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Korean independence movement
Hangul 항일운동, 독립운동
Hanja 抗日運動, 獨立運動
Revised Romanization Hangilundong, Dongnipundong
McCune–Reischauer Hangilundong, Tongnipundong
Korea unified vertical.svgHistory of Korea

Prehistory
 Jeulmun period
 Mumun period
Gojoseon 2333–108 BC
 Jin state
Proto-Three Kingdoms: 108–57 BC
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan: Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms: 57 BC – 668 AD
 Goguryeo 37 BC – 668 AD
 Baekje 18 BC – 660 AD
 Silla 57 BC – 935 AD
 Gaya 42–562
North-South States: 698–935
 Unified Silla 668–935
 Balhae 698–926
 Later Three Kingdoms 892–935
  Later Goguryeo, Later Baekje, Silla
Goryeo Dynasty 918–1392
Joseon Dynasty 1392–1897
Korean Empire 1897–1910
Japanese rule 1910–1945
 Provisional Gov't 1919–1948
Division of Korea 1945–1948
North, South Korea 1948–present
 Korean War 1950–1953

Korea Portal

The Korean independence movement grew out of the Japanese colonial rule of Korea from 1910-1945.

Contents

Background

During the nearly five centuries of the Joseon dynasty, Korea kept its independence through careful diplomacy with China. Joseon scholars, because of their belief in Confucianism and the idea of China as the "Big Brother", paid tribute to China to effectively prevent conflicts.

In the late nineteenth century, Joseon became vulnerable to Japan's expansionism, resulting in the Eulsa Annexation Treaty. In 1910, Japan annexed Korea, leading to a Korean independence movement that culminated in a Korean Declaration of Independence during March 1 Movement. In large part the declaration was stimulated by the statements of American President Woodrow Wilson on self-determination at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919, at which he began: "A new era, wakes before our eyes, the old world of force is gone, and the new world of righteousness and truth is here."

Ideologies and Concerns

Although there were many separate movements within the Korean Independence Movement with grievances against Japan, the main ideology or purpose of the movement was to gain Korean independence from Japanese rule. Korea was concerned with alien domination and Korea’s state as a colony. Korea desired to become an independent sovereign political state. During the movement, the rest of the world viewed Korea’s Independence movement as a racial anti-imperialist, anti-militarist rebellion, and an anti-Japanese resistance movement. [1]Korea on the other had believed itself to be a movement to preserve culture and language. Education was a key concern in the movement. It was high priority to teach Korean students in Universities, in Korea or Japan, about the importance of culture, language, and heritage. Korean’s nationalism and patriotism were prevalent throughout the Korean Independence Movement. [2]

Tactics

There was no main strategy or tactic that was prevalent throughout the entire independent movement, but there were prominent stages where certain tactics or strategies were prominent throughout the Korean Independence Movement. [3] From 1905 to 1910, most of the movement’s activities were closed off to the elite class or rare scholar. During this time period, militaristic and violent attempts were taken to resist the Japanese and most of the attempts were not organized, scattered, and leaderless to prevent arrests and surveillance by Japan. From 1910 to 1919, was the time of education for the Korean colony. During this time was when many Korean textbooks on grammar and spelling were circulated in schools. It started the trend of Intellectual resistance to the Japanese rule. This educating time period along with Woodrow Wilson’s libertarian principles, created an aware, nationalist, and eager student population. [4] After the March 1st movement of 1919, strikes became prominent in the Korean Independence Movement. Up to 1945, Universities were used as a haven and source of students who further supported the independence movement. This support system in schools led to the improvement of school facilities in Korea. From 1911 to 1937, Korea was dealing with economic problems along with the rest of the world, which was going through the Great Depression after World War 1. There were many labor complaints that contributed to the grievances against Japan’s colonial rule. During this time period, there were 159,061 disputes with workers concerned with wages and 1018 disputes involving 68,686 farmers in a tenant position. 1926, is when the disputes started to increase at a fast pace and movements concerning labor emerged more within the Independence Movement. [5]

Types of movements

There were broadly three kinds of national liberation groups: (a) the religious groups which grew out of the Confucianist and Christian communities; (b) the former military and the irregular army groups; and (c) business and intellectual expatriates who formed the theoretical and political framework abroad.

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Religious groups

Catholicism had been introduced to Korea towards the end of the 18th century and faced intense persecution.[6]. Methodist and Presbyterian missionaries followed in the 19th century starting off a renaissance with more liberal thoughts on issues of equality and woman's rights, which the strict Confucian tradition would not permit[7].

The early Korean Christian missionaries both led the Korean independence from 1890 through 1907, and later the creation of a Korean liberation movement from 1907 to 1945[8]. Korean Christians suffered martyrdoms, crucifixions, burnings to death, police interrogations and massacres by the Japanese.

Amongst the major religious nationalist groups were:

Military groups

19th and 20th century righteous armies.
Korean Liberation Army.

Amongst the major military nationalist groups were:

  • Donghak Peasant Revolution Groups were spontaneous countryside uprisings, originally against corruption in the late Joseon dynasty, and later, against Japanese confiscation of land.
  • Righteous army Small ad hoc armies that fought Japanese military police, cavalry and infantry most intensely from 1907-1918, but which carried on till the end of World War II.
  • Korea Independence Army
  • Korea Revolution Army
  • Korea Volunteer Corps
  • Korean Liberation Army The Armed Forces of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, took part in allied action in China and parts of South East Asia such as Burma.
  • Korean Peoples Revolutionary Army A politically Socialist group which was largely active in Manchuria and China.
  • Greater Korea Liberation Corps The result of regrouping dozens of smaller independent armies. Largely active in Siberia, Irkutsk and Manchuria, led by General Yi Dong-whi.
  • Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army in Manchuria (the North-East region of China) occupied by Japan was organized by the Manchuria Branch of the Communist Party of China. It had some 45,000 partisans at its peak in late-1930's. Many ethnic Koreans participated this army and used Chinese Manchuria as a place to fight Japan. Kim Il Sung was commander of the 6th Division, 2nd Army, and 1st Route Army, Chu Chin was commander of the 2nd Army when he was killed by a traitor. Choe Hyon commanded the 4th Division of the same Army. The 7th Army of the 2nd Route Army was commanded by Yi Hak Man and Choe Yong Gun (later to become Defense Minister of North Korea). Kim Chaek was political commissar of the 3rd Army of the 3rd Route Army.
  • Korean Patriotic Legion

Supporters of these groups included French, Czech, Chinese and Russian arms merchants, as well as Chinese nationalist movements.

Expatriate groups

Expatriate liberation groups were active in Shanghai, Manchuria, parts of Russia, Hawaii, and San Francisco. Groups were even organised in areas without many expatriate Koreans, such as the one established in 1906 in Colorado by Park Hee Byung.[9] The culmination of expatriate success was the Shanghai declaration of independence.

  • Korean National Army Corps- founded in June 1914. (Hawaii)
  • The Korean National Association
  • Heungsadan
  • Korean Youth Army
  • Korean Liberation League

Sun Yat-Sen was an early supporter of Korean struggles against Japanese invaders. By 1925, Korean expatriates began to cultivate two-pronged support in Shanghai: from Chiang Kai-Shek's Kuomintang, and from early communist supporters, who later branched into the Communist Party of China.

Little real support came through, but that which did developed long standing relationships that contributed to the dividing of Korea after 1949, and the polar positions between south and north.

Royalist influence

The constant infighting within the Yi family, the nobles, the confiscation of royal assets, the disbanding of the royal army by the Japanese, the execution of seniors within Korea by Japan, and comprehensive assassinations of Korean royalty by Japanese mercenaries, led to great difficulties in royal descendants and their family groups in finding anything but a partial leadership within the liberation movement. A good many of the Righteous army commanders were linked to the family but these generals and their Righteous army groups were largely eliminated by 1918; and cadet members of the families contributed towards establishing both republics post-1945.

Leaders of the movements

Before annexation to Japan

Provisional Government

Edification movement leaders

  • Ahn Chang Ho
  • Jo Man-sik
  • Yi Sang-jae
  • Yi Sang-seol
  • Jeong Jong-myeong
  • Han Gyu-seol

Patriotic assassins

Military leaders

Religion/Student leaders

Historians

Poets

Communist leaders

Foreign supporters

References

  1. ^ Template:Cite book=Korea Under Japanese Colonial Rule
  2. ^ Template:Cite book=Korea Under Japanese Colonial Rule
  3. ^ {{cite book=Korea’s Response to Japan| eds=C. I. Eugene Kim |Publisher=The center of Korean Studies Western Michigan University| year=1977]
  4. ^ Template:Cite book=Korea Under Japanese Colonial Rule
  5. ^ Template:Cite book=Korea Under Japanese Colonial Rule
  6. ^ "Catholicism in Korea". Tour2KOrea.com. http://english.tour2korea.com/03Sightseeing/TravelSpot/travelspot_read.asp?oid=3267&kosm=m3_8. Retrieved 2007-09-20.  
  7. ^ "Protestantism in Korea". Tour2KOrea.com. http://english.tour2korea.com/02Culture/ReligionBeliefs/protestanism.asp?kosm=m2_4&konum=2. Retrieved 2007-09-20.  
  8. ^ (Korean)"March 1st Independence Struggle". asianinfo.org. http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/korea/history/march_1st_independence_struggle.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-20.  
  9. ^ Nam, Gi-tae (2007-10-15). "덴버광역한인회-박희병 지사 묘비 제막식 (Denver metropolitan area Korean association holds grave unveiling ceremony for Bak Hui-byeong)" (in Korean). Korea Daily. http://denver.koreadaily.com/Asp/Article.asp?sv=denver&src=metr&cont=202&typ=1&aid=20071015135730200201. Retrieved 2007-11-28.  

See also


Korean independence movement
Hangul 항일운동, 독립운동
Hanja 抗日運動, 獨立運動
Revised Romanization Hangil Undong, Dongnip Undong
McCune–Reischauer Hangil Undong, Tongnip Undong
History of Korea
File:Korea-Gyeongju-Bulguksa-33.jpg
This article is part of a series
Prehistory
Jeulmun period
Mumun period
Gojoseon 2333–108 BCE
Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms 108–57 BCE
Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
Samhan: Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms 57 BCE – 668 CE
Goguryeo 37 BCE – 668 CE
Baekje 18 BCE – 660 CE
Silla 57 BCE – 935 CE
Gaya 42–562
North-South States 698–935
Unified Silla 668 – 935 CE
Balhae 698–926
Later Three Kingdoms 892–935
Taebong, Hubaekje, Silla
Goryeo Dynasty 918–1392
Joseon Dynasty 1392–1897
Korean Empire 1897–1910
Japanese occupation 1910–1945
Provisional Gov't 1919–1948
Division of Korea 1945–1948
North, South Korea 1948–present
Korean War 1950–1953
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Linguistic history
Science and technology history
Art history
Military history
Naval history

Korea Portal

 v • d • e 

The Korean resistance movement grew out of the Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula from 1910-1945. After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan surrendered on August 15 and Korea became independent; that day is now an annual holiday called Gwangbokjeol in South Korea and Chogukhaebangŭi nal in North Korea.

Contents

Background

During the nearly five centuries of the Joseon dynasty, the Korean Empire kept its independence through careful diplomacy with China. Joseon scholars, because of their belief in Confucianism and the idea of China as the "Big Brother", paid tribute to China to effectively prevent conflicts.

In the late nineteenth century, Joseon became vulnerable to Japan's expansionism, resulting in the illegitimate[citation needed] Eulsa Annexation Treaty devised by the Japanese. In 1910, Japan invaded the Korean Empire, leading to a Korean resistance movement that culminated in the nationwide March 1 Movement. In large part the movement was stimulated by the statements of American President Woodrow Wilson on self-determination at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919, at which he began: "A new era, wakes before our eyes, the old world of force is gone, and the new world of righteousness and truth is here."

Ideologies and Concerns

Although there were many separate movements against Japanese colonial rule, the main ideology or purpose of the movement was to free Korea from the Japanese military rule. Korea was concerned with alien domination and Korea’s state as a colony. Korea desired to become an independent sovereign political state after Japan invaded the weakened Korean Empire with little military resistance, resulting from Japan's unscrupulous political maneuvers to invade Korea by manipulating international community to legitimize a false annexation treaty signed under military coercion. During the movement, the rest of the world naively viewed Korea's resistance movement as a racial anti-imperialist, anti-militarist rebellion, and an anti-Japanese resistance movement.[1] Korea, however, rightfully saw the movement as a step to free the Korean Empire from the Japanese military rule.[1]

Tactics

There was no main strategy or tactic that was prevalent throughout the entire resistance movement, but there were prominent stages where certain tactics or strategies were prominent throughout the Korean Independence Movement.[2] From 1905 to 1910, most of the movement’s activities were closed off to the elite class or rare scholar. During this time period, militaristic and violent attempts were taken to resist the Japanese and most of the attempts were not organized, scattered, and leaderless to prevent arrests and surveillance by Japan. From 1910 to 1919, was the time of education for the Korean colony. During this time was when many Korean textbooks on grammar and spelling were circulated in schools. It started the trend of Intellectual resistance to the Japanese rule. This educating time period along with Woodrow Wilson’s progressive principles, created an aware, nationalist, and eager student population.[1] After the March 1st movement of 1919, strikes became prominent in the Korean Independence Movement. Up to 1945, Universities were used as a haven and source of students who further supported the independence movement. This support system in schools led to the improvement of school facilities in Korea. From 1911 to 1937, Korea was dealing with economic problems along with the rest of the world, which was going through the Great Depression after World War 1. There were many labor complaints that contributed to the grievances against Japan’s colonial rule. During this time period, there were 159,061 disputes with workers concerned with wages and 1018 disputes involving 68,686 farmers in a tenant position. 1926, is when the disputes started to increase at a fast pace and movements concerning labor emerged more within the Independence Movement.[1]

Types of movements

There were broadly three kinds of national liberation groups: (a) the religious groups which grew out of the Confucianist and Christian communities; (b) the former military and the irregular army groups; and (c) business and intellectual expatriates who formed the theoretical and political framework abroad.

Religious groups

Catholicism had been introduced to Korea towards the end of the 18th century and faced intense persecution.[3]. Methodist and Presbyterian missionaries followed in the 19th century starting off a renaissance with more liberal thoughts on issues of equality and woman's rights, which the strict Confucian tradition would not permit[4].

The early Korean Christian missionaries both led the Korean independence from 1890 through 1907, and later the creation of a Korean liberation movement from 1907 to 1945[5]. Korean Christians suffered martyrdoms, crucifixions, burnings to death, police interrogations and massacres by the Japanese[citation needed].

Amongst the major religious nationalist groups were:

Military groups

Amongst the major military nationalist groups were:

  • Donghak Peasant Revolution Groups were spontaneous countryside uprisings, originally against corruption in the late Joseon dynasty, and later, against Japanese confiscation of land.
  • Righteous army Small ad hoc armies that fought Japanese military police, cavalry and infantry most intensely from 1907–1918, but which carried on till the end of World War II.
  • Greater Korea Independence Army (대한독립군, 大韓獨立軍)
  • Northern Military Administration Office Army (북로군정서, 北路軍政署)
  • Greater Korea Independence Corps (대한독립군단, 大韓獨立軍團)
  • Korea Revolution Army (조선혁명군, 朝鮮革命軍)
  • Korea Independence Army (한국독립군, 韓國獨立軍)
  • Korean Volunteer Corps (조선의용대, 朝鮮義勇隊)
  • Korean Volunteer Army (조선의용군, 朝鮮義勇軍)
  • Korean Liberation Army The Armed Forces of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, took part in allied action in China and parts of South East Asia such as Burma.
  • Korean Patriotic Legion (한인애국단, 韓人愛國團)
  • Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army

Supporters of these groups included French, Czech, Chinese and Russian arms merchants, as well as Chinese nationalist movements.

Expatriate groups

Expatriate liberation groups were active in Shanghai, Manchuria, parts of Russia, Hawaii, and San Francisco.[citation needed] Groups were even organised in areas without many expatriate Koreans, such as the one established in 1906 in Colorado by Park Hee Byung.[6] The culmination of expatriate success was the Shanghai declaration of independence.

  • Korean National Army Corps (국민군단, 國民軍團), founded in June 1914. (Hawaii)[citation needed]
  • Korean National Association
  • Heungsadan
  • Korean Youth Army
  • Korean Liberation League

Sun Yat-Sen was an early supporter of Korean struggles against Japanese invaders. By 1925, Korean expatriates began to cultivate two-pronged support in Shanghai: from Chiang Kai-Shek's Kuomintang, and from early communist supporters, who later branched into the Communist Party of China.

Little real support came through, but that which did developed long standing relationships that contributed to the dividing of Korea after 1949, and the polar positions between south and north.

Royalist influence

The constant infighting within the Yi family, the nobles, the confiscation of royal assets, the disbanding of the royal army by the Japanese, the execution of seniors within Korea by Japan, and comprehensive assassinations of Korean royalty by Japanese mercenaries, led to great difficulties in royal descendants and their family groups in finding anything but a partial leadership within the liberation movement. A good many of the Righteous army commanders were linked to the family but these generals and their Righteous army groups were largely eliminated by 1918; and cadet members of the families contributed towards establishing both republics post-1945.

Leaders of the movements

Before annexation to Japan

Provisional Government

Edification movement leaders

  • Ahn Chang Ho
  • Jo Man-sik
  • Yi Sang-jae
  • Yi Sang-seol
  • Jeong Jong-myeong
  • Han Gyu-seol

Patriotic assassins

Military leaders

Religion/Student leaders

Historians

Poets

Communist leaders

Foreign supporters

References

See also


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