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Korean War
Part of the Cold War
.Korean War Montage.jpg
Clockwise, from top: The US Army at the 38th parallel; F-86 Sabre fighter aeroplane in Korean combat; Incheon harbour, starting point of the Battle of Inchon; Chinese soldiers welcomed home; 1st.
^ "The surprise of the Korean battles were not the Chinese but the Turks.
  • Turkish Brigade 22 September 2009 22:19 UTC www.korean-war.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chinese soldiers welcomed home, October 1954 .
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rest of the fighting was close to the starting point, the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Lt. Baldomero Lopez, USMC, over the top of the Incheon seawall.
Date 25 June 1950—present
Ceasefire signed 27 July 1953
Location Korean Peninsula
Status
Territorial
changes
DMZ; both gained little border territory at the 38th parallel.
Belligerents
 United Nations (UN Resolution 84):
 Republic of Korea
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 Belgium
 Canada
 Colombia
Ethiopia Ethiopia
France France
Greece Greece
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
 New Zealand
 Philippines
South Africa South Africa
 Thailand
 Turkey
 Iran
North Korea and Allies:
Commanders
South KoreaSyngman Rhee
North Korea Kim Il-sung
Strength
South Korea 590,911
United States 480,000
United Kingdom 63,000[1]
Canada 26,791[2]
Australia 17,000
Philippines 7,430[3]
Turkey 5,455[4]
Netherlands 3,972
France 3,421[5]
Greece 2,163[6]
New Zealand 1,389
Thailand 1,294
Ethiopia 1,271
Colombia 1,068
Belgium 900
South Africa 826
Luxembourg 44
Total: 1,207,010
North Korea 260,000
People's Republic of China 926,000
Soviet Union 26,000
Total: 1,212,000
Note: The figures vary by source; peak unit-strength varied during war.
Casualties and losses
South Korea
137,899 KIA[7]
450,742 WIA[8]
32,838 MIA/POW[9]
United States
36,516 dead (2,830 non-combat)
92,134 wounded
8,176 MIA
7,245 POW[10]
United Kingdom
1,109 dead[11]
2,674 wounded
1,060 MIA or POW[12]
Turkey
721 dead[13]
2,111 wounded
168 MIA
216 POW
Canada
516 dead[14]
1,042 wounded
Australia
339 dead[15]
1,200 wounded
France
300 KIA or MIA[16]
Greece
194 KIA[17]
459 wounded
Netherlands
123 KIA[18]
Philippines
112 KIA[3]
Belgium
106 KIA[19]
New Zealand
33 KIA[20]
South Africa
28 KIA and 8 MIA[21]
Luxembourg
2 KIA[22]
Total: 778,053
North Korea:
215,000 dead,
303,000 wounded,
120,000 MIA or POW[12]
China
(Official data):

114,000 killed in combat
34,000 non-combat deaths
380,000 wounded
21,400 POW[23]
(U.S. estimate):[12]
400,000+ dead
486,000 wounded
21,000 POW
Soviet Union:
282 dead[24]
Total: 1,187,682-1,545,822
.Total civilians killed/wounded: 2.5 Million (est.^ The total casualties (killed, wounded, imprisoned and missing) of the armed forces and the civilian population were 9,50,000.

^ More than a million South Koreans were killed, 85% of them civilians.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Korean War - China-related Topics KM-KP - China-Related Topics 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.famouschinese.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • History: Korean War - City of Albuquerque 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.cabq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to United Nations figures, the United Kingdom casualty figures: 686 Killed, 2,498 Wounded, 1,102 Missing/Prisoner of War - Total: 4,286 .

)[25]
.South Korea: 990,968[26]
373,599 killed[27]
229,625 wounded[28]
387,744 abducted/missing[29]
North Korea: 1,550,000 (est.
^ The principal combatants were North and South Korea.
  • Korean War - China-related Topics KM-KP - China-Related Topics 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.famouschinese.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the United States sent troops to stop Communist North Korea's invasion of South Korea in June 1950, it signaled the nation's determination to check the spread of communism.
  • VFW Magazine article archives from August, 2003 | AccessMyLibrary - Promoting library advocacy 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.accessmylibrary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to figures published in the Soviet Union, 11.1% of the total population of North Korea perished, which indicates that 1,130,000 people were killed.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Korean War - China-related Topics KM-KP - China-Related Topics 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.famouschinese.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • History: Korean War - City of Albuquerque 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.cabq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)[30]
.The Korean War was a military conflict between the Republic of Korea, supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union.^ In the north, the Soviet Union proclaimed a Communist dictatorship called the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).
  • KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cold War -era conflict was a proxy war between the United States and its allies and the Communist powers of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Soviet Union .
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was also a proxy war of a kind between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

The war began on 25 June 1950 and an armistice was signed on 27 July 1953.
.The war was a result of the political division of Korea by agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War.^ Korea was occupied by the Japanese Empire in 1905 and brutally exploited to aid the Japanese war effort, causing deep divisions between the collaborators and the resisters.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Eisenhower, who had suggested during his 1952 campaign that he could end the war in Korea, defied the wishes of Dulles and moved to an agreement with the Communists.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of this writing, a "State of War" officially exists between North Korea [its ally China] and South Korea [its ally United States of America].
  • California Military History: The 40th Infantry Division's March to the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Korean peninsula had been ruled by Japan prior to the end of the war; in 1945 following the surrender of Japan, the peninsula was divided by American administrators along the 38th parallel, with United States troops occupying the southern part and Soviet troops occupying the northern part.^ American and ROK troops reached the 38th parallel in early October.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Americans would take the Japanese surrender in the southern sector, Soviet troops in the north.
  • Historical Publications (The Korean War: The SIGINT Background) - NSA/CSS 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.nsa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Douglas MacArthur flew in United States troops from Japan to aid the South Koreans.

[31] .The failure to hold free elections throughout the Korean Peninsula in 1948 deepened the division between the two sides, and the 38th Parallel increasingly became a political border between the two Koreas.^ In 1948 two different governments were inaugurated on the Korean Peninsula, fixing the South-North division of Korea.

^ Map of Korea w/ 38th parallel.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Border crossing at the 38th Parallel .
  • History: Korean War - City of Albuquerque 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.cabq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although reunification negotiations continued in the months preceding the war, tension intensified.^ Some post-war research has only able to confirm 379 victories, although the USAF continues to maintain its official credits.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Report of The United Nations Commission on Korea, 1950 - A United Nations report analyzing events preceding the Korean War and the first months of the conflict.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although not well publicized, the United States continued to leaflet North Korea all through the Cold War.
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cross-border skirmishes and raids at the 38th Parallel persisted.^ Border crossing at the 38th Parallel .
  • History: Korean War - City of Albuquerque 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.cabq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crossing 38th parallel marker.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On Korea's western coast, EUSA crossed the 38th parallel dividing North and South Korea and captured the North Korean capital of Pyongyang on 19 October 1950.
  • History: Korean War - City of Albuquerque 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.cabq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The situation escalated into open warfare when the North Korean forces invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950.[32] It was the first significant armed conflict of the Cold War.^ On June 25, 1950, the North Korean Peoples' Army, without warning, attacked the Free Republic of South Korea.

^ Northern Korean armed forces crossed the 38th parallel on June 25, 1950.
  • The Korean War [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Korea Our War 1950-1953 .

[33]
.The United States and the United Nations came to the aid of the South Koreans in repelling the Communist invasion.^ The United States, with other United Nations, came to the aid of South Korea.

^ Douglas MacArthur flew in United States troops from Japan to aid the South Koreans.

^ The atrocities perpetrated in Korea against the United Nations troops by Chinese and North Korean Communists are not unique in Communist history, nor can they be explained away on the grounds that inhumanity is often associated with so-called civilized warfare.

.After early defeats at the hands of the North Korean military, a rapid UN counter-offensive repelled the North Koreans past the 38th Parallel and almost to the Yalu River, the People's Republic of China (PRC) came to the aid of Communist North.^ The North Koreans quickly crushed South Korean defenses at the 38th parallel.

^ North Koreans launch general offensive.
  • KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republic of Korea (South Korea) was born south of the 38th parallel and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) north of it.

[32] .With Communist China's entry into the conflict, the fighting took on a more dangerous tone.^ The Cold War -era conflict was a proxy war between the United States and its allies and the Communist powers of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Soviet Union .
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before entry into the war, the Chinese Communists had been working with millions of middle class merchants and managers to rebuild the war-torn domestic economy.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China's conflict with the Soviets notwithstanding, she actively supported North Vietnam and clearly intended to militarily counter any invasion of the North that would threaten communist control over the country.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Soviet Union materially aided North Korea and China, and the threat of a possibly nuclear world war eventually ceased with an armistice that restored the original border between the Koreas at the 38th Parallel and created the Korean Demilitarized Zone, a 2.5-mile (4.0 km) wide buffer zone between the two Koreas.^ After World War II , Korea was divided into two occupation zones along the 38th parallel (akin to the division of Germany).
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was also a proxy war of a kind between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The demilitarized zone remains the most heavily-defended border in the world.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.North Korea unilaterally withdrew from the armistice on May 27, 2009, thus returning to a de jure state of war.^ "The armistice remains in force and is binding on all signatories, including North Korea," it said immediately after the renunciation, referring to the document's termination provisions.
  • Korean War II - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ When the United States sent troops to stop Communist North Korea's invasion of South Korea in June 1950, it signaled the nation's determination to check the spread of communism.
  • VFW Magazine article archives from August, 2003 | AccessMyLibrary - Promoting library advocacy 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.accessmylibrary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korea has threatened nuclear war several times in recent days and this month sent one of its patrol boats into South Korean waters.
  • Korean War II - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.During the war, both North and South Korea were sponsored by external powers, thus facilitating the war's metamorphosis from a civil war to a proxy war between powers involved in the larger Cold War.^ North and South Korea remained technically at war.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No peace treaty was signed between North and South Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meeting between North & South Koreans.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From a military science perspective, the Korean War combined strategies and tactics of World War I and World War II — swift infantry attacks followed by air bombing raids.^ Artillery sequence w/ attack sequence Korean War; Military History; Propaganda; .
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WORLD WAR II had thus started.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examines the Korean War on levels ranging from movements of the infantry through the dialogue between top officials including General MacArthur and President Truman.
  • WDVA Wisconsin Veterans Museum Korean War Bibliography Page 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC museum.dva.state.wi.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The initial mobile campaign transitioned to trench warfare, lasting from January 1951 until the 1953 border stalemate and armistice.^ The last British troops deployed for the Korean emergency departed Korea in December 1953, however, there were peacekeeping troops in Korea until December 1957.

^ Truce talks began in July 1951, but the fighting continued until July 1953, when the negotiations at last bore fruit and the conflict ended in a cease-fire agreement.

^ The truce talks remained stalemated and hostilities continued until an armistice was finally concluded on 27 July 1953.

Contents

Background

Etymology

.In the USA the war was officially described as a police action owing to the lack of a legitimate declaration of war by the US Congress.^ Korea was officially a police action not a war in US parlance.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He called it a "police action" and legally it was not a war.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Combat Actions in Korea - A history of US Army's tactical operations during the Korean War.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

.Colloquially, it has also been referred to in the United States as The Forgotten War and The Unknown War, because it was ostensibly a United Nations conflict, ended in stalemate, had fewer American casualties, and concerned issues much less clear than in previous and subsequent conflicts, such as the Second World War and the Vietnam War.^ Black Americans in defense of our nation / United States.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State-Level Casualty Lists - Korean Conflict - A list of American casualities in the Korean War organized by states.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At the end of World War II, the United States had the greatest armed force the world had ever seen.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34][35]
In South Korea the war is usually referred to as the 6–2–5 War (yuk-i-o jeonjaeng), reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25.
.In North Korea the war is officially referred to as the Fatherland Liberation War (Choguk haebang chǒnjaeng).^ "The armistice remains in force and is binding on all signatories, including North Korea," it said immediately after the renunciation, referring to the document's termination provisions.
  • Korean War II - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ North Korea has threatened nuclear war several times in recent days and this month sent one of its patrol boats into South Korean waters.
  • Korean War II - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ In initial stages of the war, North Korea troops overwhelmed South Korean and American forces and drove them to a small area in the far South around the city of Pusan.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

.Alternately, it is called the Chosǒn chǒnjaeng ("Joseon war", Joseon being what North Koreans call Korea).^ North Korea, after all, has resumed the Korean War.
  • Korean War II - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ In Mortal Combat: Korea, 1950-1953 (1991) Varhola, Michael J. Fire and Ice: The Korean War, 1950-1953 (2000) Watson, Brent Byron.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The atrocities perpetrated in Korea against the United Nations troops by Chinese and North Korean Communists are not unique in Communist history, nor can they be explained away on the grounds that inhumanity is often associated with so-called civilized warfare.

.In the People's Republic of China the war is officially referred to as the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea.^ An Analysis of the Effects of the Korean War on the Social Structures of the Republic of Korea.” California Sociologist 15 (1992): 21-42.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After the end of the Korean War in 1953, the citizens of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea had no access to information from the West.
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country was divided at the 38th parallel and in 1948 the Soviet Union set up a People's Democratic Republic in North Korea.

[36][37] .However the "Korean War" (Chao Xian Zhan Zheng), with the word "Chao Xian" referring to Korea in general, and officially North Korea, is more commonly used these days.^ During the Korean War, tanks were used in limited operations however.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korea, after all, has resumed the Korean War.
  • Korean War II - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ It was targeted at "General population of North Korea."
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term Korean War can also denote the skirmishes before the invasion and since the armistice.^ Follow the Korean War from invasion to armistice with this incredible learning tool.
  • The Korean War [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even before the North Korean military invasion last June, nine of the men in the village were Communists.

^ FindLaw: Korean War Armistice Agreement: July 27, 1953 .
  • FindLaw: Korean War Armistice Agreement: July 27, 1953 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC news.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

[38]

Japanese rule (1910–1945)

.Upon defeating the Qing Dynasty in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–96), the Empire of Japan occupied the Korean Empire (1897–1910) of Emperor Gojong—a peninsula strategic to its sphere of influence.^ Dick Chun was sent to ASAPAC, first in Japan, then on to the Korean Peninsula.
  • Historical Publications (The Korean War: The SIGINT Background) - NSA/CSS 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.nsa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The First Korean War has not actually ended.
  • Starting the Second Korean War? - Reason Magazine 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Korean War was, first and foremost, a Korean civil war.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[39] A decade later, on defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), Japan made Korea its protectorate, with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905, then annexed it with the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910.[40][41]
.Korean nationalists and the intelligentsia fled the country, and some founded the Provisional Korean Government, headed by Syngman Rhee, in Shanghai, in 1919, that proved a “government-in-exile” recognized by few countries.^ Ruling the south was a right-wing government headed by Syngman Rhee , who had been converted to Christianity during his exile, and then earned a PhD in theology from Princeton.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The North claimed ROK (= South Korean ) troops under the "bandit traitor" Syngman Rhee had crossed the border first.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Returnees disembark, greeted by VIPs of Nationalist Chinese government in exile.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1919 to 1925 and onwards, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.^ The atrocities perpetrated in Korea against the United Nations troops by Chinese and North Korean Communists are not unique in Communist history, nor can they be explained away on the grounds that inhumanity is often associated with so-called civilized warfare.

^ Lee Tae, a leftist reporter living in South Korea at the outbreak of hostilities, joins a partisan army and participates in guerilla warfare against U.N. and South Korean troops.
  • South Korean Films About the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.koreanfilm.org [Source type: General]

^ Japanese atrocities committed against the Korean people: shootings, mass graves and burning villages.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:23[42]
.Korea under Japanese rule was considered to be part of the Empire of Japan along with Taiwan, which was part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and was an industrialized colony; in 1937, the colonial Governor–General, General Minami Jiro, commanded the cultural assimilation to Japan of the colony's 23.5 million people—by banning Korean language, literature, and culture, replaced with that of the Japanese, and that the populace rename themselves as Japanese.^ See also: Korea under Japanese rule , Division of Korea Japanese occupation .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another obstacle is North Korea's human rights record, which is generally considered to be one of the worst in the world with the country said to hold 150,000 people in political prison camps.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  NKorea proposes treaty to formally end Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: News]

^ Korea was occupied by the Japanese Empire in 1905 and brutally exploited to aid the Japanese war effort, causing deep divisions between the collaborators and the resisters.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1938, the Colonial Government established labor conscription; by 1939, 2.6 million Koreans worked overseas as forced laborers; by 1942, Korean men were being conscripted to the Japanese Army.^ Written with the intent of showing U.S. Army veterans of the Korean War how the part they played related to larger plans and operations of United Nations forces.
  • WDVA Wisconsin Veterans Museum Korean War Bibliography Page 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC museum.dva.state.wi.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These forces were to fight the ill-equipped South Korean army of less than 100,000 men--an army lacking in tanks, heavy artillery, and combat airplanes, plus a coast guard of 4,000 men and a police force of 45,000 men.

^ He went on to finish a 20-year career in the Air Force, including being activated during the Korean War, and serving on an island off the coast of Vietnam.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, in China, the nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the Communist People's Liberation Army organized the (right-wing and left-wing) refugee Korean patriots.^ Text at the left is in Korean Text and at the right is in English: .
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you think communist countries, like North Korea and the People's Republic of China, espouse freedom of speech and human rights the way they do in democratic countries, you're in for a big surprise.
  • ATPM 7.01 - Desktop Pictures: Washington, D.C. - Korean-War-Memorial 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.atpm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Written with the intent of showing U.S. Army veterans of the Korean War how the part they played related to larger plans and operations of United Nations forces.
  • WDVA Wisconsin Veterans Museum Korean War Bibliography Page 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC museum.dva.state.wi.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Nationalists, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign (December 1941 – August 1945).^ On December 10, 1941, the Japanese attacked the island and the Marines fought until overwhelmed and were ordered to surrender.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The communists, led by Kim Il-sung, fought the Japanese in Korea.^ North Korea and Kim il Sung were big losers.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kim Il Sung speaking.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They provide the latest information concerning the relationship between Chairman Mao, Premier Kim Il Sung, and Chairman Joseph Stalin at the outbreak of the conflict.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic K Books: Korean War American History 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

.During World War II, Japanese utilized Korea's food, livestock, and metals for the war effort.^ At the end of World War II the Japanese had occupied Korea for forty years.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WORLD WAR II had thus started.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was replaced by Lieutenant General Matthew Ridgway , who had led airborne troops in World War II. Ridgway took immediate steps to raise the morale and fighting spirit of the battered Eighth Army, which had fallen to low levels during its retreat from North Korea.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japanese forces in Korea increased from 46,000 (1941) to 300,000 (1945) soldiers.^ Non-korean UN forces makeup: 300,000 from the US ; 14,000 from the UK , 6,000 from Canada , 5,000 from Turkey , 2,000 from Australia , and many UN nations with 1,000 to 1,500.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South Korea's ground forces included a 45,000-member national police force and an army of 98,000.
  • KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Communist Chinese and North Korean Forces lost over 75,000 soldiers or eight divisions during the offensive.
  • California Military History: The 40th Infantry Division's March to the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japanese Korea conscripted 2.6 million forced laborers controlled with a collaborationist Korean police force; some 723,000 people had been sent to work in the overseas empire and in metropolitan Japan.^ In initial stages of the war, North Korea troops overwhelmed South Korean and American forces and drove them to a small area in the far South around the city of Pusan.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These forces were to fight the ill-equipped South Korean army of less than 100,000 men--an army lacking in tanks, heavy artillery, and combat airplanes, plus a coast guard of 4,000 men and a police force of 45,000 men.

^ Korea was occupied by the Japanese Empire in 1905 and brutally exploited to aid the Japanese war effort, causing deep divisions between the collaborators and the resisters.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.By January 1945, Koreans were 32% of Japan’s labor force; in August 1945, when the US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, they were about 25% of the people killed.^ However, after the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan, they soon surrendered on 15 August 1945.
  • California Military History: The 40th Infantry Division's March to the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On hearing of the invasion Truman agreed with his advisors, unilaterally, to use US airstrikes against the North Korean forces and also ordered the Seventh Fleet to protect Formosa.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Non-korean UN forces makeup: 300,000 from the US ; 14,000 from the UK , 6,000 from Canada , 5,000 from Turkey , 2,000 from Australia , and many UN nations with 1,000 to 1,500.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[42] .Japanese rule in Korea and Taiwan was not recognized by other world powers at the end of the war.^ At the end of World War II the Japanese had occupied Korea for forty years.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To American leaders, Japan has transformed from World War II enemy to vital ally, and Korea went from a peripheral region to a key battle ground in the cold war.
  • Korean War and Japan's Recovery 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The North was founded in 1948 three years after the end of World War II, and the 1950-53 Korean War concluded with an armistice, not a peace treaty.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  US envoy urges NKorea to follow China, Russia 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: News]

.The US-Soviet division of Korea excluded the Koreans—who were represented by US Army colonels Dean Rusk and Charles Bonesteel.^ The division of Korea was set at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, when Joseph Stalin for the Soviet Union and Harry S. Truman for the U.S. agreed to divide the Japanese-controlled Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A joint team operating near the Chosin Reservoir in North Korea recovered the remains believed to be those of a U.S. Army soldier from the 7th Infantry Division who fought against Chinese forces November-December 1950.
  • Korea-Cold War Newsletter #05 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.koreacoldwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The US gained a United Nations mandate for action because the Soviets were boycotting the Security Council while Chiang Kai-shek's representative held the Chinese seat.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

[43] .Two years earlier, at the Cairo Conference (November 1943), Nationalist China, the UK, and the USA decided that Korea should become independent, “in due course”; Stalin concurred.^ Once he landed, Lieutenant No found that his mother had escaped to the South two years earlier, and they were soon reunited.

^ Korea, he decided, provided "the most favorable terrain, the closest communication to China, the most convenient material and manpower backup...and the most convenient way for us to get Soviet support."
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was first taken to Japan, then to China for two years of brutal imprisonment and slave labor.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In February 1945, at the Yalta Conference, the Allies failed to establish the Korean trusteeship first discussed in 1943 by U.S. President Roosevelt and UK Prime Minister Winston Churchill.^ Winston Churchill once again assumed the office as Prime Minister.

^ Responding to the first news of China's massive entry into the Korean War, President Truman at a press conference stated that the United States would take "whatever steps are necessary to meet the military situation."
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan remained firmly in control until the end of World War II. Near the end of the war, the April 1945 Yalta Conference agreed to establish a four-power trusteeship for Korea.

.Per the US-Soviet agreement, the USSR declared war against Japan on 9 August 1945, and, by 10 August, the Red Army occupied the Korean north, via amphibious landings north of the 38th parallel and its Twenty-Fifth Army entering from Manchuria, China.^ The North Koreans quickly crushed South Korean defenses at the 38th parallel.

^ North Koreans in army truck.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean War Agreement; 1953; .
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42][44] Some three weeks later, on 8 September 1945, Lt. Gen. .John R. Hodge, USA, arrived in Incheon to accept the Japanese surrender south of the 38th parallel.^ As their troops moved into Korea, which the Japanese had annexed in 1910 and harshly occupied, the U.S. contacted Moscow and asked them to accept surrender of the enemy troops above the 38th parallel, while the U.S. would do so south of that line.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And in early June, reflecting an increased concern over Korea, the Acheson State Department sent its Republican operative, John Foster Dulles, to South Korea, Dulles visiting the 38th parallel on June 17, where he spoke of America's determination to stand by South Korea.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Northern government claimed that South Korean troops under the "bandit traitor" Syngman Rhee had crossed the 38th parallel, and thus the South had started the war.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]

Korea divided (1945)

.At the Potsdam Conference (July–August 1945), the Allies unilaterally decided to divide Korea—without consulting the Koreans—in contradiction of the Cairo Conference (November 1943) where Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek, and Franklin D. Roosevelt declared that Korea would be a free nation and an independent country.^ The US gained a United Nations mandate for action because the Soviets were boycotting the Security Council while Chiang Kai-shek's representative held the Chinese seat.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The division of Korea was set at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, when Joseph Stalin for the Soviet Union and Harry S. Truman for the U.S. agreed to divide the Japanese-controlled Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A formal agreement between the United Nations and the Republic of Korea was signed on 6 November 1959 and the administration of the Cemetery by the United Nations was assumed on 31 March 1960.

[39][39][39]:24[45]:24–25[46]:25[47] .Moreover, the earlier Yalta Conference (February 1945) granted to Joseph Stalin European "buffer zones"—satellite states accountable to Moscow- as well as an expected Soviet pre-eminence in China and Manchuria,[48] as reward for joining the US Pacific war effort against Japan.^ The division of Korea was set at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, when Joseph Stalin for the Soviet Union and Harry S. Truman for the U.S. agreed to divide the Japanese-controlled Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fearing that the wider war with China that would be necessary to reunify Korea would cost too many American lives and raise the risk of nuclear war with the Soviet Union, the United States abandoned the idea of forcibly reuniting the two Koreas.
  • KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In August 1945, Soviet forces were fighting the Japanese military on the China-Korea border, and it appeared that the Red Army might occupy all of Korea.
  • Historical Publications (The Korean War: The SIGINT Background) - NSA/CSS 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.nsa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.By 10 August, the Red Army occupied the northern part of the peninsula as agreed, and on 26 August halted at the 38th parallel for three weeks to await the arrival of US forces in the south.^ The PRC army forced the UN and ROK forces back to the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The division of Korea was set at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, when Joseph Stalin for the Soviet Union and Harry S. Truman for the U.S. agreed to divide the Japanese-controlled Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Written with the intent of showing U.S. Army veterans of the Korean War how the part they played related to larger plans and operations of United Nations forces.
  • WDVA Wisconsin Veterans Museum Korean War Bibliography Page 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC museum.dva.state.wi.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:25[39]:24
.On 10 August 1945, with the 15 August Japanese surrender near, the Americans were in doubt that the Soviets would honor their part of the Joint Commission, the US-sponsored Korean occupation agreement.^ The Japanese surrendered on August 14, 1945, five days later.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 15, 1945, the surrender of Japan was announced over the camp’s speakers.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The US and Korean agreement calls for 10 joint recovery operations.
  • 2nd Infantry Division (2id), Korean War Veterans Alliance HQ 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC 2id.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A month earlier, to fulfill the politico-military requirements of the US, Colonel Dean Rusk and Colonel Charles H. Bonesteel III, divided the Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel after hurriedly deciding (in thirty minutes), that the US Korean Zone of Occupation had to have a minimum of two ports.^ A cease fire established a demilitarized zone (DMZ) around the 38th parallel which is still today defended by North Korean on one side and South Korean and American troops on the other.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The division of Korea was set at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, when Joseph Stalin for the Soviet Union and Harry S. Truman for the U.S. agreed to divide the Japanese-controlled Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ambassador Muccio reports to US State Department that North Korea has crossed the 38th Parallel, SEOUL, June 25, 1950 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[45][49][50][51] .Explaining why the occupation zone demarcation (38th parallel) was so far south, Rusk observed, “even though it was further north than could be realistically reached by US forces, in the event of Soviet disagreement ...^ Above the 38th parallel, the Chinese and North Korean forces once again regrouped.
  • KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The North Koreans quickly crushed South Korean defenses at the 38th parallel.

^ On hearing of the invasion Truman agreed with his advisors, unilaterally, to use US airstrikes against the North Korean forces and also ordered the Seventh Fleet to protect Formosa.
  • Korean War History Guide .. The History Beat 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.searchbeat.com [Source type: Reference]

we felt it important to include the capital of .Korea in the area of responsibility of American troops”, especially when “faced with the scarcity of US forces immediately available, and time and space factors, which would make it difficult to reach very far north, before Soviet troops could enter the area.”[48] The Soviets agreed to the US occupation zone demarcation, to improve Soviet Eastern European-occupation negotiation-leverage, and because each would accept Japanese surrender where they stood.^ And Soviet troops were stealing what they could from the Koreans.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese forces north of that line would surrender to the Soviet Union, and those to the south to the United States.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet troops entered Korea on August 12.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:25
.As the military governor, General John R. Hodge directly controlled South Korea via the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK 1945–48).^ South Korea's army was simply overwhelmed.

^ Korea 1951-1953[ United States Army in the Korean War] .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The United States, with other United Nations, came to the aid of South Korea.

[52]:63 .He established control by first restoring to power the key Japanese colonial administrators and their Korean and police collaborators,[33] and second, by refusing the USAMGIK’s official recognition of the People's Republic of Korea (PRK) (August–September 1945), the provisional government (agreed with the Japanese Army) with which the Koreans had been governing themselves and the peninsula—because he suspected it was communist.^ Japanese and Korean officials with Buddhist priest.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 9 September, the communist North Korean government officially declared its independence from the democratic South Korean government.
  • California Military History: The 40th Infantry Division's March to the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Walking w/ US & Korean Army officials.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These US policies, voiding popular Korean sovereignty, provoked the civil insurrections and guerrilla warfare preceding, then constituting, the Korean civil war.^ The Korean War was, first and foremost, a Korean civil war.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To deepen understanding of the Korean situation, to assess the forces at work toward war, requires considering these forces at all three levels.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What would we have done without the letters exchanged between loved ones during war time: the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, for example?

[40] .On 3 September 1945, Lieutenant General Yoshio Kozuki, Commander, Japanese 17th Area Army , contacted Hodge, telling him that the Soviets were south of the 38th parallel at Kaesong.^ The division of Korea was set at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, when Joseph Stalin for the Soviet Union and Harry S. Truman for the U.S. agreed to divide the Japanese-controlled Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As their troops moved into Korea, which the Japanese had annexed in 1910 and harshly occupied, the U.S. contacted Moscow and asked them to accept surrender of the enemy troops above the 38th parallel, while the U.S. would do so south of that line.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As American troops established a presence in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, the Soviets began cutting roads and communications at the 38th parallel .
  • The Korean War [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

Hodge trusted the accuracy of the Japanese Army report.[45]
.In December 1945, Korea was administered by the US–USSR Joint Commission, agreed at the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers (October 1945).^ In December 1945, the US and the Soviet Union agreed to administer the country temporarily.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The division of Korea was set at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, when Joseph Stalin for the Soviet Union and Harry S. Truman for the U.S. agreed to divide the Japanese-controlled Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Report of The United Nations Commission on Korea, 1950, Covering the Period from December 15, 1949 to September 4, 1950 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Again excluding the Koreans, the commission decided the country would become independent after a five-year trusteeship—action facilitated by each régime sharing its sponsor's ideology.^ Becoming an independent country due to the Treaty of San Francisco also saved Japan from the burden of expense of the occupation forces.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Allies stated Korea would be a unified, independent country under an elected government, but failed to specify details.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately for the Korean people, foreigners once again would bring war, misery, and suffering to their country on an unprecedented scale.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:25–26[53] The incensed Korean populace revolted; in the South, some protested, some rose in arms;[40] to contain them, the USAMGIK banned strikes (8 December 1945) and outlawed the PRK Revolutionary Government and the PRK People's Committees on 12 December 1945.
.This suppression of sovereignty provoked an 8,000-railroad-worker strike on 23 September 1946 in Pusan, political action which quickly extended throughout US-controlled Korea; the USAMGIK had lost civil control.^ The ROK generals were mediocre political appointees; the ROKA lost half its combat effectiveness quickly.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Korea, on 5 September 1950, the North Koreans had the outnumbered American and South Korean forces surrounded at Pusan and trying a breakthrough at Kyongju.
  • California Military History: The 40th Infantry Division's March to the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The principle of civil control is so ingrained in the military that never, never has such an act been possible in this country, although it has happened throughout the world.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

.On 1 October 1946, Korean police killed three students in the “Daegu Uprising”; people counter-attacked, killing 38 policemen.^ They had created a regional Five-Province Administrative Bureau in October 1945, which was reorganized into the North Korean Provisional People's Committee in February 1946 and shed the "Provisional" component of its name twelve months later.

^ On June 25, 1950, the North Korean Peoples' Army, without warning, attacked the Free Republic of South Korea.

^ The South Korean military and police quickly launched a counteraction, capturing one of the commandos, Kim Shin-jo, and killing the other 28.

.Likewise, on 3 October, some 10,000 people attacked the Yeongcheon police station, killing three policemen and injuring some 40 more; elsewhere, populaces killed some 20 landlords and pro-Japanese South Korean officials.^ Japanese and Korean officials with Buddhist priest.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than a million South Koreans were killed, 85% of them civilians.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These forces were to fight the ill-equipped South Korean army of less than 100,000 men--an army lacking in tanks, heavy artillery, and combat airplanes, plus a coast guard of 4,000 men and a police force of 45,000 men.

[46] .The USAMGIK declared martial law to control South Korea; in controlling the Koreans with Japanese colonial administrators and Korean collaborators, the US discredited its declarations of a “Free Korea”.^ The division of Korea was set at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, when Joseph Stalin for the Soviet Union and Harry S. Truman for the U.S. agreed to divide the Japanese-controlled Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korea was occupied by the Japanese Empire in 1905 and brutally exploited to aid the Japanese war effort, causing deep divisions between the collaborators and the resisters.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This discredits one theory from the 1960s and 1970s that the war was just as much caused by South Korea and Western provocation.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
The right-wing Representative Democratic Council, led by nationalist Syngman Rhee, opposed the Soviet–American trusteeship of Korea, arguing that after thirty-five years (1910–45) of Japanese colonial ruleforeign rule—most Koreans opposed another foreign rule, i.e. US and Soviet. .Gaining advantage from the native political temper, the US quit the Soviet-supported Moscow Accords—and, using the 31 March 1948 United Nations election deadline to achieve a anti-communist civil government in the US Korean Zone of Occupation—convoked national general elections that the Soviets opposed, then boycotted, insisting that the US honor the Moscow Accords.^ United Nations Commission w/ Koreans, Soviets & US. Elections in South Korea under UN supervision.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A formal agreement between the United Nations and the Republic of Korea was signed on 6 November 1959 and the administration of the Cemetery by the United Nations was assumed on 31 March 1960.

^ The atrocities perpetrated in Korea against the United Nations troops by Chinese and North Korean Communists are not unique in Communist history, nor can they be explained away on the grounds that inhumanity is often associated with so-called civilized warfare.

[39]:26[54][55][56]
.The resultant anti-communist South Korean government promulgated a national political constitution (17 July 1948) elected a president, the American-educated strongman Syngman Rhee (20 July 1948), and established the Republic of South Korea on 15 August 1948.[57] Likewise, in the Russian Korean Zone of Occupation, the USSR established a Communist North Korean government[39]:26 led by Kim Il-sung.^ Syngman Rhee became the republic's first president.

^ In December, 1948, the U.N. General Assembly recognized the government in the south -- the Republic of Korea -- as the only lawfully constituted government in Korea.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korea and Kim il Sung were big losers.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .Moreover, President Rhee's régime expelled communists and leftists from southern national politics.^ So, when Japan gave it up, the communists were the dominant political party in northern Korea, and the southern part was more democratic.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Disenfranchised, they headed for the hills, to prepare guerrilla war against the US-sponsored ROK Government.^ Against the much more heavily armed Americans, they adapted a technique they had used against the Nationalists in the Chinese civil war of 1946–49.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They threw about four barrages at us, there was nothing left on this hill.
  • First War Dog Unit - Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.uswardogs.org [Source type: General]

^ When the Soviet Union entered the war against Japan, they sent troops into Japanese-occupied Korea.
  • The Korean War [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

[38]
.As nationalists, both Syngman Rhee and Kim Il-Sung were intent upon reunifying Korea under their own political system.^ North Korea and Kim il Sung were big losers.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kim Il Sung speaking.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Korean President Syngman Rhee and North Korean General Secretary Kim Il-sung were both intent on reuniting the peninsula under their own system.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:27 .Partly because they were the better-armed, the North Koreans could escalate the continual border skirmishes and raids, and then invade—with proper provocation—whereas South Korea, with limited US material could not match them.^ The Chinese, Koreans, the North Koreans, were about to throw us out of Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ US, South Korean officials: North Korea still a threat .
  • North Korea proposes treaty to formally end Korean War | Home >> Other Sections >> Breaking News 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.philstar.com [Source type: News]

^ North Korea quiet on seized South Korean fishermen .
  • North Korea proposes treaty to formally end Korean War | Home >> Other Sections >> Breaking News 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.philstar.com [Source type: News]

[39]:27 .During this era of the beginning Cold War, the US government acted as if all communists—regardless of nationality—constituted a Communist bloc controlled or at least directly influenced from Moscow; thus the US portrayed the civil war in Korea as a Soviet hegemonic maneuver.^ Cold War Begins, 1945-49 .
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for the American government, they believed at the time that the Communist bloc was a unified monolith, and that North Korea acted within this monolith as a pawn of the Soviet Union (a view that in the case of North Korea is largely substantiated by documents from the Soviet archives showing that Kim Il-sung, operating with some Soviet assistance, was responsible for the invasion of the South, and discrediting a popular viewpoint of the 1960s and 1970s that the war was just as much caused by South Korean and Western provocation).
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The atrocities perpetrated in Korea against the United Nations troops by Chinese and North Korean Communists are not unique in Communist history, nor can they be explained away on the grounds that inhumanity is often associated with so-called civilized warfare.

.U.S. troops withdrew from Korea in 1949,[58] leaving the South Korean army relatively ill-equipped.^ South Korea's army was simply overwhelmed.

^ Army truck w/ South Korean flag.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These forces were to fight the ill-equipped South Korean army of less than 100,000 men--an army lacking in tanks, heavy artillery, and combat airplanes, plus a coast guard of 4,000 men and a police force of 45,000 men.

.Meanwhile, the Soviet Union sent large amounts of military aid to North Korea to facilitate the invasion planned by Kim Il-Sung.^ Kim Il Sung speaking.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still of Kim Il Sung with superimposed North Korean flags.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korean President Kim Il Sung offered a unification plan that was rejected by South Korea.
  • KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

Course of the war

North Korea Escalates the Conflict (June 1950)

Main Article: Initial Phase of Korean War
.Although the United Nations received messages that the North Koreans were about to invade, all were rejected.^ TO ALL KOREAN SOLDIERS. This certificate is offered by the United Nations forces to all North Korean and Chinese forces.
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The atrocities perpetrated in Korea against the United Nations troops by Chinese and North Korean Communists are not unique in Communist history, nor can they be explained away on the grounds that inhumanity is often associated with so-called civilized warfare.

^ On that date at Panmunjom, the military commanders of the North Korean Army, the Chinese People's Volunteers, and the United Nations Command signed an armistice agreement.

.The United States received less than two weeks notice of the Korean War—the Chinese-authorized, North Korean invasion of the South on 25 June 1950. The CIA provided the early notice; before the war, in early 1950, CIA China station officer Douglas Mackiernan received Chinese and North Korean intelligence forecasting the summer KPA attack on the South so as to unify the country.^ On June 25, 1950, the North Korean Peoples' Army, without warning, attacked the Free Republic of South Korea.

^ Korean War ( The Chinese surprise ) 7/15 .

^ Korean War 1950-1953.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Earlier, after the US missions had left the communist People's Republic of China, he volunteered to remain and conduct spy operations.^ If you think communist countries, like North Korea and the People's Republic of China, espouse freedom of speech and human rights the way they do in democratic countries, you're in for a big surprise.
  • ATPM 7.01 - Desktop Pictures: Washington, D.C. - Korean-War-Memorial 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.atpm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, he said, the Soviet Union would provide the Chinese sufficient military equipment and war material -- weapons and ammunition left over from World War II. The People's Republic of China was, however, to pay the Soviet Union for all military supplies, which created some bitterness among the Chinese Communist leadership that was to last for years to come.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, diplomacy between the Republic of China and mainland China remains strained, and mainland China continues to claim sovereignty over Taiwan .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Afterward, he and a team of CIA local mercenaries then escaped the Chinese, in a months-long horse trek across the Himalaya mountains; he was killed within miles of Lhasa, Tibet — yet his team delivered the intelligence to headquarters.^ Consists of a long sequence of pictures in which words of the original text, Korean written in Chinese characters, appear interspersed within the artwork.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet Team B was firmly convinced that it ought to be treated as a long-range bomber capable of damaging the U.S. since it had an in-flight refueling capability.
  • Matthew Yglesias » Cold War Hawks and the Soviet Economy 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the LLI teams dealt in perishable and current intelligence, not much long-term analysis was done - or possible.
  • Historical Publications (The Korean War: The SIGINT Background) - NSA/CSS 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.nsa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thirteen days later, the North Korean People's Army (KPA) crossed the 38th-parallel border and invaded South Korea.^ South Korea's army was simply overwhelmed.

^ The North Koreans quickly crushed South Korean defenses at the 38th parallel.

^ North Korea has a standing army of about 1 million men, and dwarfs the south Korean army.
  • Starting the Second Korean War? - Reason Magazine 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

Mackiernan was posthumously awarded the CIA Intelligence Star for valor.[59]
.Under the guise of counter-attacking a South Korean provocation raid, the North Korean Army (KPA) crossed the 38th parallel, behind artillery fire, at Sunday dawn of 25 June 1950.[39]:14 The KPA said that Republic of Korea Army (ROK Army) troops, under command of the régime of the "bandit traitor Syngman Rhee", had crossed the border first—and that they would arrest and execute Rhee.^ Ambassador Muccio reports to US State Department that North Korea has crossed the 38th Parallel, SEOUL, June 25, 1950 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In the pre-dawn hours of Sunday June 25 1950 , the North Korean army struck across the 38 th parallel behind a firestorm of artillery barrage.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Artillery firing; firing from under light camouflage.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .In the past year, both Korean armies had continually harassed each other with skirmishes—and each continually raided the other country across the 38th-parallel border, as in a civil war.^ ROK drives across 38th parallel.
  • KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We are not ignorant that other countries participated in the war, too.
  • ATPM 7.01 - Desktop Pictures: Washington, D.C. - Korean-War-Memorial 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.atpm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Korean War was, first and foremost, a Korean civil war.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hours later, the United Nations Security Council unanimously condemned the North Korean invasion of the Republic of South Korea (ROK), with UNSC Resolution 82, so adopted despite the USSR, a veto-wielding power, boycotting the Council meetings since January—protesting that the (Taiwan) Republic of China, and not the (mainland) People's Republic of China held a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.^ North Korea ignored the resolution.
  • KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thanks to a temporary Soviet absence from the Security Council — the Soviets were boycotting the Security Council to protest the exclusion of People's Republic of China (PRC) from the UN — there was no veto by Stalin.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviets were boycotting the Security Council for refusing to admit Red China into the United Nations.
  • The Korean War [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

[60] .On 27 June 1950, President Truman ordered US air and sea forces to help the South Korean régime.^ Statement, dated June 27, 1950, by President Harry S. Truman, announcing his order to send U.S. air and naval forces to help defend South Korea and explaining the rationale for his decision.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ South Korean forces moved in behind them.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By June 27, Truman had ordered America air and naval units into action.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After debating the matter, the Security Council, on 27 June 1950, published Resolution 83 recommending member-state military assistance to the Republic of Korea.^ Resolution dated June 27, 1950, from United Nations Security Council recommending that the members of the United Nations furnish assistance to the Republic of Korea in order to repel the attack and restore peace and security in Korea.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States, fearing that inaction in Korea would be interpreted as appeasement of communist aggression elsewhere in the world, was determined that South Korea should not be overwhelmed and asked the UN Security Council to intervene.

^ Early in the morning of June 25, 1950, the armed forces of Communist North Korea smashed across the 38th parallel of latitude in an invasion of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) that achieved complete surprise.
  • KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.Incidentally, while awaiting the Council's fait accompli announcement to the UN, the Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister accused the US of starting armed intervention in behalf of South Korea.^ The United States, fearing that inaction in Korea would be interpreted as appeasement of communist aggression elsewhere in the world, was determined that South Korea should not be overwhelmed and asked the UN Security Council to intervene.

^ Getting the US out of South Korea makes the all of Asia makes sense if your want the US to become a second-rate power with all the influence of Denmark.
  • Starting the Second Korean War? - Reason Magazine 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within hours after the invasion of South Korea began, the United Nations Security Council called for an immediate cease-fire and the withdrawal of North Korean forces from South Korea.
  • KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[61]
.The USSR challenged the legitimacy of the UN-approved war, because (i) the ROK Army intelligence upon which Resolution 83 is based came from US Intelligence; (ii) North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) was not invited as a sitting temporary member of the UN, which violated UN Charter Article 32; and (iii) the Korean warfare was beyond UN Charter scope, because the initial North–South border fighting was classed as civil war.^ The Chinese, Koreans, the North Koreans, were about to throw us out of Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On June 25, 1950, the North Korean Peoples' Army, without warning, attacked the Free Republic of South Korea.

^ North and South Korea remained technically at war.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, the Soviet representative boycotted the UN to prevent Security Council action, to challenge the legitimacy of UN action; legal scholars posited that deciding upon an "action" required the unanimous vote of the five permanent members.^ Memorandum for the National Security Council, dated July 6, 1950, transmitting from the National Security Resources Board a memorandum on suggested action in light of the Korean situation.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Upon acceptance by the President, this document was designated "National Security Council (NSC) 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security."
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States was to fight in Korea under the aegis of the UN, and the UN Security Council asked the U.S. to appoint a supreme commander for the UN force, and Washington appointed General MacArthur.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62][63]
.The North Korean Army launched the "Fatherland Liberation War" with a comprehensive air–land invasion using 231,000 soldiers, who captured scheduled objectives and territory—among them, Kaesŏng, Chuncheon, Uijeongbu, and Ongjin—which they achieved with 274 T-34-85 tanks, some 150 Yak fighters, 110 attack bombers, 200 artillery pieces, 78 Yak trainers, and 35 reconnaissance aircraft.^ Artillery sequence w/ attack sequence Korean War; Military History; Propaganda; .
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korea rebuilt its army to about 340,000 soldiers.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T-34 tanks lead North Koreans forward sequence; North Koreans advance.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .Additional to the invasion force, the KPA had 114 fighters, 78 bombers, 105 T-34-85 tanks, and some 30,000 soldiers stationed in North Korea.^ North Korea rebuilt its army to about 340,000 soldiers.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, they protected U.S soldiers from the T-34-85 tanks.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The failure of North Korea to capture Pusan doomed its invasion.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .At sea, although comprising only several small warships, the North Korean and South Korean navies fought in the war as sea-borne artillery for their in-country armies.^ So to all those that had severed in the korean war.
  • ATPM 7.01 - Desktop Pictures: Washington, D.C. - Korean-War-Memorial 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.atpm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Written with the intent of showing U.S. Army veterans of the Korean War how the part they played related to larger plans and operations of United Nations forces.
  • WDVA Wisconsin Veterans Museum Korean War Bibliography Page 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC museum.dva.state.wi.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North and South Korea agreed: Not to increase their respective militaries To allow a 2.5 mile demilitarized zone between the two countries That all prisoners be voluntarily repatriated; this would be supervised by a neutral committee Outcome The Korean war had accomplished almost nothing.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

In contrast, the ROK Army defenders were unprepared. .In South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu (1998), R.E. Applebaum reports the ROK forces' low combat readiness on 25 June 1950. The ROK Army had 98,000 soldiers (65,000 combat, 33,000 support), no tanks, and a twenty-two piece air force comprising 12 liaison-type and 10 AT6 advanced-trainer airplanes.^ North Korea decided to invade and take over South Korea on June 25, 1950.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korea rebuilt its army to about 340,000 soldiers.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MacArthur reported that the ROK (South Korean) forces were too weak to hold.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were no large foreign military garrisons in Korea at invasion time—but there were large US garrisons and air forces in Japan.^ But there was no time off for celebrations.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was in the document no mention of U.S. military intervention anywhere, including defending Chiang's forces on Taiwan .
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a time, this good-looking lad came in and as there were only the two of us in there, he came over and introduced himself.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]
Within days of the invasion, masses of ROK Army soldiers—of dubious loyalty to the Syngman Rhee régime—either were retreating southwards or were defecting en masse to the Communist North, to the KPA.[39]:23

Police Action: US intervention

Gen. .MacArthur, UN Command CiC (seated), observes the naval shelling of Incheon from the USS Mt.^ The United States was to fight in Korea under the aegis of the UN, and the UN Security Council asked the U.S. to appoint a supreme commander for the UN force, and Washington appointed General MacArthur.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following UN approval of the intervention, MacArthur assumed the additional role of Commander in Chief, United Nations Command (CINCUNC).
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Rhee gave control of his armed forces to the UN, and Truman named MacArthur to the UN command.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

McKinley
, 15 September 1950.
US infantry light machinegun position, Korea, 1950–53.
Korean children pass an M-46 tank
A GI comforts a grieving infantryman.
.
The US Army’s 6th Tank Bn.
^ In April, they marched to a camp in Moosburg, where on April 29th a US Army tank smashed down the gate.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Army-Marines Counterattack - 30Aug50 - South Korean and US troops with jeeps and tanks on road by village in North-East Korea near Pohang.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

supports the 19th RCT, at Song Sil-li, Korea, 10 January 1952.
.Despite the rapid post–Second World War Allied demobilizations, there were substantial US forces occupying Japan; under Gen.^ Despite the post-World War II demobilization of U.S. and allied forces, which caused serious supply problems for American troops in the region (excluding the United States Marines , the infantry divisions sent to Korea were at 40% of paper strength, and the majority of their equipment was found to be useless), the U.S. still had substantial forces in Japan , under the command of General Douglas MacArthur .
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War II, Farnsworth was in the Reserves from late 1945 until early 1948 and was stationed at Nellis Air Force Base when the Korean War started in 1950.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I think that those of us that were in the war better understood the people there.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.MacArthur’s command, they could fight the North Koreans.^ On 11 April 1951, General MacArthur was relieved of his Korean command by President Harry Truman, following MacArthur’s unauthorized and inflammatory policy statements.
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March 1951, in Operation Ripper , a revitalized 8th Army - restored by Ridgway to fighting trim - expelled the North Korean and Chinese troops from Seoul.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Truman ordered Five-Star General Douglas MacArthur, U.S. Commander in the Far East, headquartered in Tokyo, to provide logistical support for the ROKs while the U.N. called for withdrawal of North Korean troops.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:42 .Moreover, in that time and place, besides the US, only the British Commonwealth had comparable forces.^ After a time, this good-looking lad came in and as there were only the two of us in there, he came over and introduced himself.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UN Forces Withdraw - British, Belgian, Filipino & US troops break camp in Njeng [?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A NKPA force of 500 was caught between the 187 and the Australian Battalion, 27th British Commonwealth Brigade advancing to link up with the troopers.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On Saturday, June 24, 1950, US Secretary of State Dean Acheson telephonically informed President Harry S. Truman, “Mr.^ Copy of memorandum entitled "Points Requiring Presidential Decision," apparently prepared by State and Defense Department staff and summarized by Secretary of State Dean Acheson at the June 25, 1950, Blair House meeting.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Ambassador Muccio reports to US State Department that North Korea has crossed the 38th Parallel, SEOUL, June 25, 1950 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Statement, dated June 27, 1950, by President Harry S. Truman, announcing his order to send U.S. air and naval forces to help defend South Korea and explaining the rationale for his decision.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

President, I have very serious news. .The North Koreans have invaded South Korea.”[64][65] Truman and Acheson discussed a US invasion response with defense department principals, who agreed that the United States was obligated to repel military aggression, paralleling it with Adolf Hitler's 1930s aggressions, and said that the mistake of appeasement must not be repeated.^ The Chinese, Koreans, the North Koreans, were about to throw us out of Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its responsibility was shifted to the United States.

^ Therefore, and finally, South Korea must accelerate her military buildup.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] President Truman acknowledged that fighting the invasion was pertinent to the American global containment of communism:
.
"Communism was acting in Korea, just as Hitler, Mussolini and the Japanese had ten, fifteen, and twenty years earlier.^ LTC Underhill was engaged in PSYOP directed against North Korea and South Eastern Asia for ten years.
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.I felt certain that if South Korea was allowed to fall Communist leaders would be emboldened to override nations closer to our own shores.^ Formosa (Taiwan)—where the Nationalists had fled—fall to the Communists, it would not be considered a threat to U.S. security.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The port of Pusan would be the gateway for future UN reinforcements which will eventually liberate South Korea and drive deep into North Korea.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How long after the US announces it's withdrawal from South Korea and Japan would it take for these two nations to be nuclear armed?
  • Starting the Second Korean War? - Reason Magazine 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the Communists were permitted to force their way into the Republic of Korea without opposition from the free world, no small nation would have the courage to resist threat and aggression by stronger Communist neighbors."^ If you think communist countries, like North Korea and the People's Republic of China, espouse freedom of speech and human rights the way they do in democratic countries, you're in for a big surprise.
  • ATPM 7.01 - Desktop Pictures: Washington, D.C. - Korean-War-Memorial 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.atpm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Formosa (Taiwan)—where the Nationalists had fled—fall to the Communists, it would not be considered a threat to U.S. security.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The port of Pusan would be the gateway for future UN reinforcements which will eventually liberate South Korea and drive deep into North Korea.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67]
.President Harry S. Truman announced that the US would counter "unprovoked aggression" and "vigorously support the effort of the [UN] security council to terminate this serious breach of peace."^ Harry S Truman , President Truman, relieved him.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Security Council w/ Malik presiding.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 11 April 1951, General MacArthur was relieved of his Korean command by President Harry Truman, following MacArthur’s unauthorized and inflammatory policy statements.
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] .In Congress, the Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman, Gen.^ The History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Volume III, The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy: The Korean War, Part I .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Substance of Statements made at Wake Island Conference, dated 15 October 1950, compiled by General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, from notes kept by the conferees from Washington.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Omar Bradley, called the invasion a moral outrage.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Omar Bradley warned against appeasement, saying that Korea was the place "for drawing the line" against communist expansion.^ He spoke against "appeasement" and said Korea was as good a place as any "for drawing the line" against Communist expansion.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Communist government in China is equally responsible and guilty as the Communist government in Korea for war atrocities committed against Americans.

^ The U.S. had assumed that the invasion of South Korea was a communist conspiracy, a diversion to draw attention and troops away from Europe .
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.In August 1950, the President and the Secretary of State easily persuaded the Congress to appropriate $12 billion to pay for the additional Asian military expenses essential to the goals of National Security Council Report 68 (NSC-68), the American global containment of communism.^ Upon acceptance by the President, this document was designated "National Security Council (NSC) 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security."
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Security Council w/ Malik presiding.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ London: National Peace Council, 1950.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

[68]
.Per State Secretary Acheson's recommendation, President Truman ordered Gen.^ Truman, a Democrat president, was under severe domestic pressure for being too soft on communism (Republican senator Joseph McCarthy stated that the State Department was "infested" with Communists).
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although President Truman ordered such in 1948, in practice black soldiers were still assigned to all black units, such as the 24th Infantry Regiment.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Memorandum by Lucius D. Battle, dated June 27, 1950, recounting a telephone conversation between Secretary of State Dean Acheson and Press Secretary Charles Ross.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

.MacArthur to transfer materiel to the Army of the Republic of Korea (ROK Army) while giving air cover to the evacuation of US nationals.^ On hearing of the invasion, President Harry S. Truman ordered MacArthur to transfer munitions to the ROK Army, while using air cover to protect evacuation of US citizens.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Republic of Korea as may be necessary to repel the armed attack and to restore international peace and security to the area.” Truman ordered U.S. naval and air forces to assist the ROKs.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On June 25, 1950, the North Korean Peoples' Army, without warning, attacked the Free Republic of South Korea.

.Moreover, the President disagreed with his advisors recommending unilateral US bombing of the North Korean forces, but did order the US Seventh Fleet to protect Taiwan (Chiang Kai-Shek's China), whose Nationalist Government (confined to Formosa island) asked to fight in Korea.^ The Chinese, Koreans, the North Koreans, were about to throw us out of Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Korea was invaded, the US sent the Seventh Fleet to protect Taiwan from invasion; it is still there.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taft spoke in favor of bombing China and helping Chiang Kai-shek's forces invade the mainland.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The US denied the Nationalist Chinese request for combat—lest it provoke a communist Chinese intervention.^ The Chinese Nationalists government, now confined to Taiwan, asked to participate in the war, but their request was denied by the Americans who felt they would only encourage Communist Chinese intervention.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Chinese Nationalists offered to participate in the war, the Americans declined because they were poorly equipped and trained, and politically, there was a risk that Nationalist participation would encourage overt intervention by the Chinese communists.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These forces had defeated the Nationalist Chinese, who fled to Formosa (Taiwan) in October the previous year and made China a Communist country.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]
.The Battle of Osan was the first significant USA–KPA fighting in the Korean War, by the 540-Soldier Task Force Smith, which was a small forward element of the 24th Infantry Division based in Japan.^ Korean War Ceremony; 3rd Infantry Division; .
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Battle scenes Korean war.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first significant American combat unit to arrive in South Korea was Task Force Smith , part of the U.S. Army 24th Infantry Division based in Japan.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:45 .On 5 July 1950, Task Force Smith attacked the North Koreans at Osan but without weapons capable of destroying the North Korean's tanks, they were unsuccessful, resulting in 180 dead, wounded or taken prisoner.^ Heavy fire from Task Force Smith halted their frontal attack.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 522,000 were dead or wounded, and 102,000 taken prisoner.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Current differences in other weapons systems are consistent with Korean superiority on this trend: for example the North is also ahead about 3,500 to 1,200 in tanks, 4,650 to 3,000 in artillery, and 11,000 to 5,300 in mortars.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The KPA progressed southwards, forcing the 24th Division's retreat to Taejeon, which the KPA also captured in the Battle of Taejon;[39]:48 the 24th Division suffered 3,602 dead-wounded and 2,962 captured GIs—including the Division’s Commander, Maj.^ Though surrounded at the Chosin Reservoir and forced to retreat, they inflicted heavy casualties on the six Chinese divisions committed to destroy them.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rest of the half strength 24th Division next confronted the North Koreans and was soon overwhelmed and forced to fall back to Taejon , which also fell.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Numerous other field-grade officers were killed, captured, wounded, or sacked, including two from the field artillery battalions (FAB).
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. William F. Dean.[39]:48 .Overhead, the KPAF shot down 18 USAF fighters and 29 bombers; the USAF shot down 5 KPAF fighters.^ Of the twelve bombers in the squadron, seven were shot down, including Birch’s plane.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Davis’ group downed 18, and although he shot down four planes, he was credited with only two.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By August, the KPA had pushed back the ROK Army and the US Eighth Army to the Pusan city vicinity, in southeast Korea.^ US army marching thru city.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By August the South Korean forces and the U.S. Eighth Army, which had arrived to help South Korea resist the Communist invasion, were driven into a small area in the southeast corner of the Korean peninsula around the city of Pusan .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Title: Japan Police holding back Japanese students trying to demonstrate outside US embassy for removal of US troops from Korea.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:53 .In their southward advance, the KPA purged the Republic of Korea's intelligentsia, by killing civil servants and intellectuals.^ As the North Koreans pushed south they rounded up and killed people who had been civil servants.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Republic of Korea’s armed forces reached a strength of 590,911 and suffered 272,975 casualties—killed, wounded, missing.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:56 On 20 August, Gen. .MacArthur warned North Korean Leader Kim Il-Sung that he was responsible for the KPA’s atrocities.^ North Korea and Kim il Sung were big losers.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kim Il Sung speaking.
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^ Still of Kim Il Sung with superimposed North Korean flags.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39][57]:56 .By September, the UN Command controlled only the Pusan city perimeter, about 10% of Korea.^ At the Pusan Perimeter, American Eighth Army commander Lieutenant General Walton Walker was able to maneuver his forces to successfully confront the North Koreans as they attempted a flanking maneuver instead of concentrating their forces which might have destroyed U.N. forces in the area, but nonetheless, by September, only the area around Pusan, about 10% of the total Korean peninsula, was still in the hands of the coalition.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new commander of UN forces in Korea was General Matthew Ridgway, a bright, energetic and determined man.
  • The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wily commander had the boats under his operational control take bundles of forged currency to North Korea for agents to distribute it.
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only on being reinforced, re-equipped, and with naval artillery and air force bombing support, could the UN Command forces stand at the Nakdong River.^ With the aid of American supplies, naval and air support, and additional reinforcements, the U.S. and ROK forces barely managed to stabilize a line along the Nakdong River .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He went on to finish a 20-year career in the Air Force, including being activated during the Korean War, and serving on an island off the coast of Vietnam.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the aid of American supplies, air support, and additional reinforcements, the U.S. and ROK forces managed to stabilize a line along the Nakdong River .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In US military history, this "back-against-the-sea" holding action is known as the "Pusan Perimeter".

Escalation

Aerial warfare: The USAF attacking railroads south of Wonsan, eastern coast of North Korea.
.In the desperate Battle of Pusan Perimeter (August–September 1950), the US Army withstood KPA attacks meant to capture the city.^ On June 25, 1950, the North Korean Peoples' Army, without warning, attacked the Free Republic of South Korea.

^ Tank battalions were rushed in from San Francisco; by late August, the US had over 500 medium tanks in the Pusan perimiter.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 14, 1950, a group of 26 American soldiers was surprised and captured by North Koreans whom the Americans had reason to believe were reinforcements.

.Soon, the USAF interrupted KPA logistics with 40 daily ground-support sorties that destroyed 32 bridges, halting most daytime road and rail traffic, which hid in tunnels and moved only at night.^ Strategic bombers (mostly B-29s based in Japan) closed most rail and road traffic by day, and cut 32 critical bridges.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American air power arrived in force, flying 40 sorties a day in ground support actions, especially against tanks.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When France was liberated, his unit of the 9th Tactical Air Force was moved to French airbases for quicker ground support response.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:47–48[39]:66 .To deny material to the KPA, the USAF destroyed logistics depots, petroleum refineries, and harbors, while the US Navy air forces attacked transport hubs.^ US Navy & Air Force recruits marching.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McCall served nine years in the Navy, four years in the Air Force Reserve and seven years in the Army Reserve.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Naval air power also attacked transportation chokepoints.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consequently, the over-extended KPA could not be supplied throughout the peninsular south.^ The South Korean army had 2.36 inch (60 mm) M9 bazookas that had been supplied by the U.S. The M9 could not pierce the armor of the T-34-85s.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:58
.Meanwhile, US garrisons in Japan continually dispatched soldiers and material to reinforce the Pusan Perimeter.^ Continued retreat to Pusan perimeter .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, supply bases in Japan were pouring weapons and soldiers into Pusan.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US forces defending Pusan perimeter - heavy shelling - wounded GIs.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:59–60 .Tank battalions deployed to Korea from San Francisco (in the continental US); by late August, the Pusan Perimeter had some 500 medium tanks.^ Tank battalions were rushed in from San Francisco; by late August, the US had over 500 medium tanks in the Pusan perimiter.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US tanks in Korea.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heavy Tank Battalion: Strike Swiftly Korea 1950-1953 .

[39]:61 .In early September 1950, ROK Army and UN Command forces were prepared—they out-numbered the KPA 180,000 to 100,000 soldiers, and then counterattacked.^ By early September, UN-ROK forces were vastly stronger and outnumbered the North Koreans by 180,000 to 100,000.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PRC army forced the UN and ROK forces back to the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Navy then smoothly evacuated X Corps from Wonsan, moving 105,000 UN soldiers, 98,000 civilian refugees, 18,000 vehicles, and 350,000 tons of supplies back to the west, where they became the Eighth Army reserve.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39][45]:61

Battle of Incheon

.Against the rested and re-armed Pusan Perimeter defenders and their reinforcements, the KPA were under-manned and poorly supplied; unlike the UN Command, they lacked naval and air support.^ The port of Pusan would be the gateway for future UN reinforcements which will eventually liberate South Korea and drive deep into North Korea.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the aid of American supplies, air support, and additional reinforcements, the U.S. and ROK forces managed to stabilize a line along the Nakdong River .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Against the much more heavily armed Americans, they adapted a technique they had used against the Nationalists in the Chinese civil war of 1946–49.
  • Korean War 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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[39]:61[39]:58 .To relieve the Pusan Perimeter, the UN CIC, Gen.^ Background 1.1 Military strengths 2 North Korea invades 2.1 U.S. and UN entry 2.2 Holding the Pusan perimeter 2.2.1 Tactical air power 3 Inchon landing 3.1 Rollback or containment?
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.MacArthur, recommended an amphibious landing at Incheon, behind the KPA lines.^ Walker had to hold for six weeks while a reserve force of two divisions was built up and landed behind enemy lines at the port of Inchon on the Yellow Sea.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His plan was an amphibious invasion far behind the North Korean lines at Inchon on the west coast of South Korea, just west of the capital city of Seoul.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. then carried out a brilliant amphibious landing behind enemy lines at Inchon , and the course of the conflict was reversed.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[39]:67 On 6 July, he ordered Maj. Gen. .Hobart Gay, Commander, 1st Cavalry Division, to plan the division's amphibious landing at Incheon; on 12–14 July, the 1st Cavalry Division embarked from Yokohama to reinforce the 24th Infantry Division.^ On the morning of July 18, General Walton Walker, commander of the U.S. Eighth Army, which included all American and ROK forces in Korea, arrived at Taejon and asked General William Dean, the 24th Division Commanding Officer (CO), if he could hold the city until the 20th when units just landing from the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division would be in position to reinforce him.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were from the 2lst Infantry Regiment, 24th Division, on Japanese occupation duty.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In August 1944 his unit, the 143rd Infantry Regiment, 36th Division, landed in southern France.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70]
The Operation Chromite amphibious assault of Incheon deployed in violent tides, and was awaited by a strong, entrenched enemy.[39]:66–67 Soon after the war began, Gen. .MacArthur had begun planning the matter, but the Pentagon opposed him.^ MacArthur had started planning a few days after the war began but had been strongly opposed by the Pentagon.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:67 When authorized, he activated his attack USA-USMC-ROKA force—the X Corps, Gen. .Edward Almond, Commander, composed of 70,000 1st Marine Division infantry; the 7th Infantry Division; and some 8,600 ROK Army soldiers.^ X Corps comprised 70,000 troops of the 1st Marine Division, and the 7th Army division (augmented by 8,600 Korean troops).
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When he finally received permission to go ahead, MacArthur activated X Corps under General Edward Almond (comprised of 70,000 troops of the 1st Marine Division, and the 7th Army division and augmented by 8,600 Korean troops) and ordered them to land at Incheon in "Operation CHROMITE".
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Working closely with admirals who were masters at organizing amphibious landings, he and his chief of staff Major General Edward Almond hurriedly readied the First Marine Division for an invasion.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:68 .By the 15 September attack date, the assault force faced few, but tenacious, KPA defenders at Incheon; military intelligence, psychological operations, guerrilla reconnaissance, and protracted bombardment facilitated a relatively light battle between the US–ROK and the KPA; however, the bombardment destroyed most of Incheon city.^ The unexpected assault forced the Americans into a bloody withdrawal to the city of Hungnam on the coast, where they were evacuated in December 1950.
  • War Stories from Five Veterans - News & Features (washingtonian.com) 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.washingtonian.com [Source type: General]

^ Memorandum by Lucius D. Battle, dated June 27, 1950, recounting a telephone conversation between Secretary of State Dean Acheson and Press Secretary Charles Ross.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Prior to the battle, this site identified the Chinese units assembled for the attack, then accurately predicted the date and time of the first wave.
  • Historical Publications (The Korean War: The SIGINT Background) - NSA/CSS 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.nsa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:70
.The Incheon landing allowed the 1st Cavalry Division to begin its northward fighting from the Pusan Perimeter.^ Land fight begins.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two years later, he landed with the 1st Marine Brigade in Pusan—in a country he couldn’t pinpoint on a map before—in the first big battle of the Korean War.
  • War Stories from Five Veterans - News & Features (washingtonian.com) 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.washingtonian.com [Source type: General]

^ Henry J. McNichols, formerly with Company E, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division, testified: .

“Task .Force Lynch”—3rd Bn, 7th Cav Rgt, and two 70th Tank Bn units (Charlie Company and the Intelligence–Reconnaissance Platoon)—effected the “Pusan Perimeter Breakout” through 106.4 miles of enemy territory to join the 7th Infantry Division, at Osan.^ From the Pusan Perimeter thru the breakout, the race for Seoul, and the offensive across the 38th parallel on the west coast.

^ As the remainder of enemy armor ran through their position, Lt. Ollie Connor fired 22 rounds from a 2.36 inch rocket launcher into the rear of the tanks at very close range, with little appreciable effect.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.N. forces dug in along their meager toehold in southeastern Korea, which became known as the Pusan Perimeter.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] .The X Corps rapidly defeated the KPA defenders, thus threatening to trap the main KPA force in South Korea;[39]:71–72 Gen.^ South Korea has been amply able to defend itself against a Northern invasion for upwards of 25 years.
  • Starting the Second Korean War? - Reason Magazine 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The landing was a stunning success, as X Corps rolled over the few defenders and threatened to trap the main North Korean army.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Statement, dated June 27, 1950, by President Harry S. Truman, announcing his order to send U.S. air and naval forces to help defend South Korea and explaining the rationale for his decision.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

.MacArthur quickly recaptured Seoul;[39]:77 and the almost-isolated KPA rapidly retreated north; only 25,000 to 30,000 soldiers survived.^ The North Koreans, almost cut off, rapidly retreated northwards; about 25,000 to 30,000 made it back.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MacArthur quickly recaptured Seoul.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MacArthur quickly recaptured Seoul .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71][72]

UN forces cross partition line (September–October 1950)

Urban combat: US Marines fight the KPA for the Korean capital.
On September 27, Truman sent a top secret National Security Council memorandum, 81/1, to MacArthur reminding MacArthur that operations north of the 38th parallel were authorized only if “at the time of such operation there was no entry into North Korea by major Soviet or Chinese Communist forces, no announcements of intended entry, nor a threat to counter our operations militarily…” On September 30, Defense Secretary George Marshall sent an eyes-only message to MacArthur instructing MacArthur “We want you to feel unhampered tactically and strategically to proceed north of the 38th parallel.”[73]
.On 1 October 1950, the UN Command repelled the KPA northwards, past the 38th parallel; the ROK Army crossed after them, into North Korea.^ American and ROK troops reached the 38th parallel in early October.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the west the Eighth Army crossed the 38th parallel on October 9, two days after the UN authorized reunification of Korea.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MacArthur's forces crossed the 38th parallel and pursued the NKPA deep into North Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[39]:79–94 .Six days later, on 7 October, with UN authorization, the UN Command forces followed the ROK forces northwards.^ The second team spent three days in the winter weather retreating southward to the capital city, then further south as the Chinese pushed U.S./UN forces back.
  • Historical Publications (The Korean War: The SIGINT Background) - NSA/CSS 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.nsa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within a few days, ROK forces, outnumbered and out-gunned, were in full retreat.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commanding General of UN Forces John Hull visits processing area tent city.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:81 .The X Corps landed at Wonsan (SE North Korea) and Iwon (NE North Korea), already captured by ROK forces.^ The failure of North Korea to capture Pusan doomed its invasion.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The landing was a stunning success, as X Corps rolled over the few defenders and threatened to trap the main North Korean army.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, when in North Korea, the ROKs wanted to reply in kind, but close supervision by U.N. officials kept these reprisals on a smaller scale.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:87–88 .The Eighth US Army and the ROK Army drove up western Korea, and captured Pyongyang city, the North Korean capital, on 19 October 1950.[39]:90 At month’s end, UN forces held 135,000 KPA prisoners of war; the North Korean People’s Army appeared to disintegrate.^ The Chinese, Koreans, the North Koreans, were about to throw us out of Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Mao's Telegrams during the Korean War, October-December 1950."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ North Korea rebuilt its army to about 340,000 soldiers.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Taking advantage of the UN Command’s strategic momentum against the Communists, Gen. .MacArthur (and some US politicians), believed it necessary to extend the Korean War into China to destroy depots supplying the North Korean war effort.^ The older view is expressed in Whiting (1960) ↑ Shen Zhihua, "Sino-North Korean Conflict and its Resolution During the Korean War."
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Reds are holding his parents to force him to be a spy, but when he learns that his parents have been killed he takes off and does a kamikaze mission against a North Korean supply dump.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Includes authorizations for MacArthur to send ammunition to Korea and to take whatever action he deems necessary to prevent the North Korean forces from overrunning the Seoul-Kimpo-Inchon area.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

.President Truman disagreed, and ordered Gen.^ Although President Truman ordered such in 1948, in practice black soldiers were still assigned to all black units, such as the 24th Infantry Regiment.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Truman signed Executive Order 9981 on July 26 , 1948 , calling on the armed forces to provide equal treatment and opportunity for black servicemen.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On hearing of the invasion, President Harry S. Truman ordered MacArthur to transfer munitions to the ROK Army, while using air cover to protect evacuation of US citizens.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

MacArthur’s caution at the Sino-Korean border.[39]:83

Exchange between Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong

.Information later obtained by Professor Shen Zhihua, who used his own private fund to pay for large quantities of ex-USSR declassified archives and translated large numbers of telegram exchanges between Moscow and Beijing before China entered the war, shows an interesting sequence of events.^ The television show "M*A*S*H" aired from 1972-83 and used a Korean War innovation — the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital — as its setting.
  • The Korean War [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The older view is expressed in Whiting (1960) ↑ Shen Zhihua, "Sino-North Korean Conflict and its Resolution During the Korean War."
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the KVA National Web-Site and contains information that will be interesting to those that are Korea Veterans and those that may be just interested in researching the history of the Korean War.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The following is a brief rundown of a number of telegrams between Mao and Stalin.^ "Communications between Mao and Stalin: Seven Telegrams, January 1949."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Relations between Mao and Stalin were cool.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Discrepancy between the Russian and Chinese Versions of Mao's 2 October 1950 Message to Stalin on Chinese Entry into the Korean War: A Chinese Scholar's Reply."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.
  • On 1 October 1950 Kim Il-sung sent a telegram to China asking for military intervention.^ Kim Il Sung speaking.
    • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There should be little doubt that it is the clear determination to unify Korea, the strength of will of Kim Il-sung, that makes North Korea's capability most dangerous.
    • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ All that was needed was the trigger, the excuse for Kim Il-sung to launch his invasion.
    • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .On the same day, Mao Zedong had received Stalin's telegram, suggesting China send troops into Korea.
  • On 5 October 1950, under Mao Zedong and Peng Dehuai's pressure, the Chinese Communist Central Committee had finalized the decision of military intervention in Korea.
  • On 11 October 1950 Stalin and Zhou Enlai sent a joint signed telegram to Mao, stating:
  1. Proposed Chinese troops are ill prepared and without tanks and artillery; requested air cover would take two months to arrive.
  2. Within one month, fully equipped troops had to be in position; otherwise, US troops would step over the 38 parallel line and take over North Korea.
  3. Fully equipped troops could only be sent into Korea in six months times, by then, North Korea would be occupied by the Americans, any troops would be meaningless.
  • On 12 October 1950 15:30 Beijing time, Mao sent a telegram to Stalin through the Russian ambassador: I agree with your (Stalin and Zhou) decision.
  • On 12 October 1950 22:12 Beijing time, Mao sent another telegram: I agree with 10 October telegram, my troops stay put, I have issued order to cease the advance into Korea plan.
  • On 12 October 1950, Stalin sent telegram to North Korean Kim Il-sung, telling him: Russian and Chinese troops are not coming.
  • On 13 October, the Soviet ambassador (in Beijing) sent a telegram to Stalin, saying Mao Zedong had informed him that the Chinese Communist Central Committee had approved the decision of sending troops to Korea.^ The U.S. military had been caught ill-prepared for the war.
    • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US troops with young Korean children.
    • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After another visit by Kim to Moscow in March-April of 1950, Stalin approved an attack.
    • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [74]

China intervenes

Chinese propaganda poster showing Chinese and North Korean soldiers crushing US allied soldiers
.On 27 June 1950, two days after the KPA invaded and three months before the October Chinese intervention to the Korean War, President Truman dispatched the 7th US Fleet to the Taiwan Straits, to protect Nationalist Republic of China from the People’s Republic of China (PRC).^ "Mao's Telegrams during the Korean War, October-December 1950."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Korean War ( The Chinese surprise ) 7/15 .

^ Korean War 1950-1953.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

[75] .On 4 August 1950, Mao Zedong reported to the Politburo that he would intervene when the People's Volunteer Army (PVA) was ready to deploy.^ Report on Communist Radio Propaganda on the Korean War, August 8 - 31, 1950.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ On October 8 1950 , the day after American troops crossed the 38th, Chairman Mao issued the order for the Chinese People's Volunteer Army (actually regulars in the Chinese People's Liberation Army ) to be moved to the Yalu River , ready to cross.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On June 25, 1950, the North Korean Peoples' Army, without warning, attacked the Free Republic of South Korea.

.On 20 August 1950, Premier Zhou Enlai informed the United Nations that “Korea is China’s neighbor ...^ Premier Zhou Enlai was sent to Moscow to add force to Mao's cabled arguments.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ H800191 Pte BRYDON, Harry B Pte Brydon served with the PPCLI and died on the 8 Oct 1951 at the age of 24 and is commemorated at the United Nations Cemetery in Pusan Korea.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korea veterans who served with United Nations Forces from other countries as well as certain ancillary units are also eligible for membership (see Membership page ).
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Chinese people cannot but be concerned about a solution of the Korean question”—thus, via neutral-country diplomats, China warned the US, that in safeguarding Chinese national security, they would intervene against the UN Command in Korea.^ The Chinese, Koreans, the North Koreans, were about to throw us out of Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ China, fearful of a capitalist Korean state on its borders, warned neutral diplomats in India that it would intervene.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I wish people would learn more about korea.
  • ATPM 7.01 - Desktop Pictures: Washington, D.C. - Korean-War-Memorial 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.atpm.com [Source type: Original source]

[39]:83 .President Truman interpreted the communication as “a bald attempt to blackmail the UN”, and dismissed it.^ Truman regarded the warnings as "a bald attempt to blackmail the UN".
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Rhee gave control of his armed forces to the UN, and Truman named MacArthur to the UN command.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Truman, a Democratic president, was under severe domestic pressure for being too soft on communism by, among others, Republican senator Joseph McCarthy .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .The Politburo authorized Chinese intervention in Korea on 2 October 1950—the day after the ROK Army crossed the 38th-parallel border.^ Map of Korea w/ 38th parallel.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American and ROK troops reached the 38th parallel in early October.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the west the Eighth Army crossed the 38th parallel on October 9, two days after the UN authorized reunification of Korea.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77] .Later, the Chinese claimed that US bombers had violated PRC national airspace when on en route to bomb North Korea—before China intervened.^ The Chinese, Koreans, the North Koreans, were about to throw us out of Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chinese of Germ Warfare bombing raids over North Korea.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The atrocities perpetrated in Korea against the United Nations troops by Chinese and North Korean Communists are not unique in Communist history, nor can they be explained away on the grounds that inhumanity is often associated with so-called civilized warfare.

[78]
US Army artillerymen manning a 105 mm howitzer, Uirson, Korea, August 1950.
.In September, in Moscow, PRC Premier Zhou Enlai added diplomatic and personal force to Mao’s cables to Stalin, requesting military assistance and material.^ Premier Zhou Enlai was sent to Moscow to add force to Mao's cabled arguments.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 1952, hand-delivered note, Zhou Enlai to Stalin conveying telegram from Mao to Zhou, Cold War International History Project, "New Russian Documents on the Korean War", introduction and translations by Kathryn Weathersby, Telegram #109 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ When Russia failed to provide the aviation that Stalin had promised, Mao realized his small air force would be unable to challenge American aircraft, training, and infrastructure.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stalin delayed; Mao re-scheduled launching the “War to Resist America and Aid Korea” from the 13th to the 19th of October 1950. Moreover, the USSR limited their assistance to air support no closer than 60 miles (100 km) from the battlefront—because Soviet pilots were to fight in the air war to gain experience against the Western air forces; they would be flying MiG-15s (camouflaged as PRC Air Force), and seriously challenged the UN air forces for battlefield air superiority.^ "Mao's Telegrams during the Korean War, October-December 1950."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Russian MiG-15s in PRC colors became a serious threat to the UN pilots.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the war, he joined the Air Force Reserve.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.On 8 October 1950, Mao Zedong redesignated the People's Liberation Army's North East Frontier Force as the Chinese People's Volunteer Army,[79] who were to fight the “War to Resist America and Aid Korea”.^ "Mao's Telegrams during the Korean War, October-December 1950."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Forgotten War: America in Korea, 1950-1953 .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chinese forces enter Korea .
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Soviet materiel would make the Chinese intervention to Korea a strategic maneuver furthering Asian communist revolutionary power,[citation needed] Mao explained to Stalin: “If we allow the United States to occupy all of Korea, Korean revolutionary power will suffer a fundamental defeat, and the American invaders will run more rampant, and have negative effects for the entire Far East.”
US aerial reconnaissance had difficulty sighting PVA units in daytime, because their march and bivouac discipline minimized aerial detection.[39]:102 .The PVA marched “dark-to-dark” (19:00–03:00hrs), and aerial camouflage (concealing soldiers, pack animals, and equipment) was deployed by 05:30hrs.^ Mildenhall - man in camouflage uniform loading pack w/ field equipment.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soldiers dismantle small tents and pack equipment.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Meanwhile, daylight advance parties scouted for the next bivouac site. .During daylight activity or marching, soldiers were to remain motionless if an aircraft appeared, until it flew away;[39]:102 PVA officers might shoot security violators.^ Mao Zedong 's only healthy son, Mao Anying , was also killed as a PVA officer during the war.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, you might end up with the Chinese and the Koreans in back of you, on each side of you, nobody knew for sure where the enemy was until you started, until they started shooting at you.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ North Korean prisoners killed during violence on Pongam Island - rioters marched away by armed guards.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .Such battlefield discipline allowed a three-division army to march 286 miles (460 km), from An-tung, Manchuria, to its Korean combat zone, in some 19 days; another division, night-marched a circuitous mountain route, averaging 18 miles (29 km) daily for 18 days.^ As the Marines landed on the Wonsan beaches, Bob Hope invited them to his big show that night--he had arrived overland with the fast-marching Korean army.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm in the us army, and I have marched and did manuvers on those same mountains that they fought in.
  • ATPM 7.01 - Desktop Pictures: Washington, D.C. - Korean-War-Memorial 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.atpm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Army troops of the 24th and 2nd Infantry Divisions had fought their hearts out for eleven days in this area and stopped the enemy advance, but were too weak to push the North Koreans back across the river.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, on 10 October 1950, the 89th Tank Battalion was attached to the 1st Cavalry Division, increasing the armor available for the Northern Offensive.^ After the Korean War had broken out in 1950, he was assigned in 1951 to Battery A, 38th Field Artillery Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division as a forward observer.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heavy Tank Battalion: Strike Swiftly Korea 1950-1953 .

^ It happened that resistance was light and Pyongyang was taken by the 1st Cav and 1st ROK Division on October 19.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 15 October, after moderate KPA resistance, the 7th Cavalry Regiment and Charlie Company, 70th Tank Battalion captured Namchonjam city.^ Henry J. McNichols, formerly with Company E, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division, testified: .

^ He joined the Royal 22nd Regiment in Quebec City in 1949, transferring to it's 2nd Battalion in Aug 1950.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roy Paul Manring, Jr., formerly a corporal with H Company, 155th Cavalry Regiment, and 1 of 4 survivors of the Hill 303 massacre, testified: .

.On 17 October, they flanked rightwards, away from the principal road (to Pyongyang), to capture Hwangju.^ On October 17, Blair Hale passed away following an extended illness.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two days later, the 1st Cavalry Division captured Pyongyang, the capital city, on 19 October 1950; the US had conquered North Korea.^ The failure of North Korea to capture Pusan doomed its invasion.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Chronology of Relations Between North Korea and China in the Post-Mao Era--October 1976-October 1984."
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ambassador Muccio reports to US State Department that North Korea has crossed the 38th Parallel, SEOUL, June 25, 1950 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Elsewhere, also on 15 October 1950, President Truman and Gen.^ Summary of conversation with President Harry S. Truman regarding intentions of the Chinese communists vis a vis Korea, June 26, 1950.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Department of State Daily Opinion Summary, dated October 11, 1950, reporting the reactions of the media concerning the upcoming meeting of President Truman and General MacArthur.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Memorandum for the President, dated October 17, 1950, regarding World Reaction to the Wake Island Meeting.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

.MacArthur met at Wake Island in the mid-Pacific Ocean, for a meeting much publicized by the General’s discourteous refusal to meet the President in the US.[39]:88 To President Truman, Gen.^ On October 15, 1950, Truman went to Wake Island in mid-Pacific for a short, highly publicized meeting with MacArthur.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Statement by President Truman, dated October 15, 1950, pertaining to his meeting held on Wake Island with General MacArthur.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ On 11 April 1951, General MacArthur was relieved of his Korean command by President Harry Truman, following MacArthur’s unauthorized and inflammatory policy statements.
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.MacArthur speculated there was little risk of Chinese intervention to Korea;[39]:89 that the PRC’s opportunity for aiding the KPA had elapsed; that the PRC had some 300,000 soldiers in Manchuria, and some 100,000–125,000 soldiers at the Yalu River; concluding that, although half of those forces might cross south, “if the Chinese tried to get down to Pyongyang, there would be the greatest slaughter” without air force protection.^ Please cross over to the South without hesitation.
  • Allied Banknotes PSYOP of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the Chinese had no air force; hence, "if the Chinese tried to get down to Pyongyang there would be the greatest slaughter."
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There would be some little firefights once in a while.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[71][80]
.After two minor skirmishes on October 25, the first major Chinese–American battles occurred on 1 November 1950; deep in North Korea, thousands of PVA soldiers encircled and attacked scattered UN Command units with three-prong assaults—from the north, northwest, and west—and overran the defensive-position flanks in the Battle of Unsan.^ American troops in Korea in 1950-51.

^ The Sudden Assault A rather unforeseen nighttime attack came on October 30, 1950; when his unit at Unsan, North Korea was attacked by the opponents.

^ By November, Epperson was deep inside bitter-cold North Korea.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] .In the west, in late November, at the Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River, the PVA attacked and over-ran several ROK Army divisions, and the flank of the remaining UN forces.^ The collapse of the ROKs exposed the flank of the 2nd Division and forced the U.N. forces to withdraw.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PRC army forced the UN and ROK forces back to the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the west, along the Chongchon River, the Chinese army overran several ROK divisions and landed a heavy blow to the flank of the remaining UN forces, The resulting withdrawal of the U.S. Eighth Army was the longest retreat of any American military unit in history.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:98–99 .The UN Command retreated; the US Eighth Army’s retreat (longest in US Army history),[82] occurred because of the Turkish Brigade’s successful, but very costly, rear-guard delaying action at Kunuri (near China), slowed the PVA attack for 4 days, (26–30 November).^ Charles Richard Thompsen (2004 University of Utah Veterans Day honoree) After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Charles Thompsen enlisted in the Army Air Corps.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No enemy attack succeeded in penetrating the Turkish Brigade, while British and American forces were forced to withdraw from defensive lines.
  • ATPM 7.01 - Desktop Pictures: Washington, D.C. - Korean-War-Memorial 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.atpm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Surely, she must be confident of a successful military attack on China.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the east, at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, a US 7th Infantry Division Regimental Combat Team (3000 soldiers) and a USMC division (12,000–15,000 marines), also unprepared for PVA’s three-pronged encirclement tactics, escaped under X Corps support fire—albeit with some 15,000 collective casualties.^ US troops from F Co, 9th Regimental combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the X Corps sector in the east, one regiment of the 7th Division reached the Yalu at Hyesanjin, but the Marines were stopped at the Chosin Reservoir.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CU sign 7th US Infantry Division .
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83]
Initially, frontline PVA infantry had neither heavy fire support nor crew-served light infantry weapons, but quickly took advantage of their disadvantage; in How Wars Are Won: The 13 Rules of War from Ancient Greece to the War on Terror (2003), Bevin Alexander reports:
.
The usual method was to infiltrate small units, from a platoon of fifty men to a company of 200, split into separate detachments.^ They are small men but can carry 200 pounds on their backs up a steep hill.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In practice, rifle companies were mostly 50% or more below their authorized strength of 200 men.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While one team cut off the escape route of the Americans, the others struck both the front and the flanks in concerted assaults.^ While one team cut off the escape route of the Americans, the others struck both the front and the flanks in concerted assaults.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One company, with Robbins as the FO, was cut off but refused to give ground.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In our sector, the American sector, and I imagine in others, there were no civilians allowed within five miles of the front lines.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The attacks continued on all sides until the defenders were destroyed or forced to withdraw.^ The attacks continued on all sides until the defenders were destroyed or forced to withdraw.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his retirement speech, MacArthur stressed the need to continue fighting until all of Korea was won.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No enemy attack succeeded in penetrating the Turkish Brigade, while British and American forces were forced to withdraw from defensive lines.
  • ATPM 7.01 - Desktop Pictures: Washington, D.C. - Korean-War-Memorial 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.atpm.com [Source type: Original source]

The Chinese then crept forward to the open flank of the next platoon position, and repeated the tactics.
In South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu, R.E. Appleman delineates the PVA’s encirclement attack:
.
In the First Phase Offensive, highly-skilled enemy light infantry troops had carried out the Chinese attacks, generally unaided by any weapons larger than mortars.^ The Chinese decision to intervene had the potential to escalate the war into the ever-elusive World War III , but it was carried out primarily for Chinese reasons rather than because of a global Communist plot.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Army troops of the 24th and 2nd Infantry Divisions had fought their hearts out for eleven days in this area and stopped the enemy advance, but were too weak to push the North Koreans back across the river.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. then carried out a brilliant amphibious landing behind enemy lines at Inchon , and the course of the conflict was reversed.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Their attacks had demonstrated that the Chinese were well-trained, disciplined fire fighters, and particularly adept at night fighting.^ The Chinese suffered extraordinary casualties, but replacements moved in and they attacked again the next night.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a strafing attack by a German fighter, Waterfield was severely wounded by cannon fire.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighter pilots were trained to gain air supremacy so the bombers could get through, not to undertake ground attacks on supply lines or soldiers.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They were masters of the art of camouflage. .Their patrols were remarkably successful in locating the positions of the UN forces.^ Surprised, stunned, and lacking adequate defensive positions, the UN forces fell back in disarray.
  • Korean War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They planned their attacks to get in the rear of these forces, cut them off from their escape and supply roads, and then send in frontal and flanking attacks to precipitate the battle.^ At other times when confronted with overwhelming, numerically superior forces, they “bugged-out” to the rear, cursing their government for sending them to this stinking, God-forsaken place where human feces were used to fertilize the land.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Reds are holding his parents to force him to be a spy, but when he learns that his parents have been killed he takes off and does a kamikaze mission against a North Korean supply dump.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heavy fire from Task Force Smith halted their frontal attack.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also employed a tactic, which they termed Hachi Shiki, which was a V-formation into which they allowed enemy forces to move [in]; the sides of the V then closed around their enemy, while another force moved below the mouth of the V to engage any forces attempting to relieve the trapped unit.^ They lowered their tubes for direct fire into the oncoming enemy.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By August, 1950, the ROK forces and newly arrived units of the U.S. Eighth Army were driven back into the southeastern corner of the peninsula, around the port city of Pusan .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one 48-hour period, Brewer’s unit and their heavy guns traveled 120 miles to surprise enemy forces in Luxembourg.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such were the tactics the Chinese used with great success at Onjong, Unsan, and Ch’osan, but with only partial success at Pakch’on and the Ch’ongch’on bridgehead.^ Tactical Air Control Parties (TACP) were assigned to each infantry regiment which was expected to use its own artillery for any targets within 1,000 yards of its front line.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Evacuation was a great success" Discuss using the sources and your own knowledge Is Source A a Reliable Interpretation of Dunkirk?
  • Miscellaneous OPPapers.com - term papers, essays, book reports, research papers 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.oppapers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]
.In late November, the PVA repelled the UN Command forces from northeast North Korea, past the 38th-parallel border.^ Animated map showing advance of UN troops past 38th Parallel into North Korea.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Map of Korea w/ 38th parallel.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PRC army forced the UN and ROK forces back to the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Retreating from the peninsular north faster than they had counter-invaded, they raced to the North Korean east coat to establish a defensive perimeter of the port city Hungnam—and awaited rescue, in December 1950,[39]:104–111 of 193 shiploads of UN Command forces and materiel (ca.^ Camouflaged North Korean truck in city.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UN forces in northeast Korea withdrew to form a defensive perimeter around the port city of Hungnam , where a major evacuation was carried out in late December 1950.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The commander of the UN forces was none other than Douglas MacArthur.
  • The Korean War [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.105,000 soldiers, 98,000 civilians, 17,500 vehicles, 350,000 tons of supplies), embarked to Pusan, at the south end of peninsular Korea.^ About 105,000 soldiers, 98,000 civilians, 17,500 vehicles, and 350,000 tons of supplies were shipped to Pusan in orderly fashion.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the DMZ ( Korean Demilitarized Zone ) separating North and South Korea, two North Korean soldiers have been killed, supposedly by one South Korean soldier.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States still has 37,000 troops stationed in South Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[39]:110 .The SS Meredith Victory was noted for evacuating 14,000 refugees, the largest rescue operation by a single ship, even though it was designed to hold only 12 passengers.^ Military band plays 14,000 released POWs march, American soldiers hold up Taiwan flag.
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^ Even though slave importation was banned by 1808, some 250,000 more slaves were illegally imported into America from 1808-1860.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He sailed to Europe on the Queen Elizabeth, then the largest ship afloat and one of the fastest, and shared quarters designed for two people with 21 other officers.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before escaping, the UN Command forces effected an enemy-denial-operation razing most of Hungam city;[71][84] and, on 16 December 1950, President Truman declared a national emergency with Presidential Proclamation No.^ Non-korean UN forces makeup: 300,000 from the US ; 14,000 from the UK , 6,000 from Canada , 5,000 from Turkey , 2,000 from Australia , and many UN nations with 1,000 to 1,500.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Statement, dated June 27, 1950, by President Harry S. Truman, announcing his order to send U.S. air and naval forces to help defend South Korea and explaining the rationale for his decision.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ President Truman signed Executive Order 9981 on July 26 , 1948 , calling on the armed forces to provide equal treatment and opportunity for black servicemen.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2914, 3 C.F.R. 99 (1953),[85] effective until 14 September 1978.[86]

Across the parallel: Chinese Winter Offensive (early 1951)

USAF firepower: B-26 Invaders bomb logistics depots in Wonsan, North Korea, 1951.
.In January 1951, the PVA and the KPA launched their Third Phase Offensive (aka the “Chinese Winter Offensive”), utilizing night attacks in which UN Command fighting positions were stealthily encircled and then assaulted by numerically superior enemy troops who had the element of surprise.^ The Chinese assault caught the UN troops by surprise, as war between PRC and the United Nations had not been declared and the Chinese, employing great skill and remarkable camouflage discipline, concealed their numeric and divisional strength after the first engagement with the UN. After these initial engagements, the Chinese withdrew into the mountains; UN forces ignored the stern warning delivered by the Chinese and continued their advance to the Yalu.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Stalin had promised to help the North Koreans, he had also offered aid to the Chinese who had massed 200,000 troops opposite Formosa for the invasion.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Austin speaks (SOF): Who s troops are attacking deep in somebody else s territory?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The attacks were accompanied by loud trumpets and gongs, which fulfilled the double purpose of facilitating tactical communication and mentally disorienting the enemy. .UN forces initially had no familiarity with this tactic, and as a result some soldiers "bugged out," abandoning their weapons and retreating to the south.^ Burning house UN. rearguard bug out columns ROKS towards & past US tanks.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Korea, was supported by United Nations (UN) forces, principally from the United States , although many other nations also contributed personnel.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the South has potential on its side, in actual weapons, special forces, and preparations and positioning for war, the North is superior.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:117 The Chinese Winter Offensive overwhelmed the UN Command forces and the PVA and KPA conquered Seoul on 4 January 1951.
.Adding further to the US Eighth Army's injuries, Commanding General Walker was killed in an automobile accident, demoralizing the troops.^ General Walker was killed in a jeep accident on December 24.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Walker was killed in an accident and was replaced by Lieutenant General Matthew Ridgway , who had commanded airborne troops in World War II. Ridgway took immediate steps to raise the morale and fighting spirit of the battered Eighth Army, which had fallen to low levels during its retreat from North Korea.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mark W Clark, US army, Commander in Chief, UN. 06:01:12 Title.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:111 .These setbacks prompted General MacArthur to consider using the atomic bomb against the Chinese or North Korean interiors, intending to use the resulting radioactive fallout zones to interrupt the Chinese supply chains.^ The North Korean army used Soviet -supplied weapons and training.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The atrocities perpetrated in Korea against the United Nations troops by Chinese and North Korean Communists are not unique in Communist history, nor can they be explained away on the grounds that inhumanity is often associated with so-called civilized warfare.

^ Elected in 1952, President Eisenhower had let it be known in May ’53 that if a negotiated settlement could not be reached, he was prepared to seek a military solution, implying the use of atomic bombs and earlier measures advocated by MacArthur.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

[87] .However, upon the arrival of Walker's replacement, the charismatic Lieutenant-General Matthew Ridgway, the esprit de corps of the bloodied Eighth Army immediately began to revive.^ General Walker was killed in an accident and was replaced by Lieutenant General Matthew Ridgway , who had commanded airborne troops in World War II. Ridgway took immediate steps to raise the morale and fighting spirit of the battered Eighth Army, which had fallen to low levels during its retreat from North Korea.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turning Point On April 11th, 1951 , President Truman and the Joint Chiefs of Staff removed General Douglas MacArthur from his command of the allied armies, replacing him with Matthew Ridgway .
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Attached is MacArthur's June 30, 1950 order to the Commanding General of the Eighth Army instructing that the 24th Division be immediately moved to Pusan, South Korea.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[39]:113
.UN forces retreated to Suwon in the west, Wonju in the center, and the territory north of Samchok in the east, where the battlefront stabilized and held.^ Had North Korea succeeded in adding territory to the communist bloc of nations through a force of arms, they would have tried again and again.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By early September, UN-ROK forces were vastly stronger and outnumbered the North Koreans by 180,000 to 100,000.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Center for Korean Studies + University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa + 1881 East-West Road + Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

[39]:117 .The PVA had outrun its logistics and thus was forced to recoil from pressing the attack beyond Seoul;[39]:118 food, ammunition, and materiel were carried nightly, on foot and bicycle, from the Yalu River border to the three battle lines.^ The Chinese could not go beyond Seoul because they were at the end of their logistics supply line--all food and ammunition had to be carried--at night--on foot or bicycle from the Yalu River.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it apparently does have the capability to make a blitzkrieg attack on Seoul, to face Moscow and Beijing with a fait accompli, and thus force a negotiated change in the status quo that would permanently weaken the South.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While this is not a dominant or decisive superiority, the weapons disparity and the North's concentration of forces along the DMZ and capability for a blitzkrieg attack enables her to seriously threaten, if not take, Seoul.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In late January, upon finding that the enemy had abandoned the battle lines, Gen.^ Later, during the Korean War, Tripp made two parachute jumps behind enemy lines and fought at the battles of Wonju and Inje.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ridgway ordered a reconnaissance-in-force, which became Operation Roundup, (5 February 1951)[39]:121 a full-scale X Corps advance that gradually proceeded while fully exploiting the UN Command’s air superiority,[39]:120 concluding with the UN reaching the Han River and re-capturing Wonju.^ UN Special forces military training - patrol walking through river.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation Punch and the Capture of Hill 440 Suwon, Korea, February, 1951.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Commanding General of UN Forces John Hull visits processing area tent city.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:121 In mid-February, the PVA counterattacked with the Fourth Phase Offensive, launched from Hoengsong against IX Corps positions at Chipyong-ni, in the center.[39]:121 Units of the US 2nd Infantry Division and the French Battalion fought a short but desperate battle that broke the attack’s momentum;[39]:121
.In the last two weeks of February 1951, Operation Roundup was followed with Operation Killer (mid-February 1951), carried out by the revitalized Eighth Army, restored for a full-scale, battlefront-length attack staged for maximal firepower exploitation to kill as many KPA and PVA troops as possible.^ On March 16, 1951 , in Operation Ripper , a revitalized Eighth Army - restored by Ridgway to fighting trim - repelled the North Korean and Chinese troops from Seoul, the fourth time in a year the city had changed hands.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tanks were mostly used whenever possible, as they could deliver large firepower and support friendly troops.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation Punch and the Capture of Hill 440 Suwon, Korea, February, 1951.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[39]:121[39]:121 .Operation Killer, concluded with I Corps re-occupying the territory south of the Han River, and IX Corps capturing Hoengsong.^ Unfortunately, the bridge over the Han River was blown prematurely, which prevented ROK troops from withdrawing south with what little heavy equipment they possessed.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During one operation, the Germans had his battalion pinned down on the south side of the Ruhr River.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:122 .On 7 March 1951, the Eighth Army attacked with Operation Ripper, expelling the PVA and the KPA from the South Korean capital city on 14 March 1951. This was the city's fourth conquest in a years’ time, leaving it a ruin; the 1.5 million pre-war population was down to 200,000, and the people were suffering from severe food shortages.^ On March 16, 1951 , in Operation Ripper , a revitalized Eighth Army - restored by Ridgway to fighting trim - repelled the North Korean and Chinese troops from Seoul, the fourth time in a year the city had changed hands.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korea 1951-1953[ United States Army in the Korean War] .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Seoul was in utter ruins; its prewar population of 1.5 million had dropped to 200,000, with severe food shortages.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:122[72]
.MacArthur was criticized for not having spent a night in Korea and for directing the war from Tokyo.^ It seems to be directed toward those interested in the Korean War, foreign policy in times of war, as well as the controversy over the dismissal of General Douglas MacArthur .
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MACARTHUR'S WAR : KOREA AND THE UNDOING OF AN AMERICAN HERO .

[88]
.On 11 April 1951, Commander-in-Chief Truman relieved Gen.^ "Truman Dimisses MacArthur," April 11, 1951 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Turning Point On April 11th, 1951 , President Truman and the Joint Chiefs of Staff removed General Douglas MacArthur from his command of the allied armies, replacing him with Matthew Ridgway .
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although warned, he continued to publicly express these views, so he was relieved of command in April 1951.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.MacArthur, the Supreme Commander in Korea, from duty due to insubordination[39]:123–127 and appointed Gen.^ Draft Statement by the President, dated July 8, 1950, announcing the designation of General Douglas MacArthur as the commander of United Nations forces in Korea.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Attached is MacArthur's June 30, 1950 order to the Commanding General of the Eighth Army instructing that the 24th Division be immediately moved to Pusan, South Korea.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Korea Institute of Military History, The Korean War (2001) 2:512-29 MacArthur was removed from command by President Truman on April 11 1951 .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ridgway as Supreme Commander, Korea, who regrouped the UN forces for successful counterattacks,[39]:127 while Gen.^ Korea veterans who served with United Nations Forces from other countries as well as certain ancillary units are also eligible for membership (see Membership page ).
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commanding General of UN Forces John Hull visits processing area tent city.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MacArthur was to engage any Chinese forces encountered in Korea "…as long as, in your judgment, action by forces now under your control offers a reasonable chance of success."
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.James Van Fleet assumed command of the US Eighth Army.^ Mark W Clark, US army, Commander in Chief, UN. 06:01:12 Title.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korea: New Army Undergoes Training For Battle US General Van Fleet and President of Korea inspect South Korean troops; training exercise; CU Van Fleet and President; blood supply appeal.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attached is MacArthur's June 30, 1950 order to the Commanding General of the Eighth Army instructing that the 24th Division be immediately moved to Pusan, South Korea.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[39]:130 .Further attacks slowly repelled the PVA and KPA forces; operations Courageous (23–28 March 1951) and Tomahawk (23 March 1951), were a joint ground and air assault meant to trap Chinese forces between Kaesong and Seoul.^ On January 4 , 1951 , Chinese and North Korean forces recaptured Seoul.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On March 16, 1951 , in Operation Ripper , a revitalized Eighth Army - restored by Ridgway to fighting trim - repelled the North Korean and Chinese troops from Seoul, the fourth time in a year the city had changed hands.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air-Ground Assault Halts Reds North of Seoul allied planes fire on valley, battle in valley.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.UN forces advanced to “Line Kansas”, north of the 38th parallel.^ The PRC army forced the UN and ROK forces back to the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ambassador Muccio reports to US State Department that North Korea has crossed the 38th Parallel, SEOUL, June 25, 1950 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Resolution, dated June 25, from United Nations Security Council calling for North Korea to withdraw its forces to the 38th parallel and for hostilities between North and South Korea to cease.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[39]:131
.The Chinese counterattacked in April 1951, with the Fifth Phase Offensive (aka the “Chinese Spring Offensive”) with three field armies (ca.^ Good North Korean or Chinese army sequence 08:07:22 North Korean or Chinese field telephone ?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

700,000 men).[39]:131[39]:132 .The principal strike fell upon I Corps, which fiercely resisted in the Battle of the Imjin River (22–25 April 1951) and the Battle of Kapyong (22–25 April 1951), blunting the impetus of the Chinese Fifth Phase Offensive, which was halted at the “No-name Line” north of Seoul.^ Air-Ground Assault Halts Reds North of Seoul allied planes fire on valley, battle in valley.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ambassador Muccio reports to US State Department that North Korea has crossed the 38th Parallel, SEOUL, June 25, 1950 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Spring 1951 battle lines along 38th Parallel - July 1953 Armistice signed.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:133–134 .On 15 May 1951, the Chinese in the east attacked the ROK Army and the US X Corps, and initially were successful, yet were halted by 20 May.^ Initial responsibility was assigned to the Army Staff Judge Advocate of the Far East Command.

^ Charles Richard Thompsen (2004 University of Utah Veterans Day honoree) After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Charles Thompsen enlisted in the Army Air Corps.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On hearing of the invasion, President Harry S. Truman ordered MacArthur to transfer munitions to the ROK Army, while using air cover to protect evacuation of US citizens.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Korean War" 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:136–137 .At month’s end, the US Eighth Army counterattacked and regained “Line Kansas”, just north of the 38th parallel.^ Reagan wearing US Army camouflage fatigues - getting food in canteen line.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ambassador Muccio reports to US State Department that North Korea has crossed the 38th Parallel, SEOUL, June 25, 1950 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Animated map of Korea shows Chinese drive to 38th parallel US 7th?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:137–138 The UN's “Line Kansas” halt and subsequent offensive action stand-down began the stalemate that lasted until the armistice of 1953.

Stalemate (July 1951 – July 1953)

.For the remainder of the Korean War the UN Command and the PVA fought, but exchanged little territory; the stalemate held.^ Later, during the Korean War, Tripp made two parachute jumps behind enemy lines and fought at the battles of Wonju and Inje.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leaving aside the unknown influence of the current South Korean political crisis, there appears little likelihood of another Korean war in the near future .
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, taking into account the global, regional, and local levels there appears little likelihood of another Korean War in the near future.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Large-scale bombing of North Korea continued, and protracted armistice negotiations began 10 July 1951 at Kaesong.^ The talks began on July 10, 1951.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korea 15 Juli 1951 - 15 Juli 1952 .

^ Later, when in North Korea, the ROKs wanted to reply in kind, but close supervision by U.N. officials kept these reprisals on a smaller scale.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:175–177[39]:145 .However, combat continued while the belligerents negotiated an armistice; the ROK–UN Command forces’ goal was to recapture all of South Korea, to avoid losing territory.^ Pouring in more troops, their goal was the explusion of U.N. forces in South Korea.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his retirement speech, MacArthur stressed the need to continue fighting until all of Korea was won.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps most important, the warm exchanges and negotiation over the return of the Chinese plane and passengers hijacked to South Korea in 1983 was a political breakthrough.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:159 .The PVA and the KPA attempted similar operations, and later, they effected military and psychological operations in order to test the UN Command’s resolve to continue the war.^ They are primarily psychological: they depend on the operation of another leader's perceptions and expectations in his mental field.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yeah, the Chinese wanted to see how—they were testing us, what our resolve was, how much we really wanted peace.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in the war, the 3rd fought at the Siegfried Line, Palermo, Nuremberg, Munich, Berchtesgaden and Salzburg where it saw 531 days of continuous combat.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The principal battles of the stalemate include the Battle of Bloody Ridge (18 August – 15 September 1951)[39]:160 and Battle of Heartbreak Ridge (13 September – 15 October 1951),[39]:161–162 the Battle of Old Baldy (26 June – 4 August 1952), the Battle of White Horse (6–15 October 1952), the Battle of Triangle Hill (14 October – 25 November 1952) and the Battle of Hill Eerie (21 March – 21 June 1952), the sieges of Outpost Harry (10–18 June 1953), the Battle of the Hook (28–29 May 1953) and the Battle of Pork Chop Hill (23 March – 16 July 1953).^ November 10, 1972, January 26 and June 5, 1973.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ There were battles in the Punch Bowl and Iron Triangle areas, and names such as "Old Baldy," "White Horse," "Jackson Heights," "T-Bone," and "Pork Chop" became personal experiences where men were maimed, bled, and died while they struggled to be "king of the mountain," this mountain or that mountain.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were battles in the Punch Bowl and Iron Triangle areas, and names such as “Old Baldy,” “White Horse,” “Jackson Heights,” “T-Bone,” and “Pork Chop” became personal experiences where men were maimed, bled, and died while they struggled to be “king of the mountain,” this mountain or that mountain.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

A mobile war: Korea often changed hands early in the war, until the front stabilized.
.The armistice negotiations continued for two years;[39]:144–153 first at Kaesong (southern North Korea), then at Panmunjon (bordering the Koreas).^ My Father came this country legally as a young child and after some years was with one of the first regiments in Korea.
  • Friend of Curie LSC Chair speaks out - Mary Mitchell 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Relevant to Korea, there are two revolutionary states: The soviet Union at the global level and North Korea locally.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Films from North Korea since 1945 Scenic shots mountains.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:147 .A major, problematic negotiation was prisoner of war (POW) repatriation.^ "Repatriation of Prisoners of War and the 1949 Geneva Convention."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dead & captured US prisoners of war (POWS), CUs, surrounded by North Korean officers.
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^ Repatriated Arrive in Korea Korean POWs prisoners of war being repatriated from Japan on ship; eating and drinking tea.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:187–199 .The PVA, KPA and UN Command could not agree to a system of repatriation because many PVA and KPA soldiers refused to be repatriated back to the north,[89], which was unacceptable to the Chinese and North Koreans.^ North Korean & Chinese soldiers in line in front of conference building.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US soldier talking w/ Chinese or North Korean (?
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^ North Korean women soldiers talking to korean soldier.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:189–190 .In the final armistice agreement, a Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission was set up to handle the matter.^ Conflict had been building up, such as over the Soviet's handling of the Lebanon Crises (1958), and China's Great Leap Forward; and in 1959 the Soviet's repudiated their secret nuclear agreement and tried to remain neutral in the Sino-Indian conflict.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Douglas MacArthur, Commander in Chief, United Nations Command, set up the machinery for the investigation of war crimes committed by Communist aggressors [FN3 - Pt.

^ "A Study on the Dissolution of the United Nations Command and the Continuation of the Korean Armistice Agreement."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

[39]:242–245[90]
.In 1952 the U.S. elected a new president, and on 29 November 1952, the president-elect, Dwight D. Eisenhower, went to Korea to learn what might end the Korean War.^ This is the KVA National Web-Site and contains information that will be interesting to those that are Korea Veterans and those that may be just interested in researching the history of the Korean War.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most important here is the isolation of the global-regional Korean relationships relevant to the possibility of a new Korean war.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He went on to finish a 20-year career in the Air Force, including being activated during the Korean War, and serving on an island off the coast of Vietnam.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:240 .With the United Nations’ acceptance of India’s proposed Korean War armistice, the KPA, the PVA, and the UN Command ceased fire on 27 July 1953, with the battle line approximately at the 38th parallel.^ Battle scenes Korean war.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean War 1950-1953.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ On July 23rd, 1953, an armistice was signed.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Upon agreeing to the armistice, the belligerents established the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), which has since been defended by the KPA and ROKA, USA and UN Command.^ Inside hardened bunker command center where 604th Direct Air Support Squadron operates just south of Demilitarized Zone.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Legal Problems Involving the U.N. Command in Korea and Korean Armistice Agreement."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In India...talks w/ Mr. Nehru...we didn t agree about everything...Korean armistice...
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Demilitarized Zone runs north-east of the 38th parallel; to the south, it travels west.^ From the Pusan Perimeter thru the breakout, the race for Seoul, and the offensive across the 38th parallel on the west coast.

^ Ambassador Muccio reports to US State Department that North Korea has crossed the 38th Parallel, SEOUL, June 25, 1950 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Resolution, dated June 25, from United Nations Security Council calling for North Korea to withdraw its forces to the 38th parallel and for hostilities between North and South Korea to cease.
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The Korean old-capital city of Kaesong, site of the armistice negotiations, originally lay in the pre-war ROK, but now is in the DPRK. The United Nations Command, supported by the United States, the North Korean Korean People's Army, and the Chinese People's Volunteers, signed the Armistice Agreement; ROK President Syngman Rhee refused to sign it, thus the Republic of Korea never participated in the armistice.^ The Chinese, Koreans, the North Koreans, were about to throw us out of Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhee was refusing to sign an armistice that left his country divided.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Camouflaged North Korean truck in city.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91]

Chosin Battle aftermath: Operation Glory

.After the war, the UN Command forces buried their dead in a temporary graveyard at Hŭngnam.^ The second force was Stalin's will-to-war, such that he either commanded, or promised support for Kim Il-sung to launch his invasion.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Korean War he was assigned to temporary duty with the Marine Corps, and was captured by North Korean forces in December, 1952.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With Operation Glory (July–November 1954), each combatant exchanged their dead. .The remains of 4,167 US Army and US Marine Corps dead were exchanged for 13,528 KPA and PVA dead, and 546 civilians dead in UN prisoner-of-war camps were delivered to the ROK government.^ Brief scenes of exchange of prisoners of war.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Civilian prisoners of war.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mark W Clark, US army, Commander in Chief, UN. 06:01:12 Title.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92] .After Operation Glory, 416 Korean War “unknown soldiers” were buried in the Punchbowl Cemetery, Hawaii.^ Operation Big Stick Reel 4 24/25th Aug 1953 (Korean War related) Officers standing next to aircraft.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Korean war memorial in honor of US soldiers who died during Korean conflict.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leaving aside the unknown influence of the current South Korean political crisis, there appears little likelihood of another Korean war in the near future .
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

DPMO records indicate that the PRC and the DPRK transmitted 1,394 names, of which 858 were correct. From 4,167 containers of returned remains, forensic examination identified 4,219 individuals. .Of these, 2,944 were identified as American, all, but 416, identified by name; of 239 unaccounted casualties: 186 not associated with Punchbowl Cemetery unknowns (176 identified, 10 remaining cases 4 were non-American Asians; one British; 3 identified, and 2 unconfirmed.^ Stanley Rapids (53 K/10) in the Stull River was named after this Korea War casualty.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These American youngsters had held up the enemy for almost a day and inflicted 130 casualties while losing 185 of their own.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Walter Black Lake is (53 M/10), southwest of Stupart Lake was named after this Korean War casualty in 1998.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1990–94, North Korea excavated and returned some 200 sets of remains, few have been identified, because of co-mingled remains.^ Jaecke returned to his unit in time for a U.N. offensive deep into North Korea.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korea remains a closed, totalitarian state, widely regarded as a threat to world peace.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an absolute ruler, his wants, purposes and goals, his strength and vitality, point and energize North Korea's power; North Korea, as does any state, thus exercises power to some end.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93][94] .Moreover, from 1996 to 2006, the DPRK recovered 220 remains near the Sino-Korean border.^ Poulson and the other POWs eventually were moved to a prison camp near the Hungarian ­border where they remained for 10 months.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[95]
Korean War memorials are found in every UN Command Korean War-participant country; this one is in Pretoria, South Africa.
.Korean War casualties — The Western (US–UN Command) numbers of Chinese and North Korean casualties are primarily based upon calculated battlefield-casualty reports, POW interrogations, and military intelligence (documents, spies, etc.^ The Chinese, Koreans, the North Koreans, were about to throw us out of Korea.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Reds are holding his parents to force him to be a spy, but when he learns that his parents have been killed he takes off and does a kamikaze mission against a North Korean supply dump.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-korean UN forces makeup: 300,000 from the US ; 14,000 from the UK , 6,000 from Canada , 5,000 from Turkey , 2,000 from Australia , and many UN nations with 1,000 to 1,500.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

); a good sources compilation is the democide web site (see Table 10.1).[96] .The Korean War dead: US: 36,940 killed; PVA: 100,000–1,500,000 killed; most estimate some 400,000 killed; KPA: 214,000–520,000; most estimate some 500,000. ROK: Civilian: some 245,000–415,000 killed; Total civilians killed some 1,500,000–3,000,000; most estimate some 2,000,000 killed.^ We have over 100 Koreans working for us.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, the Korean war killed over 2.5 million.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Non-korean UN forces makeup: 300,000 from the US ; 14,000 from the UK , 6,000 from Canada , 5,000 from Turkey , 2,000 from Australia , and many UN nations with 1,000 to 1,500.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[97]
The PVA and KPA published a joint declaration after the war, reporting that the armies had "eliminated 1.09 million enemy forces, including 390,000 from the United States, 660,000 from South Korean [sic], and 29,000 from other countries."[98] No breakdown was given for the number of dead, wounded, and captured, which Chinese researcher Xu Yan suggests may have aided negotiations for POW repatriation.[99] .Xu writes that the PVA "suffered 148,000 deaths altogether, among which 114,000 died in combats [sic], incidents, and winterkill, 21,000 died after being hospitalized, 13,000 died from diseases; and 380,000 were wounded.^ Later, in order to avoid being sent to the hospital where many of the seriously wounded were sent to die, he broke off his remaining two toes with his fingernails.

^ By the time Saipan was finally secured, the Marines had suffered 13,000 casualties.
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^ Iwo Jima was a legendary 36-day nightmare in which American forces suffered 26,000 casualties, including Larson who was wounded and evacuated.
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.There were also 29,000 missing, including 21,400 POWs, of whom 14,000 were sent to Taiwan, 7,110 were repatriated."^ Military band plays 14,000 released POWs march, American soldiers hold up Taiwan flag.
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^ Jan1954 - Ceremony in Taipei, Taiwan in honor of 14,000 returning POWS. Bell rung.
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.For the KPA, Xu cites 290,000 casualties, 90,000 POWs, and a "large" number of civilian deaths in the north.^ North Korea suffered about 624,000 casualties.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the opportunity provided by the Civilian Pilot Training Act, the number of Blacks in the ARMY AIR FORCE jumped from 2,250 in 1941 to over 145,000 by 1944.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean civilian deaths, both North and South, have been estimated to have been over 2 million.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99]
.The information box lists the UN Command forces Korean War casualties, and their estimates of PVA and KPA casualties.^ Non-korean UN forces makeup: 300,000 from the US ; 14,000 from the UK , 6,000 from Canada , 5,000 from Turkey , 2,000 from Australia , and many UN nations with 1,000 to 1,500.
  • Korean War@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the KVA National Web-Site and contains information that will be interesting to those that are Korea Veterans and those that may be just interested in researching the history of the Korean War.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To deepen understanding of the Korean situation, to assess the forces at work toward war, requires considering these forces at all three levels.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Characteristics

Armored warfare

Supporting the 8th ROK Army Division, a US Army Sherman tank fires its 76 mm gun at KPA bunkers in “Napalm Ridge”, Korea, 11 May 1952.
US infantrymen comparing the early-model M9 bazooka (right) to the larger M20 model (left).
.Initially, North Korean armor dominated the battlefield with Soviet T-34-85 medium tanks designed in the Second World War.^ The Second Korean War - 1966-1969 .
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After World War II, Farnsworth was in the Reserves from late 1945 until early 1948 and was stationed at Nellis Air Force Base when the Korean War started in 1950.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rusting hulks were collected from old Pacific World War II battlefields, refurbished in Japan and used to equip another, much needed tank battalion, the 70th.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100] .The KPA’s tanks confronted a tank-less ROK Army armed with few modern anti-tank weapons,[39]:39 including World War II–model 2.36-inch (60 mm) M9 bazookas, effective only against the 45 mm side armor of the T-34-85 tank.^ WORLD WAR II had thus started.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During World War II, Naval enlistment again moved higher with the establishment of all Black crews on the USS MASON and the SUBCHASER PC1254.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War II, Farnsworth was in the Reserves from late 1945 until early 1948 and was stationed at Nellis Air Force Base when the Korean War started in 1950.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, the US forces arriving to Korea were equipped with light M24 Chaffee tanks (on Japan-occupation duty) that also proved ineffective against the heavier KPA T-34 tanks.^ US tanks in Korea.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heavy Tank Battalion: Strike Swiftly Korea 1950-1953 .

^ Title: Japan Police holding back Japanese students trying to demonstrate outside US embassy for removal of US troops from Korea.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.During the initial hours of warfare, some under-equipped ROK Army border units used 105 mm howitzers as anti-tank guns to stop the tanks heading the KPA columns, firing high-explosive anti-tank ammunition (HEAT) over open sights to good effect; at war’s start, the ROK Army had 91 such cannons, but lost most to the invaders.^ Polishing guns; firing 155 Howitzer.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anti-aircraft guns used.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amphibious tanks landing under covering fire (GOOD).
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101]
.Countering the initial combat imbalance, the US and UN Command reinforcement materiel included heavier US M4 Sherman, M26 Pershing, M46 Patton, and British Cromwell and Centurion tanks that proved effective against North Korean armor, ending its battlefield dominance.^ Stagey advance after tanks by North Koreans.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Reds are holding his parents to force him to be a spy, but when he learns that his parents have been killed he takes off and does a kamikaze mission against a North Korean supply dump.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tank up at speed US M-46 then Sherman Tank followed by columns US troops.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:182–184 .Unlike in the Second World War (1939–45), in which the tank proved a decisive weapon, the Korean War featured few large-scale tank battles.^ The Second Korean War - 1966-1969 .
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Battle scenes Korean war.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean War scenes, tanks firing.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mountainous, heavily-forested terrain prevented large masses of tanks from maneuvering.^ Mass tanks & large guns etc on parade in Japan (?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Korea, tanks served largely as infantry support.^ My second uncle also served in Korea in the highly decorated Fighting 65th Infantry.
  • Friend of Curie LSC Chair speaks out - Mary Mitchell 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

Aerial warfare

MiG Alley, Korea: A MiG-15 shot down by an F-86 Sabre.
Aerial warfare: The KPAF shot down some 16 B-29 bombers in the war.
.The Korean War was the first war in which jet aircraft played a central role.^ Operation Big Stick Reel 4 24/25th Aug 1953 (Korean War related) Officers standing next to aircraft.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia being the planned site of a Civil War museum, including the historical role the American slave played in this development.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean War stories, the first about rescuing orphans from the Chinese, the second a story in which Canyon in disguise poses as "Smrnsk, a known enemy agent."
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once-formidable fighters such as the P-51 Mustang, F4U Corsair, and Hawker Sea Fury[39]:174—all piston-engined, propeller-driven, and designed during World War II—relinquished their air superiority roles to a new generation of faster, jet-powered fighters arriving in the theater.^ Montage: Fighter jets, all eras.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WORLD WAR II had thus started.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air refueling fighter jet.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the initial months of the war, the F-80 Shooting Star, F9F Panther, and other jets under the UN flag dominated North Korea’s prop-driven air force of Soviet Yakovlev Yak-9 and Lavochkin La-9s.^ Korea: The Air War 1950-1953 .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After the war, he joined the Air Force Reserve.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only negative force is then the Soviet's will-to-war.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The balance would shift, however, with the arrival of the swept-wing Soviet MiG-15.^ Were the Soviets to have or develop a will-to-war and confidence in success, however, there would then arise a very dangerous possibility of a Soviet-American war.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mikoyan-Gurevich Mig-15: The Soviet Union's Long-Lived Korean War Fighter.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

[39]:182[102]
.The Chinese intervention in late October 1950 bolstered the Korean People's Air Force (KPAF) of North Korea with the MiG-15 Fagot, one of the world's most advanced jet fighters.^ Air refueling fighter jet.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Korean Incident: VMF-312 versus the Chinese Air Force."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This volume covers the lst Marine Division and lst Marine Air Wing during the Chosin Reservoir campaign on Korea's NE coast during the initial Chinese intervention, the subsequent Chinese assault and the fighting retreat in bitter winter weather to Hungnam and the evacuation at Wonsan, 26 Oct to 25 Dec, 1950.

[39]:182[103] .The fast, heavily-armed MiG outflew first-generation UN jets such as the American F-80 and Australian and British Gloster Meteors, posing a real threat to B-29 Superfortress bombers even under fighter escort.^ Japanese prisoner under armed escort.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reviews troops of UN nations - parade - British & Australians troops.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He flew 35 combat missions in an F-86 jet fighter against Soviet-built MIGs, the first time in history jets fought jets.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103] .Soviet Air Force pilots flew missions for the North to learn the West’s aerial combat techniques.^ The Reds are holding his parents to force him to be a spy, but when he learns that his parents have been killed he takes off and does a kamikaze mission against a North Korean supply dump.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He flew 35 combat missions in an F-86 jet fighter against Soviet-built MIGs, the first time in history jets fought jets.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Robert A. McGregor (2002 University of Utah Veterans Day honoree) Robert McGregor enlisted in the Air Force in 1942 and was sent to Europe as a bomber pilot.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This direct Soviet participation is a casus belli (justification for war) that the UN Command deliberately overlooked, lest the war for the Korean peninsula expand, as the US initially feared, to include three communist countries—North Korea, the Soviet Union, and China—and so escalate to atomic warfare.^ Why had war erupted on the Korean Peninsula?
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korea would be thus insane to invade the Soviet Union or China.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is the Soviet Union one of the fifty-three?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:182[104]
The US Air Force (USAF) moved quickly to counter the MiG-15, with three squadrons of its most capable fighter, the F-86 Sabre, arriving in December 1950.[39]:183[105] Although the MiG's higher service ceiling—50,000 feet (15,000 m) vs. 42,000 feet (13,000 m)—could be advantageous at the start of a dogfight, in level flight, both swept-wing designs attained comparable maximum speeds around 660 mph (1,100 km/h). The MiG climbed faster, but the Sabre turned and dove better..November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The MiG was armed with one 37 mm and two 23 mm cannons, while the Sabre carried six .50 caliber (12.7 mm) machine guns aimed with radar-ranged gunsights.^ Long column of soldiers moving up, GI carrying machine gun; eating by roadside.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bowden was carrying two bandoliers of ammunition for his M-1 rifle, so he removed one and used it as a tourniquet around the leg that was injured most severely.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ November 16th, 2008 at 12:50 am xgytco http://daramz.xf.cz/ronaldo-5e/map.html brother tn430 toner .
  • Scrapbook.fi 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC scrapbook.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.G-suits, in their first combat deployment, gave US pilots the biomedical advantage, affording greater resistance to blackouts from the higher g-forces of jet-powered dogfights.^ He flew 35 combat missions in an F-86 jet fighter against Soviet-built MIGs, the first time in history jets fought jets.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first aerial combat between jet aircraft, the MiGs outclassed the U.N. F-80s and F-84s.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Near the end of his tour his squadron was attacked by the new jet German fighters-- the first time jet aircraft were used in combat.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.By early 1951, the battle lines were established and changed little until 1953. In summer and autumn 1951, the outnumbered Sabres of the USAF's 4th Fighter Interceptor Wing—only 44 at one point—continued seeking battle in MiG Alley, where the Yalu River marks the Chinese border, against Chinese and North Korean air forces capable of deploying some 500 aircraft.^ Early in the war, the U.N. Air Forces easily defeated the small North Korean Force.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Korean Incident: VMF-312 versus the Chinese Air Force."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He went on to finish a 20-year career in the Air Force, including being activated during the Korean War, and serving on an island off the coast of Vietnam.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following Colonel Harrison Thyng’s communication with the Pentagon, the 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing finally reinforced the beleaguered 4th Wing in December 1951; for the next year-and-a-half stretch of the war, aerial warfare continued so.^ When he finally went to Europe the war was winding down, he flew P-51 Mustang fighters on a number of combat missions.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following a year and a half of vital repair service at Pearl Harbor, he was assigned to a Navy landing craft in the spring of 1943.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It summarizes my assessment of the war situation in the half-year preceding the invasion of South Korea in 1950.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106]
.UN forces gradually gained air superiority in the Korean theater.^ He went on to finish a 20-year career in the Air Force, including being activated during the Korean War, and serving on an island off the coast of Vietnam.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War II, Farnsworth was in the Reserves from late 1945 until early 1948 and was stationed at Nellis Air Force Base when the Korean War started in 1950.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Korean Incident: VMF-312 versus the Chinese Air Force."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This was decisive for the UN: first, for attacking into the peninsular north, and second, for resisting the Chinese intervention.^ Korean War stories, the first about rescuing orphans from the Chinese, the second a story in which Canyon in disguise poses as "Smrnsk, a known enemy agent."
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animated map showing advance of UN troops past 38th Parallel into North Korea.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While this is not a dominant or decisive superiority, the weapons disparity and the North's concentration of forces along the DMZ and capability for a blitzkrieg attack enables her to seriously threaten, if not take, Seoul.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]:182–184 .North Korea and China also had jet-powered air forces, however their limited training and experience made it strategically untenable to lose them against the better-trained UN air forces.^ "Chronology of Relations Between North Korea and China in the Post-Mao Era--October 1976-October 1984."
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animated map showing advance of UN troops past 38th Parallel into North Korea.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three were destroyed by ground fire, while the other three were knocked out by Air Force F-80 jets.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, the US and USSR fed materiel to the war, battling by proxy and finding themselves virtually matched, technologically, when the USAF deployed the F-86F against the MiG-15 late in 1952.
.After the war, the USAF reported an F-86 Sabre kill ratio in excess of 10:1, with 792 MiG-15s and 108 other aircraft shot down by Sabres, and 78 Sabres lost to enemy fire;[citation needed] post-war data confirms only 379 Sabre kills.^ A 10-to-1 kill ratio was achieved over the MiGs.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Korean War story: Johnny Rektor's best friend was killed by the enemy while a prisoner of war, and in a rage Johnny rips out the radio wires in his jet plane and becomes a 'one-man atrocity avenger', until he runs out of ammunition and is shot down by his own artillery.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fearing their fire would hit the Americans, they fixed bayonets, charged the enemy, killed 270, and captured 200, while miraculously sustaining only seven wounded of their own.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The Soviet Air Force reported some 1,100 air-to-air victories and 335 MiG combat losses, while China's People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) reported 231 combat losses, mostly MiG-15s, and 168 other aircraft lost.^ Migs, air combat dogfighting.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air Force Magazine, July 1998, p.
  • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McCall served nine years in the Navy, four years in the Air Force Reserve and seven years in the Army Reserve.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The KPAF reported no data, but the UN Command estimates some 200 KPAF aircraft lost in the war's first stage, and 70 additional aircraft after the Chinese intervention.^ Korean War stories, the first about rescuing orphans from the Chinese, the second a story in which Canyon in disguise poses as "Smrnsk, a known enemy agent."
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ War correspondent Tom Lambert reported it as the "…first sizeable American ground victory of the Korean War."
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intelligence estimated that there were no more than 27,000 (later upgraded to 70,000) Chinese in Korea.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The USAF disputes Soviet and Chinese claims of 650 and 211 downed F-86s, respectively, as more recent US figures state only 230 losses out of 674 F-86s deployed to Korea.^ Ambassador Muccio reports to US State Department that North Korea has crossed the 38th Parallel, SEOUL, June 25, 1950 .
  • Documents on the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Although saddened by this loss to "friendly fire," Colonel Paik did turn to his staff and state, "See there, the Americans will help us."
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were only twelve of us left out of my battery by the time we got back to Taejon."
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.October 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed][107] The differing tactical roles of the F-86 and MiG-15 may have contributed to the disparity in losses: MiG-15s primarily targeted B-29 bombers and ground-attack fighter-bombers, while F-86s targeted the MiGs.^ He flew 35 combat missions in an F-86 jet fighter against Soviet-built MIGs, the first time in history jets fought jets.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On February 9, 1943 at Marobe Harbor, New Guinea, LST 455 was attacked by Japanese fighter-bombers.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Streamliner engine pulling train w/ flatcars of equipment in USA. 05:48:14 Swish pan Aerial sequence of fighter jets rocket attacking ground targets.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
The helicopter came into its military own in the Korean War.
^ Artillery sequence w/ attack sequence Korean War; Military History; Propaganda; .
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean War; Immigration; 1950s; 1956; Military; Korean War Aftermath; Charity; Oregon; .
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, taking into account the global, regional, and local levels there appears little likelihood of another Korean War in the near future.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A US Navy Sikorsky H-19 Chickasaw flying near the USS Sicily.[108][109]
.The Korean War marked a major milestone not only for fixed-wing aircraft, but also for rotorcraft, featuring the first large-scale deployment of helicopters for medical evacuation (medevac).^ Operation Big Stick Reel 4 24/25th Aug 1953 (Korean War related) Officers standing next to aircraft.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean War stories, the first about rescuing orphans from the Chinese, the second a story in which Canyon in disguise poses as "Smrnsk, a known enemy agent."
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Korean War - Winter, Tanks & Supply Planes] Tanks across snow; first one has number 50 on it & face painted.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108] .In the Second World War (1939–45), the YR-4 helicopter saw limited ambulance duty, but in Korea, where rough terrain trumped the jeep as speedy medevac,[110] helicopters like the Sikorsky H-19 helped reduce fatal casualties to a dramatic degree when combined with complementary medical innovations such as mobile army surgical hospitals.^ At the global level, the period from the end of World War II through the Korean War saw deep Soviet-American conflict and the danger of outright war.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That he managed to live to that age is rather remarkable, given what happened in the Second World War.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (GOOD) 22:42:45 25Jun50: Headlines N. Korea Reds Declare War .
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[111][112] .The limitations of jet aircraft for close air support highlighted the helicopter's potential in the role, leading to development of the AH-1 Cobra and other helicopter gunships used in the Vietnam War (1965–75).^ He went on to finish a 20-year career in the Air Force, including being activated during the Korean War, and serving on an island off the coast of Vietnam.
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^ Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia being the planned site of a Civil War museum, including the historical role the American slave played in this development.
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^ Three were destroyed by ground fire, while the other three were knocked out by Air Force F-80 jets.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108]

Bombing North Korea

.In the three-year Korean War (1950–53), the US Air Force (USAF) and the UN Command air forces bombed the cities and villages of North Korea and parts of South Korea to a degree comparable to the volume of the Allied bombings of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan during the six-year Second World War (1939–45).^ "Mao's Telegrams during the Korean War, October-December 1950."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ British Forces in the Korean War , second edition.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Korean War 1950-1953.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.On 12 August 1950 the USAF dropped 625 tons of bombs on North Korea; two weeks later, the daily tonnage increased to some 800 tons.^ Later, when in North Korea, the ROKs wanted to reply in kind, but close supervision by U.N. officials kept these reprisals on a smaller scale.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese influence in North Korea increased as Russia’s decreased.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two week later, they left Leyte.
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[113]
.As a result, eighteen of North Korea’s cities were more than 50% destroyed.^ While South Korea has the resources and potential that is superior to the North and has been spending more on defense, the North is not only still significantly superior to the South, but is also putting vastly more of its resources into the military.
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^ Intelligence estimated that there were no more than 27,000 (later upgraded to 70,000) Chinese in Korea.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The objective was to destroy the remaining NKPA forces and unite the North under the government of South Korea.
  • KWVA: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.kwva.org [Source type: Original source]

.The war's highest-ranking American POW, US Maj.^ The Civil War hero, Sergeant William Carney of the "54TH COLORED INFANTRY" was the first African American to receive the U. S. Military's highest decoration - the Medal of Honor.
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^ Dead & captured US prisoners of war (POWS), CUs, surrounded by North Korean officers.
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^ Communist Chinese Propaganda re Eleven US PoWs [Depicts American PoWs from Korean War as well-fed, happy and well cared for.
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Gen. .William Dean,[114] reported that most of the North Korean cities and villages he saw were either ruins or snow-covered wastelands.^ Camouflaged North Korean truck in city.
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^ Moreover, it is the North's relative military effort, defined by military expenditures as a ratio of GNP, that is the most important military factor for predicting the ups and downs of the Korean conflict.
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^ During an assault on a North Korean-held hill, Clark moved to the most forward position in order to direct artillery fire more accurately.
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[115]

Naval warfare

To disrupt North Korean communications, the USS Missouri fires a salvo from its 16-inch guns, Chong Jin, North Korea, 21 October 1950.
.Because the North Korean navy was not large, the Korean War featured few naval battles; mostly the combatant navies served as naval artillery for their in-country armies.^ Battle scenes Korean war.
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^ North Koreans in army truck.
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^ The North Koreans claimed it was their most difficult battle of the whole war.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A skirmish between North Korea and the UN Command occurred on 2 July 1950; the US Navy cruiser Juneau, the Royal Navy cruiser Jamaica, and the frigate Black Swan fought four North Korean torpedo boats and two mortar gunboats, and sank them.^ Korean War Beginning; July 1950; .
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^ Meeting between North & South Koreans.
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^ [Part 2] 20May-20Jun51 Contact Kept With Reds - US positions on North Korean front; cleaning gun.
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.The UN navies sank supply and ammunition ships to deny the sea to North Korea.^ Animated map showing advance of UN troops past 38th Parallel into North Korea.
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^ AVs Rssian ships approaching Cuba - UN Navy ship running parallel.
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^ Navy Rockets Blast Wonsan - Loading ammunition on Navy rocket ship for night mission on Wonsan N. Korea.
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The Juneau sank ammunition ships that had been present in her previous battle. .The last sea battle of the Korean War occurred at Inchon, days before the Battle of Incheon; the ROK ship PC 703 sank a North Korean mine-layer in a small battle of Haeju Island, near Inchon.^ Battle scenes Korean war.
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^ The North Koreans claimed it was their most difficult battle of the whole war.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He went on to finish a 20-year career in the Air Force, including being activated during the Korean War, and serving on an island off the coast of Vietnam.
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.Three other supply ships were sunk by PC-703 two days later in the Yellow Sea.^ It was not until hours later that a specially organized train carrying much needed medical supplies, two doctors and eight nurses arrived.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lonnie L. Moseley (2003 University of Utah Veterans Day honoree) Lonnie Moseley served in three wars and two different services.
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^ Ike makes brief statement at microphone this has been the busiest two days or three days in my life...
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[116]

US threat of atomic warfare

.In The Origins of the Korean War (1981, 1990), US historian Bruce Cumings reports that in a 30 November 1950 press conference, President Truman's allusions to attacking the KPA with atomic bombs “was a threat based on contingency planning to use the bomb, rather than the faux pas so many assumed it to be.” The President sought to dismiss Gen.^ Atom Bomb President Truman at press conference.
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^ Korean War Beginning; July 1950; .
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^ Korean War 1950-1953.
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.MacArthur from theater command because his insubordination demonstrated his political unreliability: A US Army officer who might disobey his civilian Commander in Chief about using or not using atomic bombs.^ This intro is let you know what you already know about us kids who were raised in that era.
  • Friend of Curie LSC Chair speaks out - Mary Mitchell 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anders, Roger M. "The Atomic Bomb and the Korean War: Gordon Dean and the Issue of Civilian Control."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Zabecki, David T. Chiefs of Staff: Principal Officers behind History's Great Commanders, World War II to Korea & Vietnam .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

Also on 30 November 1950, the USAF Strategic Air Command was ordered to “augment its capacities, and that this should include atomic capabilities.” In 1951, the US escalated closest to atomic warfare in Korea, because the PRC had deployed new armies to the Sino-Korean frontier, thus, at the Kadena USAF Base, Okinawa, pit crews assembled atomic bombs for Korean warfare, “lacking only the essential nuclear cores.”
.On 5 April 1950, the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) issued orders for the retaliatory atomic-bombing of Manchurian PRC military bases, if either their armies crossed into Korea or if PRC or KPA bombers attacked Korea from there.^ In sum, the Korea of today is not the Korea of 1950 or even the late 60s when Kim Il-sung launched a variety of small-scale attacks on the South.
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^ While South Korea has the resources and potential that is superior to the North and has been spending more on defense, the North is not only still significantly superior to the South, but is also putting vastly more of its resources into the military.
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^ For South Korea there is thus a force towards being either less friendly with the United States or more friendly with China.
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.The President ordered the transfer of nine Mark-IV nuclear capsules “to the Air Force’s Ninth Bomb Group, the designated carrier of the weapons ...^ McCall served nine years in the Navy, four years in the Air Force Reserve and seven years in the Army Reserve.
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^ The 463rd Bomb Group was awarded two commendation citations from the President for their exceptional performance during the Ploesti bombings.
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^ Bomb ers Over Korea: Photos from the Collection of Warren E. Thompson.” Air Force Magazine 90:2 (February 2007): 58-69.
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[and] signed an order to use them against .Chinese and Korean targets”—which he never transmitted, having out-witted the JCS to agreeing to sack the insubordinate Soldier MacArthur (announced 10 April 1950), and because neither the PRC nor USSR likewise escalated the war.^ By April 24, 1846, border clashes had escalated, and, on May 13, 1846, the U. S. declared war with Mexico.
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^ Cruel Resurrection: Chinese Political Cartoons from the Korean War.” International Journal of Comic Art 6:1 (Spring 2004): 37-55.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Korean War stories, the first about rescuing orphans from the Chinese, the second a story in which Canyon in disguise poses as "Smrnsk, a known enemy agent."
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
Communist China propaganda poster: General MacArthur is shown with a blood-stained dagger, attacking a mother and child, and a US warplane dropping bombs on Chinese soil.
.Moreover (and contradictorily), President Truman also remarked that his government were actively considering using the atomic bomb to end the war in Korea (implying that Gen.^ Elected in 1952, President Eisenhower had let it be known in May ’53 that if a negotiated settlement could not be reached, he was prepared to seek a military solution, implying the use of atomic bombs and earlier measures advocated by MacArthur.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BRAND NEW Softcover - Covers the history of the 7th U.S. Cavalry from the end of World War II through their costly action in Korea.

^ President Harry S Truman (1945-1953), himself a World War I veteran, acted with speed and asked for the United Nations' support in stopping the military actions of North Korea.
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.MacArthur would control it), but that only he—the US President—commanded atomic bomb use, and that he had not given authorization.^ Elected in 1952, President Eisenhower had let it be known in May ’53 that if a negotiated settlement could not be reached, he was prepared to seek a military solution, implying the use of atomic bombs and earlier measures advocated by MacArthur.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anders, Roger M. "The Atomic Bomb and the Korean War: Gordon Dean and the Issue of Civilian Control."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For the matter of atomic warfare was solely a US decision, not the collective decision of the UN—hence his 4 December 1950 meeting with UK PM Clement Attlee (and Commonwealth spokesman), French Premier René Pleven, and Foreign Minister Robert Schuman to discuss their worries about Korean atomic warfare and its likely continental expansion.^ "Mao's Telegrams during the Korean War, October-December 1950."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lump everyone together that way you don't have to feel awkward about meeting someone that looks like me and having to shake my hand while you harbor feelings that you will only discuss after I walk away.
  • Friend of Curie LSC Chair speaks out - Mary Mitchell 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United Nations meeting to discuss Nuclear arms treaty.CU various delegates including William Foster for US - Russian delegate - Lord Chalfont for UK - empty chair for France.
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.The Indian Ambassador, Panikkar, reports, "that Truman announced that he was thinking of using the atom bomb in Korea.^ Atom Bomb President Truman at press conference.
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^ Making War, Thinking History: Munich, Vietnam, and Presidential Uses of Force from Korea to Kosovo.
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But the Chinese seemed totally unmoved by this threat ... .The propaganda against American aggression was stepped up.^ Quinn: I am 100% behind this fight against this mili-propaganda that the Chinese have stirred up...
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.The 'Aid Korea to resist America' campaign was made the slogan for increased production, greater national integration, and more rigid control over anti-national activities.^ However, an earlier commitment was made by the French to help the Pro-French Vietnamese get more governmental control in the North.
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^ Command, Control and the PLA's Offensive Campaigns in Korea, 1950-1951.” In Mark A. Ryan, David M. Finkelstein, and Michael A. McDevitt, eds.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.One could not help feeling that Truman's threat came in very useful to the leaders of the Revolution, to enable them to keep up the tempo of their activities."^ Those that are vocial leaders nine times out of ten use race as a desparate resort to rally and keep their support of the hispanic community.
  • Friend of Curie LSC Chair speaks out - Mary Mitchell 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

[71][117][118]
.Six days later, on 6 December 1950, after the Chinese intervention repelled the ROK, US, and UN Command armies from northern North Korea, Gen.^ Mark W Clark, US army, Commander in Chief, UN. 06:01:12 Title.
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^ Animated map showing advance of UN troops past 38th Parallel into North Korea.
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^ Pastore was part of the epic withdrawal by Marine and Army units in December 1950 when they fought their way through the Chinese encirclement in snowy, mountainous terrain and in extreme cold to eventual safety at the port city of Hungnam.
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.J. Lawton Collins (Army Chief of Staff), Gen.^ He was highly regarded by Generals Eisenhower and Bradley, but not so by Army Chief of Staff J. Lawton Collins.
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^ Present were chiefs of Navy, Army, Fifth Air Force, General MacArthur, and some of his staff.
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^ Among them was ARMY GENERAL COLIN POWELL , CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF. Powell was the FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN to hold this post.
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.MacArthur, Admiral C. Turner Joy, Gen.^ Goodman, Allan E. Negotiating while Fighting: The Diary of Admiral C. Turner Joy at the Korean Armistice Conference .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

George E. Stratemeyer, and staff officers Maj. Gen. Doyle Hickey, Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby, and Maj. Gen. .Edwin K. Wright, met in Tokyo to plan strategy countering the Chinese intervention; they composed three atomic warfare hypotheses encompassinging the next weeks and months of warfare.^ They remained there for almost three weeks repelling the German forces.
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[71] .In the first hypothesis: if the PVA continue attacking in full— and the UN Command are forbidden to blockade and bomb China, and without Nationalist Chinese reinforcements, and without increasing Gen.^ The 27th Regiment (Wolfhounds) of the 25th Division was the first American regiment to completely defeat a full-scale NKPA attack.
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^ These forces had defeated the Nationalist Chinese, who fled to Formosa (Taiwan) in October the previous year and made China a Communist country.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.MacArthur's US forces until April 1951 [pending four National Guard divisions]—then atomic bombs might be used in North Korea.^ H800191 Pte BRYDON, Harry B Pte Brydon served with the PPCLI and died on the 8 Oct 1951 at the age of 24 and is commemorated at the United Nations Cemetery in Pusan Korea.
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^ If you can rescue a person who might die, that’s not going beyond duty, that is duty.” Moseley left Korea in 1951.
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^ Harrison fought with besieged American forces on the Bataan peninsula until their surrender in April, 1942.
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[71] .In the second: if the PVA continue full attacks—and the UN Command have blockaded China and effective aerial reconnaissance and bombing of the Chinese interior, and the Nationalist Chinese soldiers are maximally exploited, and tactical atomic-bombing is to hand, then Gen.^ Chinese machine gun or maxim as soldiers attack.
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^ Fletcher’s citation said: “His selfless courage, tactical acumen and effective command were pivotal to the success of his company in defeating a determined opponent.” Besides Fitzgerald, Sgt.
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^ These forces were undetected by U.N. aerial reconnaissance which was mostly employed in a strategic role: location of targets and evaluation of bombing.
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.MacArthur could hold positions deep in North Korea.^ Jaecke returned to his unit in time for a U.N. offensive deep into North Korea.
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^ By then South Korea had weathered its crises and showed that it could well handle North Korea infiltration and destabilization attempts.
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^ By November, Epperson was deep inside bitter-cold North Korea.
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[71] .In the third: if the PRC agree to not cross the 38th-parallel border, Gen.^ Previously, the track had been taken up by North Koreans to seal off their border with South Korea at the 38th parallel.
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^ On September 27, he was ordered by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to cross the 38th parallel without fanfare and with little publicity.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bernstein, Barton J. "The Policy of Risk: Crossing the 38th Parallel and Marching to the Yalu."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.MacArthur recommends UN acceptance of an armistice disallowing PVA and KPA troops south of the parallel, and requiring PVA and KPA guerrillas to withdraw northwards.^ Animated map showing advance of UN troops past 38th Parallel into North Korea.
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^ Generals off plane, MacArthur, car, MacArthur and woman South Korea Walton Walker troops line road.
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^ I hasten to add, however, that the low probability of war should be no excuse for a weakening of South Korea's defense efforts, or a withdrawal of American troops.
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The US Eighth Army remains protecting the Seoul–Incheon area, while X Corps retreats to Pusan. A UN commission should supervise implementation of armistice.[71]
.President Truman did not immediately threaten atomic warfare after the October 1950 Chinese intervention, but, 45 days later, did remark about using it after the PVA repelled the UN Command from North Korea.^ Chinese of Germ Warfare bombing raids over North Korea.
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^ Later, when in North Korea, the ROKs wanted to reply in kind, but close supervision by U.N. officials kept these reprisals on a smaller scale.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animated map showing advance of UN troops past 38th Parallel into North Korea.
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Gen. .MacArthur et al. did not compose the atomic warfare hypotheses until after the President's 30 November press conference.^ Atom Bomb President Truman at press conference.
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.The US’s forgoing atomic warfare was not because of “a disinclination by the USSR and PRC to escalate” the Korean War, but because UN Ally pressure—notably from the UK, the Commonwealth, and France—about a geopolitical imbalance rendering NATO defenseless, while the US fought China, who then might persuade the USSR to conquer Western Europe.^ "Atomic Diplomacy during the Korean War."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This intro is let you know what you already know about us kids who were raised in that era.
  • Friend of Curie LSC Chair speaks out - Mary Mitchell 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Korean War stories, the first about rescuing orphans from the Chinese, the second a story in which Canyon in disguise poses as "Smrnsk, a known enemy agent."
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71][119]
.In October 1951, the US effected Operation Hudson Harbor to establish nuclear weapon-use capability.^ Nuclear Weapons and US Korean War Policy.” Social Sciences in China 27:4 (Winter 2006): 122-135.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Later at press briefing Russian representative says Soviet Union favours full discussion with US to stop spread of Nuclear weapons.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.USAF B-29 bombers practiced individual bombing runs (using dummy nuclear or conventional bombs) from Okinawa to North Korea, coordinated from Yokota Air Base, in east-central Japan.^ "Nationalism in East Asia 1948-1953: British Reactions to Events in China, Korea and Japan."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Just north of Taegu, the line turned east and ran for about 50 miles to Pohang on the Sea of Japan.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bomb ers Over Korea: Photos from the Collection of Warren E. Thompson.” Air Force Magazine 90:2 (February 2007): 58-69.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Hudson Harbor tested “actual functioning of all activities which would be involved in an atomic strike, including weapons -assembly and -testing, leading, ground control of bomb aiming”.^ Anders, Roger M. "The Atomic Bomb and the Korean War: Gordon Dean and the Issue of Civilian Control."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "The Korean War and the Atomic Bomb: The Role of Nuclear Weapons in a Limited War."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

The bombing run data indicated that atomic bombs would be tactically ineffective against massed infantry, because the “timely identification of large masses of enemy troops was extremely rare.”[120][121][122][123][124]

War crimes

Crimes against civilians

MEMO (25 Jul ’50) to Gen. .Timberlake, USAF; SUBJECT: Policy on Strafing Civilian Refugees:
It is reported that large groups of civilians, either composed of or controlled by North Korean soldiers, are infiltrating US positions.^ US soldier talking w/ Chinese or North Korean (?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korean women soldiers talking to korean soldier.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During an assault on a North Korean-held hill, Clark moved to the most forward position in order to direct artillery fire more accurately.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The army has requested we strafe all civilian refugee parties approaching our positions. To date, we have complied with the army request in this respect.

It recommends a revised policy and practice.
Prisoners killed by retreating KPA, Daejeon, South Korea, October 1950.
.In occupied areas, North Korean Army political officers purged South Korean society of its intelligentsia, by assassinating every educated person—academic, governmental, religious—who might lead resistance against the North; the purges continued during NPA retreat.^ North Korean who turns away.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Koreans in army truck.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meeting between North & South Koreans.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125] .Likewise, in combating enemy infiltration—immediately after the invasion in June 1950—the South Korean Government ordered the nation-wide "pre-emptive apprehension" of politically-suspect (disloyal) citizens.^ The South Koreans and the U.S. State Department wanted the American troops to stay, but the GAROA funds expired on June 20, 1949, and the U.S. Army had no funds to keep the troops there.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And for my punishment, I was ordered to take a South Korean soldier and myself and carry Charlie down the back of the hill.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He died 12 June 1952 and is commemorated at the United Nations Cemetery at Busan, South Korea.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The military police and Right-wing paramilitary (civilian) armies—abetted by the US—summarily executed thousands of left-wing and communist political prisoners at Daejeon Prison and in the Cheju Uprising (1948–49).^ Camp Munsan-Ni, US released prisoners of war arrive by military truck.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political opponents by the thousands were rounded up and executed.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Washington: Office of the Chief of Military History, US Army, 1972.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[126] .US diplomat Gregory Henderson, then in Korea, calculates some 100,000 pro-North political prisoners were killed and buried in mass graves.^ As Stalin had promised to help the North Koreans, he had also offered aid to the Chinese who had massed 200,000 troops opposite Formosa for the invasion.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for South Korea and the United States, some expectations involve their economic relations, some their defensive alliance, some their political relationship (such as South Korea's political "progress"), some their scientific and cultural relations, and so on.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some are achieved through minor balancing; some through major conflicts and confrontations, as at the political level for South Korea and the United States; some through a recognition of a common interest.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The South Korean Truth and Reconciliation Commission received reports of some 7,800 civilian killings, in 150 places, occurred before and during the war.^ See honour and awards below for other medals awarded to those that served with distinction during the Korean War.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He went on to finish a 20-year career in the Air Force, including being activated during the Korean War, and serving on an island off the coast of Vietnam.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, the United States was caught between the exigencies of defeating Vietnam's war against the South while avoiding a Korean style war with China.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to conventional military operations, North Korean soldiers also fought the US–UN forces by infiltrating guerrillas among refugees—who (usually) could approach soldiers for food and help in a battlefield.^ US soldier talking w/ Chinese or North Korean (?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korean women soldiers talking to korean soldier.
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^ North Korean who turns away.
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.For a time, US troops fought under a "shoot-first-ask-questions-later" policy against every civilian-refugee approaching US battlefield positions;[citation needed] an unwise tactical carte blanche that led US Soldiers to indiscriminately kill some 400 civilians at No Gun Ri (26–29 July 1950), in central Korea.^ US Soldiers firing machine-guns.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1951 Pastore was wounded a second time while in action on Korea’s central front.
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^ [Part 2] 20May-20Jun51 Contact Kept With Reds - US positions on North Korean front; cleaning gun.
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[127][128]
.The warfare of the Korean armies included forcibly conscripting the available civilian men and women to their war efforts.^ He went on to finish a 20-year career in the Air Force, including being activated during the Korean War, and serving on an island off the coast of Vietnam.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Honours and Awards received by members of the Canadian Army during the Korean War .
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forgotten Heroes - 131 Men of the Korean War Awarded the Medal of Honor 1950-1953 .

In Statistics of Democide (1997), Prof. R. J. Rummel reports that the North Korean Army conscripted some 400,000 South Korean citizens.[125] .The South Korean Government reported that before the US re-captured Seoul, in September 1950, the North abducted some 83,000 citizens; the North says they defected.^ Meeting between North & South Koreans.
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^ As Stalin had promised to help the North Koreans, he had also offered aid to the Chinese who had massed 200,000 troops opposite Formosa for the invasion.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue at Seoul was that MacArthur wanted the city taken and returned to Syngman Rhee, S. Korean president, by September 24th, and Almond was demanding that the Marines move on into the city long before it was tactically sensible to do so.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[129][130]

Bodo League anti–communist massacre

.To outmaneuver a possible fifth column in the Republic of Korea, President Syngman Rhee’s régime assassinated its “enemies of the state”—South Koreans suspected of being “communists”, “pro-North Korea”, and “leftist”—by imprisoning them for political re-education in the Gukmin Bodo Ryeonmaeng (National Rehabilitation and Guidance League, aka the Bodo League).^ Meeting between North & South Koreans.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korean being questioned by Captain ?
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^ The original status quo was stable until the mid-60s, when it became threatened by the North's massive infiltration of the South, attacks on United States and South Korea units along the DMZ, assassination attempts against South Korea's President, and the seizure of the USS Pueblo, all coupled with internal political crises in the South.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The true purpose of the anti–communist “Bodo League”, abetted by the USAMGIK, was the régime’s hasty assassination of some 10,000 to 100,000 “enemies of the state” whom they dumped in trenches, mines, and the sea — before and after the 25 June 1950 North Korean invasion.^ June 25, 1950.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korean trenches.
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^ The South Koreans and the U.S. State Department wanted the American troops to stay, but the GAROA funds expired on June 20, 1949, and the U.S. Army had no funds to keep the troops there.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Contemporary calculations report some 200,000 to 1,200,000.[131] USAMGIK officers were present at one political execution site; at least one US officer sanctioned the mass killings of political prisoners whom the North Koreans would free upon conquering the peninsular south.^ Meeting between North & South Koreans.
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^ North Korean officers watching.
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^ CU US & Korean officers.
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[132]
.The South Korean Truth and Reconciliation Commission reports that petitions requesting explanation of the summary execution of leftist South Koreans outnumber, six-to-one, the petitions requesting explanation of the summary execution of rightist South Koreans.^ About one-third of the South Korean soldiers were on leave.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The course of Korean conflict and cooperation is, of course, highly dependent upon North Korea-American relations; and it is secondarily dependent upon the Soviet-North Korea helix and the South Korea-United States one.
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^ United Nations Commission w/ Koreans, Soviets & US. Elections in South Korea under UN supervision.
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[133] .These data apply solely to South Korea, because North Korea is not integral to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.^ It was 1954 and a ceasefire had been declared between North and South Korea, two countries that had been engaged in a `police action' from 1950 to '53.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bodo League massacre survivor, seventy-one-year-old Kim Jong-chol, whose South Korean border guard father was press-ganged to work with the KPA, was executed by the Rhee Government as a collaborator; his grandparents and a seven-year-old sister also were assassinated; about his experience in Namyangju city, he says:
Young children or whatever, were all killed en masse. What did the family do wrong? .Why did they kill the family?^ O I hae killed my fadir deir, And their staffs they did flourish about.
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.When the people from the other side [North Korea] came here, they didn’t kill many people.^ People who sacrificed and came here legally are more likely to resent those that do not.
  • Friend of Curie LSC Chair speaks out - Mary Mitchell 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This admonition is underlined if we try to forecast the South Korea-North Korea helix from the others.
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^ If such expectations breakdown and conflict escalates, the likelihood is that such will also occur with the United States and South Korea on the one hand, and North Korea on the other.
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— Kim Jong-chol[132]
.Moreover, USAMGIK officers photographed the mass killings at Daejon city in central South Korea, where the Truth Commission believe some 3,000 to 7,000 people were shot and buried in mass graves in early July 1950. Other declassified records report that a US Army lieutenant colonel approved the assassination of 3,500 political prisoners, by the ROK Army unit to which he was military advisor, when the KPA reached the southern port city of Pusan (Pusan).^ CUs of faces, US Army photographers.
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^ Charlie was buried in the United Nations cemetery overlooking the city of Pusan, Korea.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US army marching thru city.
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[132] .In that time, US diplomats reported having urged the Rhee régime’s restraint against its political opponents, and that the USAMGIK, who formally controlled the peninsular south, did not halt the mass assassinations.^ Kim had promised that the war would last only a short time because the South Koreans would rise up against Rhee’s oppressive government and overthrow it.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Syngman Rhee, an exile who had lived in the U.S., arrived against State Department wishes.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We had a coach "Herbert Cobbs", who took the time to teach us , train us, and instill the will to win at something that we were not supposed to win at.
  • Friend of Curie LSC Chair speaks out - Mary Mitchell 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

[132]

Prisoners of war

An executed US Army POW of the US 21st Infantry Regiment killed July 9th 1950. Picture taken July 10, 1950
.As with the ideological raisons d’être fueling the Korean War, the combatants—North Korea, South Korea, the US, and the UN each treated prisoners of war (POWs) differently; notwithstanding the Geneva Convention.^ "Repatriation of Prisoners of War and the 1949 Geneva Convention."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dead & captured US prisoners of war (POWS), CUs, surrounded by North Korean officers.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Korean pows?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] To wit, the US reported that North Korea mistreated prisoners of war: soldiers were beaten, starved, put to forced labor, marched to death, and summarily executed.^ As can be seen from Table 3 and mentioned above, while global forces blocked war, the necessary regional and local forces opened the gate to war in Korea; the aggravating forces strongly encouraged its appearance.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US troops advance on road - Chinese prisoners of war.
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^ Taking the global, regional, and local forces into account, therefore, on analysis the current war situation in Korea boils down to this.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[134][135]
.The KPA killed POWs at the battles for Hill 312, Hill 303, the Pusan Perimeter, and Daejeon—discovered during early after-battle mop-up actions by the UN forces.^ (Pausan early perimeter battles.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He saw action from the Pusan Perimeter to the Chosin Reservoir.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US forces defending Pusan perimeter - heavy shelling - wounded GIs.
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.Later, a US Congress war crimes investigation, the United States Senate Subcommittee on Korean War Atrocities of the Permanent Subcommittee of the Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations reported that “...^ "Congress during the Korean War."
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Korea 1951-1953[ United States Army in the Korean War] .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Rarely mentioned in histories of the war, they served functions essential to keeping the United States Navy and the United Nations partners in active duty.

two-thirds of all .American prisoners of war in Korea died as a result of war crimes”.^ Fifty two American submarines were lost in World War II and 3,505 submarine crewmen died in the war.
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^ Millett, Allan R. “Epilogue: Korea and the American Way of War.” Joint Force Quarterly 28 (Spring-Summer 2001): 86-87.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The resulting gap, subsequently shown by the increase in related wars, interventions by the Soviet Union or its proxies, and crises, destabilized the status quo and increased the risk of Soviet-American war.
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[136][137][138]
.The North Korean Government reported some 70,000 ROK Army POWs; 8,000 were repatriated.^ North Koreans in army truck.
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^ North Korean pows?
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^ Communist North Korean PoWs refusing repatriation.
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.South Korea repatriated 76,000 Korean People's Army (KPA) POWs.^ Army truck w/ South Korean flag.
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^ The South Koreans and the U.S. State Department wanted the American troops to stay, but the GAROA funds expired on June 20, 1949, and the U.S. Army had no funds to keep the troops there.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korea: New Army Undergoes Training For Battle US General Van Fleet and President of Korea inspect South Korean troops; training exercise; CU Van Fleet and President; blood supply appeal.
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[139] .Besides the 12,000 US–UN Command forces POWs dead in captivity, the KPA might have press-ganged some 50,000 ROK POWs into the North Korean military.^ MPS, tents & US military peace delegation; North Koreans into tents.
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^ US & UN military.
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^ North Korean pows?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125] .Per the South Korean Ministry of Defense, there remained some 560 Korean War POWs detained in North Korea in 2008; from 1994 ’til 2003, some 30 ROK POWs escaped the North.^ North Korean pows?
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^ Meeting between North & South Koreans.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the KVA National Web-Site and contains information that will be interesting to those that are Korea Veterans and those that may be just interested in researching the history of the Korean War.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[140]
.The North Korean Government denied having POWs from the Korean War, and, via the Korean Central News Agency, reported that the UN forces killed some 33,600 KPA POWs; that on 19 July 1951, in POW Camp No.^ Korean War Beginning; July 1950; .
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^ North Korean pows?
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Zealand and the Korean War , volume 1.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.62, some 100 POWs were killed as machine-gunnery targets; that on 27 May 1952, in the 77th Camp, Koje Island, with flamethrowers, the ROK Army incinerated some 800 KPA POWs who rejected "voluntary repatriation" South, and instead demanded repatriation North; and that some 1,400 KPA POWs were secretly sent to the US to be atomic-weapon experimental subjects.^ On the night of May 3 the 3rd Battalion of The Royal Canadian Regiment had 26 men killed in action, 27 wounded and seven taken prisoner of war.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we focus on North and South Korea alone we find some significant changes in the correlation of forces toward war from the pre-Korean War period.
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^ Teran was sent to rehab at camp "Lucky Strike" in France, and then home after the war ended in Europe on May 8, 1945.
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[141][142]

Legacy

The Korean War Memorial, Washington State Capitol, Olympia, Washington.
The DMZ: A US Army captain confers with ROK Army counterparts, at Observation Post (OP) Ouellette, viewing northward, April 2008.
.The Korean War (1950–53) was the first proxy war in the Cold War (1945–91), the prototype of the following sphere-of-influence wars, e.g.^ Korean War, 1950-1953.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Korean War 1950-53.
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^ Korean War Beginning; July 1950; .
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the .Vietnam War (1945–75).^ Donaldson, Gary A. America at War Since 1945: Politics and Diplomacy in Korea, Vietnam, and the Gulf War .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Korean War established proxy war as one way that the nuclear superpowers indirectly conducted their rivalry in third-party countries.^ One GI said, "It was a hell of a way to go to war."
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Korean War - Winter, Tanks & Supply Planes] Tanks across snow; first one has number 50 on it & face painted.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All but one of the aggravating causes are there, but the capability of the North, its confidence in success, and the Sino-Soviet-North Korean interests and will-to-a-Korean-war, are not.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The NSC68 Containment Policy extended the cold war from the occupied Europe of 1945 to the rest of the world.^ After World War II, Farnsworth was in the Reserves from late 1945 until early 1948 and was stationed at Nellis Air Force Base when the Korean War started in 1950.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One false concept which hampered American policy throughout the cold war that all Communists were directly controlled and every action dictated from Moscow.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During World War II, victory in Europe was the first goal, while the Pacific was of secondary priority.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Fighting ended at the 38th parallel, now the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)—248x4 km (155x2.5 mi)—peninsular demarcation between the countries.^ Parallel [Reel 5 of 5] [Korean propaganda film on the events leading up to the crossing of the 38th parallel.
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^ Parallel [Reel 2 of 5] [North Korean propaganda film on the events leading up to the crossing of the 38th parallel.
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^ Previously, the track had been taken up by North Koreans to seal off their border with South Korea at the 38th parallel.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Moreover, the Korean War affected other participant combatants; Turkey, for example, entered NATO in 1952.[143]
.Post-war recovery was different in the two Koreas; South Korea stagnated in the first post-war decade, but later industrialized and modernized.^ Lonnie L. Moseley (2003 University of Utah Veterans Day honoree) Lonnie Moseley served in three wars and two different services.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British citizens in the first years of the war when we had to pay cash in America & South America for what was necessary to carry on the war against Hitler.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linantud, John L. “War Memorials and Memories: Comparing the Philippines and South Korea.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 14:4 (2008): 347-361.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Contemporary North Korea still remains underdeveloped, while South Korea is a modern free-market economy, member of the OECD and G-20 groups.^ He died 20 August 1952 at the age of 25 and is commemorated at the United Nations Cemetery in Busan, South Korea.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The course of Korean conflict and cooperation is, of course, highly dependent upon North Korea-American relations; and it is secondarily dependent upon the Soviet-North Korea helix and the South Korea-United States one.
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^ Of course the military balance between North and South Korea is essential to the probability of a new Korea War.
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.In the 1990s North Korea faced significant economic disruptions.^ If we focus on North and South Korea alone we find some significant changes in the correlation of forces toward war from the pre-Korean War period.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "North Korea's Arms Buildup and its Economic Dilemma."
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plunk, Daryl M. "North Korea Facing a Dangerous Passage."
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The North Korean famine is believed to have killed as many as 2.5 million people.^ The Reds are holding his parents to force him to be a spy, but when he learns that his parents have been killed he takes off and does a kamikaze mission against a North Korean supply dump.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our people were fighting like seasoned troopers, but were just being overpowered….Hour after hour we held the North Koreans off … time and time again gooks rushed us.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The North Korean Peoples Army (NKPA) was spearheaded by Russian-made T-34 tanks, believed by many to be the best tank of World War II. Without adequate anti-tank weapons, brave ROK soldiers attacked these steel monsters with satchel charges.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[144] .The CIA World Factbook estimates North Korea's GDP (PPP) is $40 billion, which is 3.0% of South Korea's $1.196 trillion GDP (PPP).^ In 1967 the number of North Korea infiltrators killed in the South jumped from 82 to 381 and 518 in 1968.
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^ And then were the South to lose, the survivors would face terror and repression and possible liquidation under the North, one of the world's most absolutist and totalitarian autocracies.
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^ But leaving aside this dominant North Korea-United States relationship, the ability to forecast Korean conflict also depends on the Sino-South Korean relationship.
  • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.North Korean personal income is $1,800 per capita, which is 7.0% of the South Korean $24,500 per capita income.^ Meeting between North & South Koreans.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lac Paille (54 E/12), south of North Norfolk Lake was named after this Korean War casualty in 1998.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Koreans attack South Korea - Republican troops march to defence.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anti-communism remains in ROK politics.^ Television News Broadcasting; Anti-Communism; Politics; Korean War; Sleaze; .
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Uri Party practiced a "Sunshine Policy" towards North Korea; the US often disagreed with the Uri Party and (former) ROK Pres.^ Later, when in North Korea, the ROKs wanted to reply in kind, but close supervision by U.N. officials kept these reprisals on a smaller scale.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Containing the Cold War in Asia: British Policies Towards China, Japan and Korea, 1948-53 .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Korea - Inchon Area September 1950 - colour faded US Soldiers with naked North Korean prisoner of war.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Roh about relations between the Koreas.^ "Chronology of Relations Between North Korea and China in the Post-Mao Era--October 1976-October 1984."
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^ The body of this paper will then focus on the conceptual aspects of the theory and on relating the quantitative results and findings given in the appendices (and in quantitative analyses elsewhere) to the question of war between the Koreas.
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^ "Chronology of Relations Between North Korea and the Soviet Union, 1980-1986."
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.The conservative Grand National Party (GNP), the Uri Party's principal opponent, is anti-North Korea.^ A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOUTH AND NORTH KOREA. Seoul, Republic of Korea: National Unification Board, 1982.
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^ A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE SOUTH AND NORTH KOREAN ECONOMIES. Seoul, Republic of Korea: National Unification Board, 1985.
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^ War Crimes and Historical Memory: The United Nations Occupation of North Korea in 1950.” In Dale Carter and Robin Clifton, eds.
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Depictions

Film

Western Films

.Compared to World War II, there are relatively few Western feature films depicting the Korean War.^ While Charlie's older brothers, Edwin and George were overseas taking part in World War II, Charlie remained at home to help with the family farm.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Koreans fighting side by side with Japanese in World War II [very scratched].
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^ After World War II, Farnsworth was in the Reserves from late 1945 until early 1948 and was stationed at Nellis Air Force Base when the Korean War started in 1950.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • The Steel Helmet (1951) is a war film directed by Samuel Fuller and produced by Lippert Studios during the Korean War.^ "Congress during the Korean War."
    • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cartoons printed during the Korean War.
    • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Korean Comic Artist" to "Korean War" 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Atomic Diplomacy during the Korean War."
    • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .It was the first studio film about the war, and the first of several war films by producer-director-writer Fuller.
  • Battle Hymn (1957) stars Rock Hudson as Colonel Dean Hess, a preacher become pilot who accidentally destroyed a German orphanage during World War II. He later returned to the USAF in Korea and rescued orphans during that war.^ If you can rescue a person who might die, that’s not going beyond duty, that is duty.” Moseley left Korea in 1951.
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    ^ After World War II, Farnsworth was in the Reserves from late 1945 until early 1948 and was stationed at Nellis Air Force Base when the Korean War started in 1950.
    • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sfter three years overseas in Australia, India and China during World War II and a toal of five years of military service, I received an honorable discahrgein Spetember 1945 here at Fort Douglas.
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    [145][146]
  • .
  • The Bridges at Toko-Ri (1955) stars William Holden as a Naval Aviator assigned to destroy the bridges at Toko Ri, while battling doubts; it is based on an eponymous James Michener novel.
  • The Forgotten (2004) features a decimated tank unit, lost behind enemy lines, battling the vicissitudes of the war, as well as their own demons.
  • The Hunters (1958), adapted from the novel The Hunters by James Salter, stars Robert Mitchum and Robert Wagner as two very different United States Air Force fighter pilots in the midst of the Korean War.
  • The Hook (1963), starring Kirk Douglas, portrays the dilemma of three American soldiers on board a ship who are ordered to kill a Korean Prisoner of War.
  • Inchon (1982) portrays the Battle of Inchon, a turning point in the war.^ Battle scenes Korean war.
    • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After the war, he joined the Air Force Reserve.
    • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Korea 1951-1953[ United States Army in the Korean War] .
    • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Controversially, the film was partially financed by Sun Myung Moon's Unification Movement. .It became a notorious financial and critical failure, losing an estimated $40 million of its $46 million budget, and remains the last mainstream Hollywood film to use the war as its backdrop.^ Korea remains as Canada’s third bloodiest war, after WWI and WWII and, just ahead of the South African War, the last colonial war more than a century ago.
    • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Military Propaganda; 1980s; Military Recruitment Films; Korean War; Ace; NOTE: Music must be cleared if used.
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    .The film was directed by Terence Young, and starred an elderly Laurence Olivier as General Douglas MacArthur.^ President Truman ordered Five-Star General Douglas MacArthur, U.S. Commander in the Far East, headquartered in Tokyo, to provide logistical support for the ROKs while the U.N. called for withdrawal of North Korean troops.
    • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After repairs, the Achilles was assigned to the huge invasion fleet escorting General Douglas MacArthur to the Philippines to fulfill his famous “I shall return” promise.
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    ^ Reynolds w/ photographers receiving dog tags; CU elderly three-star General laughing; Reynolds posing w/ soldiers.
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    .According to press materials from the film, psychics hired by Moon's church contacted MacArthur in heaven and secured his posthumous approval of the casting.
  • Korea: The Unfinished War (2003) is a documentary written and directed by Brian McKenna, which provides new information and adopts a more objective editorial line.^ This is the KVA National Web-Site and contains information that will be interesting to those that are Korea Veterans and those that may be just interested in researching the history of the Korean War.
    • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Of course the military balance between North and South Korea is essential to the probability of a new Korea War.
    • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the years ahead when more and more "active" units disband, Korea veterans will turn to the Heritage Unit for information of common interest.
    • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It interviews researches that allege that the US committed war crimes by using biological warfare on North Korean territory.^ [Part 2] 20May-20Jun51 Contact Kept With Reds - US positions on North Korean front; cleaning gun.
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    ^ North Koreans, Chinese and even Russian pilots bombarded US aircraft in classic man-to-man dogfi .

    ^ Wreckage; Launching; NOTE: Liner President Jackson after launching was finished as USS Barrett, a troop ship used for Korean War.
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    The documentary provides information that certain munitions found on the battlefield point to the use of anthrax, bubonic plague and encephalitis by US forces. .It also provides information that the US Army deliberately killed civilians on a large scale for fear that the communists were infiltrating them.
  • The Manchurian Candidate, a 1959 thriller novel, was cinematically adapted to The Manchurian Candidate (1962), directed by John Frankenheimer, and featuring Frank Sinatra and Angela Lansbury.^ CU. US Army information as Rhee at mic reads (MOS) citation of honor; presents medal to Four-Star General Van Fleet.
    • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They refused, fearful that large standing armies could support oppressive governments or military strongmen who would arise.
    • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Northwest Orient airliner in Korea & greeted by US Army Band & Korean VIPs & John J. Muccio, US Ambassador to Korea.
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    .It is about brainwashed POWs of the US Army, and an officer's investigation to learn what happened to him and his platoon in the war.
  • MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors, by Richard Hooker (pseudonym for H. Richard Hornberger), was later adapted into a successful film and a television series; the TV series had a total of 251 episodes, lasted 11 years, and won awards, and its final episode was the most-watched program in television history.^ US officers watch.
    • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Air-Ground Assault Halts Reds - North of Seoul - battle in valley - US officers watch.
    • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Later, when halfway through basic training at Fort Benning, ASTP was cancelled and most members were inducted into the Army as infantrymen.
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    [147] .Yet the sensibilities they presented were more of the 1970s than of the 1950s; the Korean War setting was an oblique and uncontroversial treatment of the then-current American war in Vietnam.^ Korean War; 1950s Cold War; .
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    ^ He went on to finish a 20-year career in the Air Force, including being activated during the Korean War, and serving on an island off the coast of Vietnam.
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    ^ Not only did the Vietnam War destabilize Sino-American expectations, but so did the burgeoning Sino-Soviet conflict.
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    [148]
  • Pork Chop Hill (1959) is a Lewis Milestone-directed film with Gregory Peck as an infantry lieutenant fighting the bitterly fierce first Battle of Pork Chop Hill, between the US Army's 7th Infantry Division, and Chicom (Chinese Communist) forces at war's end in April 1953. The movie is lampooned by the Firesign Theatre album Don't Crush That Dwarf, Hand Me the Pliers in the story of Lieutenant Tirebiter.

South Korean films

.
  • Areumdaun shijeol (Spring in my Hometown) (1998), directed by Lee Kwangmo, though not focused especially on the fighting, takes place in a South Korean village during the war as it deals with the war's upheavals.
  • Doraoji anneun haebyong (The Marines Who Never Returned) (1963), directed by Lee Man-hee, a film about South Korean marines fighting to the last man against North Korean and Chinese soldiers during the Korean War.
  • Taegukgi: The Brotherhood of War (2004), directed by Kang Je-gyu, became extremely popular in South Korea and at the 50th Asia Pacific Film Festival, Taegukgi won the "Best Film", while Kang Je-gyu was awarded the "Best Director". Taegukgi saw a limited release in the United States.
  • Welcome to Dongmakgol (2005) shows the effect of the warring sides on a remote village.^ About one-third of the South Korean soldiers were on leave.
    • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ South Korean war memorial in honor of US soldiers who died during Korean conflict.
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    ^ North Korean & Chinese soldiers in line in front of conference building.
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    The titular village soon becomes home to surviving North Korean and South Korean soldiers, who in time lose their suspicion and hatred for each other and work together to help save the village after the Americans mistakenly identify it as an enemy camp.

North Korean films

.In North Korea the Korean War has always been a favorite subject of film, both for its dramatic appeal and its potential as propaganda.^ Newsreel camera of North Koreans filming.
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^ Korea Korean script titles Korean film mute GVs street scenes banners etc.
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^ This is the KVA National Web-Site and contains information that will be interesting to those that are Korea Veterans and those that may be just interested in researching the history of the Korean War.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The North Korean government film industry has produced many scores of films about the war.^ Newsreel camera of North Koreans filming.
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^ Henry Lavallee Lake (63 P/6), north of Landing Lake was named after this Korean War casualty in 1998.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis Roberts Lake (53 L/13), north of Oxford Lake was named after this Korean War casualty.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These have portrayed war crimes by American or South Korean soldiers while glorifying members of the North Korean military as well as North Korean ideals.^ The South Koreans and the U.S. State Department wanted the American troops to stay, but the GAROA funds expired on June 20, 1949, and the U.S. Army had no funds to keep the troops there.
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^ Captain Darrigo, a member of the Korean Military Advisory Group (KMAG, pronounced Kay-Mag) assigned to the 1st Division of the Republic of Korea (ROK), was the only American officer on the parallel that morning.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief Account of the Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, the United States was caught between the exigencies of defeating Vietnam's war against the South while avoiding a Korean style war with China.
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[149] Some of the most prominent of these films include:
.
  • Nameless Heroes, a multi-part film produced between 1978–1981 and which included in the cast several American soldiers who had defected to North Korea.^ "Chronology of Relations Between North Korea and China in the Post-Mao Era--October 1976-October 1984."
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    ^ Return to Kaesong conference - Chinese delegates and soldiers with Americans; American shows pictures to Chinese who laughs.
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    ^ The course of Korean conflict and cooperation is, of course, highly dependent upon North Korea-American relations; and it is secondarily dependent upon the Soviet-North Korea helix and the South Korea-United States one.
    • THE CONFLICT HELIX AND A KOREAN WAR 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It tells the story of a spy in Seoul during the Korean War.

Chinese films

  • Battle on Shangganling Mountain (Shanggan Ling, Chinese: 上甘岭) is a depiction of the Korean War from the Chinese point of view, made in 1956. The movie is about a group of Chinese soldiers blocked in Triangle Hill area for several days and survive until they are relieved.

Philippine films

Literature

  • The essay Who are the Most Beloved People? (1951) by Chinese writer Wei Wei is considered to be the most famous literary and propaganda piece produced by China during the Korean War.
  • The war-memoir novel War Trash (2004), by Ha Jin, is a drafted PVA soldier's experience of the war, combat, and captivity under the UN Command, and of the retribution Chinese POWs feared from other PVA prisoners, when suspected of being unsympathetic to Communism or to the war.

Music

.Singer-songwriter David Rovics sings about the Korean War in his song Korea at the album Song for Mahmud.^ This is the KVA National Web-Site and contains information that will be interesting to those that are Korea Veterans and those that may be just interested in researching the history of the Korean War.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Analysis of the Effects of the Korean War on the Social Structures of the Republic of Korea.” California Sociologist 15 (1992): 21-42.
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^ His story provides a unique insight into how North Korea conducted the Korean War and how he came to the decision to leave his homeland .

Painting

.Massacre in Korea (1951), by Pablo Picasso, depicts war violence against civilians.^ Although violence occurs, as during the 1968 flare-up between the Koreas, war may not.
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^ Korea - War Goes On Despite Cease-Fire Reports (1951) Temporary lull on Korean battlefront following rumours of truce.
  • Footage Farm: Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korea 1951-1953[ United States Army in the Korean War] .
  • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

Photography

Sculpture

Theater

.The Colombian theatrical work El monte calvo (The Barren Mount) created by Jairo Aníbal Niño, used two ex-soldiers (Sebastian and the colonel) of the Colombia battalion (which participated in the Korean war) and an ex-clown (Canute) to criticize all militarist or warmonger views, and also to show what war is and what happens to those who live through it.^ See honour and awards below for other medals awarded to those that served with distinction during the Korean War.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the KVA National Web-Site and contains information that will be interesting to those that are Korea Veterans and those that may be just interested in researching the history of the Korean War.
  • Sgt Tommy Prince MM Memorial Unit 76 KVA Winnipeg, Manitoba 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC koreavetsunit76.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the Korean War had broken out in 1950, he was assigned in 1951 to Battery A, 38th Field Artillery Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division as a forward observer.
  • Utah military people and their stories 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC www.fortdouglas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "On This Day 29 August 1950". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/29/newsid_3053000/3053107.stm. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  2. ^ "Veterans Affairs Canada —The Korean War". Veterans Affairs Canada. http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/koreawar. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  3. ^ a b "Filipino Soldiers in the Korean War (video documentary)". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SBmEl3Gv60. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  4. ^ Walker, Jack D. "A brief account of the Korean War". http://www.koreanwar-educator.org/topics/brief/brief_account_of_the_korean_war.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  5. ^ "French Participation in the Korean War". Embassy of France. http://www.info-france-usa.org/atoz/koreawar.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  6. ^ Thomas, Abbott & Chappell (1986), pp. 22-23
  7. ^ "Casualties of Korean War". Ministry of National Defense of Republic of Korea. http://www.withcountry.mil.kr/info/koreanwar/war3/20070214/1_-3722.jsp?menu=menu2. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  8. ^ "Casualties of Korean War". Ministry of National Defense of Republic of Korea. http://www.withcountry.mil.kr/info/koreanwar/war3/20070214/1_-3722.jsp?menu=menu2. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  9. ^ "Casualties of Korean War". Ministry of National Defense of Republic of Korea. http://www.withcountry.mil.kr/info/koreanwar/war3/20070214/1_-3722.jsp?menu=menu2. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  10. ^ "All POW-MIA Korean War Casualties". http://www.aiipowmia.com/koreacw/kwkia_menu.html. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  11. ^ "The UK & Korea, Defence Relations". Office of the Defence Attache, British Embassy, Seoul. http://www.britishembassy.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1101397831756. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  12. ^ a b c Hickey, Michael. "The Korean War: An Overview". http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/korea_hickey_04.shtml. Retrieved 2007-08-16. 
  13. ^ "The Turks in the Korean War". http://www.korean-war.com/turkey.html. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  14. ^ "Canadians in Korea: Epilogue". Veterans Affairs Canada. 1998-10-06. http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=history/koreawar/valour/epilogue. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  15. ^ "Korean War 1950–53: Epilogue". Australian War Memorial. 2007-10-16. http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/korea.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-12. 
  16. ^ "Departure of the French batallion". French newsreels archives (Les Actualités Françaises). 2003-11-05. http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2eo52_depart-du-bataillon-francais-051119. Retrieved 2007-08-16. 
  17. ^ "Greek Expeditionary Force". Korean War.com. http://www.korean-war.com/greece.html/. 
  18. ^ Oprichting van Nederlands VN-detachement bestemd voor Korea
  19. ^ Belgium United Nations Command
  20. ^ New Zealand in the Korean War
  21. ^ "South Africa in the Korean War". korean-war.com. November 20, 2006. http://www.korean-war.com/soafrica.html. 
  22. ^ Belgium United Nations Command
  23. ^ Xu, Yan. "Korean War: In the View of Cost-effectiveness". Consulate-General of the People's Republic of China in New York. http://www.nyconsulate.prchina.org/eng/xw/t31430.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-16. 
  24. ^ Кривошеев Г. Ф., Россия и СССР в войнах XX века: потери вооруженных сил. Статистическое исследование (Krivosheev G. F., Russia and the USSR in the wars of the 20th century: losses of the Armed Forces. A Statistical Study Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7)(Russian)
  25. ^ "Casualties of Korean War". Ministry of National Defense of Republic of Korea. http://www.withcountry.mil.kr/info/koreanwar/war3/20070214/1_-3722.jsp?menu=menu2. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  26. ^ "Casualties of Korean War". Ministry of National Defense of Republic of Korea. http://www.withcountry.mil.kr/info/koreanwar/war3/20070214/1_-3722.jsp?menu=menu2. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  27. ^ "Casualties of Korean War". Ministry of National Defense of Republic of Korea. http://www.withcountry.mil.kr/info/koreanwar/war3/20070214/1_-3722.jsp?menu=menu2. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  28. ^ "Casualties of Korean War". Ministry of National Defense of Republic of Korea. http://www.withcountry.mil.kr/info/koreanwar/war3/20070214/1_-3722.jsp?menu=menu2. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  29. ^ "Casualties of Korean War". Ministry of National Defense of Republic of Korea. http://www.withcountry.mil.kr/info/koreanwar/war3/20070214/1_-3722.jsp?menu=menu2. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  30. ^ "Casualties of Korean War". Ministry of National Defense of Republic of Korea. http://www.withcountry.mil.kr/info/koreanwar/war3/20070214/1_-3722.jsp?menu=menu2. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  31. ^ Boose, Donald W (1995–96). Portentous Sideshow: The Korean Occupation Decision. Winter. pp. 112–129. 
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  33. ^ a b Hermes, Jr., Walter (1966). Truce Tent and Fighting Front. Center of Military History. pp. 2, 6–9. http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/korea/truce/fm.htm. 
  34. ^ "Remembering the Forgotten War: Korea, 1950–1953". Naval Historical Center. http://www.history.navy.mil/ac/korea/korea1.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-16. 
  35. ^ Halberstam, David (2007). The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War. New York: Disney Hyperion. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4013-0052-4. "Over half a century later, the war still remained largely outside American political and cultural consciousness. The Forgotten War was the apt title of one of the bestbooks on it. Korea was a war that sometimes seemed to have been orphaned by history." 
  36. ^ "War to Resist U. S. Aggression and Aid Korea Commemorated in Henan". China Radio International. 2008-10-25. http://english.cri.cn/2946/2008/10/25/195s417906.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  37. ^ "War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea Marked in DPRK". Xinhua. 2000-10-26. http://www.china.org.cn/e-America/actives/dprk.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
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  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn Stokesbury, James L (1990). A Short History of the Korean War. New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0688095135. 
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    • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ China’s Conflict Behavior in Korea Revisited: Implications for East Asian Security.” International Journal of Korean Studies 3:1 (Spring-Summer 2001): 71-96.
    • Korean History Bibliography: The Korean War 28 January 2010 0:14 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .http://www.isop.ucla.edu/eas/documents/kore1910.htm.^ Cosmeticsfraq says: February 24th, 2009 at 2:08 pm makeup [url=http://www.inet-shops.com/cosmetics.htm]cosmetics[/url] .
    • Scrapbook.fi 12 October 2009 10:17 UTC scrapbook.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2007-08-19
    .
     
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