill so quickly that it was once suspected the lizard was venomous.

Scientific names

  • Varanus komodoensis

Synonyms

  • dragon lizard
  • giant lizard
  • Komodo lizard

Translations


Simple English

Komodo dragon [1]
File:Varanus
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Scleroglossa
Family: Varanidae
Genus: Varanus
Species: V. komodoensis
Binomial name
Varanus komodoensis
Ouwens, 1912
File:Komodo dragon distribution.gif
Komodo dragon distribution

The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is a species of lizard that lives in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rincah, Flores, Gili Motang, and Gili Dasami.[2] It is the largest living kind of lizard. They grow to an average length of 2–3 meters (approximately 6.5–10 ft) and weigh around 70kg (154 pounds).[3] Komodo dragon bites can be very dangerous, and they sometimes attack people.

Western scientists first saw Komodo dragons in 1910. They are very popular animals in zoos because they are very big and look scary. The lizards are in some danger. There are very few Komodo dragons still alive on their home islands. Indonesian law does not allow hunting these lizards. Komodo National Park was created to help protect Komodo dragons.

The Komodo dragon has other names. It can also be called the Komodo Monitor or the Komodo Island Monitor by some scientists, but this is not very common.[1] The people who live in Komodo Island call them ora, buaja durat (land crocodile) or biawak raksasa (giant monitor).[3][4]

Contents

Description

File:Komodo dragon
Closeup of a Komodo dragon's skin.

The Komodo dragon is cold-blooded. It has a tail as long as its body. It has about 60 sharp teeth that can grow up to 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) long. It also has a long, yellow, forked tongue.[3] Its saliva is red because its gums almost completely cover its teeth. When they eat, their teeth cut their gums and make them bleed.[5] This creates a good environment for the dangerous bacteria that live in its mouth.[6]

Size

People used to think they were very big because there are no other large, meat-eating animals on the islands where they live. Therefore they do not have to compete with other similar animals for the same food and places to live. People also thought they were big because of their low metabolic rate.[7][8]

However, recent researchers have suggested a new idea. They say the Komodo is the last one of a larger group of lizards called varanids. These different types of lizards once lived across Indonesia and Australia but most of them died out after contact with modern humans. These varanids were all the best hunters in their habitats.[9] Because they are so big, these lizards are still very important where they live.[10]

Senses

The Komodo dragon's earholes are easy to see, but it is not very good at hearing.[3][11] It is able to see as far away as 300 meters (985 feet), but it is thought to have poor night vision. The Komodo dragon is able to see in color, but has trouble seeing objects that do not move.[12]

File:Varanus
A Komodo dragon resting in the sun at Disney's Animal Kingdom. The ear holes are large.

The Komodo dragon uses its tongue to taste and smell like many other reptiles. They have a special part of the body called the Jacobson's organ for smelling.[6] With the help of a good wind, they may be able to smell carrion from 4–9.5 kilometres (2.5–6 mi) away.[5][12] The Komodo dragon nostrils are not very useful for smelling, because it does not have a diaphragm.[5][13] It only has a few taste buds in the back of its throat.[6] Its scales have special connections to nerves that give it its sense of touch. The scales around its ears, lips, chin, and bottoms of the feet may have three or more of these connections.[5]

Poison

Komodo dragons have dangerous bacteria in their saliva. Scientists have identified 57 of them .[14] These bacteria cause disease in the blood of their victim. If a bite does not kill an animal and it escapes, it will usually die within a week from infection. The most dangerous bacteria in Komodo dragon saliva appears to be a kind of Pasteurella multocida that can often kill.[15] The Komodo dragon seems to never get sick from its own bacteria. So, researchers have been looking for the lizard's antibacterial. This maybe used as medicine for humans.[16]

Reproduction

Mating begins between May and August, and the eggs are laid in September. Dragons leave about twenty eggs in empty nests left by birds called megapodes. The eggs develop for seven to eight months. The eggs open and the baby lizards come out in April, when there are many insects to eat. Young Komodo dragons live in trees, where they are safe from adult Komodo dragons and other animals that might eat them. They take around three to five years to mature and may live as long as fifty years. Female Komodo dragons can have babies in a special way without a male lizard.

Habitat

[[File:|thumbnail|right|240px|Close-up of a Komodo dragon's foot and tail.]] The Komodo dragon likes hot and dry places and lives in dry open grassland, savanna, and tropical forest on lower land. It is most active in the day because it is cold-blooded, although it is sometimes active at night. Komodo dragons live alone. They come together only to breed and eat. They can run up to 20 kilometers per hour (12.4 mph), dive up to 4.5 metres (15 ft) at top speed for short periods of time. When they are young, they climb trees with their strong claws.[17] As the Komodo dragon grows bigger, its claws are used mostly as weapons, because it is too big to climb trees well.[5]

The Komodo dragon digs holes for protection with its powerful legs and claws. These holes can be from 1–3 metres (3–10 ft) wide.[18] Because it is very big and sleeps in holes, it is able to keep itself warm through the night.[19] The Komodo dragon usually hunts in the afternoon, but stays in the shade during the hottest part of the day.[20] Komodo dragons have special resting places on ridges that catch cool sea breezes.[21]

Food

[[File:|thumbnail|240px|upright|Komodo dragons on Rinca]] Komodo dragons are carnivores, which means that they eat meat. Although they eat mostly dead animals[7] they will also catch live animals as prey. When prey goes by a Komodo dragon, it will suddenly charge at the animal and bite or claw the belly or the throat.[5] To catch animals that are up high and out of reach, the Komodo dragon may stand on its back legs and use its tail as a support.[22]It is able to find its prey using its sensitive sense of smell. Dragons can smell a dead or dying animal up to 9.5 kilometers (6 miles) away.[5]

Komodo dragons do not chew their food. They eat by biting and pulling off large chunks of flesh and swallowing them whole. They can swallow smaller prey, up to the size of a goat, whole This is because they have flexible jaws and skulls, and their stomachs can expand.[21] Komodo dragons make much saliva to help the food move easily, but swallowing still takes a long time (15–20 minutes to swallow a goat). Komodo dragons may try to swallow faster by running and pushing the dead animal in its mouth very hard against a tree. Sometimes a lizard hit the tree so hard that it gets knocked out.[21] Dragons breath using a small tube under the tongue that connects to the lungs. This allows it to continue breathing even while swallowing large things.[5] A kimono dragons can eat up to 80 percent of its body weight in one meal.[10] After swallowing its food, it drags itself to a sunny place to speed up digestion so the food does not rot and poison the dragon. Large dragons can survive on as little as 12 meals a year.[5] After digestion, the Komodo dragon vomits the horns, hair, and teeth of the animal it ate. This vomit is covered in a smelly mucus. After vomiting, it rubs its face in the dirt or on bushes to get rid of the mucus. This suggests that komodo dragons dislike the smell, just like humans do.[5]

File:Komodo Dragon Eating
Young Komodo dragon on Rinca eating a dead water buffalo

The largest animals usually eat first, while the smaller ones eat later. Dragons of equal size may wrestle each other. Losers usually run away, although sometimes the are chased and eaten by the winners.[5]

The Komodo dragon's diet includes invertebrates, other reptiles (including smaller Komodo dragons), birds, bird eggs, small mammals, monkeys, wild boars, goats, deer, horses, and water buffalo. Young Komodo dragons will eat insects, eggs, geckoes, and small mammals.[7] Komodo dragons may eat people and. They can even dig up bodies from their graves to eat them.[22] Therefore, people on Komodo Island moved their graves from sandy to clay ground and piled rocks on top to stop the lizards from digging up dead bodies.[21]

Because the Komodo dragon does not have a diaphragm, it cannot suck water when drinking. It cannot lap water with its tongue either. Instead, it drinks by taking a mouthful of water, lifting its head, and letting the water run down its throat.[5]

Evolutionary history

Recent fossils from Queensland suggests that the Komodo dragon evolved in Australia before spreading to Indonesia.[9][23] Its body size remained stable on Flores, ever since the islands were isolated by rising sea levels, about 900,000 years ago.[9] The sea level dropped very low during the last ice age and uncovered wide areas of continental shelf. The Komodo dragon spread into these areas. They became isolated on the islands where they live today when sea levels rose again.[3][9] They moved into what is now the Indonesian island group. They spread as far east as the island of Timor.

Komodo dragons and people

In zoos

.]] Komodo dragons have been popular in zoos for a long time. However, there are few of them in zoos because they may become sick and do not have babies easily.[4] As of May 2009, there are 13 European, 2 African, 35 North American, 1 Singaporean, and 2 Australian institutions that keep Komodo dragons.[24]

A Komodo dragon was shown in a zoo for the first time in 1934 at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park. But, it lived for only two years. People continued to try to keep Komodo dragons in zoos, but the lives of these creatures was very short. The average life of a dragon in a zoo was five years in the National Zoological Park. Walter Auffenberg studied the dragons in zoos and eventually helped zoos to keep dragons more successfully[2]

Many dragons in zoos may become tamer than wild lizards within a short period of time in a zoo. Many zoo keepers have brought the animals out of their cages to meet visitors without any problems.[25][26] Dragons can also recognize individual humans.[27] However, even dragons that seem tame may surprise people and become aggressive. This can often happen when a stranger enters the animal's home.

. Komodo dragons in captivity often grow fat, especially in their tails, due to regular feeding.]]

Research with captive Komodo dragons has shown that they play. One dragon would push a shovel left and seemed attracted to the sound of it moving across rocks. A young female dragon at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. would grab and shake things like statues, drink cans, plastic rings, and blankets. She would also put her head in boxes, shoes, and other objects. She did not make a mistake and think these objects were food; she would only swallow them if they were covered in rat blood.[10]

Danger to humans

Komodo dragons do not attack human very often. However, they do sometimes hurt or kill people.

In June 2001, a Komodo dragon seriously hurt Phil Bronstein—executive editor of the San Francisco Chronicle. Bronstein had entered the dragon's cage at the Los Angeles Zoo after being invited in by its keeper. The zoo keeper had told him to take off his white shoes, which could have excited the Komodo dragon. Bronstein was bitten on his bare foot.[28][29] Although he escaped, he needed surgery to repair his foot.[30]

On June 4, 2007 a Komodo dragon attacked an eight-year-old boy on Komodo Island. The boy later died because he lost too much blood. This was the first time that people know a dragon had killed a human in 33 years.[31] Local people blamed the attack on environmentalists. People from outside the island had stopped local people from killing goats and leaving them for the dragons. The Komodo dragons no longer found the food they needed, so they came into places where humans lived in search of food. Many natives of Komodo Island believe that Komodo dragons are actually the reincarnation of relatives and should be treated with respect.[32][33]

On March 24, 2009, two Komodo dragons attacked and killed fisherman Muhamad Anwar on Komodo Island. They attacked Anwar after he fell out of a sugar-apple tree. He was bleeding badly from bites on his hands, body, legs, and neck. He was taken to a clinic on the nearby island of Flores, but doctors said he was dead when he arrived.[34]

Protecting Komodo dragons

coin from Indonesia showing komodo]]

The Komodo dragon may not survive. It is on the IUCN Red List of animals in danger.[35] Not many Komodo dragons still live on their home islands.

  • Komodo (1,700)
  • Rincah (1,300)
  • Gili Motang (100)
  • Gili Dasami (100)
  • Flores (ca. 2,000),[2]
  • Padar (None–Extinct).

However, there may now be only 350 females having babies in the wild.[4] The Komodo National Park was founded in 1980 to protect Komodo dragon on its home islands.[36]


Many things have reduced the number of dragons, including: volcanoes, earthquakes, loss of good places to live, fire,[5][37] not enough animals to eat, tourism, and illegal hunting.

Buying or selling Komodo dragons or their skins is illegal as part of an international law called CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species).[13][38]

Related pages

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Varanus komodoensis (TSN 202168). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 19 June 2007.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Trooper Walsh; Murphy, James Jerome; Claudio Ciofi; Colomba De La Panouse. Komodo dragons: biology and conservation. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian. ISBN 1-58834-073-2. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Ciofi, Claudio. "The Komodo Dragon". Scientific American. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=the-komodo-dragon. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Endangered! Ora". American Museum of Natural History. http://www.amnh.org/nationalcenter/Endangered/ora/ora.html. Retrieved 2007-01-15. 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 Darling, Kathy. Komodo Dragon: on location. Lothrop, Lee & Shepard. ISBN 0-688-13777-6. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Komodo Dragon". Singapore Zoological Gardens. Archived from the original on 2006-11-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20061127173608/http://www.szgdocent.org/resource/rr/c-komodo.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Chris Mattison, (1989 & 1992). Lizards of the World. New York: Facts on File. pp. pp. 16, 57, 99, 175. ISBN 0-8160-5716-8. 
  8. Burness G, Diamond J, Flannery T (2001). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Dinosaurs, dragons, and dwarfs: the evolution of maximal body size"]. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98 (25): 14518-23. PMID 11724953. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Hocknull SA, Piper PJ, van den Bergh GD, Due RA, Morwood MJ, Kurniawan I (September 2009). "Dragon's paradise lost: palaeobiogeography, evolution and extinction of the largest-ever terrestrial lizards (Varanidae)" (Free full text). PLoS ONE 4 (9): e7241. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007241. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007241. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Tim Halliday & Kraig Adler (eds) (2002). Firefly Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. Hove: Firefly Books Ltd. pp. 112, 113, 144, 147, 168, 169. ISBN 1-55297-613-0. 
  11. "Komodo Conundrum". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20080513055908/http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/animals/features/336feature1.shtml. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Komodo Dragon Fact Sheet". National Zoo. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/ReptilesAmphibians/Facts/FactSheets/Komododragon.cfm. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Zipcodezoo: Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon, Komodo Island Monitor, Komodo Monitor)". BayScience Foundation, Inc.. http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/v/varanus_komodoensis.asp. Retrieved 2007-02-01. 
  14. Montgomery JM, Gillespie D, Sastrawan P, Fredeking TM, Stewart GL (2002). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons"]. J. Wildl. Dis. 38 (3): 545–51. PMID 12238371. 
  15. Feldman, Ruth Tenzer (Feb 2007). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Dragon Drool!"]. Odyssey 16.2: 49. 
  16. Cheater, Mark (August/September 2003). "Chasing the Magic Dragon". National Wildlife Magazine (National Wildlife Federation) 41 (5). http://www.nwf.org/nationalwildlife/article.cfm?articleId=810&issueId=63. 
  17. Burnie, David; Don E. Wilson (2001). Animal. New York, New York: DK Publishing, Inc.. pp. 417, 420. ISBN 0-7894-7764-5. 
  18. consultant editors, Harold G. Cogger & Richard G. Zweifel; illustrations by David Kirshner (1998). Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 132, 157–8. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. 
  19. Eric R. Pianka and Laurie J. Vitt; with a foreword by Harry W. Greene (2003). Lizards: windows to the evolution of diversity. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 244. ISBN 0-520-23401-4. 
  20. "Komodo National Park". Komodo Foundation. http://www.komodo-gateway.org/faq1.html. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Alison Ballance; Morris, Rod. South Sea Islands: A Natural History. Hove: Firefly Books Ltd. ISBN 1-55297-609-2. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 text by David Badger; photography by John Netherton (2002). Lizards: a natural history of some uncommon creatures, extraordinary chameleons, iguanas, geckos, and more. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press. pp. 32, 52, 78, 81, 84, 140–145, 151. ISBN 0-89658-520-4. 
  23. "Australia was 'hothouse' for killer lizards", ABC, September 30, 2009. Retrieved on September 30, 2009.
  24. "ISIS Abstracts". ISIS. http://app.isis.org/abstracts/Abs50024.asp. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  25. Procter, J.B. (October 1928). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "On a living Komodo Dragon Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, exhibited at the Scientific Meeting"]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 1017–1019. 
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  29. Phillip T. Robinson (2004). Life at the Zoo: Behind the Scenes with the Animal Doctors. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-231-13248-4. 
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Other books about the Komodo dragon

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Look up Varanus komodoensis in Wikispecies, a directory of species
  • Auffenberg, Walter (1981). The behavioral ecology of the Komodo Monitor. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-0621-X. 
  • Eberhard, Jo; King, Dennis; Green, Brian; Knight, Frank; Keith Newgrain (1999). Monitors: the biology of Varanid lizards. Malabar, Fla: Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 1-57524-112-9. 
  • Richard L. Lutz, Judy Marie Lutz,. Komodo, the living dragon. Salem, Or: DiMI Press. ISBN 0-931625-27-0. 
  • W. Douglas Burden,. Dragon lizards of Komodo: an expedition to the lost world of the Dutch East Indies. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-6579-5. 








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