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.This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language.^ Facts about the Korean language .
  • Learn Korean | Korean language course | Tailor made Korean lessons 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

^ This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ An introduction to the Korean spoken language (1914) .
  • Internet Archive: Free Download: An introduction to the Korean spoken language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: General]

See Hangul for details on the native Korean writing system.
Korean
한국어, 조선말
Hangugeo, Chosŏnmal
Hangugeo, Chosŏneo (Korean) written in Hangul, Chosŏn'gŭl
Hangugeo-Chosono.png
Spoken in South Korea, North Korea, People's Republic of China
Total speakers 66 million[1]
Ranking 13
Language family Debated (see the classification)
Writing system Exclusive use of Hangul (Both Koreas), mix of Hangul and hanja (some professional scripts in S. Korea), or Cyrillic alphabet (lesser used in Goryeomal)
Official status
Official language in  North Korea
 South Korea
Yanbian ( People's Republic of China)
Regulated by South Korea:
The National Institute of the Korean Language
국립국어원
North Korea:
Sahoe Kwahagwon Ŏhak Yŏnguso
사회과학원 어학연구소
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ko
ISO 639-2 kor
ISO 639-3 kor
Countries with native Korean-speaking populations
.This article contains Korean text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hangul or hanja.^ Sample text in Korean (hangeul and hanja) .
  • Korean alphabet, pronunciation and language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.omniglot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean lessons wherever you may be.
  • korean lessons | Free Language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC freelanguage.org [Source type: General]
  • korean | Free Language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC freelanguage.org [Source type: General]

^ Other titles you may be interested in .
  • Audio40-Minute Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.froschweb.com [Source type: General]
  • Pimsleur Korean I Part 1 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.euroguide.org [Source type: General]

.Korean (한국어/조선말, see below) is the official language of Korea, both South and North.^ Korean is the official language of North Korea and South Korea.
  • Korean Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Korean language is the official language of both North and South Korea.
  • Korean Translation � English to Korean Translation Services � Professional Korean Translation 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.executivelinguist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean (, see below) is the official language of Korea, both South and North.
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in China.^ What if your the one in korean language?
  • WikiAnswers - How do you say love in korean language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The language is also one of the two official languages (the other is Standard Mandarin ) in neighbouring Yanbian , China .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in China.
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.There are about 66 million Korean speakers.^ There are about 78 million Korean speakers.
  • Atlanta Korean Classes | inlingua Korean Lessons 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.inlinguase.com [Source type: General]
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ There are approximately 80 million Korean speakers , with large groups in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Japan and the United States.
  • Learn Korean and speak Korean Language with L-Ceps Korean Language Learning Software and Free Lessons 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.l-ceps.com [Source type: General]

^ There are more than 2 million speakers in China, more than 700,000 in the United States , and somewhat fewer in Japan.
  • Korean language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Korean language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC concise.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[2] .In the 15th century a national writing system was commissioned by Sejong the Great, the system being currently called Hangul.^ Hunminjeongeum is what Hangul was first called in the 15th century.
  • Can Korean scholars save a language? | GlobalPost 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.globalpost.com [Source type: News]

^ In the 15th century a national writing system was commissioned by Sejong the Great, currently called Hangul.
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1446 King Sejong, proclaimed a 28 letter writing system called Hangul.
  • On Learning the Korean Language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.escapeartist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior to the development of Hangul, Koreans used Hanja (Chinese characters) to write for over a millennium.^ We also offer a Korean dictionary which uses the Hangul writing system.
  • Korean (romanized) English dictionary and English Korean dictionary - FREELANG 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.freelang.net [Source type: General]

^ Chinese characters were used in the South, only the Korean alphabet was used in the North.

^ Hanzi, or Chinese characters, were developed in China.
  • Language issues | Yen Plus Info 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC yenplus.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The genealogical classification of the Korean language is debated by some linguists.^ The genealogical classification of the Korean language is debated.
  • Korean (romanized) English dictionary and English Korean dictionary - FREELANG 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.freelang.net [Source type: General]
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ There is also some argument that Korean is related to the Japanese language but this remains contested.
  • Learn Korean | Korean language course | Tailor made Korean lessons 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

^ How-To & Education Website about Learning Korean agglutinative language alveolo-palatal easy way to speak in korean ebook learning korean genealogical classification of the kore...
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Most classify it as a language isolate[3] while a few consider it to be in the Altaic language family.^ They are sometimes classified as Altaic language family but mostly considered as language isolate.
  • Korean and Japanese language? | Antimoon Forum 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.antimoon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many linguists place it in the Altaic language family; some others consider it to be a language isolate .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are they Altaic language or language isolate?
  • Korean and Japanese language? | Antimoon Forum 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.antimoon.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Some believe it to be distantly related to Japanese-Ryukyuan.^ Some believe it to be distantly related to Japanese.
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It is also considered likely that Korean is related in some way to Japanese .
  • Korean (romanized) English dictionary and English Korean dictionary - FREELANG 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.freelang.net [Source type: General]

^ There is also some argument that Korean is related to the Japanese language but this remains contested.
  • Learn Korean | Korean language course | Tailor made Korean lessons 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

.The Korean language is agglutinative in its morphology and SOV in its syntax.^ Due to the agglutinative nature of the Korean language, it is not simple to categorize its part of speech.
  • LINGUIST List 12.484: Sohn, The Korean Language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC linguistlist.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Grammar - Verb/Tense: Korean is an agglutinative language.
  • Korean Translation | McElroy Translation Company 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.mcelroytranslation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Korean and Altaic languages share SOV word order as well as a large number of other syntactic features.
  • Korean Sketch 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Names

.The Korean names for the language are based on the names for Korea used in North and South Korea.^ Korean Americans' language use.

^ Korean is the official language of North Korea and South Korea.
  • Korean Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In South Korea hanja are used to some extent in Korean texts.
  • Korean alphabet, pronunciation and language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.omniglot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In South Korea, the language is most often called Hangungmal (한국말; 韓國말), or more formally, Hangugeo (한국어; 韓國語) or Gugeo (국어; 國語; literally "national language").^ In the Republic of Korea, the language is most often called 한국말 (韓國말, Han-gung-mal ), or more formally, 한국어 (韓國語, Han-gug-eo ) or 국어 (國語 Gug-eo ; literally "national language").
  • Talk:Korean - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am a language instructor in South Korea.
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In North Korea and Yanbian, the language is most often called 조선말 (朝鮮말, Chosŏnmal ), or more formally, 조선어 (朝鮮語, Chosŏnŏ ).
  • Talk:Korean - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In North Korea and Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in China, the language is most often called Chosŏnmal (조선말; with hanja: 朝鮮말), or more formally, Chosŏnŏ (조선어; 朝鮮語).^ Korean is the official language of North Korea and South Korea.
  • Korean Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In North Korea and Yanbian in China, the language is most often called Chosŏnmal (; with Hanja :), or more formally, Chosŏnŏ (; ).
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The North Korean language is a relic.
  • Sixty Years After Division, Korean Language Has Gone in Separate Directions | News | English 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www1.voanews.com [Source type: News]

.On the other hand, Korean people in the former USSR, who refer to themselves as Koryo-saram (고려사람; also Goryeoin [고려인; 高麗人; literally, "Goryeo person(s)"]) call the language Goryeomal (고려말; 高麗말).^ The origin of the Korean language is as obscure as the origins of the Korean people.
  • Korean Language (Script, Orthography, Phonology, Korean Alphabet,Romanization, Vocabulary) 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.asianinfo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Corporate > Other languages > Korean .
  • Korean language home page 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.ato.gov.au [Source type: General]

^ Meetup with others in your area who are also interested in the Korean language?
  • Korean Language Meetup Groups - Korean Language Meetups 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC korean.meetup.com [Source type: General]

.In mainland China, following the establishment of diplomatic relations with South Korea in 1992, the term Cháoxiǎnyǔ (朝鲜语 or the short form: Cháoyǔ (朝语)) has normally been used to refer to the language spoken in North Korea and Yanbian, while Hánguóyǔ (韩国语 or the short form: Hányǔ (韩语)) is used to refer to the language spoken in South Korea.^ Korean is the official language of North Korea and South Korea.
  • Korean Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Korea and 22 millions in North Korea.

^ Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea.
  • Korean Translation Services | Free Korean Translation Quotation 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.qwertyword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some older English sources also used the name "Korean" to refer to the language, country, and people.^ Korean Americans' language use.

^ The origin of the Korean language is as obscure as the origins of the Korean people.
  • Korean Language (Script, Orthography, Phonology, Korean Alphabet,Romanization, Vocabulary) 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.asianinfo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Vista - Changing language [Korean to English] .
  • Changing language [Korean to English] - Vista Forums 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.vistax64.com [Source type: Original source]

.The word "Korean" is derived from Goryeo, which is thought to be the first dynasty known to western countries.^ In the 19th century when Western scholars "discovered" the Korean language, from what family of languages the Korean language derived was one of the first questions posed about the language.
  • Korean Language (Script, Orthography, Phonology, Korean Alphabet,Romanization, Vocabulary) 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.asianinfo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Chinese script was used by the intelligentsia of the country, but being of foreign origin, it could not fully express the words and meaning of Korean thoughts and spoken language.
  • Welcome to the Korean Cultural Service 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.koreanculture.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's very funny how some Koreans are now trying to rid their language of words that others of them imported into it in the first place.
  • Brian in Jeollanam-do: Korean language evolves into Konglish? 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC briandeutsch.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

Classification

.Most modern linguists consider Korean to be a language isolate.^ However, this is debated and some consider Korean a language isolate .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean language is simple and comprehensive, and is considered one of the most scientific writing systems in the world.
  • Learn Korean Language :The Official Korea Tourism Guide Site 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC english.visitkorea.or.kr [Source type: General]

^ Korean is a very difficult language - one of the most difficult there is.

[5]
.Since the publication of the article of Ramstedt in 1928, some linguists[6] support the hypothesis that Korean can be classified as an Altaic language or as a relative of proto-Altaic.^ It is thought by some scholars to be akin to Japanese, by others to be a member of the Altaic subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages, and by still others to be unrelated to any known language.

^ It is also considered likely that Korean is related in some way to Japanese, since the two languages have nearly identical grammatical structures, and share a number of possible phonological cognates.
  • Korean Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Altaic hypothesis, the Koreans and Japanese were Altaic people who migrated to Korea and Japan with basic elements of their language (p.18-23).
  • LINGUIST List 12.484: Sohn, The Korean Language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC linguistlist.org [Source type: Academic]

.Korean is similar to the Altaic languages in that they both lack certain grammatical elements, including articles, fusional morphology and relative pronouns.^ One of the characteristics of the relative clause in Korean is that it lacks relative pronouns.

^ Korean is similar to the Altaic languages with respect to the absence of grammatical elements such as number, genders, articles, fusional morphology, voice, relative pronouns and conjunctions .

^ Are they Altaic language or language isolate?
  • Korean and Japanese language? | Antimoon Forum 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.antimoon.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, linguists agree today on the fact that typological resemblances cannot be used to prove genetic relatedness of languages[7] as these features are typologically connected and easily borrowed.^ But if you use these simple memory exercises/techniques you could be start learning a new language in no time.

^ Although disputed by some scholars, the genetic classification of Korean into the Altaic language family appears to have a somewhat convincing linguistic base.
  • Korean Sketch 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its friendly multilingual interface even lets you navigate its easy to use features in any one of 5 languages.
  • Korean-English-Korean dictionary software. Korean language translation software for PDA and Windows. ECTACO & Lingvosoft 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.ectaco.translation.net [Source type: General]

[8] .Such factors of typological divergence as Middle Mongolian's exhibition of gender agreement[9] can be used to argue that a genetic relationship is unlikely.^ Asian languages ( in Asia: Languages ) relationship to Japanese language ( in Japanese language: Hypotheses of genetic affiliation ) significance to Korean literature ( in Korean literature ) use in South Korea ( in South Korea: Languages ) Other .
  • Korean language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Korean language :: Related Articles -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Korean language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC concise.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[10]
.The hypothesis that Korean might be related to Japanese has had some more supporters due to some considerable overlap in vocabulary and similar grammatical features that have been elaborated upon by such researchers as Samuel E. Martin[11] and Roy Andrew Miller.^ Some believe it to be distantly related to Japanese.
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Grammatically Korean is very similar to Japanese and about 70% of its vocabulary comes from Chinese.
  • Korean alphabet, pronunciation and language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.omniglot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And how Korean and Japanese are related to each other?
  • Korean and Japanese language? | Antimoon Forum 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.antimoon.com [Source type: Original source]

[12] .Sergei Starostin (1991) found about 25% of potential cognates in the Japanese-Korean 100-word Swadesh list, which, if true, would place these two languages closer together than other possible members of the Altaic family.^ Some other words that have made it into the Korean language...
  • Brian in Jeollanam-do: Korean language evolves into Konglish? 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC briandeutsch.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Re: Korean and Japanese language?
  • Korean and Japanese language? | Antimoon Forum 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.antimoon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Koreans and the other Japanese.

[13]
.Other linguists, most notably Alexander Vovin, argue, however, that the similarities are not due to any genetic relationship, but rather to a sprachbund effect and heavy borrowing especially from Korean into Western Old Japanese.^ Korean's linguistic affiliation is uncertain, though in its grammatical structure it is most similar to Japanese.
  • Learn Korean, Korean Windows, Korean Office, Korean Software, Korean Dictionary, Korean Translation, Korean Keyboards, Korean Tutorials, Korean Phrase Books, Korean Spell Checking 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.worldlanguage.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, I will limit the discussion in certain sections and focus more attention on areas that I found most interesting: Korean's genetic relationship, its orthography, and some aspects of its morphology and syntax.
  • Korean Sketch 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Altaic, Korean and Japanese not only exhibit similarities in their general structure, but also share common features such as vowel harmony and lack of conjunctions, although the vowel harmony in old Japanese has been the object of dispute among specialists in the field.
  • Korean Language (Script, Orthography, Phonology, Korean Alphabet,Romanization, Vocabulary) 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.asianinfo.org [Source type: Reference]

[14] .A good example might be Middle Korean sàm < Proto-Korean *asam ‘hemp’ and Japanese asa ‘hemp’.^ For example, the pronunciation of the word 'cement' was changed from the Japanese style of pronunciation, sement'o , to a pronunciation more similar to Korean pronunciation of the original word, shiment'u (136).
  • Language Purism in Korea 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, they wouldn't normally say, '아이스크림', they would just say 'bingqilin' (冰淇淋) in the middle of a Korean sentence.
  • Korean language profile adjustments (Collaborative writing) Language Learning Forum 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.how-to-learn-any-language.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Example: the word 김밥 (Korean seaweed roll, variation of Japanese sushi roll) is made up of two words, 김 (“laver”, a type of seaweed) and 밥 (“steamed rice”).
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .This word seems to be cognate, but while it is well-attested in Western Old Japanese and Northern Ryūkyū, in Eastern Old Japanese it only occurs in compounds, and it is only present in three subdialects of the South-Ryūkyūan dialect group.^ Korean was originally written in Chinese characters, referred to as Hanja but this practice has been abolished in North Korea while in South Korea, it is only occasionally used to write Sino-Korean words.
  • Learn Korean | Korean language course | Tailor made Korean lessons 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

^ Heavily influenced by Chinese and with grammar similar to Japanese, the language varies fairly widely not only between North and South, but also from region to region.

^ The more difficult aspect is that unless you know Chinese or Japanese, the non-borrowed Korean words will seem long and unrelated to other languages.

Then, the doublet wo ‘hemp’ is attested in Western Old Japanese and Southern Ryūkyū. It is thus plausible to assume a borrowed term.[16] .See East Asian languages for morphological features shared among languages of the East Asian sprachbund, and Classification of Japanese for further details on the discussion of a possible relationship.^ See the discussion at Template talk:Altaic languages#Japanese and Korean .
  • Talk:Korean - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Vancouver Japanese Language Meetup Group To share cultures, music and experience.
  • Japanese Language and Culture Meetup Groups - Japanese Language and Culture Meetups 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC japanese.meetup.com [Source type: General]

^ Reviews By one of the leading scholars of East Asian languages, this is the first comprehensive book on Korean grammar in...
  • Free Korean Language Download - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

History

.Korean is descended from Old Korean, Middle Korean and Modern Korean.^ Based on the written documents, the author discusses the evolution of Korean through successive stages: prehistoric times, Old Korean, Middle Korean, Modern and Contemporary Korean.
  • LINGUIST List 12.484: Sohn, The Korean Language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC linguistlist.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The "tense" consonants of modern Korean are derived from Middle Korean consonant clusters, which were written as such: by squeezing consonant letters together into things like ᇏ, ᇓ or ㅵ.
  • Language Log » The Hangeul Alphabet Moves beyond the Korean Peninsula 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (You're right that it doesn't include all possible combinations of all Jamo, just those which exists as beginnings or middles or endings in modern Korean.
  • Language Log » Agbègbè ìpàkíyèsí 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Controversy remains over the proposed Altaic language family and its inclusion of Proto-Korean.^ Korean remains unclassified as a language.
  • Learn Korean | Korean language course | Tailor made Korean lessons 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

^ It is thought by some scholars to be akin to Japanese, by others to be a member of the Altaic subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages, and by still others to be unrelated to any known language.

^ According to the Altaic hypothesis, the Koreans and Japanese were Altaic people who migrated to Korea and Japan with basic elements of their language (p.18-23).
  • LINGUIST List 12.484: Sohn, The Korean Language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC linguistlist.org [Source type: Academic]

.Since the Korean War, contemporary North-South differences in Korean have developed, including variance in pronunciation, verb inflection, and vocabulary.^ The Korean language used in the North and the South exhibits differences in pronunciation, spelling, grammar and vocabulary.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some words are spelt differently by the North and the South, but the pronunciations are the same.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some vocabulary is different between the North and the South: .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geographic distribution

.Korean is spoken by the Korean people in North Korea and South Korea and by the Korean diaspora in many countries including the People's Republic of China, Japan, and the United States.^ The Korean tongue is spoken by about 68 million people in Korea (45 million in South Korea and 23 million in North Korea) and by nearly 1 million others in Japan.

^ South Korea and 22 millions in North Korea.

^ Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea.
  • Learn Korean | Korean language course | Tailor made Korean lessons 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

.Korean-speaking minorities exist in these states, but because of cultural assimilation into host countries, not all ethnic Korean immigrants may speak it with native fluency.^ Dont make me laugh, internet warriors exist in all countries.
  • Legendary Chinese Warlord Cao Cao Was Korean | chinaSMACK 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reviews Start speaking Korean the fun and easy way with Korean For Dummies, a no-nonsense guide to Korean culture and the...
  • Free Korean Language Download - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Here is a list of a few Korean Speaking Countries and Capitals MEJ provides professional Certified Korean to English translation service for .
  • Korean Translation Service by MEJ Certified Korean Translators in New York City,NYC, NY,NYS,New Jersey,NJ,to English 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.mejpbs.com [Source type: Reference]

Official status

.Korean is the official language of South Korea and North Korea.^ Korean (, see below) is the official language of Korea, both South and North.
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The North Korean language is a relic.
  • Sixty Years After Division, Korean Language Has Gone in Separate Directions | News | English 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www1.voanews.com [Source type: News]

^ South Korea and 22 millions in North Korea.

.It is also one of the two official languages of the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in China.^ The language is also one of the two official languages (the other is Standard Mandarin ) in neighbouring Yanbian , China .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in China.
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Korean is the official language for both North and South Korea, with around 80 million speakers worldwide.

.In South Korea, the regulatory body for Korean is the Seoul-based National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원), which was created by presidential decree on January 23, 1991. In North Korea, the regulatory body is the Sahoe Kwahagwon Ŏhak Yŏnguso (사회과학원 어학연구소).^ Korean 1 by Language Institute, Seoul National University size: 29.7x21cm 306pages.
  • Korean Language Textbooks 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.hanbooks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Korean 2 (audiotapes) by Language Institute, Seoul National University 2 audiotapes.
  • Korean Language Textbooks 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.hanbooks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Korean (, see below) is the official language of Korea, both South and North.
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Dialects

Dialects of Korean
.Korean has several dialects (called mal [literally "speech"], saturi, or bang-eon in Korean).^ South Korean is again divided into several dialects.
  • Korean language profile adjustments (Collaborative writing) Language Learning Forum 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.how-to-learn-any-language.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Hangeul is flexible; what we might call "standard contemporary" Hangeul is the result of its changing alongside Korean, with several original letters no longer used, and variants readily developed for dialects such as that of Jeju island.
  • Language Log » The Hangeul Alphabet Moves beyond the Korean Peninsula 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Localization As in all languages, Korean has several dialects that sometimes need to be considered.

.The standard language (pyojuneo or pyojunmal) of South Korea is based on the dialect of the area around Seoul, and the standard for North Korea is based on the dialect spoken around P'yŏngyang.^ I am a language instructor in South Korea.
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The Korean names for the language are based on the names for Korea used in North and South Korea.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Standard Language" (p'yojuno) of South Korea is derived from the language spoken in and around Seoul.
  • Korean Language Learning Page -- by Declan Software 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.declan-software.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All dialects of Korean are similar to each other, and are in fact all mutually intelligible, perhaps with the exception of the dialect of Jeju Island (see Jeju dialect).^ These dialects are similar, and in fact all dialects except that of Jeju Island (see Jeju Dialect ) are largely mutually intelligible.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike Chinese, Korean does not encompass dialects that are mutually unintelligible (with the notable exception of the variant spoken on Cheju Island).
  • Korean Language Learning Page -- by Declan Software 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.declan-software.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others believe that Japanese and Korean are related due to their similar grammatic structure; still others believe this is not so, and any similarities are simply due to a sprachbund effect " see here for morphological features shared among languages of the East Asian sprachbund .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dialect spoken in Jeju is in fact classified as a different language by some Korean linguists.^ The dialect spoken there is classified as a different language by some Korean linguists.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While much is known about Middle Korean, the language spoken in the 15th century (when the script was invented), information about the language before that time is limited.
  • Korean language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Korean language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC concise.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A distinctive feature of Korean is the use of a number of different forms to indicate the respective social positions of the speaker, the individual spoken to, and the individual spoken about.
  • Learn Korean - Rosetta Stone Korean Software 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.speakalanguage.com [Source type: General]

.One of the most notable differences between dialects is the use of stress: speakers of Seoul dialect use very little stress, and standard South Korean has a very flat intonation; on the other hand, speakers of the Gyeongsang dialect have a very pronounced intonation.^ One of the most notable differences between dialects is the use of stress: speakers of Seoul dialect use stress very little, and standard South Korean has a very flat intonation; on the other hand, speakers of Gyeongsang dialect have a very pronounced intonation that, to Western ears, often sounds European.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Standard measurement units used in Korea are a little different from those used in other countries.

^ After a combination of a consonant and a vowel, if there is one more consonant attached at the end, the consonant comes in at the very bottom of the already existing square, and the other parts get a little squeezed toward the top to make the entire shape a square again.

.It is also worth noting that there is substantial evidence for a history of extensive dialect levelling, or even convergent evolution or intermixture of two or more originally distinct linguistic stocks, within the Korean language and its dialects.^ The origin of the Korean language is as obscure as the origins of the Korean people.
  • Korean Language (Script, Orthography, Phonology, Korean Alphabet,Romanization, Vocabulary) 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.asianinfo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I won't give Korean English abusers that much credit, or argue that Leamon is anything more significant than a product of someone who doesn't use the language, but it is worth exploring the issue more fully than the article did.
  • Brian in Jeollanam-do: Korean language evolves into Konglish? 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC briandeutsch.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ The 'dialogue' served as a language-policy order for the "refinement of Korean" by deciding how to remove Sino-Korean words in the vocabulary and replace them with more 'pure' Korean words(Song, 209).
  • Language Purism in Korea 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many Korean dialects have basic vocabulary that is etymologically distinct from vocabulary of identical meaning in Standard Korean or other dialects, such as South Jeolla dialect /kur/ vs. Standard Korean /ip/ "mouth" or Gyeongsang dialect /t͡ɕʌŋ.ɡu.d͡ʑi/ vs. Standard Korean /puːt͡ɕʰu/ "garlic chives." This suggests that the Korean Peninsula may have at one time been much more linguistically diverse than it is at present. See also the Buyeo languages hypothesis.
.There is a very close connection between the dialects of Korean and the regions of Korea, since the boundaries of both are largely determined by mountains and seas.^ There is a very close connection between the dialects of Korean and the regions of Korea , since the boundaries of both are largely determined by mountains and seas.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Korean peninsula is situated between China, Russia, and Japan, and due to its location, Korea has interacted with different cultures throughout many millenia.

^ VOCABULARY Vocabulary is quite difficult to acquire for Westerners since there are very few, if any, cognates.
  • Korean language profile adjustments (Collaborative writing) Language Learning Forum 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.how-to-learn-any-language.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Here is a list of traditional dialect names and locations:
Standard dialect Where used
Seoul Seoul (서울), Incheon (인천/仁川), most of Gyeonggi (경기/京畿)
P'yŏngan (평안/平壤) P'yŏngyang, P'yŏngan region, Chagang (North Korea)
Regional dialect Where used
Gyeonggi limited areas of the Gyeonggi region (South Korea)
Chungcheong Daejeon, Chungcheong region (South Korea)
Gangwon Gangwon-do (South Korea)/Kangwŏn (North Korea)
Gyeongsang Busan, Daegu, Ulsan, Gyeongsang region (South Korea)
Hamgyŏng Rasŏn, Hamgyŏng region, Ryanggang (North Korea)
Hwanghae Hwanghae region (North Korea)
Jeju Jeju Island/Province (South Korea)
Jeolla Gwangju, Jeolla region (South Korea)

Sounds

.This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.^ If it's represented as two, and the font contains support for "alpha" and "combining acute accent", the combined result may be ugly.
  • Language Log » Agbègbè ìpàkíyèsí 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twitter supports Unicode, but some apps are better than others.

^ In fact, I find it annoying when I see “professional” subs mistranslate the word “Oppa,” for instance, by using the character’s name instead.
  • Fansubbing the Korean Language — Dramabeans 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.dramabeans.com [Source type: General]

Consonants

The Korean consonants
Bilabial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Velar Glottal
Nasal /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ (syllable-final)
Plosive
and
Affricate
plain /p/ /t/ /t͡ɕ/ /k/
tense /p͈/ /t͈/ /t͡ɕ͈/ /k͈/
aspirated /pʰ/ /tʰ/ /t͡ɕʰ/ /kʰ/
Fricative plain /s/ /h/
tense /s͈/
Liquid /l/
.The IPA symbol ‹◌͈› (a subscript double straight quotation mark, shown here with a placeholder circle) is used to denote the tensed consonants /p͈/, /t͈/, /k͈/, /t͡ɕ͈/, /s͈/.^ In the North, and are the symbols used for quotes; in the South, quotation marks equivalent to the English ones, " and ", are standard, although and are sometimes used in popular novels.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Below is a chart of the Korean alphabet's symbols and their canonical IPA values: Consonants .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here are 3 examples of how pictographs are gradually standardized into the kanji symbol used today.

.Its official use in the Extensions to the IPA is for 'strong' articulation, but is used in the literature for faucalized voice.^ Its official use in the Extended IPA is for 'strong' articulation, but is used in the literature for faucalized voice .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Korean consonants also have elements of stiff voice, but it is not yet known how typical this is of faucalized consonants.^ The Korean consonants also have elements of stiff voice , but it is not yet known how typical this is of faucalized consonants.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean is similar to the Altaic languages with respect to the absence of grammatical elements such as number, genders, articles, fusional morphology, voice, relative pronouns and conjunctions .

^ The Korean language spoken before the fifteenth century is not well known because there are not many records or documents revealing how the language was used before the fifteenth century.

.They are produced with a partially constricted glottis and additional subglottal pressure in addition to tense vocal tract walls, laryngeal lowering, or other expansion of the larynx.^ They are produced with a partially constricted glottis and additional subglottal pressure in addition to tense vocal tract walls, laryngeal lowering, or other expansion of the larynx.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vowels

The short vowel phonemes of Korean The long vowel phonemes of Korean
The Korean basic vowels
Monophthongs /i/ , /e/ , /ɛ/ , /a/ , /o/ , /u/ , /ʌ/ , /ɯ/ , /ø/
Vowels preceded by intermediaries,
or Diphthongs
/je/ , /jɛ/ , /ja/ , /wi/ , /we/ , /wɛ/ , /wa/ , /ɰi/ , /jo/ , /ju/ , /jʌ/ , /wʌ/

Allophones

./s/ becomes an alveolo-palatal [ɕ] before [j] or [i] for most speakers (but see Differences in the language between North Korea and South Korea).^ In spite of public preferences, language purists in South Korea were active in pursuing the eradication of Chinese characters from the very beginning in 1945.
  • Language Purism in Korea 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How-To & Education Website about Learning Korean agglutinative language alveolo-palatal easy way to speak in korean ebook learning korean genealogical classification of the kore...
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The mass media of South Korea has, for the most part, come down on the side of purists in this respect, too.
  • Language Purism in Korea 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This occurs with the tense fricative and all the affricates as well.^ This occurs with the tense fricative and all the affricates as well.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All obstruent s (plosives, affricates, fricatives) are unreleased at the end of a word.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the end of a syllable, /s/ changes to /t/ (Example: beoseot (버섯) 'mushroom').
/h/ may become a bilabial [ɸ] before [o] or [u], a palatal [ç] before [j] or [i], a velar [x] before [ɯ], a voiced [ɦ] between voiced sounds, and a [h] elsewhere.[citation needed]
/p, t, t͡ɕ, k/ become voiced [b, d, d͡ʑ, ɡ] between voiced sounds.
/l/ becomes alveolar flap [ɾ] between vowels, and [l] or [ɭ] at the end of a syllable or next to another /l/. .Note that a written syllable-final 'ㄹ', when followed by a vowel or a glide (i.e., when the next character starts with 'ㅇ'), migrates to the next syllable and thus becomes [ɾ].^ The male character(consonant) comes first and the female letter(vowels) always follows the male letter.

Traditionally, /l/ was disallowed at the beginning of a word. It disappeared before [j], and otherwise became /n/. .However, the inflow of western loanword changed the trend, and now word-initial /l/ (mostly from English loanwords) are pronounced as a free variation of either [ɾ] or [l].^ Patois is a mixture of African words, English words and loanwords borrowed from other ...

^ 'New Times' refers to social, economic, political and cultural changes of a deeper kind now taking place in Western capitalist societies.
  • Korea and Koreans in Korean language textbooks in New Times 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.siue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In modern times, some words have also been borrowed from Japanese , Western languages such as German and more recently English .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The traditional prohibition of word-initial /l/ became a morphological rule called "initial law" (두음법칙) in South Korea, which pertains to Sino-Korean vocabulary.^ There are 42 million speakers of Korean in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and another 20 million in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).
  • Professional Korean Translation Services | Sure Languages 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.sure-languages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean Vocabulary Choose a set of words from the list, and when the program loads, you will be given a word in English.
  • Free Korean Lessons and Korean Language Courses 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC multilingualbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, the South Korean government abolished limits on investment in North Korea (Kim Ji Soo,1998a).
  • Korea and Koreans in Korean language textbooks in New Times 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.siue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Such words retain their word-initial /l/ in North Korea.
.All obstruents (plosives, affricates, fricatives) are unreleased [p̚, t̚, k̚] at the end of a word.^ Let us now briefly describe the sound of Korean obstruents (stops, affricates and fricatives).

.Plosive stops /p, t, k/ become nasal stops [m, n, ŋ] before nasal stops.^ Of these, nasalisation is the most productive; for instance, the stops k , t and p (including the neutralised stops) become ng , n and m respectively before nasals: /kukmul/ 'soup' --> [kungmul], /patn u nta/ 'receive' --> [pann u nda], and /capnunta/ 'catch' --> [camnunda].

^ As another example of nasalisation, the liquid l becomes n after the nasals m and ng and the stops k, t, p : e.g.

.Hangul spelling does not reflect these assimilatory pronunciation rules, but rather maintains the underlying, partly historical morphology.^ That is, in the nineteenth-century Yi Dynasty language the words t o p- and kat h i were pronounced as they are pronounced in the Hamgy o ng and P h y o ng'yang dialects; and the pronunciation of these words in the standard dialect reflects this historical change.

^ Additional Romanization rule 2 – If the pronunciation is different from the way a word is spelled (following one of the “Advanced pronunciation rules” below”), the word is Romanized as it is pronounced, not as it is written.
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are not for the pronunciation, but rather for writing exactly how it should appear.
  • Hong's Hangul Conversion Tools 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.sori.org [Source type: Academic]

Given this, it is sometimes hard to tell which actual phonemes are present in a certain word.
.One difference between the pronunciation standards of North and South Korea is the treatment of initial [r], and initial [n].^ One difference between the pronunciation standards of North and South Korea is the treatment of initial , and initial before or .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Differences in the language between North Korea and South Korea .
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some words are spelt differently by the North and the South, but the pronunciations are the same.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example,
  • "labour" - north: rodong (로동), south: nodong (노동)
  • "history" - north: ryŏksa (력사), south: yeoksa (역사)
  • "female" - north: nyŏja (녀자), south: yeoja (여자)

Morphophonemics

Grammatical morphemes may change shape depending on the preceding sounds. Examples include -eun/-neun (-은/-는) and -i/-ga (-이/-가). Sometimes sounds may be inserted instead. Examples include -eul/-reul (-을/-를), -euro/-ro (-으로/-로), -eseo/-seo (-에서/-서), -ideunji/-deunji (-이든지/-든지) and -iya/-ya (-이야/-야). However, -euro/-ro is somewhat irregular, since it will behave differently after a rieul consonant.
Korean particles
After a consonant After a rieul After a vowel
-ui (-의)
-eun (-은) -neun (-는)
-i (-이) -ga (-가)
-eul (-을) -reul (-를)
-gwa (-과) -wa (-와)
-euro (-으로) -ro (-로)
Some verbs may also change shape morphophonemically.

Grammar

Sentence structure

.Korean is an agglutinative language.^ How-To & Education Website about Learning Korean agglutinative language alveolo-palatal easy way to speak in korean ebook learning korean genealogical classification of the kore...
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Vowel harmony and agglutination are also found in Korean as well as in the Altaic languages.

^ How-To & Education Website about Learning Korean agglutinative language alveolo-palatal easy way to speak in korean ebook learning korean More...
  • Websites about Learning Korean 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Modifiers generally precede the modified words, and in the case of verb modifiers, can be serially appended.^ The basic form of a Korean sentence is Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), and modifiers precede the modified word.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The basic form of a Korean sentence is Subject Object Verb, but the verb is the only required and immovable element.^ Korean is a SOV language , meaning that the basic word order of transitive sentences is subject-object-verb.

^ When the modal kes' is attached to a verb whose subject is first person the sentence only has the volitional meaning and is used only with reference to the future: næ ka næil ka-kes'-ta 'I will go tomorrow' but * næ ka næil ka-s'-kes'-ta .

^ In the above sentence the verb wash is considered reflexive because the subject or the one performing the action (I) ...

A:   가게-에   갔어-요? (가았어요?)
kage-e kasseo-yo
store + [location marker (에)] [go (verb root) (가)]+[conjunctive (아)]+[past (ㅆ)]+[conjunctive (어)]+ [polite marker (요)]
"Did [you] go to the store?" ("you" implied in conversation)
B:   예.
ye
yes
"Yes."

Parts of speech

.The Korean Language contains nine parts of speech.^ Later that year, Korean was adopted as one of nine SAT II foreign languages and the first Korean SAT II was administered in 1997 to 2,500 students.

^ There are currently 29 secondary school programs in Southern California that teach Korean as a foreign language or as part of a bilingual program.
  • Some Problems of Korean Language Education in Southern California 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.iic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean which are shared some Polynesian languages include the phonological structure of open syllables, the honorific system, numerals and the names of various body parts .

[17]

Verb

.Korean verbs (동사, tongsa, 動詞) are also known in English as "action verbs" or "dynamic verbs" to distinguish them from [형용사(形容詞), hyeong-yongsa, "adjectives"]), which are also known as "descriptive verbs" or "stative verbs". Examples of action/dynamic verbs include 하다 (hada, "to do") and 가다 (kada, "to go") which constitute an action or movement as opposed to descriptive verbs such as 예쁘다 (yehppeuda, "to be beautiful").^ The distinction between action and descriptive verbs can be shown by the way in which paradigmatic forms such as propositive and processive are combined with verbal forms.

^ Spanish Grammar Lessons with Reflexive Verbs -- Patrick Jackson Heres an example of a reflexive verb being used in English: I wash myself.

^ Thus, whereas the action verb plus the propositive ca or the processive n u n is grammatical, the combinations of descriptive verbs with the same endings are not: m o k-ca 'let's eat' and m o k-n u n-da 'is eating' but * al u mtap-ca 'let's be beautiful' and * al u mtap-n u n-da 'is being beautiful'.

.For a larger list of Korean verbs, see wikt:Category:Korean verbs.^ I have been collecting words (see list below) that Koreans have adopted from other languages.

^ Basic Korean Verbs (w/ CD) Author: Bryan Park Publisher: Sotong 9781565911369 List: US$45.28 Sale: US$38.49 .
  • Korean Language Textbooks 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.hanbooks.com [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike most of the European languages, Korean does not conjugate verbs using agreement with the subject, and nouns have no gender.^ Korean Americans' language use.

^ Korean is also a null-subject language.

^ Korean American's language use.

.Instead, verb conjugations depend upon the verb tense, aspect, mood, and the social relation between the speaker, the subjects, and the listeners.^ Verbs are formed by suffixing morphemes denoting tense, aspect, modality, formality, and social status of interlocutors, with a potential of hundreds of forms.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In finite verb forms, there are seven sequence positions where different endings can occur: honorific, tense, aspect, modal, formal, aspect and mood .

^ If the speaker wants to express his respect toward the referent of the subject, the honorific marker si is inserted between verbal bases and endings: e.g.

.The system of speech levels and honorifics loosely resembles the T-V distinction of most Indo-European languages.^ Korean which are shared some Polynesian languages include the phonological structure of open syllables, the honorific system, numerals and the names of various body parts .

^ In sum, the intricate honorific system in Korean makes the language especially difficult for those who are trying to learn it.

^ Like most European languages, German has a different ending for every subject or person.

.For example, different endings are used depending on the speaker's relation with their subject or audience.^ Macs normally have one of three different physical keyboard types, which Apple calls JIS (for Japan), ISO (used in Europe, for example) and ANSI (used in the US).

^ When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer has to use special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike "honorifics" — which are used to show respect towards a subject — speech levels are used to show respect towards a speaker's or writer's audience.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Politeness is a critical part of Korean language and Korean culture, therefore, when talking to someone esteemed, the correct verb ending must be chosen to indicate the proper respect.^ There are no fewer than 7 verb paradigm s or speech levels in Korean, and each level has its own unique set of verb endings which are used to indicate the level of formality of a situation.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foundation for Korean Language and Culture in USA. (2007).

^ LingvoSoft FlashCards 2009 Chinese Mandarin Simplified <-> Korean for Windows Mobile is part of LingvoSoft Suite - the complete language solution available only from LingvoSoft.
  • Pocket PC Korean Software. Foreign Language Learning for Korean for Pocket PC - ECTACO. 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

Adjective

.Words categorized as Korean adjectives (형용사, hyeong-yongsa, 形容詞) conjugate similarly to verbs, so some English texts call them "descriptive verbs" or "stative verbs", but they are distinctly separate from 동사 (tongsa).^ You can search for Korean or English words.
  • korean lessons | Free Language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC freelanguage.org [Source type: General]
  • korean | Free Language 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC freelanguage.org [Source type: General]

^ They encourage the use of words of Korean origin, even if it means translating them with new words composed of native roots.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The highest 5 levels use final verb endings and are generally grouped together as jondaemal (존대말), while the lowest 2 levels (해"체 haeyoche and 해체 haeche ) use non-final endings and are called 반말 ( banmal , "half-words") in Korean.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.English does not have an identical grammatical category, so the English translation of Korean adjectives may misleadingly suggest that they are verbs.^ They encourage the use of words of Korean origin, even if it means translating them with new words composed of native roots.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, they may be willing to take drastic measures to “close the gap” in their children’s English abilities.

^ Paradoxically, 1.5- and second-generation Korean Americans’ high proficiency in English facilitates their decision to pursue Korean when they reach college age, when Korean is perceived as a desirable addition to English.

.For example, 붉다 (pukda) translates literally as "to be red" and 아쉽다 (aswipda) often best translates as "to lack" or "to want for", but both are 형용사 (hyeong-yongsa, "adjectives").^ Some examples: * Onomatopoeia: ** 퐁당퐁당 (pongdangpongdang) and '덩'덩 (pungdeongpungdeong), water splashing * Adjectives/Adverbs: ** 모락모락 (morangmorak) and 무럭무럭 (mureongmureok) can both be translated as "rapidly" or "densely", but they are not interchangeable: *** 연기가 모락모락 난다.
  • Korean language at AllExperts 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also interesting are translating catch-phrases… because often, the literal translation isn’t as ear-catching.
  • Fansubbing the Korean Language — Dramabeans 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.dramabeans.com [Source type: General]

.For a larger list of Korean adjectives, see wikt:Category:Korean adjectives.^ Basic Korean Adjectives (w/ CD) Author: Bryan Park Publisher: Sotong 1565911490 List: US$45.28 Sale: US$38.49 .
  • Korean Language Textbooks 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.hanbooks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I have been collecting words (see list below) that Koreans have adopted from other languages.

Pre-nouns

.Korean pre-nouns (관형사, gwanhyeongsa, 冠形詞) are also known in English as "determinatives", "attributives", and "unconjugated adjectives". Examples include (kak, "each").^ In the English translation of the last Korean example, the noun mailman is preceded by the definite article the .

^ Indirect objects in Korean take a dative marker, - hanthey , or -eykey, while the topic marker, - ( n)un, topicalizes nominative and accusative nouns by replacing their respective case markers, as shown in example (3).

^ The most prominent of these link Korean to the Altaic languages of central Asia, a family that includes Turkish, Mongolian, and the Tungusic (for example, Manchu) languages of Siberia.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For a larger list, see wikt:Category:Korean determiners.^ I have been collecting words (see list below) that Koreans have adopted from other languages.

Noun

.Core and basic noun words are native to the Korean language, e.g.^ Vocabulary The core of the Korean vocabulary is made up of native Korean words.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Chinese loanwords and Korean-originated words have always coexisted, the Chinese loanwords came to dominate the original Korean words and subsequently many native Korean words completely vanished from use.

^ The basic form of a Korean sentence is Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), and modifiers precede the modified word.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

나라 (nara, country), (nal, day). .A large body of Korean nouns (명사, myeongsa, 名詞) stem from Chinese characters, e.g.^ Review A Korean Reader for Chinese Characters will help students of Korean master basic Chinese characters that are...
  • Free Korean Language Download - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ From: Amazon Posted: Jul-03-2009 Korean Reader for Chinese Characters Korean Reader for Chinese Characters (Klear Textbooks in Korean Language) I feel this is an excellent book for studying Hanja.
  • Free Korean Language Download - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Along with Sino-Korean characters (Hanja), well over 50% of the Korean vocabulary comes directly or indirectly from Chinese.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(山, san, mountain), (驛, yeok, station), 문화 (文化, munhwa, culture), etc. .Many Sino-Korean words have a native Korean equivalent and vice versa, but not always.^ They encourage the use of words of Korean origin, even if it means translating them with new words composed of native roots.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Chinese loanwords and Korean-originated words have always coexisted, the Chinese loanwords came to dominate the original Korean words and subsequently many native Korean words completely vanished from use.

^ More than 50% of the vocabulary, however, is made up of Sino-Korean words, which are derived from Chinese characters.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nouns do not have grammatical gender and can be made plural by adding 들 to the end of the word, however in most instances the singular form is used even when in English it would be translated as plural.^ They encourage the use of words of Korean origin, even if it means translating them with new words composed of native roots.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I find that sometimes when you translate something in my language, such as a very strong statement, it can come off as really weak in English, even though the words chosen are literally correct.
  • Fansubbing the Korean Language — Dramabeans 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.dramabeans.com [Source type: General]

^ In the English translation of the last Korean example, the noun mailman is preceded by the definite article the .

.For example, while in English the sentence "there are three apples" would use the plural "apples" instead of the singular "apple", the Korean sentence 사과 세개 있습니다 (sagwa segae isssumnida) maintains the word 사과 (sagwa, "apple") in its singular form, thus rendered in English as "apple three(things) exist."^ There are three types of negation in Korean.

^ Especially in cases where quantifiers or numerals appear in sentences as in the above example, the plural marker is usually not attached to the noun.

^ Macs normally have one of three different physical keyboard types, which Apple calls JIS (for Japan), ISO (used in Europe, for example) and ANSI (used in the US).

.For a list of Korean nouns, see wikt:Category:Korean nouns.^ I have been collecting words (see list below) that Koreans have adopted from other languages.

Pronoun

.Korean pronouns (대명사, daemyeongsa, 代名詞) are highly influenced by the honorifics in the language.^ Korean which are shared some Polynesian languages include the phonological structure of open syllables, the honorific system, numerals and the names of various body parts .

^ Comparing the two theories, it is apparent that the Northern influence in the Korean language is more dominant than the Southern.

^ In sum, the intricate honorific system in Korean makes the language especially difficult for those who are trying to learn it.

.Pronouns change forms depending on the social status of the person or persons spoken to, e.g.^ Verbs are formed by suffixing morphemes denoting tense, aspect, modality, formality, and social status of interlocutors, with a potential of hundreds of forms.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pronouns and verb forms are marked to reflect the social status of the interlocutors, Broadly speaking, there are four levels: plain, informal polite, formal polite, and honorific.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the pronoun for ."I" there is both the informal (na) and the honorific/humble (jeo).^ Pronouns and verb forms are marked to reflect the social status of the interlocutors, Broadly speaking, there are four levels: plain, informal polite, formal polite, and honorific.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general second person singular pronouns are avoided, especially when using honorific forms.^ Many second generation Korean Americans in this study never had an adequate opportunity to learn Korean because their parents decided to use English only.

^ English) in each level in both its honorific and non-honorific forms, and the situations in which each level is used.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jane, a second-generation Korean American, who used to speak Korean before elementary school said: .

.For a larger list of Korean pronouns, see wikt:Category:Korean pronouns.^ I have been collecting words (see list below) that Koreans have adopted from other languages.

Adverb

Korean adverbs (부사, busa, 副詞) include (tto, "also") and 가득 (gadeuk, "fully"). .For a larger list, see wikt:Category:Korean adverbs.^ I have been collecting words (see list below) that Koreans have adopted from other languages.

Particle

.Korean particles (조사, josa, 助詞) are also known in English as "postpositions". Examples include (neun, topic marker) and (reul, object marker).^ In the last example, we discover another difference between Korean and English.

^ Furthermore, case particles can also be omitted; for example, accusative markers are dropped quite frequently as well as nominative markers, which are deleted less frequently.

^ In the English translation of the last Korean example, the noun mailman is preceded by the definite article the .

.For a larger list, see wikt:Category:Korean particles.^ I have been collecting words (see list below) that Koreans have adopted from other languages.

Interjection

.Korean interjections (감탄사, gamtansa, 感歎詞) are also known in English as "exclamations". Examples include 아니 (ani, "no").^ In the last example, we discover another difference between Korean and English.

^ For example, Mrs. Oh, an ESL senior, took on an active role in teaching Korean to her grandchildren, who she said now speak both English and Korean comfortably.

^ Syntax In this brief sketch of Korean syntax, the discussion will concentrate on representative examples which make Korean different from many Indo-European languages, especially English.

.For a larger list, see wikt:Category:Korean interjections.^ I have been collecting words (see list below) that Koreans have adopted from other languages.

Number

.Korean numbers or numerals (수사, susa, 數詞) constitute two regularly used sets: a native Korean set and a Sino-Korean set.^ They encourage the use of words of Korean origin, even if it means translating them with new words composed of native roots.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Chinese loanwords and Korean-originated words have always coexisted, the Chinese loanwords came to dominate the original Korean words and subsequently many native Korean words completely vanished from use.

^ There are a number of native Korean language speakers in several countries, including the United ...

.The Sino-Korean system is nearly entirely based on the Chinese numerals.^ Writing system Main article: Hangul The Korean language was originally written using "Hanja", or Chinese characters; it is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet, optionally mixing in Hanja to write Sino-Korean words.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FYI, Korean/Japanese and Chinese belong to entirely different linguistic families; J/K languages are part of the Ural-Altaic (also Uralo-Altaic) family group which also includes Turkish, Finnish, and Hungarian, meanwhile Chinese is part of the Sino-Tibetan family group which also includes Vietnamese, Thai and Burmese.
  • Zune hacked for Korean and Chinese language support -- Engadget 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean which are shared some Polynesian languages include the phonological structure of open syllables, the honorific system, numerals and the names of various body parts .

The distinction between the two numeral systems is very important. .Everything that can be counted will use one of the two systems, but seldom both.^ One letter "a" could be used to two different sounds such as "grape" or "apple".
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the two textbooks, the first one is mainly used by schools under the jurisdiction of the Korean Institute of Southern California and the second is mainly used by the schools which joined the Korean School Association of America (KSAA).
  • Some Problems of Korean Language Education in Southern California 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.iic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, one letter "o" could be used to mark two different sounds such as "potato" or "women".
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sino-Korean words are sometimes used to mark ordinal usage: yeol beon (열 번) means "ten times" while sip beon (십(十) 번(番)) means "number ten."^ Writing system Main article: Hangul The Korean language was originally written using "Hanja", or Chinese characters; it is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet, optionally mixing in Hanja to write Sino-Korean words.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That’s why Korean people have such a hard time pronouncing such words like “ s chool”.
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last last words – The Korean has to warn you just one more time that he is just an amateur!
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The grouping of large numbers in Korean follow the Chinese tradition of myriads (10000) rather than thousands (1000) as is common in Europe and North America.^ Korean has a large number of morphophonemic alternations.

^ Of overseas Koreans, there are the four largest overseas Korean groups: 2 million and 100 thousand in North America, 2 million and 40 thousand in China, 6 hundred and 60 thousand in Japan, and 500 thousand in the former Soviet Union.
  • Some Problems of Korean Language Education in Southern California 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.iic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are 16,059 students in weekend schools which belong to two large organizations: Korean School Association of America (KSAA) and Korean Institute of Southern California (KISC).
  • Some Problems of Korean Language Education in Southern California 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.iic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Speech levels and honorifics

.The relationship between a speaker or writer and his or her subject and audience is paramount in Korean, and the grammar reflects this.^ The relationship between speaker/writer and subject is reflected in honorifics, while that between speaker/writer and audience is reflected in speech level.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speech Levels and Honorifics The relationship between a speaker or writer and his or her subject and audience is paramount in Korean, and the grammar reflects this.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Honorifics When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer to use special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The relationship between speaker/writer and subject referent is reflected in honorifics, while that between speaker/writer and audience is reflected in speech level.^ In contrast to this, when the speaker does not express any particular politeness toward the hearer, the plain speech level is used; e.g s o nsængnim i cip e ka-n-ta .

^ Thus, when the speaker expresses his politeness toward the hearer, either the polite or the deferential speech level is used, e.g.

^ In the last example, the insertion of the honorific marker si is possible in the predicate of a sentence ending in the plain speech level, since the honorificness is expressed to the subject, but not to the hearer.

Honorifics

.When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer usually uses special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority.^ The first sentence could he used for addressing those whose social status is superior to the speaker's but the second sentence would be used for addressing one who is inferior or equal to the speaker in social status (here, social status includes social position, age, sex, job etc.

^ No, Im not talking about someone who doesnt speak English.

^ For example, if the subject of the talk occupies a higher status (by age, family relationship, or social status) the subject honorific morpheme – si is attached to the end of the verb root ‘ cwu -’ (‘give’) as in example (6).

.Generally, someone is superior in status if he/she is an older relative, a stranger of roughly equal or greater age, or an employer, teacher, customer, or the like.^ Generally, someone is superior in status if he/she is an older distant relative (grandparent's sibling, older sibling's spouse, etc.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first sentence could he used for addressing those whose social status is superior to the speaker's but the second sentence would be used for addressing one who is inferior or equal to the speaker in social status (here, social status includes social position, age, sex, job etc.

^ Honorifics When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer to use special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Someone is equal or inferior in status if he/she is a younger stranger, student, employee or the like. .Nowadays, there are special endings which can be used on declarative, interrogative, and imperative sentences; and both honorific or normal sentences.^ The morpheme an occurs in declarative and interrogative sentences and the morpheme ma occurs in propositive and imperative sentences, e.g.

^ Honorifics When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer to use special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English) in each level in both its honorific and non-honorific forms, and the situations in which each level is used.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are made for easier and faster use of Korean.^ For heritage learners of Korean, the use of honorifics poses special problems because Koreans are naturally less forgiving of language mistakes made by Korean Americans than they are of non-Koreans learning Korean.

^ Therefore, all the technical terminology that the Korean uses in this post (as well as in other Korean Language Series) are made up by the Korean.
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can be used as substitutes for conventional dictionaries, as personal language teachers of Korean/English languages, or as your interpreting assistants in variety of situations.
  • Korean - English - Korean electronic dictionary and language translators. 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

Speech levels

.There are seven verb paradigms or speech levels in Korean, and each level has its own unique set of verb endings which are used to indicate the level of formality of a situation.^ Speech Levels There are no fewer than 7 verb paradigms or speech levels in Korean, and each level has its own unique set of verb endings which are used to indicate the level of formality of a situation.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Honorifics When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer to use special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike honorifics--which are used to show respect towards a subject--speech levels are used to show respect towards a speaker's or writer's audience.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.December 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Unlike honorifics—which are used to show respect towards the referent—speech levels are used to show respect towards a speaker's or writer's audience.^ Unlike honorifics--which are used to show respect towards a subject--speech levels are used to show respect towards a speaker's or writer's audience.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relationship between speaker/writer and subject is reflected in honorifics, while that between speaker/writer and audience is reflected in speech level.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speech Levels and Honorifics The relationship between a speaker or writer and his or her subject and audience is paramount in Korean, and the grammar reflects this.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The names of the seven levels are derived from the non-honorific imperative form of the verb 하다 (hada, "do") in each level, plus the suffix 체 ("che", hanja: ), which means "style".
.The highest six levels are generally grouped together as jondaenmal (존댓말), while the lowest level (haeche, 해체) is called banmal (반말) in Korean.^ The highest 5 levels use final verb endings, while the lowest 2 levels (haeyoche) and (haeche) use non-final endings and are called banmal ("half-words") in Korean.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Except for two 1.5-generation immigrants who came to the U.S. at the ages of five and six, all other participants were second-generation Korean Americans.

^ When these three groups work together, the number of schools offering Korean classes will increase.
  • Some Problems of Korean Language Education in Southern California 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.iic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vocabulary

.The core of the Korean vocabulary is made up of native Korean words.^ Vocabulary The core of the Korean vocabulary is made up of native Korean words.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English: 10 4-Letter Words You Need In Your Vocabulary -- Susan Carroll When you were growing up did your parents teach you not to use 4-letter words?

^ Although Chinese loanwords and Korean-originated words have always coexisted, the Chinese loanwords came to dominate the original Korean words and subsequently many native Korean words completely vanished from use.

A significant proportion of the vocabulary, especially words that denote abstract ideas, are Sino-Korean words,[18] either
in a similar way European languages borrow from Latin and Greek.
.The exact proportion of Sino-Korean vocabulary is a matter of debate.^ Along with Sino-Korean characters (Hanja), well over 50% of the Korean vocabulary comes directly or indirectly from Chinese.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 50% of the vocabulary, however, is made up of Sino-Korean words, which are derived from Chinese characters.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean's seeming similarities to Chinese (of the Sino-Tibetan family), especially vocabulary and certain pronunciations, are superficial and not genetic.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sohn (2001) stated 50-60%.[18] However, Jeong Jae-do, one of the compilers of the dictionary Urimal Kun Sajeon, asserts that the proportion is not so high. .He points out that Korean dictionaries compiled during the period of Japanese occupation include many unused Sino-Korean words.^ What you pointed out, if the Korean is reading correctly, is that there are more vowel sounds in English.
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Korean, "unnecessary" words (see theme and rheme) can be left out of a sentence as long as the context makes the meaning clear.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Chinese loanwords and Korean-originated words have always coexisted, the Chinese loanwords came to dominate the original Korean words and subsequently many native Korean words completely vanished from use.

.In his estimation, the proportion of native Korean vocabulary in the Korean language might be as high as 70%.^ The foundation has also petitioned high schools to offer Korean as a foreign language.

^ There are a number of native Korean language speakers in several countries, including the United ...

^ A movement by people who wanted to restore native culture at the end of the nineteenth century tried to stimulate mass interest in the study of the Korean language.

[19]
.Korean has two number systems: one native, and one borrowed from Chinese.^ Although Chinese loanwords and Korean-originated words have always coexisted, the Chinese loanwords came to dominate the original Korean words and subsequently many native Korean words completely vanished from use.

^ The native Korean writing system?called Hangul?is alphabetic and phonetic.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese cities are on par or better than Korean ones.
  • Legendary Chinese Warlord Cao Cao Was Korean | chinaSMACK 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To a much lesser extent, words have also occasionally been borrowed from Mongolian, Sanskrit, and other languages.^ To a much lesser extent, words have also been borrowed from Mongolian, Sanskrit, and other languages.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In modern times, many words have also been borrowed from Western languages such as German and, more recently, English.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, a class of particles called ‘delimiters’ conveys information carried in other languages by articles, adverbs, prosodic elements, or word order.

.Conversely, the Korean language itself has also contributed some loanwords to other languages, most notably the Tsushima dialect of Japanese.^ Korean grammar is similar to that of the Japanese language.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Korean, passives are not so commonly used as in some other languages, such as English or Japanese.

^ One of the most notable differences between dialects is the use of stress: speakers of Seoul Dialect use stress very little, and standard South Korean has a very flat intonation; on the other hand, speakers of Gyeongsang Dialect have a very pronounced intonation that makes their dialect sound more like a European language to western ears.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vast majority of loanwords other than Sino-Korean come from modern times, 90% of which are from English.^ In modern times, many words have also been borrowed from Western languages such as German and, more recently, English.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wong Fillmore argues that “in recent years, languages other than English have been placed in greater jeopardy than ever before in the United States” (2003, p.

^ Many participants in this study espoused language ideologies towards the other end of the continuum, which values both Korean and English.

[18] .Many words have also been borrowed from Japanese and Western languages such as German (areubaiteu "part-time job", allereugi "allergy", "gibsu" "plaster cast used for broken bones").^ In modern times, many words have also been borrowed from Western languages such as German and, more recently, English.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How to Learn Russian Phrases -- Ling Tong Since the look of words written in Russian is different from that of western languages, you will have a difficult time trying to learn to say Russian phrases without the aid of being able to listen ...

^ Speaking Japanese: Learning the Language and the Cultural Etiquette -- Cory Pangelinan The Japanese language is considered by many to be easy to learn.

.Some Western words were borrowed indirectly via Japanese, taking a Japanese sound pattern, for example "dozen" > ダース dāsu > 다스 daseu.^ In modern times, many words have also been borrowed from Western languages such as German and, more recently, English.
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^ Many of these words were borrowed from Chinese, although many modern-day scientific terms come from Japanese.
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.Most indirect Western borrowings are now written according to current Hangulization rules for the respective Western language, as if borrowed directly.^ Writing system Main article: Hangul The Korean language was originally written using "Hanja", or Chinese characters; it is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet, optionally mixing in Hanja to write Sino-Korean words.
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^ In modern times, many words have also been borrowed from Western languages such as German and, more recently, English.
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^ I'm not sure when they started doing it, but the online AppleStore now offers a choice of physical keyboards with most Macs: English, Western Spanish, French, and Japanese.

.There are a few more complicated borrowings such as "German(y)" (see Names for Germany), the first part of whose endonym [ˈtɔɪ̯t͡ʃʷ.la̠ntʰ] the Japanese approximated using the kanji 獨逸 doitsu that were then accepted into the Korean language by their Sino-Korean pronunciation:  dok +  il = Dogil.^ Korean Americans' language use.

^ Names "Korean" is not the name used by Korean speakers as the name of their language.
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^ Korean grammar is similar to that of the Japanese language.
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.In South Korean official use, a number of other Sino-Korean country names have been replaced with phonetically oriented Hangulizations of the countries' endonyms or English names.^ Names "Korean" is not the name used by Korean speakers as the name of their language.
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^ Writing system Main article: Hangul The Korean language was originally written using "Hanja", or Chinese characters; it is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet, optionally mixing in Hanja to write Sino-Korean words.
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^ The interviews were thirty minutes to one hour long and were about their language use patterns, language learning histories, English language learning practice, and attitudes toward English and Korean.

.As in Japanese, Korean adapts words in ways that are uncommon in English.^ But English speakers would pronounce it like “gym”, so Koreans had to adapt and bastardize the sound to the next closest sound, which is “kim”.
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English into/from Japanese, Korean, Traditional Chinese, and Simplified Chinese A pen pal's e-mail arrives in Spanish.
  • Korean-English-Korean dictionary software. Korean language translation software for PDA and Windows. ECTACO & Lingvosoft 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.englishlearner.com [Source type: General]
  • Korean-English-Korean dictionary software. Korean language translation software for PDA and Windows. ECTACO & Lingvosoft 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.ectaco.translation.net [Source type: General]

^ For instance, the Korean /t'/ is phonetically similar to the sound [t'] in English which is pronounced after [s] in the word stop [stap]; however, the Korean tensed obstruent must be pronounced with more glottal tension.

.For example, in soccer heading (헤딩) is used to label a head-strike, rather than direction.^ Rather than using Korean to learn English, Mr. Mrs.

This is a corrupted loan word from the English header.
.North Korean vocabulary shows a tendency to prefer native Korean over Sino-Korean or foreign borrowings, especially with recent political objectives aimed at eliminating foreign (mostly Chinese) influences on the Korean language in the North.^ Writing system Main article: Hangul The Korean language was originally written using "Hanja", or Chinese characters; it is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet, optionally mixing in Hanja to write Sino-Korean words.
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^ Later that year, Korean was adopted as one of nine SAT II foreign languages and the first Korean SAT II was administered in 1997 to 2,500 students.

^ In modern times, many words have also been borrowed from Western languages such as German and, more recently, English.
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.By contrast, South Korean may have several Sino-Korean or foreign borrowings which tend to be absent in North Korean.^ Wikipedia assures me that the munwhao (North Korean) for Canada is 카나다, which I prefer to the South Korean 캐나다, but again that might be me.
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the South Korean government abolished limits on investment in North Korea (Kim Ji Soo,1998a).
  • Korea and Koreans in Korean language textbooks in New Times 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.siue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The South and the North also have different policies on the so-called 'purification' of Korean.

Writing system

Korean writing systems
Hangul
Hanja
Mixed script
Korean transliteration
.Formerly the languages of the Korean peninsula were written using Chinese characters, using hyangchal or idu.^ Korean Americans' language use.

^ Korean American's language use.

^ Chinese characters were used in the South, only the Korean alphabet was used in the North.

Such systems relied on principles of rebus, and were lost, later in history. .Writing became confined to the ruling elite, who used hanja to write in Classical Chinese.^ Writing system Main article: Hangul The Korean language was originally written using "Hanja", or Chinese characters; it is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet, optionally mixing in Hanja to write Sino-Korean words.
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^ In traditional Korean society, the learning and study of Chinese characters and classical Chinese were entirely monopolised by a small class of elite aristocrats.

^ Because honorific use is such an integral part of the Korean language and culture, those who ‘break the rules’ are likely to be regarded as not genuinely Korean.

.Korean is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet promulgated in 1446 by Sejong the Great; hanja may be mixed in to write Sino-Korean words.^ The native Korean writing system?called Hangul?is alphabetic and phonetic.
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^ Writing system Main article: Hangul The Korean language was originally written using "Hanja", or Chinese characters; it is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet, optionally mixing in Hanja to write Sino-Korean words.
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^ Below is a chart of the Korean alphabet's symbols and their canonical SAMPA values: Consonants p t c k (See also: Hangul consonant tables) Modern Korean is written with spaces between words, a feature not found in the other CJK languages (Chinese and Japanese).
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.While South Korean schools still teach 1,800 hanja characters, North Korea had abolished the use of hanja decades ago.^ Writing system Main article: Hangul The Korean language was originally written using "Hanja", or Chinese characters; it is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet, optionally mixing in Hanja to write Sino-Korean words.
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^ From: Amazon Posted: Oct-28-2008 Good Tool I brought this book soley on the fact that my local school used this workbook in their Korean Classes.
  • Free Korean Language Download - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ From: Amazon Posted: Jul-03-2009 Korean Reader for Chinese Characters Korean Reader for Chinese Characters (Klear Textbooks in Korean Language) I feel this is an excellent book for studying Hanja.
  • Free Korean Language Download - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

Below is a chart of the Korean alphabet's symbols and their canonical IPA values:
Consonants
Hangul    
RR b,p d,t j g,k pp tt jj kk p t ch k s h ss m n ng   r,l  
IPA p t t͡ɕ k t͡ɕ͈ t͡ɕʰ s h m n ŋ w r j
Vowels
Hangul
RR i e oe ae a o u eo eu ui ye yae ya yo yu yeo wi we wae wa wo
IPA i e ø ɛ a o u ʌ ɯ ɰi je ja jo ju wi we wa
.Modern Korean is written with spaces between words, a feature not found in Chinese or Japanese.^ Below is a chart of the Korean alphabet's symbols and their canonical SAMPA values: Consonants p t c k (See also: Hangul consonant tables) Modern Korean is written with spaces between words, a feature not found in the other CJK languages (Chinese and Japanese).
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Writing system Main article: Hangul The Korean language was originally written using "Hanja", or Chinese characters; it is now mainly written in Hangul, the Korean alphabet, optionally mixing in Hanja to write Sino-Korean words.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Korean Translation Services worldwide 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English into/from Japanese, Korean, Traditional Chinese, and Simplified Chinese A pen pal's e-mail arrives in Spanish.
  • Korean-English-Korean dictionary software. Korean language translation software for PDA and Windows. ECTACO & Lingvosoft 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.englishlearner.com [Source type: General]
  • Korean-English-Korean dictionary software. Korean language translation software for PDA and Windows. ECTACO & Lingvosoft 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.ectaco.translation.net [Source type: General]

.Korean punctuation marks are almost identical to Western ones.^ Korean punctuation marks are almost identical to Western ones.
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.Traditionally, Korean was written in columns from top to bottom, right to left, but is now usually written in rows from left to right, top to bottom.^ Korean is still sometimes written in columns (especially in poetry), but is now usually written in rows from left to right, top to bottom.
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^ Traditionally, Korean was written in columns from top to bottom, right to left, much as in other East Asian cultures.
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Differences between North Korean and South Korean

.The Korean language used in the North and the South exhibits differences in pronunciation, spelling, grammar and vocabulary.^ Korean Americans' language use.

^ Korean American's language use.

^ Names "Korean" is not the name used by Korean speakers as the name of their language.
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[20]

Pronunciation

In North Korea, palatalization of /si/ is optional, and /t͡ɕ/ can be pronounced [z] between vowels.
.Words that are written the same way may be pronounced differently, such as the examples below.^ Then the following consonant is pronounced the same way.
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^ A lot of younger Korean speakers don't make any distinction in the way they are pronounced, even if they think they do because they are written differently.
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^ One vowel symbol consistently represents one sound, except perhaps ㅢ which may be pronounced in two ways in very limited circumstances.
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pronunciations below are given in Revised Romanization, McCune-Reischauer and Hangul, the last of which represents what the Hangul would be if one writes the word as pronounced.^ One vowel symbol consistently represents one sound, except perhaps ㅢ which may be pronounced in two ways in very limited circumstances.
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^ Additional Romanization rule 1 – Under standard Romanization, one word in Korean is written as one word Romanized.
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last last words – The Korean has to warn you just one more time that he is just an amateur!
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Word Meaning Pronunciation
North (RR/MR) North (Hangul) South (RR/MR) South (Hangul)
넓다 wide neoltta (nŏlta) 널따 neoptta (nŏpta) 넙따
읽고 to read
(continuative form)
ilko (ilko) 일코 ilkko (ilkko) 일꼬
압록강 Amnok River amrokgang (amrokkang) 암록깡 amnokkang (amnokkang) 암녹깡
독립 independence dongrip (tongrip) 동립 dongnip (tongnip) 동닙
관념 idea / sense / conception gwallyeom (kwallyŏm) 괄렴 gwannyeom (kwannyŏm) 관념
혁신적* innovative hyeoksinjjeok (hyŏksintchŏk) 혁씬쩍 hyeoksinjeok (hyŏksinjŏk) 혁씬적
* .Similar pronunciation is used in the North whenever the hanja "的" is attached to a Sino-Korean word ending in ㄴ, ㅁ or ㅇ.^ Extremely useful tip for English speakers – whenever you read a Korean letter, pretend there is an “h” behind the vowel to get the consonant sound right.
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^ However, if writing as one word is likely to produce a wrong pronunciation, hyphen can be added to separate the Korean letters.
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^ Both Spanish and Korean words can be studied using this handy application right on your desktop or laptop PC running Windows 98, 2000 or XP. .
  • Korean-English-Korean dictionary software. Korean language translation software for PDA and Windows. ECTACO & Lingvosoft 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.englishlearner.com [Source type: General]

.(In the South, this rule only applies when it is attached to any single-character Sino-Korean word.^ Reply +7 Joe says: Saturday, January 9, 2010 at 12:06 am Well the word for 漢 (Han Chinese) 韓 (Hanguk) are the same character in the Korean language: 한.
  • Legendary Chinese Warlord Cao Cao Was Korean | chinaSMACK 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rule: If the first character of a word has a second consonant after the vowel (batchim), and if the first character of the second letter in a word is ㅇ , the batchim slides over to the second letter and pronounced as if it is attached to the vowel of the second letter.
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^ The rule is: Ignore the last consonant, and only pronounce the first bottom consonant (called “batchim” in Korean, meaning “bottom piece”).
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)

Spelling

.Some words are spelled differently by the North and the South, but the pronunciations are the same.^ Some of the Chinese words may be spelled the same, ...

^ So the actual pronunciation of the word 놀이 is exactly the same as that of the word 노리 , i.e.
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^ Additional Romanization rule 2 – If the pronunciation is different from the way a word is spelled (following one of the “Advanced pronunciation rules” below”), the word is Romanized as it is pronounced, not as it is written.
  • Ask a Korean!: Korean Language Series – Writing and Reading 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC askakorean.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Word Meaning Pronunciation (RR/MR) Remarks
North spelling South spelling
해빛 햇빛 sunshine haeppit (haepit) The "sai siot" ('ㅅ' used for indicating sound change) is almost never written out in the North.
벗꽃 벚꽃 cherry blossom beotkkot (pŏtkkot)
못읽다 못 읽다 cannot read monnikda (monnikta) Spacing.
한나산 한라산 Hallasan hallasan (hallasan) When a ㄴ-ㄴ combination is pronounced as ll, the original Hangul spelling is kept in the North, while the Hangul is changed in the South.
규률 규율 rules gyuyul (kyuyul) In words where the original hanja is spelt "렬" or "률" and follows a vowel, the initial ㄹ is not pronounced in the North, making the pronunciation identical with that in the South where the ㄹ is dropped in the spelling.

Spelling and pronunciation

Some words have different spellings and pronunciations in the North and the South, some of which were given in the "Phonology" section above:
Word Meaning Remarks
North spelling North pronun. South spelling South pronun.
력량 ryeongryang (ryŏngryang) 역량 yeongnyang (yŏngnyang) strength Initial r's are dropped if followed by i or y in the South Korean version of Korean.
로동 rodong (rodong) 노동 nodong (nodong) work Initial r's are demoted to an n if not followed by i or y in the South Korean version of Korean.
원쑤 wonssu (wŏnssu) 원수 wonsu (wŏnsu) mortal enemy "Mortal enemy" and "head of state" are homophones in the South. Possibly to avoid referring to Kim Il-sung / Kim Jong-il as the enemy, the second syllable of "enemy" is written and pronounced 쑤 in the North.
라지오 rajio (rajio) 라디오 radio (radio) radio
u (u) wi (wi) on; above
안해 anhae (anhae) 아내 anae (anae) wife
꾸바 kkuba (kkuba) 쿠바 kuba (k'uba) Cuba When transcribing foreign words from languages that do not have contrasts between aspirated and unaspirated stops, North Koreans generally use tensed stops for the unaspirated ones while South Koreans use aspirated stops in both cases.
pe (p'e) pye (p'ye), pe (p'e) lungs In the case where ye comes after a constant, such as in hye and pye, it is pronounced without the palatal approximate. North Korean orthography reflect this pronunciation nuance.
.In general, when transcribing place names, North Korea tends to use the pronunciation in the original language more than South Korea, which often uses the pronunciation in English.^ Survival Italian for ESL Teachers -- Laura Trevisan, English Translator Essential Classroom Commands/Words for ESL Teachers in Italy I must first explain that in the Italian language the words change when commands are directed to one person or to more than one.

^ Quite inadvertently innocent English people often use swear words or ask for something they dont really want.

^ Learn a Foreign Language Online -- John Davison Knowing more than one language in todays world is not so unusual.

For example:
Original name North Korea transliteration English name South Korea transliteration
Spelling Pronunciation Spelling Pronunciaton
Ulaanbaatar 울란바따르 ullanbattareu (ullanbattarŭ) Ulan Bator 울란바토르 ullanbatoreu (ullanbat'orŭ)
København 쾨뻰하븐 koeppenhabeun (k'oeppenhabŭn) Copenhagen 코펜하겐 kopenhagen (k'op'enhagen)
al-Qāhirah 까히라 kkahira (kkahira) Cairo 카이로 kairo (k'airo)

Grammar

Some grammatical constructions are also different:
Word Meaning Remarks
North spelling North pronun. South spelling South pronun.
되였다 doeyeotda (toeyŏtta) 되었다 doeeotda (toeŏtta) past tense of 되다 (doeda/toeda), "to become" All similar grammar forms of verbs or adjectives that end in ㅣ in the stem (i.e. ㅣ, ㅐ, ㅔ, ㅚ, ㅟ and ㅢ) in the North use 여 instead of the South's 어.
고마와요 gomawayo (komawayo) 고마워요 gomawoyo (komawŏyo) thanks ㅂ-irregular verbs in the North use 와 (wa) for all those with a positive ending vowel; this only happens in the South if the verb stem has only one syllable.
할가요 halgayo (halkayo) 할까요 halkkayo (halkkayo) Shall we do? Although the Hangul differ, the pronunciations are the same (i.e. with the tensed ㄲ sound).

Vocabulary

Some vocabulary is different between the North and the South:
Word Meaning Remarks
North spelling North pronun. South spelling South pronun.
문화주택 munhwajutaek (munhwajut'aek) 아파트 apateu (ap'at'ŭ) Apartment 아빠트 (appateu/appat'ŭ) is also used in the North.
조선말 joseonmal (chosŏnmal) 한국어 han-gugeo(han'gugeo) Korean language
곽밥 gwakbap (kwakpap) 도시락 dosirak (tosirak) lunch box

Others

.In the North, guillemets and are the symbols used for quotes; in the South, quotation marks equivalent to the English ones, “ and ”, are standard, although 『 』 and 「 」 are sometimes used in popular novels.^ The interviews were thirty minutes to one hour long and were about their language use patterns, language learning histories, English language learning practice, and attitudes toward English and Korean.

^ Do you think we (North and South US) wouldn’t both use the Revolutionary War as a victory in our history?
  • Legendary Chinese Warlord Cao Cao Was Korean | chinaSMACK 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Study by non-native speakers

The United States' Defense Language Institute classifies Korean alongside Arabic, Chinese, and Japanese as a Category IV language, meaning that 63 weeks of instruction (as compared to just 25 weeks for French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian) are required to bring an English-speaking student to a limited working level of proficiency in which he or she has "sufficient capability to meet routine social demands and limited job requirements" and "can deal with concrete topics in past, present, and future tense."[21] As a result, the study of the Korean language in the United States is dominated by Korean American heritage language students; they are estimated to form over 80% of all students of the language at non-military universities.[22]
.However, Korean is considerably easier for speakers of certain other languages, such as Japanese; in Japan, it is more widely studied by non-heritage learners.^ There are more and more language schools being established all over the world, and as such, there are ...

^ Other languages, such as Spanish, share this similarity with Moroccan Arabic.

^ There are a number of native Korean language speakers in several countries, including the United ...

[23] .The Korean Language Proficiency Test, an examination aimed at assessing non-native speakers' competence in Korean, was instituted in 1997; 17,000 people applied for the 2005 sitting of the examination.^ Later that year, Korean was adopted as one of nine SAT II foreign languages and the first Korean SAT II was administered in 1997 to 2,500 students.

^ Si mi da people [making fun of Korean language], can you guys stop being ignorant…letting the entire world look at you guys as a joke?
  • Legendary Chinese Warlord Cao Cao Was Korean | chinaSMACK 16 January 2010 19:21 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The range of terms reflects the diversity in proficiency and linguistic status among heritage language speakers.

[24]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Korean". Ethnologue, 16th ed.. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kor. Retrieved 2010-02-23. 
  2. ^ Ethnologue, 16th edition
  3. ^ Song, Jae Jung (2005) "The Korean language: structure, use and context" Routledge, p. 15
    Lyle Campbell & Mauricio Mixco. 2007. A Glossary of Historical Linguistics. University of Utah Press.
  4. ^ Stratification in the peopling of China: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics and archaeology? In; Sanchez-Mazas, Blench, Ross, Lin & Pejros eds. Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan: genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence. 2008. Taylor & Francis
  5. ^ Song, Jae Jung (2005) "The Korean language: structure, use and context" Routledge, p. 15
    Lyle Campbell & Mauricio J. Mixco. 2007. A Glossary of Historical Linguistics. University of Utah Press.
  6. ^ eg Miller 1971, 1996, Starostin et al. 2003
  7. ^ eg Vovin 2008: 1
  8. ^ Trask 1996: 147-151
  9. ^ Rybatzki 2003: 57
  10. ^ Vovin 2008: 5
  11. ^ eg Martin 1966, 1990
  12. ^ eg Miller 1971, 1996
  13. ^ Sergei Starostin. Altaiskaya problema i proishozhdeniye yaponskogo yazika (The Altaic Problem and the Origins of the Japanese Language). http://www.alib.ru/findp.php4?author=%D1%F2%E0%F0%EE%F1%F2%E8%ED&title=%C0%EB%F2%E0%E9%F1%EA%E0%FF+%EF%F0%EE%E1%EB%E5%EC%E0+%E8+%EF%F0%EE%E8%F1%F5%EE%E6%E4%E5%ED%E8%E5+%FF%EF%EE%ED%F1%EA%EE%E3%EE+%FF%E7%FB%EA%E0+. 
  14. ^ Vovin 2008
  15. ^ Whitman 1985: 232, also found in Martin 1966: 233
  16. ^ Vovin 2008: 211-212
  17. ^ Lee, Chul Young (2004). Essential Grammar for Korean as a second Language. pp. 18-19. http://brskl.org/resources/upload/2009-8-28/KoreanGrammarTextbook.pdf. Retrieved 3 January 2010. 
  18. ^ a b c Sohn, Ho-Min. The Korean Language (Section 1.5.3 "Korean vocabulary", p.12–13), Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-36943-6.
  19. ^ Kim, Jin-su (2009-09-11), "우리말 70%가 한자말? 일제가 왜곡한 거라네/Our language is 70% hanja? Japanese Empire distortion", The Hankyoreh, http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/culture/religion/376204.html, retrieved 2009-09-11 . The dictionary mentioned is 우리말 큰 사전, Seoul: Hangeul Hakhoe, 1992, OCLC 27072560 
  20. ^ Kanno, Hiroomi (ed.) / Society for Korean Linguistics in Japan (1987). Chōsengo o manabō (『朝鮮語を学ぼう』), Sanshūsha, Tokyo. ISBN 4-384-01506-2
  21. ^ Raugh, Harold E.. "The Origins of the Transformation of the Defense Language Program". Applied Language Learning 16 (2): 1–12. http://www.dliflc.edu/academics/academic_materials/all/ALLissues/all16two.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 
  22. ^ Lee, Saekyun H.; HyunJoo Han. "Issues of Validity of SAT Subject Test Korea with Listening". Applied Language Learning 17 (1): 33–56. http://www.dliflc.edu/academics/academic_materials/all/ALLissues/ALL17.pdf. 
  23. ^ Fujita-Round, Sachiyo; John C. Maher (2007). "Language Education Policy in Japan". Language policy and political issues in education. United States: Springer. pp. 393–404. ISBN 978-0-387-32875-1. 
  24. ^ "Korea Marks 558th Hangul Day". The Chosun Ilbo. 2004-10-10. http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200410/200410100002.html. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 

References

  • Chang, Suk-jin (1996). Korean. .Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.^ Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

    ISBN 1556197284.
      (Volume 4 of the London Oriental and African Language Library).
  • Hulbert, Homer B. (1905): A Comparative Grammar of the Korean Language and the Dravidian Dialects in India. Seoul.
  • Martin, Samuel E. (1966): Lexical Evidence Relating Japanese to Korean. .Language 42/2: 185–251.
  • Martin, Samuel E. (1990): Morphological clues to the relationship of Japanese and Korean.^ This study seeks to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between language ideologies and heritage language maintenance of Korean immigrants in the U.S. I first turn to a definition of language ideology.

    ^ This study explored the relationship between language ideologies and language practice among Korean Americans of different generations.

    ^ The data for this study is drawn from a three-year ethnographic investigation of the relationship between language use and attitudes by Koreans in America in several institutional and familial settings.

    In: Philip Baldi (ed.): Linguistic Change and Reconstruction Methodology. .Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs 45: 483-509.
  • Miller, Roy Andrew (1971): Japanese and the Other Altaic Languages.^ Many participants in this study espoused language ideologies towards the other end of the continuum, which values both Korean and English.

    Chicago: University of Chicago Press. .ISBN 0-226-52719-0.
  • Miller, Roy Andrew (1996): Languages and History: Japanese, Korean and Altaic.^ The interviews were thirty minutes to one hour long and were about their language use patterns, language learning histories, English language learning practice, and attitudes toward English and Korean.

    ^ UCLA, for example, introduced its first Korean heritage language track in 1996.

    ^ A reference grammar of Korean: A complete guide to the grammar and history of the Korean language.

    Oslo: Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture. ISBN 974-8299-69-4.
  • Ramstedt, G. J. (1928): Remarks on the Korean language. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Oigrienne 58.
  • Rybatzki, Volker (2003): Middle Mongol. In: Juha Janhunen (ed.) (2003): The Mongolic languages. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1133-3: 47–82.
  • Starostin, Sergei A.; Anna V. Dybo; Oleg A. Mudrak (2003): Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages, 3 volumes. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-13153-1.
  • Sohn, H.-M. (1999): The Korean Language. .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Song, J.-J. (2005): The Korean Language: Structure, Use and Context.^ Korean Americans' language use.

    ^ Silverstein defined language ideologies as “sets of beliefs about language articulated by users as a rationalization or justification of perceived structure and use” (1979, p.

    ^ The interviews were thirty minutes to one hour long and were about their language use patterns, language learning histories, English language learning practice, and attitudes toward English and Korean.

    London: Routledge.
  • Trask, R. L. (1996): Historical linguistics. Hodder Arnold.
  • Vovin, Alexander: Koreo-Japonica. University of Hawai'i Press.
  • Whitman, John B. (1985): The Phonological Basis for the Comparison of Japanese and Korean. Unpublished Harvard University Ph.D. dissertation.

External links

Korean language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Simple English

File:Map of Korean
The map showing usage of Korean language in the world

The Korean language (Korean), is spoken mainly in North and South Korea. It is spoken by more than 78 million people (most of which are North or South Koreans).

In South Korea, it is called hangukmal (한국말) or hangugeo (Hangeul: 한국어, Hanja: 韩国 语). In North Korea, however, it is called chosŏnmal (조선말) or chosŏnŏ (조선어, 朝鲜语). They are named differently because the common names for North and South Korea are different.

Writing

In the writing system, Hangul is main alphabet. In North Korea, only Hangeul is used by law. In South Korea, only Hangeul should be used in some public areas like education, but Hanja is still used in some newspapers and professional areas. Hanja is the system of symbols used in the Chinese that are also used in Korean. Hanja was the only way to express Korean before the invention of Hangeul in the 15th century, and it was common for novels before the 19th century.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Korean language, which are similar to those in the above article.








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